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1.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(3): 61341, 25/10/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517898

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a poluição sonora está presente na escola, sendo assim, é importante conhecer as fontes de ruído, o impacto na saúde do professor e no ensino. Objetivo: avaliar a percepção de professores do ensino fundamental I quanto ao impacto do ruído no ambiente escolar, bem como seus sintomas vocais. Método: estudo observacional, descritivo, analítico, transversal. Aplicou-se inventário, do qual participaram 26 professoras da rede municipal da cidade de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, SC. Aplicou-se um questionário com questões referentes à idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho, carga horária diária, impacto e percepção do ruído no ambiente escolar. Utilizou-se o Índice de Triagem para Distúrbios da Voz, uma triagem para identificação de risco para distúrbio de voz em professores. Para a análise de associação dos resultados foi utilizado o teste de Qui Quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 53,57% das professoras responderam que há excesso de ruído na escola e 57,14% consideram que o ruído dentro da sala prejudica as atividades. As fontes externas e internas de ruído que mais atrapalham são: pátio, corredor, conversas paralelas e ventilador. Quanto aos sintomas vocais referidos, destacaram-se: garganta seca, cansaço ao falar, pigarro e rouquidão. Professoras que lecionam em período integral apresentaram mais queixas para o pigarro. Conclusão: os sujeitos têm a percepção de que o ambiente escolar é excessivamente ruidoso e causa prejuízos no desenvolvimento das atividades. As participantes têm poucas queixas relacionadas à voz, sendo a mais frequente, garganta seca. Além disso, professoras que lecionam em período integral apresentaram, significativamente, mais queixas de pigarro. (AU)


Introducción: la contaminación acústica está presente en la escuela, entonces es importante conocer las fuentes del ruido, el impacto en la salud del docente y en la enseñanza. Propósito: evaluar la percepción de docentes sobre el impacto del ruido en el ambiente escolar, así como sus síntomas vocales. Método: estudio observacional, descriptivo, analítico, transversal. Se aplicó un inventario, en el que participaron 26 docentes de la red municipal de la ciudad de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, (SC). con preguntas relacionadas con edad, género, tiempo de trabajo, carga diaria de trabajo, impacto y percepción del ruido en el ambiente escolar. Se utilizó el Índice de Detección de Trastornos de la Voz para identificar el riesgo de trastornos de la voz. Para el análisis de asociación se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, con un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: 53,57% respondió que en la escuela hay exceso de ruido y 57,14% consideram que el ruido dentro del salón perjudica las actividades. Las fuentes de ruido más molestas son: patio, pasillo, conversaciones paralelas y ventilador. En cuanto a los síntomas vocales reportados destacan sequedad de garganta, cansancio al hablar, carraspeo y ronquera. Los maestros de tiempo completo se quejaron más de carraspear. Conclusión: los sujetos tienen la percepción de que el ambiente escolar es excesivamente ruidoso y provoca perjuicios para el desarrollo de las actividades. Los participantes tienen pocas quejas relacionadas con la voz, siendo la garganta seca la más frecuente. Además, los maestros que enseñan a tiempo completo tenían muchas más quejas de carraspeo. (AU)


Introduction: noise pollution is present at school; therefore, it is important to know the sources of noise, the impact on the teacher's health and on teaching. Purpose: to evaluate the perception of elementary school teachers regarding the impact of noise in the school environment, as well as their vocal symptoms. Method: observational, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study. An inventory was applied, in which 26 teachers from the municipal network of the city of Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, (SC). participated. A questionnaire was applied with questions related to age, gender, working time, daily workload, impact and perception of noise in the school environment. The Voice Disorders Screening Index was used, a screening to identify risk for voice disorders in teachers. For the analysis of the association of results, the chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: 53.57% of the teachers answered that there is excessive noise in the school and 57.14% consider that the noise inside the room harms the activities. The most disturbing external and internal sources of noise are courtyard, corridor, parallel conversations and fan. As for the reported vocal symptoms, the following stand out: dry throat, tiredness when speaking, throat clearing and hoarseness. Full-time teachers complained more about throat clearing. Conclusion: the subjects have the perception that the school environment is excessively noisy and causes damage to the development of activities. The participants have few voice-related complaints, the most frequent being dry throat. In addition, teachers who teach full-time had significantly more complaints of throat clearing. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Perception , School Teachers , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Voice Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Health , Qualitative Research
2.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 379-382, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986018

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the sound insulation, sound absorption and other noise reduction transformation methods in a noise workshop handover control room. Methods: In December 2021, through the occupational health investigation and on-site testing of the handover control room of a noise workshop, the causes of excessive noise were analyzed, and the transformation design scheme to reduce noise was proposed and the effect was analyzed. Results: Before the transformation, the peak frequency band noise intensity of the noise workshop handover control room was 112.8 dB (A), and the peak frequency was 1000 Hz. After noise reduction, the theoretical calculated control value was 61.0 dB (A), and the measured noise intensity was 59.8 dB (A) . Conclusion: The noise intensity of the handover control room is reduced after noise reduction, which is in line with the contact limit requirements of the control room in GBZ 1-2010 "Hygienic Standards for the Design of Industrial Enterprises", and has reference significance for noise control engineering.


