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1.
RFO UPF ; 28(1)20230808. mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1516261

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar fatores associados, percepção e prevalência do uso de óxido nitroso por cirurgiões-dentistas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Metodologia: Realizou-se um estudo transversal, de base eletrônica, com profissionais registrados no Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados baseou-se no envio, por e-mails e campanhas no Instagram, de um questionário via plataforma Google Forms contendo 27 questões acerca do uso de óxido nitroso em atendimentos odontológicos, bem como o perfil e as percepções dos profissionais sobre a técnica. Resultados: Dos 220 participantes, apenas 12,3% utilizava o óxido nitroso em sua prática clínica, sendo as especialidades que mais utilizavam, cirurgia e odontopediatria. Dentre os que reportaram utilizar a técnica, 81,5% tinham mais de 29 anos (p<0,001) e possuíam curso de pós-graduação, sendo que destes, 55,6% realizou o curso de habilitação (p<0,01) e mais da metade (55,6%) relatou utilizar em pacientes adultos (p<0,001). O alto custo do equipamento, bem como a falta de interesse dos profissionais, foram as principais razões para o não uso da técnica. Conclusão: A técnica de sedação consciente com óxido nitroso é pouco usada pelos cirurgiões-dentistas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. É possível que a ampliação do conhecimento acerca da indicação e aplicação do óxido nitroso, ainda durante a graduação, possa expandir o uso e contribuir para uma melhor qualidade no atendimento de pacientes com medo e ansiedade odontológicos. (AU)


Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate associated factors, perception and prevalence of nitrous oxide use by dental surgeons in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: A cross-sectional, electronic-based study was carried out with professionals registered in Rio Grande do Sul. Data collection was based on sending, via emails and Instagram campaigns, a questionnaire via the Google Forms platform containing 27 questions about the use of nitrous oxide in dental care, as well as the profile and perceptions of professionals about the technique. Results: Of the 220 participants, only 12.3% used nitrous oxide in their clinical practice, the specialties they used most being surgery and pediatric dentistry. Among those who reported using the technique, 81.5% were over 29 years old (p<0.001) and had a postgraduate course, of which 55.6% completed the qualification course (p<0.01) and more than half (55.6%) reported using it in adult patients (p<0.001). The high cost of the equipment, as well as the lack of interest from professionals, were the main reasons for not using the technique. Conclusion: The conscious sedation technique with nitrous oxide is little used by dental surgeons in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. It is possible that expanding knowledge about the indication and application of nitrous oxide, even during graduation, can expand its use and contribute to a better quality of care for patients with dental fear and anxiety. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Conscious Sedation/methods , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Practice Patterns, Dentists'/statistics & numerical data , Nitrous Oxide , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Anxiety
2.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 46-62, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389167

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue la caracterización productiva y de emisiones modeladas de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) en 61 sistemas lecheros localizados en cinco regiones de Honduras. Durante las fases inicial (FI) y final (FF), con encuestas aplicadas individualmente a los productores, se identificaron aspectos técnicos y de productividad. Variables numéricas expresadas en Microsoft Excel ® permitieron, con el modelo FAO de evaluación ambiental de la ganadería global-interactivo (GLEAM-i, por sus siglas en inglés) de ciclo de vida, estimar emisiones anuales de metano (CH4), óxido nitroso (N2O) y dióxido de carbono (CO2) en cada finca. Cálculos intermedios (GEI/animal) fueron derivados de la modelización GLEAM-i en Excel®. Durante la FI las fincas conjuntamente emitieron 25.038 t CO2 equivalente (CO2-eq), mientras que dichas emisiones fueron 10,5% menores en la FF. Emisiones de GEI/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) y de GEI/kg de proteína láctea (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) durante la FI fue-ron 13 y 21% menores en la FF, respectivamente. Valores de 52,82 ± 1,64 (CH4) y 2,66 ± 0,10 (N2O) kg/animal en la FI fueron 13% y 17% menores en la FF, respectivamente. La región Centro-Sur-Oriente emitió la menor cantidad de CH4 (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal) y N2O (1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal, mientras las regiones Occidente y Norte experimentaron una reducción del 27% en GEI/kg proteína láctea entre la FI y FF. Se concluyó que la metodologia usada identificó los impactos productivos y medioambientales, derivados de alternativas técnicas implementadas en sistemas de producción lechera de Honduras.