Subject(s)
Noise/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Industry , Reference Standards , Hygiene , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 333-337, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986008

ABSTRACT

Objective: To get insight into the current practice of noise reduction effect of workers as they wore hearing protectors in different domestic enterprises and the possible affected factors. Methods: From October 2020 to April 2021, using a random sampling method, 1197 workers exposed to noise in petrochemical factories, textile factories, and parts manufacturing factories were selected as the study subjects. The noise reduction effect of hearing protectors worn by workers in daily use was tested using a hearing protector suitability testing system. The personal sound attenuation level (PAR) was compared among workers in three enterprises, Targeted intervention and repetitive testing were conducted for workers who did not meet the noise reduction effect required by the enterprise, and the changes in PAR of workers before and after the intervention were compared. The comparison of baseline PARs between two or more groups was performed using the Mann Whitney test, the comparison of baseline PARs with post intervention PARs was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, and the comparison of qualitative data between two or more groups was performed using the Chi square test. Results: The median baseline PAR for all workers was 15 dB. Men, age<30 years old, education level at or above college level, working experience of 5 to 15 years, and those who used hearing protectors for 5 to 15 years had higher PARs, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The median difference in baseline PAR among workers from three enterprises was statistically significant (H=175.06, P<0.01). The median PAR of subjects who did not pass the baseline increased from 3 dB to 21 dB after intervention (Z=-27.92, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Some workers wearing hearing protectors do not meet the required PAR, and low PARs may be related to incorrect wearing methods and incorrect selection of hearing protectors. As a tool for testing, training, and assisting in selection, the hearing protector suitability testing system is of great significance for worker hearing protection.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/prevention & control , Ear Protective Devices , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control , Hearing , Audiometry
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 47-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970710

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the change of hearing threshold of workers exposed to noise, establish an individual-based hearing loss early warning model, accurately and differentiated the health of workers exposed to noise. Methods: In September 2019, all physical examination data of 561 workers exposed to noise from an enterprise were collected since their employment. Three indicators of average hearing threshold of the better ear, namely, at high frequency, 4000 Hz and speech frequency, were constructed. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to adjust gender and age and establish the warning model of each indicator. Finally, sensitive indicators and warning models were screened according to AUC and Yoden index. Results: Among the 561 workers exposed to noise, 26 (4.6%) workers had hearing loss. The sensitivity indicators were the average hearing threshold at speech frequency ≥20 dB, high frequency ≥30 dB and 4000 Hz ≥25 dB. The AUC of each index was 0.602, 0.794 and 0.804, and the Youden indexes were 0.204, 0.588 and 0.608, respectively. In GEE of hearing loss warning models, high-frequency hearing threshold ≥20 dB and 4000 Hz hearing threshold ≥25 dB were the optimal models, with AUC of 0.862. Conclusion: Combined with the changes of individual hearing threshold over the years, can accurately assess the risk of individual hearing loss of workers exposed to noise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/diagnosis , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Audiometry , Deafness , Employment , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 43-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970709

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize and analyse of literature on the susceptibility genes of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) , and the key genes were screened and obtained by bioinformatics method, so as to provide reference for the prevention research of NIHL. Methods: In September 2021, Based on CNKI, NCBI Pubmed database and Web of Science database, this paper conducted bibliometric analysis and bioinformatics analysis on the genetic literature related to the susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss from 1999 to 2020. Endnote X9 software and the WPS office software were used for bibliometric analysis, and online software STRING and Cytoscape software were used for bioinformatics analysis. Results: A total of 131 literatures were included in the study, involving 40 genes in total. Bibliometric analysis shows that 131 papers which included 36 Chinese articles and 95 English articles were published in 63 biomedical journals; the highest number of published articles was 19 in 2020. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that GAPDH、SOD2、SOD1、CAT、CASP3、IL6 and other genes play a key role in the interaction network. The involved pathways mainly include MAP2K and MAPK activations, PTEN regulation, P53-depardent G1 DNA damage response, signaoling by BRAF and RAF fusions and soon. Conclusion: The study of noise induced hearing loss involves multi gene biological information, and bioinformatics analysis is helpful to predict the occurrence and development of noise induced hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Computational Biology , Bibliometrics , Noise, Occupational
6.
Rev. med. Urug ; 38(4): e38409, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1424186

ABSTRACT

La problemática del ruido en las ciudades toma preponderancia internacional a finales del siglo XX, y pocas veces se comentan los esfuerzos pioneros realizados por especialistas que abogaron por un ambiente sonoro saludable. Éste es el caso de Pedro Belou, un médico otorrinolaringólogo nacido en Uruguay quien realizó toda su carrera profesional en Argentina, y que se destacó como científico de renombre mundial. A Belou podríamos ubicarlo como uno de los pioneros en el Río de la Plata en advertir acerca de las enfermedades que genera en las personas la exposición al ruido en las ciudades y en las industrias durante una conferencia que dio en Buenos Aires en 1936. En este artículo se rescatan los contenidos de su ponencia por la actualidad que tienen sus argumentos, y también para contribuir a su biografía, ya que esta conferencia no se menciona en ninguna de sus biografías.


Summary: City noise became a significant issue at the global level towards the end of the 20th Century, and discussions on pioneer efforts conducted by specialists who advocated for a healthy sound environment are rare. This is the case of Pedro Belou, a Uruguayan born otolaryngologist who developed his professional career in Argentina and was a renowned scientist worldwide. Belou could be regarded as one of the first physicians in the River Plate to warn us about diseases arising from noise exposure in cities and factories, during a conference he delivered in Buenos Aires in 1936. This article brings his presentation to you given the current relevance of his argument and to contribute to his biography, since this conference has not been mentioned in any of his previous biographies.


O problema do ruído nas cidades ganha preponderância internacional no final do século XX, porém raramente se discute o pioneirismo de especialistas que defendiam um ambiente sonoro saudável, como é o caso de Pedro Belou; otorrinolaringologista nascido no Uruguai, passou toda a sua carreira profissional na Argentina, destacando-se como um cientista de renome mundial. Poderíamos colocar Belou como um dos pioneiros no Río de la Plata em alertar, em uma conferência que deu em Buenos Aires em 1936, sobre as doenças que afetam as pessoas devido à exposição ao ruído nas cidades e nas indústrias. Neste artigo o conteúdo de sua apresentação é resgatado devido não somente pela atualidade de seus argumentos, como também para contribuir com sua biografia, já que esta conferência não é mencionada em nenhuma delas.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Hearing Loss , Noise, Occupational , History of Medicine
7.
Occup. health South. Afr. (Online) ; 28(4): 128-135, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1527252

ABSTRACT

Background: Occupational health risk assessments are building blocks for occupational health programmes, allowing for the rating of identified risks and the continuous re-evaluation of the effectiveness of abatement measures. In South African industry, occupational health risk assessments are formally documented in reports, which can be presented as demonstration of legal compliance with legislation. Objective: To identify noise abatement measures recorded in noise risk assessment reports of four manufacturing companies and to rate their effectiveness. Methods: We analysed the occupational health risk assessment reports from 21 operational facilities in four South African companies from the manufacturing and utilities sectors to evaluate, through document analysis, the recorded noise abatement measures. Noise abatement measure effectiveness was rated using a preassigned effectiveness percentage scale. Results: Administrative controls and hearing protection devices were the most commonly used noise exposure abatement measures, but hearing conservation programmes were generally poorly formulated. There were inter- and intra-company differences in the qualitative risk assessment approaches used for rating or ranking the noise risk, which led to different risk conclusions and prioritisation outcomes. The calculated control effectiveness of the abatement measures showed that noise exposure remained largely unacceptable: 16 of the 21 operational units had unacceptable noise exposures, four had tolerable exposures, and one had broadly acceptable exposures. Conclusion: The four companies' common noise abatement measures, as elements of formalised hearing conservation programmes, which included administrative controls and hearing protection devices, were not effective in reducing noise exposure to the broadly acceptable level, reflective of limited use of engineering controls.


Subject(s)
Health Risk , Noise, Occupational , Risk Assessment , Industry
8.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 183-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935771