ABSTRACT The study aimed to characterize production dynamics and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 61 dairy farms in five regions in Honduras. Farm data were collected through individual surveys during the initial and final phases (IP; FP). Using Microsoft Excel, data was incorporated into the global livestock environmental assessment model-interactive (GLEAM-i, FAO) life cycle framework to estimate annual emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) at the farm system level. Animal emissions (GHG/animal) were derived in Excel® from the GLEAM-i predictions. Together, farms during the IP emitted 25.038 t CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) while these emissions were 10,5% lower in the FP. Emissions of GHG/animal (2,85 ± 0,08 t CO2-eq) and GHG/kg of milk protein (96,91 ± 4,50 kg CO2-eq) during the IP were 13% and 21% lower in the FP, respectively. Methane and N2O emission values (52,82 ± 1,64 vs. 2,66 ± 0,10 kg/animal) were 13% and 17% higher in the IP than in FP. The South-Central region emitted the lowest amount of CH4 and N2O (42,95 ± 2,37 kg/animal vs. 1,82 ± 0,15 kg/animal) while 27% lower GHG/kg milk protein was observed between the IP and FP of the Western and Northern regions. It was concluded that the used methodology identified productive and environmental impacts derived from implemented technical interventions in dairy production systems in Honduras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Meat Industry , Dairying , Paspalum , Diagnosis , Environment , Greenhouse Gases , Carbon Dioxide , Food Production , Efficiency , Fermentation , Methane , Nitrous Oxide
3.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 319-325, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928253

ABSTRACT

The use of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation to relieve anxiety and pain in dental outpatient treatment has been a very mature and safe technique in the world. This technology has been introduced into China for nearly 20 years, and many clinical cases have proved its safety, practicability and effectiveness, which can meet the clinical needs of patients. To further standardize and popularize this technique, the Society of Sedation and Analgesia, Chinese Stomatological Association formed the recommended application guidelines after many discussions and revisions on the basis of widely soliciting opinions and referring to relevant literatures. It covers indications, contraindications, standardized operation procedures, occupational protection, identification and treatment of adverse reactions, training and other aspects. This guideline can be used as a reference for the use of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation techniques in the outpatient setting of dentistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Conscious Sedation/methods , Dental Anxiety/prevention & control , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Outpatients , Oxygen
4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(5): 484-493, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345467

ABSTRACT

Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is related to glutamatergic dysfunction. Antagonists of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), such as ketamine, have antidepressant properties. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is also a NMDAR antagonist. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of augmenting antidepressant treatment with N2O. Methods: This double blind, placebo-controlled randomized parallel pilot trial was conducted from June 2016 to June 2018 at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Twenty-three subjects with MDD (aged 18 to 65, on antidepressants, with a score > 17 on the 17-item-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D17]) received 50% N2O (n=12; 37.17±13.59 years) or placebo (100% oxygen) (n=11; 37.18±12.77 years) for 60 minutes twice a week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in HAM-D17 from baseline to week 4. Results: Depressive symptoms improved significantly in the N2O group (N2O: from 22.58±3.83 to 5.92±4.08; placebo: from 22.44±3.54 to 12.89±5.39, p < 0.005). A total of 91.7% and 75% of the N2O group subjects achieved response (≥ 50% reduction in HAM-D17 score) and remission (HAM-D17 < 7), respectively. The predominant adverse effects of N2O treatment were nausea, vomiting, and headache. Conclusion: N2O treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in HAM-D17 scores compared to placebo. Clinical trial registration: Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, RBR-5rz5ch


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nitrous Oxide/therapeutic use
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 840-842, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351036

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se describe el caso de una paciente de 27 años que se presentó al servicio de urgencias por hipoestesia y parestesia de dos meses de evolución. El cuadro se inició en ambos pies, progresó en pocos días hasta las rodillas sin trastornos de la marcha y se acompañó de distonías en pulgar e índice de ambas manos. La analítica sanguínea incluyendo tóxicos fue negativa. La resonancia magnética medular mostró una imagen sugestiva de mielopatía o mielitis (C3-C5) sin otras anomalías sugestivas de enfermedad sistémica. El análisis bioquímico y el bacteriológico del líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron normales. Ante estos elementos se re-interrogó a la paciente en busca de consumo de tóxicos inusuales con la confirmación de consumo de óxido nitroso. La paciente fue internada para la realización de otros estudios que confirmaron la hipótesis diagnóstica del servicio de urgencias.


Abstract We describe the case of a 27-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency ward with hypoesthesia and paresthesia developing over the last two months, initially in both feet and progressing to the knees in a few days without associated gait disorders. Dystonia in the thumb and index finger of both hands was noted. Blood tests including toxic drugs were negative. The spinal magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with (C3-C5) myelopathy or myelitis without other abnormalities suggestive of systemic diseases. The biochemi cal and bacteriological analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Because of these findings, the patient was re-interviewed to determine the consumption of unusual drugs, and nitrous oxide consumption was referred. The patient was admitted for further studies, which confirmed the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Diseases/chemically induced , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
6.
RFO UPF ; 26(2): 213-220, 20210808. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1443777

ABSTRACT

Dentes supranumerários são caracterizados como um excesso no número de dentes da série normal. Os mesiodentes, definidos pela sua localização mediana aos incisivos centrais superiores, referem-se ao tipo de dente supranumerário mais comumente encontrado na cavidade oral, normalmente intraósseo e assintomático. A presença desses dentes pode ocasionar alterações na dentição permanente, mas a abordagem cirúrgica na fase da dentição mista mostra resultados satisfatórios no alinhamento dental espontâneo. Em pacientes pediátricos, a sedação consciente com óxido nitroso tem demonstrado ser uma alternativa segura e eficaz no controle do medo e da ansiedade. Objetivo: relatar um procedimento cirúrgico de remoção de dois mesiodentes em paciente pediátrico sob anestesia local associada à sedação com óxido nitroso. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo feminino, 11 anos de idade, necessitava de remoção cirúrgica de dois dentes supranumerários localizados em região anterior de maxila. Com a avaliação da tomografia computadorizada, pôde-se observar a posição em que ambos se encontravam. Realizou-se também a exodontia do elemento dentário 14, como solicitado pela ortodontista, para posterior continuidade do tratamento ortodôntico. Devido à complexidade cirúrgica e ao tempo operatório, considerando a idade da paciente e o possível aumento nos níveis de ansiedade, optou-se pela realização de sedação consciente com óxido nitroso. Conclusão: clinicamente, dentes supranumerários podem causar danos locais. O tratamento cirúrgico associado à sedação consciente mostrou-se bastante seguro e efetivo no controle comportamental, além de poder ser implementado na rotina ambulatorial.(AU)


Supernumerary teeth are defined as those in addition to the normal series. The mesiodens, is the most common supernumerary tooth and it is present in the midline between the two central incisors. It is usually intraosseous and asymptomatic. The presence of these teeth may cause changes in permanent dentition and the surgical approach in the mixed dentition phase shows satisfactory results in spontaneous dental alignment. In pediatric patients, conscious sedation with nitrous oxide has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative in controlling fear and anxiety. Objective. To report a surgical procedure for the removal of two mesiodens in a pediatric patient under local anesthesia associated with nitrous oxide sedation. Case report. 11-year-old female patient required surgical removal of two upper mesiodens. The computed tomography images assisted to indicate their exact position. The extraction of the upper right premolar (tooth #14) was also performed as requested by the orthodontist. Considering the patient's age and the possible increase in anxiety levels, along with surgical complexity and operative time, the conscious sedation with nitrous oxide was selected. Conclusion. Clinically, supernumerary teeth cause local damage and surgical treatment associated with conscious sedation has proved to be quite safe and effective in the behavioral control besides being able to be implemented in the outpatient routine.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tooth Extraction/methods , Tooth, Supernumerary/surgery , Conscious Sedation/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Nitrous Oxide/therapeutic use , Tooth, Supernumerary/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 19-26, mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Anxiety in dental surgery may lead to behavioral and physiological changes for the patient and constitute a frequent challenge for the oral surgeon. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of inhalatory nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O/O2) with oral diazepam conscious sedation in vital signs of patients undergone third molar extraction. Outpatients who needed removal of partially impacted, bilateral lower third molars, during the period of one year, were included. Each patient underwent conscious sedation with either oral diazepam or inhalatory N2O/O2 on a randomized controlled trial, split-mouth design. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen blood saturation were the changes measured before, at the beginning and the end of the procedure. Also, surgical procedure duration was recorded. Data from vital signs were submitted to analysis of variance and the duration of the surgery to paired Student's t-test. Twenty-five healthy outpatients (13 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 21.6 years were studied. There was an increase in systolic and diastolic pressure and in heart rate in the beginning; these values decreased and stabilized at the end of the surgical procedure in both treatments (p < 0.001) being lower in N2O/O2 but without difference between treatments. The surgical procedure duration was lower and occurred an expected increase of oximetry under N2O/O2 sedation (p < 0.001). Both treatments were effective for the conscious sedation but N2O/O2 showed better outcomes, mainly in duration of the surgery.