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the association between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a large Chinese population. Methods: In December 2019, the study included 21412 retired participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, occupational noise exposure was evaluated through workplace noise level and/or the job titles. In a subsample of 8931 subjects, bilateral hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone mean of 25 dB or higher at 0.5, 1 , 2, and 4 kHz in both ears. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association of occupational noise exposure, bilateral hearing loss with 10-year CVD risk. Results: Compared with participants without occupational noise exposure, the 10-year CVD risk was significantly higher for noise exposure duration ≥20 years (OR=1.20, 95%CI:1.01-1.41 , P=0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the sex-specific analysis, the association was only statistically significant in males (OR=2.34, 95%CI: 1.18-4.66, P<0.001) , but not in females (OR=1.15, 95%CI:0.97-1.37, P=0.153). In the subsample analyses, bilateral hearing loss, which was an indicator for exposure to loud noise, was also associated with a higher risk of 10-year CVD (OR= 1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.44, P <0.001) , especially for participants who were males (OR =1.24, 95% CI:1.07-2.30, P<0.001) , aged equal and over 60 years old (OR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.84-2.88, P<0.001) , and exposed to occupational noise (OR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.02-2.70, P=0.001). Conclusion: Occupational noise exposure may be a risk factor for CVD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hearing Loss, Bilateral/complications , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/epidemiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
9.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 135-138, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the diagnosis of suspected occupational diseases reported in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019, so as to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the supervision of suspected occupational disease reports. Methods: By cluster sampling, the suspected occupational disease report card, occupational disease report card and pneumoconiosis report card reported by Guangzhou from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019 in the occupational disease and occupational health information monitoring system were collected for matching analysis to understand the diagnosis of suspected occupational disease patients. Results: From 2014 to 2019, a total of 1426 suspected occupational cases in 7 categories and 32 species were reported in Guangzhou. The average number of reported cases per year was about 240. The main diseases of suspected occupational diseases were suspected occupational noise deafness (68.44%, 976/1426) , suspected occupational chronic benzene poisoning (16.48%, 235/1426) , suspected occupational other pneumoconiosis (4.84%, 69/1426) , suspected occupational silicosis (3.23%, 46/1426) and suspected occupational welder pneumoconiosis (1.82%, 26/1426) . The diagnostic rate required to enter the occupational disease diagnostic program is 36.61% (522/1426) , and the diagnostic rate is 59.20% (309/522) . In 2019, the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases was the lowest (23.92%, 61/255) , Huadu District was the lowest (8.33%, 9/108) , suspected occupational pneumoconiosis was the lowest (28.03%, 44/157) , the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases reported by the Centers for Disease control and prevention was the lowest (17.43%, 19/109) , and the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases reported by outpatient treatment was the lowest (22.22%, 2/9) . The suspected occupational diseases reported by institutions outside Guangzhou did not enter the occupational disease diagnosis procedure. Suspected occupational skin diseases, suspected occupational diseases caused by physical factors and suspected occupational tumors were diagnosed, and the diagnosis rate of occupational disease prevention and control institutions was the highest (94.87%, 37/39) . Conclusion: The main types of suspected occupational diseases reported during these six years are noise deafness, chronic benzene poisoning and pneumoconiosis. The overall diagnosis rate and diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases are not high. It is suggested to improve the network direct reporting system of suspected occupational diseases and strengthen the follow-up management and supervision of suspected occupational diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , China/epidemiology , Noise, Occupational , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Physical Examination , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis
10.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 383-386, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935817

ABSTRACT

Objective: To learn about the noise exposure and health status of workers and analyze factors that may affect the health outcomes of workers in an auto manufacturing enterprise in Tianjin City. Methods: In September 2020, occupational hygiene survey, noise exposure level detection and occupational health examination data collection were carried out in an auto parts manufacturing enterprise. Chi square test and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the health effects of noise exposure and hearing loss of 361 noise exposure workers. Results: The rates of over-standard noise exposure, hearing loss and hypertension were 69.39% (34/49) , 33.24% (120/361) and 11.36% (41/361) , respectively. There were upward trends on age and noise-working years for hearing loss and hypertension rates (χ(2)=-5.95, -6.16, -2.81, -2.74, P<0.05) . Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that age>35 years old, noise exposure length of service >10 years and noise L(EX, 8 h)>85 dB (A) were risk factors for hearing loss (OR=3.57, 95%CI: 1.09, 11.75; OR=4.05, 95%CI: 1.97, 8.25; OR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.00, 3.05; P=0.036, 0.001, 0.047) . Conclusion: This company has a high rate of job noise exceeding the standard, and noise-exposed workers have more serious hearing loss. Age, noise exposure and high noise exposure are risk factors for hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Automobiles , Deafness , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/complications , Occupational Exposure/analysis
11.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 279-282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935792

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the literature of related research reports on occupational hearing loss (ONIHL) , study the characteristics of the subject and determine the research hotspots. Methods: In December 2020, PubMed database was searched by bibliometrics for ONIHL published in PubMed database from January 1971 to December 2020. Bicomb 2.03 software was used to extract the subject. The publication year, publication country, source magazine and subject words were summarized and analyzed. Results: A total of 1 473 papers were included in this study, and the number of papers was 66 from 1971 to 1980, and 628 from 2011 to 2020, an increase of nearly 10 times. The top three countries were the United States, China and Germany, with 31.5% (464/1473) , 11.5% (171/1473) and 6.2% (91/1473) ; The cross-sectional study was the most applied type; The top five words for 2011-2020: Mental Illness, polymorphism, cardiovascular disease, high frequency hearing impairment and standards and regulations. Conclusion: Susceptibility Genes, Psychological Disorders, Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Assessment are hot areas in ONIHL at present. Researchers should focus on major fields and grasp future trends as a whole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases , PubMed , United States
12.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 271-275, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935790

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the applicability of three different kinds of noise occupational health risk assessment methods to the occupational health risk assessment of noise exposed positions in an automobile foundry enterprise. Methods: In July 2020, the occupational-health risk assessment of noise-exposed positions was conducted by using the Guidelines for risk management of occupational noise hazard (guideline method) , the International Commission on Mining and Metals Guidelines for Occupational Health Risk Assessment (ICMM) method and the Occupational-health risk index method (index method) respectively, and the results were analyzed and compared. Results: Through the occupational health field investigation, the noise exposure level of the enterprise's main workstations was between 80.3 and 94.8 dB (A) , among which the noise of the posts of shaking-sand, cleaning and modeling was greater than 85 dB (A) ; The noise risk of each position was evaluated by the three methods, and the adjustment risk level was between 2 and 5 assessed using the guideline method, between 2 and 3 assessed using the index method, and 5 evaluated using the ICMM model. Conclusion: Each of the three risk assessment methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. The ICMM model has a large difference in value assignment, and values in the results are larger than expected. The evaluation results of the guideline method and the index method are consistent in some positions, there is certain subjectivity in the evaluation using the index method, and the guideline method is more objective.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment/methods
13.
Medisur ; 19(3): 530-535, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287335