RESUMEN: La ansiedad en la cirugía dentoalveolar puede conducir a alteraciones fisiológicas y de comportamiento en el paciente, constituyendo así un desafío frecuente para el cirujano maxilofacial. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto del óxido nitroso inhalatorio con oxígeno (N2O/O2) y la sedación consciente oral con diazepam por médio de los signos vitales de pacientes sometidos a la extracción del tercer molar. Fueron incluídos pacientes ambulatoriales com necesidad de exodoncia de terceros molares inferiores bilaterales, parcialmente impactados, durante el período de un año. Cada paciente fue sometido a sedación consciente con diazepam oral o N2O/O2 por inhalación en un ensayo controlado aleatorio, diseño de boca dividida. La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, la frecuencia cardíaca y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre fueron medidos antes, al inicio y al final del procedimiento. Además, se registró la duración del procedimiento quirúrgico. Los datos de los signos vitales fueron enviados para análisis de varianza y la duración de la cirugía para la prueba t de Student pareada. Se estudiaron 25 pacientes ambulatorios sanos (13 mujeres y 12 hombres) con una edad media de 21,6 años. Al início hubo un aumento en la presión sistólica y diastólica y en la frecuencia cardíaca; estos valores disminuyeron y se estabilizaron al final del procedimiento quirúrgico en ambos tratamientos (p <0,001), siendo más bajos en N2O/ O2 pero sin diferencia entre los tratamientos. La duración del procedimiento quirúrgico fue menor y se produjo un aumento esperado de la oximetría bajo sedación con N2O/O2 (p <0,001). Ambos tratamientos fueron efectivos para la sedación consciente, pero el N2O/O2 mostró mejores resultados, principalmente en la duración de la cirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tooth, Impacted/surgery , Conscious Sedation/methods , Diazepam/adverse effects , Molar, Third/surgery , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Oximetry/methods , Administration, Oral , Heart Rate , Nitrous Oxide/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 649-656, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058196

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se analiza la efectividad y seguridad de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimien tos, y evalúa la satisfacción del personal sanitario con cada procedimiento. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en ámbito hospitalario en menores de 18 años, con una estrategia individualizada según la situación basal del paciente, el tipo de procedimiento y la experiencia del pediatra responsable de la sedación. Se registraron las variables: diagnóstico que motiva el procedimiento, tipo de procedimiento, datos antropométri cos, alergias, medicación, estado ASA y enfermedad de base, tiempo de ayuno, auscultación pul monar, temperatura, saturación de oxígeno, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca, tensión arterial, lugar de sedación, tipo de fármaco, dosis, tipo de vía, escala de sedación Ramsay, duración de la sedación, tipo y tratamiento de efectos adversos, presencia de familiares durante todo el pro cedimiento y satisfacción del paciente. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 279 sedaciones. Los fármacos más usados fueron óxido nitroso (62,7%) y midazolam (16,5%); las vías de administración más utili zadas fueron la inhalada (62,4%) y la intravenosa (15,8%). La satisfacción fue alta para el pediatra (92,5%), el enfermero (94,3%), los familiares (96,8%) y los pacientes (93,6%), con una buena correlación entre ellos, y fue significativamente menor al usar midazolam y las vías nasal y bucal. La tasa de efectos adversos fue del 3,2%, y ninguno fue grave. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de un protocolo específico de sedoanalgesia para procedimientos en el ámbito hospitalario consigue una alta efectividad y seguridad, además de un alto nivel de satisfacción, tanto en familiares como en personal sanitario.


INTRODUCTION: We analyze the effectiveness and safety of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures, and eva luate the satisfaction of the health personnel with each procedure. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Prospective study of an analgosedation protocol for hospital procedures in children under 18 years of age, with an individualized strategy based on the patient's baseline situation, the type of procedure and the experience of the pediatrician responsible for the sedation. The following variables were recorded: diagnosis motivating the procedure, type of procedure, anthropometric data, allergies, medication, ASA status and baseline disease, fasting time, lung auscultation, temperature, oxygen saturation, res piratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, sedation location, type of drug, dose, route of administra tion, Ramsay sedation scale, duration of sedation, type and treatment of adverse effects, presence of family members throughout the procedure, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: 279 sedations were performed. The most commonly used drugs were nitrous oxide (62.7%) and midazolam (16.5%); the most commonly used routes of administration were the inhaled one (62.4%) and the intravenous one (15.8%). The satisfaction was high for the pediatrician (92.5%), the nurse (94.3%), the family (96.8%), and patients (93.6%), with a good correlation between them, and it was significantly lower when using midazolam and the nasal and oral routes. The adverse effects rate was 3.2%, and none was severe. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a specific analgosedation protocol for procedures in the hospital environment achieves high levels of effectiveness and safety, as well as a high level of satisfaction, both in family members and in health personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Clinical Protocols , Patient Satisfaction , Pediatricians/psychology , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Job Satisfaction , Midazolam , Family/psychology , Prospective Studies , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/psychology , Nitrous Oxide , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 35-43, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989350

ABSTRACT

The effects of different concentrations of oxygen and nitrous oxide on blood gas parameters in pigs maintained under spontaneous or pressure-controlled ventilation, with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), were compared. Forty-eight pigs were randomly divided into six groups, submitted to different concentrations of compressed air or N2O, associated with different fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2). The group subject to 30% of compressed air (GA30) showed the closest proximity to the physiological range of partial pressure (PaO2) expected for the species. For oxygen saturation (SaO2), the values obtained were below the lower physiological limit in the group administered 30% N2O (GN30). Use of PEEP positively interfered in PaCO2 independent of FiO2, however, its effectiveness can be compromised when complemented by N2O-based anesthesia. For SaO2, only GN30 showed values lower than adequate for maintaining tissue oxygenation. The pH, base deficit and bicarbonate in arterial blood were influenced by FiO2 and N2O. In conclusion, the use of compressed air maintains blood gas parameters at their most stable, especially GA30 and PEEP, which seemed to positively influence the experimental groups, with some interference from FiO2 and N2O.(AU)


Compararam-se os efeitos de diferentes concentrações do óxido nitroso ou oxigênio sobre variáveis hemogasométricas, em suínos mantidos em ventilação espontânea ou controlada à pressão, associada ou não à pressão expiratória final positiva (PEEP). Foram utilizados 48 porcos, distribuídos em seis grupos. Administraram-se diferentes concentrações de ar comprimido ou N2O, associadas a diversas frações de oxigênio inspirado (FiO2). O grupo sujeito a 30% de ar comprimido (GA30) mostrou maior proximidade do intervalo fisiológico da pressão parcial de oxigênio (PaO2). Para a saturação de oxigênio (SaO2), observaram-se valores aquém do limite inferior fisiológico no grupo administrado com 30% de N2O (GN30). A utilização da PEEP é capaz de interferir positivamente na PaCO2, independentemente da FiO2, porém tem a efetividade comprometida quando há complemento da anestesia com o N2O. Para a SaO2, apenas o GN30 esboçou valores inferiores aos adequados para manutenção da oxigenação tecidual. O pH, o déficit base e o bicarbonato no sangue arterial foram influenciados pela FiO2 e pelo N2O. Concluiu-se que o uso do ar comprimido mantém os parâmetros hemogasométricos mais estáveis, com destaque para o GA30 e a PEEP, o que parece influenciar positivamente os grupos experimentais, mas com interferência da FiO2 e do N2O.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxygen/blood , Swine/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Nitrous Oxide/blood
13.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 50-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785296