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento el ruido se incluye dentro de los cinco principales factores de riesgo de naturaleza física para la salud en el medio laboral. Objetivo determinar si la contaminación acústica de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Glucosas, Almidón y Derivados del Maíz, de Cienfuegos sobrepasa los valores máximos admisibles establecidos en la NC 871/11 de Seguridad y Salud en el trabajo. Métodos se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Glucosas, Almidón y Derivados del Maíz de Cienfuegos, en el mes de febrero de 2018. En la empresa laboraban 287 trabajadores, de ellos 247 directos a la producción. Las mediciones del nivel sonoro en el área de trabajo se realizaron según la metodología que establece la Norma Cubana vigente NC 19-01-14/83. Se analizaron las variables: nivel sonoro equivalente continuo, expresado en decibeles (dB(A)) y el tiempo de exposición (en horas). Para medir el ruido se utilizó un sonómetro integrador clase 2. Las mediciones se realizaron durante la jornada laboral. Resultados en el generador de vapor, caldera de compresores, área de molinación y generación, recepción de maíz y limpieza, empaque fábrica de pienso, secadores y centrífugas los niveles de ruido sobrepasan los 90 db(a) de exposición. En los previos 2 y 3 del área molinación y generación, los niveles de ruido fueron superiores a los 100 db(a) de exposición. Conclusiones: los niveles de ruido encontrados sobrepasan el valor máximo admisible, lo que pudiera ocasionar consecuencias nocivas en la salud de los trabajadores por lo que se hace necesario intervenir en este medio laboral.


ABSTRACT Foundation: noise is included among the 5 risk factors of physical origin for health in the working environment. Objective: to determine if sound pollution at the Cienfuegos Manufacturing and Marketing Company of glucose, starch and other corn byproducts, exceeds maximum admissible values on NC 871/11 of Health Safety and Health at Work. Methods: a cross descriptive study at the Cienfuegos Manufacturing and Marketing Company of glucose, starch and other corn byproducts was conducted, on February 2018. A number of 287 persons were working, out of them 247 directly in production processes. Measurements of sound levels in the working areas were done according to the valid Cuban standard NC 19-01-14/83. Variables continues equivalent sound level, express in decibels (dB(A) and time of exposure in hours. To measure noise, it was used and integrative sonometer type 2. Measurements were done the during working hours. Results: in the steam generator, compressor boiler, grinding and generation areas, corn reception and cleaning, animal feed factory, dryers and centrifugal equipment noise levels exceed 90 db (a) of exposition. Conclusion: the levels of noise found exceed the admissible maximum which might produce harmful health consequences on workers therefore it is necessary to intervene this working environment


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Noise Monitoring/analysis , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive
14.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(1): e7620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155324

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the implementation of hearing conservation programs in two large companies. Methods: an evaluative research that analyzed a type 1b implementation. The study was conducted in three stages, namely: establishing the company's degree of implementation, analyzing the companies' policies and structures, and lastly, analyzing the influence of the companies' policies and structures on their degree of implementation. The following analyses were conducted to collect data: interviews, document analysis, and observation. Results: the hearing conservation program in Company A was classified as implemented (91.1%), while in Company B, it was partially implemented (62.7%). The context in Company A was favorable to implementing the program, whereas in Company B, the context was considered unfavorable, due to disadvantageous categories. Also, the characteristics of the implementation context influenced the placement of the program either positively or negatively. Conclusion: there were satisfactory results regarding the implementation of the hearing conservation program in both companies assessed.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a implantação do programa de conservação auditiva em duas empresas de grande porte. Métodos: trata-se de uma pesquisa avaliativa de análise de implantação do tipo 1b. O estudo foi conduzido em três etapas, sendo: determinação do grau de implantação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva das empresas avaliadas; análise dos contextos políticos e estruturais das empresas avaliadas; e, por fim, uma análise da influência dos contextos políticos e estruturais no grau de implantação nas empresas avaliadas. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises para coleta dos dados: entrevistas, análise documental e observacional. Resultados: o Programa de Conservação Auditiva na 'empresa A' foi classificado como 'implantado' (91,1%) e na 'empresa B' como 'parcialmente implantado' (62,7%). O contexto de implantação da 'empresa A' se apresentou favorável à implantação do programa. Já na 'empresa B' o contexto foi considerado desfavorável, tendo categorias não favoráveis. Foi possível relacionar, também, que as características do contexto de implantação influenciaram positiva ou negativamente na implantação do programa. Conclusão: houve resultados satisfatórios quanto à implantação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva em ambas as empresas avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Program Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/prevention & control , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control , Private Sector , Noise Monitoring , Models, Theoretical
15.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(2): e2319, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to verify a possible association between hearing loss and dysphonia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases, and noise complaints. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving 60 teachers, mean age 47.05 years. Pure-tone threshold audiometry was used to assess hearing, the voice questionnaire and voice acoustic evaluation were used for voice perception and quality, and the standardized questionnaire verified noise complaint and comorbidities. The statistical analysis was conducted with Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests and multivariate linear regression. Results: there was a significant association between hearing loss and diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and thyroid disease (both p <0.0001), but there was no association between noise complaints and hearing loss in this population. The regression showed that dysphonia (p = 0.0311) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.0302) are independent risk factors for hearing loss. A correlation was found between hearing loss and voice characteristics: roughness, breathiness, tension, and resonance. Conclusion: this study showed that hypertension and thyroid diseases are factors associated with hearing loss. In addition, dysphonia and diabetes mellitus are independent factors associated with hearing loss in teachers. These results show the need for policies aimed at promoting teachers' health.


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar possível associação da perda auditiva com disfonia, hipertensão arterial (HA), diabetes mellitus (DM), doenças da tireoide e queixas de ruído. Métodos: estudo transversal envolvendo 60 professores, média de idade de 47,05 anos. Foi avaliada a audição por meio da Audiometria tonal limiar, a percepção e qualidade vocal com o questionário vocal e a avaliação vocal acústica, enquanto a queixa de ruído e as comorbidades envolvidas foram investigadas com o questionário padronizado. A análise estatística utilizou os testes Ex-act de Mann Whitney, Fisher e regressão linear multivariada. Resultados: houve associação significante entre perda auditiva e DM, HA e doenças da tireoide (ambas p <0,0001), mas não foi encontrada associação entre queixa de ruído e perda auditiva nesta população. A regressão mostrou que as variáveis disfonia (p = 0,0311) e DM (p = 0,0302) são fatores de risco independentes para perda auditiva. Houve correlação entre perda auditiva e as características vocais rugosidade, soprosidade, tensão e ressonância. Conclusão: este estudo demostrou que HA e doenças da tireoide são fatores associados a perda auditiva, além disso a disfonia e DM se constituem em fatores associados independentes para a perda auditiva em professores. Estes resultados mostram a necessidade de políticas direcionadas a promoção da saúde do professor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hearing Loss/etiology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Dysphonia/complications , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects
16.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(3): e3220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to validate indicators and parameters to construct an assessment instrument for the Hearing Conservation Program. Methods: methodological research to validate the content and layout of indicators to assess the Hearing Conservation Program, using the Delphi method, as well as the semantic validation of an assessment instrument for the program, in compliance with the procedures used by the European group DISABKIDS. A total of 20 speech-language-hearing therapists participated in the study, answering validation questionnaires. The answers were tabulated and analyzed considering descriptive statistical data, establishing the item content validity index, the scale content validity index, the percentage of absolute agreement, and the content analysis. Results: of the 64 items submitted for validation, two were not considered appropriate. The set of items was considered representative. The validated indicators and parameters provided the means to construct an assessment instrument of the degree of implementation of the Hearing Conservation Program, which proved to be semantically valid. Conclusion: the indicators were validated to meet and represent the functions of quality, control, and follow-up of the Hearing Conservation Program, aiding administrators to carry out their responsibilities and making it possible to construct evaluative instruments.


RESUMO Objetivo: validar indicadores e parâmetros para a construção de um instrumento de avaliação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva. Métodos: pesquisa metodológica de validação de conteúdo e aparência de indicadores para avaliação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva mediante aplicação do método Delphi, bem como a validação semântica de um instrumento de avaliação do programa seguindo os procedimentos adotados pelo grupo europeu DISABKIDS. Participaram do estudo 20 fonoaudiólogos, os quais responderam a questionários de validação. As respostas foram tabuladas e analisadas considerando dados estatísticos descritivos, pelo estabelecimento dos índices de validade de conteúdo por Item (I- IVC), de validade de conteúdo por nível de escala (S-IVC), de nível percentual de concordância absoluta e Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: dos 64 itens submetidos à validação, dois não foram considerados pertinentes. O conjunto de itens foi considerado representativo. Os indicadores e parâmetros validados subsidiaram a construção de um instrumento para avaliação do grau de implantação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva, o qual se apresentou válido semanticamente. Conclusão: os indicadores foram validados de modo a atender e representar as funções de qualidade, controle e acompanhamento do Programa de Conservação Auditiva, auxiliando os gestores no exercer de suas funções e subsidiando a construção de instrumentos avaliativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Program Evaluation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/prevention & control , Noise, Occupational/prevention & control , Delphi Technique
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00202220, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339525