ABSTRACT

Awareness during general anesthesia occurs in approximately 0.1–0.2% of cases; nevertheless, particular attention is required because it can lead to critical complications including insomnia, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. To prevent these complications, bispectral index (BIS) and end-tidal anesthetic gas (ETAG) concentration monitoring are commonly used to examine patient consciousness during surgery. In the present case, an 80-year-old man was scheduled for total gastrectomy. Anesthesia was maintained using desflurane 4.0–5.0% vol, oxygen, and nitrous oxide. The authors simultaneously monitored BIS, which was maintained between 37 and 43, and ETAG, which was maintained between 0.9 and 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). After the operation, however, the authors were surprised to learn that the patient complained of awareness during anesthesia. Although BIS and ETAG concentration monitoring are useful in preventing awareness during anesthesia, they cannot be completely trusted. Even though BIS was maintained at approximately 40 and ETAG at 0.7–1.3 MAC, awareness during anesthesia occurred.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anxiety , Consciousness , Consciousness Monitors , Depression , Gastrectomy , Intraoperative Awareness , Nitrous Oxide , Oxygen , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
14.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 118-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763273

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Nitrous Oxide , Spinal Cord Diseases
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 441-449, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762947

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of nitrous oxide and anesthetic and operative factors associated with severe pain in the early postoperative period after thoracolumbar spine surgery. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Thoracolumbar spine surgery is the most common procedure in spine surgery, and up to 50% of the patients suffer from moderate to severe pain. Nitrous oxide has analgesic, anxiolytic, and anesthetic effects; nevertheless, its benefits for early postoperative pain control and opioid consumption remain to be established. METHODS: The medical records of eligible participants who underwent thoracolumbar spine surgery between July 2016 and February 2017 were reviewed. Enrolment was performed consecutively until reaching 90 patients for the case (severe pain) group (patients with a pain score of >7 out of 10 at least once during the post-anesthesia care unit [PACU] admission), and 90 patients for the control (mild-to-moderate pain) group (patients with a pain score of <7 in every PACU assessment). The data collected comprised patient factors, anesthetic factors, surgical factors, PACU pain score, and PACU pain management. RESULTS: A total of 197 patients underwent thoracolumbar spine surgery with an incidence of early postoperative severe pain of 53.3%. The case-control study revealed no differences in the factors related to pain intensity. A subgroup analysis was performed for failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. After multivariate analyses, only the age group of 19–65 years and the baseline Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were found to be significant risk factors for early postoperative severe pain in the PACU (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–6.25; OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrous oxide, anesthetic agents, and surgical techniques did not affect the early postoperative pain severity. Age under 66 years and the baseline ODI were the significant risk factors for pain intensity during the early postoperative period of the FBSS, spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis subgroups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Anesthetics , Case-Control Studies , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Incidence , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Nitrous Oxide , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Spondylolisthesis
16.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 530-534, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762651

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) caused by nitrous oxide (N₂O) gas intoxication, which is rarely reported in Korea. Two patients recreationally inhaled N₂O gas daily for several months. They presented with paresthesia of limbs, voiding difficulty, and gait disturbance. The initial vitamin B₁₂ levels were normal or decreased, but homocysteine levels of the two patients were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed T2-weighted hyperintensity in the bilateral dorsal columns of the cervical spinal cord. Electromyography and somatosensory evoked potential tests for both patients suggested posterior column lesion of the spinal cord combined with sensorimotor polyneuropathy. According to these findings, we concluded that the two patients had SCD. The patient’s symptoms partially improved after cessation of N₂O gas inhalation and the receiving of vitamin B₁₂ supplementation therapy. As the incidence of recreational N₂O gas inhalation is increasing in Korea, physicians must be alert to the N₂O induced SCD in patients presenting with progressive myelopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Cord , Electromyography , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Extremities , Gait , Homocysteine , Incidence , Inhalation , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nitrous Oxide , Paresthesia , Polyneuropathies , Recreation , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Subacute Combined Degeneration , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamins
17.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 215-224, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739847