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a associação entre dificuldade auditiva autorreferida e exposição ocupacional a agentes otoagressores em trabalhadores brasileiros. Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS-2013). A variável dependente foi a dificuldade auditiva autorreferida, e foram analisadas três exposições principais: ruído, poeira industrial e substâncias químicas. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística, estimando-se as odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, com intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). As variáveis principais de exposição foram ajustadas entre si e pelas covariáveis sexo, idade, ambiente de trabalho, tempo de trabalho e hipertensão arterial. Participaram deste estudo 36.442 trabalhadores. Maior prevalência de dificuldade auditiva foi observada em indivíduos expostos à poeira industrial (9,9%) (p < 0,001). Além disso, quanto maior a idade do trabalhador e tempo de trabalho, maior foi a prevalência do desfecho (p < 0,001). Na análise ajustada, trabalhadores expostos a ruído apresentaram 1,65 vez mais chance de referir dificuldade auditiva, quando comparados aos indivíduos não expostos (p < 0,001). O mesmo ocorreu com trabalhadores expostos à poeira industrial (OR = 1,36) (p = 0,012). Não foi observada associação entre o desfecho e a variável exposição a substâncias químicas (p = 0,120). Observou-se associação entre dificuldade auditiva e exposição ocupacional a ruído e à poeira industrial em trabalhadores brasileiros. Reforçam-se a importância do aprimoramento de políticas públicas em saúde auditiva e o desenvolvimento de ações voltadas à prevenção e ao monitoramento auditivo em ambiente ocupacional.


This study's objective was to estimate the association between self-reported hearing impairment and occupational exposure to hazardous noise and ototoxic agents in Brazilian workers. This was a cross-sectional study with data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS-2013). The dependent variable was self-reported hearing impairment, and three principal exposures were analyzed: noise, industrial dust, and chemical substances. Logistic regression was performed, estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The principal exposure variables were adjusted for each other and by covariables sex, age, workplace, time on the job, and hypertension. 36,442 workers participated in the study. Higher prevalence of hearing impairment was seen in workers exposed to industrial dust (9.9%) (p < 0.001). The older the worker and the longer the time on the job, the higher the prevalence of hearing impairment (p < 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, workers exposed to noise showed 1.65 higher odds of reporting difficulty hearing, when compared to unexposed individuals (p < 0.001). The same was true for workers exposed to industrial dust (OR = 1.36) (p = 0.012). No association was observed between the outcome and exposure to chemical substances (p = 0.120). There was an association between hearing impairment and occupational exposure to noise and industrial dust in Brazilian workers. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening public policies for hearing health and the development of measures for prevention and auditory monitoring in the workplace.


El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la asociación entre dificultad auditiva autoinformada y la exposición ocupacional a agentes otoagresores en trabajadores brasileños. Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado con datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS-2013). La variable dependiente fue la dificultad auditiva autoinformada y se analizaron tres exposiciones principales: ruido, polvo industrial y substancias químicas. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística, estimándose las odds ratio (OR) brutas y ajustadas, con intervalos de un 95% de confianza (IC95%). Las variables principales de exposición fueron ajustadas entre sí y por las covariables: sexo, edad, ambiente de trabajo, tiempo de trabajo e hipertensión arterial. Participaron en este estudio 36.442 trabajadores. La mayor prevalencia de dificultad auditiva se observó en individuos expuestos al polvo industrial (9,9%) (p < 0,001). Asimismo, cuanto mayor era la edad del trabajador y tiempo de trabajo, mayor fue la prevalencia del desenlace (p < 0,001). En el análisis ajustado, los trabajadores expuestos a ruido presentaron 1,65 veces más oportunidad de informar de dificultad auditiva, cuando se comparan con los individuos no expuestos (p < 0,001). Lo mismo sucedió con trabajadores expuestos a polvo industrial (OR = 1,36) (p = 0,012). No se observó una asociación entre el desenlace y la variable exposición a sustancias químicas (p = 0,120). Se observó una asociación entre dificultad auditiva y exposición ocupacional a ruido y polvo industrial en trabajadores brasileños. Se refuerza la importancia del perfeccionamiento de políticas públicas en salud auditiva y desarrollo de acciones dirigidas a la prevención y monitoreo auditivo en el entorno laboral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/chemically induced , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Report
18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020607, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249801

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar fatores associados à notificação de perda auditiva induzida por ruído (Pair), no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo ecológico para estimar a proporção de municípios notificantes de Pair. Foram empregados modelos de regressão logística para identificar fatores associados. Resultados: Entre 2013 e 2015, 277 (5,0%) municípios notificaram Pair. A notificação foi mais comum entre municípios com cobertura por Cerest (OR=1,62 - IC95% 1,02;2,59) ou que sediavam unidade de Cerest em seu território (OR=4,37 - IC95% 2,75;6,93), a menor distância da capital do estado (OR=1,43 - IC95% 1,06;1,92) e com alto índice de desenvolvimento humano (OR=2,35 - IC95% 1,16;4,75). Entre os municípios situados em área com cobertura de Cerest, a notificação foi mais comum quando na equipe havia fonoaudiólogo (OR=1,96 - IC95% 1,47;2,63) e era baixa a rotatividade de profissionais (OR=1,88 - IC95% 1,40;2,52). Conclusão: Fatores contextuais influenciam na notificação de Pair, notadamente a existência e qualificação dos Cerest.


Objetivo: Investigar factores asociados con la notificación de pérdida auditiva inducida por ruido (Pair) en el Sistema de Información de Agravamientos de Notificación Obligatoria en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio ecológico para estimar la proporción de municipios notificantes de Pair. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística para identificar factores asociados. Resultados: Entre 2013-2015, 277 (5,0%) municipios notificaron Pair. La notificación fue más común entre los municipios con cobertura de los Centros de Referencia en Salud Ocupacional (Cerest) (OR=1,62 - IC95% 1,02; 2,59), o que albergaron Cerest (OR=4,37 - IC95% 2,75; 6,93), cercanos a la capital (OR=1,43 - IC95% 1,06; 1,92) y con alto índice de desarrollo humano (OR=2,35 - IC95% 1,16; 4,75). Entre los municipios en área de cobertura de Cerest, la notificación fue más alta cuando había fonoaudiólogo en el equipo (OR=1,96 - IC95% 1,47; 2,63) y baja rotación de profesionales (OR=1,88 - IC95% 1,40; 2,52). Conclusión: Factores contextuales influyen en la notificación de Pair, en particular, la existencia y cualificación de los Cerest.


Objective: To investigate factors associated with the notification of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), on the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System (SINAN) in Brazil. Methods: This was an ecological study to estimate the proportion of municipalities that had notified NIHL. Logistic regression models were used to identify associated factors. Results: Between 2013-2015, 277 (5.0%) municipalities notified NIHL. Notification was more prevalent among municipalities in an Occupational Health Referral Center (CEREST) coverage area (OR=1.62 - 95%CI 1.02;2.59) or those that had a CEREST in their territory (OR=4.37 - 95CI% 2.75;6.93), those that were closer to the state capital (OR=1.43 - 95%CI 1.06;1.92) and those with a high human development index (OR=2.35 - 95%CI 1.16;4.75). Among the municipalities located in a CEREST coverage area, notification was more frequent when there was a speech-language-hearing professional in the team (OR=1.96 - 95%CI - 1.47;2.63) and when employee turnover was low (OR=1.88 - 95%CI 1.40;2.52). Conclusion: Contextual factors influence NIHL notification, particularly the presence of CERESTs and their qualification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health/standards , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/epidemiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Information Systems , Public Health Surveillance
19.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(1): e0719, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to determine the auditory effects of noise exposure from recreational and occupational sources among dentistry students. Methods: forty-two dentistry students, routinely exposed to occupational noise, and 72 students from other health science schools were recruited (control group). Audiometric testing, otoacoustic emissions and questionnaires to assess recreational and occupational noise were applied to the sample. The presence of a notch was determined for each participant audiometry´s test based on the criteria proposed by Coles et al. Differences in notch prevalence were analyzed by applying univariate regression models as well as a multivariate model adjusted by covariates. Results: non-significant differences in auditory thresholds between groups were found. The controls exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of a notch at 4 kHz than the group exposed to noise. However, the differences were not statistically significant in the multivariate model adjusted by recreational noise exposure. Conclusions: the occupational noise exposure was not significantly associated to auditory system dysfunction. In addition, the differences in notch prevalence could be related to recreational noise exposure.


RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar los efectos auditivos producto de la exposición a ruido recreacional y ocupacional en estudiantes de Odontología. Métodos: se reclutó a 42 estudiantes de odontología expuestos rutinariamente a ruido ocupacional, y a 72 estudiantes de otras carreras del área de la salud (grupo control). Se evaluó mediante audiometría, emisiones otoacústicas, junto con aplicar cuestionarios para determinar la exposición a ruido ocupacional y recreacional. A partir de los umbrales audiométricos e determinó la presencia de escotoma usando el criterio de Coles et al. Se analizaron las diferencias en prevalencia de escotomas entre los grupos mediante regresiones logísticas, ajustando por otras variables. Resultados: no existieron diferencias significativas en los umbrales audiométricos entre los grupos estudiados. El grupo control mostró mayor prevalencia de escotoma en 4 kHz al ajustar por sexo y edad, sin embargo, dejó de ser significativa al ajustar adicionalmente por exposición a ruido recreacional. Conclusiones: la exposición a ruido ocupacional no se asoció a alteraciones auditivas. Además, las diferencias en prevalencia de escotomas estarían relacionadas a exposición a ruido recreacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/diagnosis , Noise, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Audiometry , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
20.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 555-557, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888295

ABSTRACT

Occupational noise is one of the most common occupational hazards in the workplace. Long-term exposure to occupational noise could not only lead to the damage of the hearing system, but also may cause a certain impact on the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that occupational noise exposure was positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. However, the results of studies on occupational noise exposure and stroke are still controversial. This paper reviews the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction by summarizing the epidemiological data of domestic and foreign population in recent years. Our study could provide evidence for the design and implementation of well-designed epidemiological and mechanism studies, and the recognition of the role of occupational noise exposure in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, so as to better protect workers' health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Hypertension/etiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
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