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in postoperative sore throat and hoarseness by adjustment of endotracheal tube cuff pressure (CP) during nitrous oxide (N2O) and air anesthesia. METHODS: A one-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Data were collected from August 8 to October 19, 2017 and analyzed using the independent t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Eighty-four participants were enrolled and divided into three groups: 28 in the Control Group (CP adjusted every 30 minutes using N2O), 28 in Experimental Group 1 (CP adjusted every 10 minutes using N2O), and 28 in Experimental Group 2 (non-adjusted CP using air), all of whom underwent urologic, gynecologic, and orthopedic surgeries at the G University hospital. Sore throat was assessed using a numeric rating scale; hoarseness was evaluate using the Stout classification at 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. RESULTS: Scores for sore throat and hoarseness were significantly different between the groups at each measurement time, and scores were consistently higher in the control group. During subsequent measurements, sore throat and hoarseness scores were significantly lower at 6 hours. Cuff pressure changed significantly using air anesthesia (χ2=10.41, p=.015) up to 2 hours after induction. Severe sore throat and hoarseness was observed for up to 6 hours after surgery. CONCLUSION: Cuff pressure adjustment at short time intervals would be helpful in reducing postoperative sore throat and hoarseness. Nursing intervention focused on prevention of sore throat and hoarseness should be required up to 6 hours postoperatively in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia , Classification , Hoarseness , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Nitric Oxide , Nitrous Oxide , Nursing , Orthopedics , Pharyngitis
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 106-110, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776065

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of oral midazolam sedation combined nitrous oxide sedation for reducing dental fear in children.Methods Totally 77 children with a Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale score of 1 were included in this study,among whom 41 received a total of 78 person-times of oral midazolam sedation (0.50-0.75 mg·kg ) (midazolam group) and 36 children were treated with the combination of 0.4 mg/kg oral midazolam with 30%-40% nitrous oxide (totally 73 person-times)(combination group). At each visit,heart rate,arterial oxygen saturation,and treatments were recorded. The behaviors of children during the treatment were assessed by Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale,the completion of treatment was assessed by Houpt Scale,and the sedation status was assessed by Ramsay Scale. Telephone follow-up was performed to record the side effects 24 hours after treatment. Results The vital signs were stable among all the 77 subjects,with a Ramsay score of 2 or 3. In the midazolam group, the behaviors were cooperative in 52 person-times (66.7%) and not cooperative in 26 person-times (33.3%);the planned treatments were completed in 62 person-times (79.5%) and partially completed in 16 person-times(20.5%). In the combination group,the behaviors were cooperative in 56 person-times (76.7%) and not cooperative in 17 person-times (23.3%);64 person-times (87.7%) completed the planned treatments and 9 person-times (12.3%) partially completed the treatments. The success rates of sedation (χ =1.87,P= 0.17) and treatment (χ =1.83,P= 0.18) were not significantly different between these two groups. The median Frankl scale score was significantly higher in the combination group [3 (3,4)] than in the midazolam group [3 (2,4)] (Z=2.647,P=0.008]. The median score of Houpt scale in the combination group [5(4,6)] was also significantly higher than in midazolam group [5(3,5)] (Z=2.236,P=0.026]. In midazolam group,there were 7 person-times of dysphoria,3 person-times of diplopia,and 2 person-times of hiccough among 78 person-times;in the combination group,there were 5 person-times of dysphoria,5 person-times of diplopia,1 person-time of hiccough,and 2 person-times of vomit among 73 person-times of treatment. Thus,there was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects (15.4% vs.17.8%,χ =0.160,P=0.689). Logistic regression analysis showed that the success rate of treatment was not associated with sex (OR=1.704,P=0.174),dose (OR=1.289,P=0.516),and treatment types (OR=0.555,P=0.143). Children over 3 years old had a significantly high success rate than those under 3 years old (OR=3.372,P=0.011). Conclusions Oral midazolam is safe and effective for reducing dental fear in children. The combination of oral midazolam with 30%-40% nitrous oxide can improve the behaviors of children during the dental treatment,especially in children over 3 years old.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Administration, Oral , Anesthesia, Dental , Conscious Sedation , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Anxiety , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Midazolam , Therapeutic Uses , Nitrous Oxide
19.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 967-975, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785489

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.PURPOSE: To compare clonidine and pregabalin with placebo for the attenuation of postoperative pain after thoracolumbar spinal surgery and instrumentationOVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Spine surgery is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain that needs to be controlled to improve patient’s outcome. Alpha 2 agonists (e.g., clonidine) and gabapentenoids (e.g., pregabalin) are successfully used as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen.METHODS: Total 75 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated into three groups. Group P received pregabalin (150 mg), group C received clonidine (150 mcg), and group N received placebo 90 minutes preoperatively. A standard anesthesia protocol comprising fentanyl, thiopentone, vecuronium, nitrous oxide, and oxygen in isoflurane was used for all patients. Postoperative recovery profile, pain, time for first analgesic, 24-hour analgesic requirement, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters were noted.RESULTS: Recovery profile was similar in all three groups; however, the patients in group P and C were more sedated (p<0.05). Group N patients had a higher Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score (p<0.05) and the time for first analgesic was also lower (p=0.02). Postoperative (24-hour) analgesic requirement was maximum in group N, followed by that in group C and group P. The VAS score was highest in the control group; however, after 12 hours, it was similar in all groups.CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain and analgesic requirement is significantly attenuated by preoperative administration of a single dose of clonidine (150 mcg) or pregabalin (150 mg); pregabalin was more effective. Thus, their use offers a reasonable strategy for pain management in patients undergoing spine surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics , Anesthesia , Clonidine , Fentanyl , Hemodynamics , Isoflurane , Nitrous Oxide , Oxygen , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Pregabalin , Prospective Studies , Spine , Thiopental , Vecuronium Bromide , Visual Analog Scale
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 288-292, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics of the neurological damage caused by nitrous oxide (N2O).@*METHODS@#In the study, 10 patients in the Department of Neurology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to February 2018 were retrospectively analyzed for the demographic data, the history of inhaled N2O, clinical features, blood examination, electrophysiological examination, spinal magnetic resonance imaging and therapeutic efficacy profiles.@*RESULTS@#The male-to-female ratio was 4:6 and it presented with an age-of-onset 17-26 years [the average age: (20.80±3.12) years]. The time from inhaled N2O to onset was 1 month to 1 year [the average time: (6.95±4.19) months]. Paralysis in all the patients and numbness in 9 patients were the main clinical features, while positive Lhermitte's sign in 3 patients, urinary and defecation disturbance in 4 patients were also found. Blood examination indicated anemia in 2 patients, giant cell anemia in 1 case and small cell hypochromic anemia in 1 case. 3 cases had been treated with vitamin B12 in an external hospital, and the other 7 cases had abnormal increase in homocysteine levels. Electrophysiological examinations showed sensory and motor nerve involvement in 9 patients, and motor nerve involvement in 1 patient. The severity of lower extremity lesion was significantly heavier than that of upper extremity. Spinal magnetic resonance imagings showed that long segmental lesions were present in the cervical spinal cord of all the patients, 3 cases with long segmental lesions of the thoracic cord and 2 cases with spinal cord swelling. In 6 cases, the horizontal axis had an "inverted V-type" T2 high signal, 1 case was classified as "crescent", and 3 cases were "eight-shaped". The symptoms in these 10 cases were alleviated in varying degrees after stopping the inhalation of nitrous oxide, actively supplementing high doses of vitamin B12 and doing early rehabilitation exercises.@*CONCLUSION@#Myelopathy with nitrous oxide presents as paralysis and numbness in limb extremities. In imaging, cervical spinal cord damage is common, accompanied by thoracic spinal cord damage. The horizontal axis is more common in the "inverted V-type". Treatment with high doses of vitamin B12 is effective.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , China , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nitrous Oxide , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Diseases
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