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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 427-430, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353091

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica pediátrica (EHGNA) es la causa más frecuente en niños y adolescentes de enfermedad hepática crónica que no puede ser atribuida a otras causas genéticas, infecciosas, tóxicas o nutricionales. Puede evolucionar desde una esteatosis simple hasta un cuadro de esteatohepatitis no alcohólica, y progresar a fibrosis avanzada, cirrosis y riesgo aumentado de carcinoma hepatocelular. Su tratamiento consiste en el cambio en el estilo de vida, mediante la promoción de la disminución de peso con la incorporación de una dieta saludable y el aumento de actividad física. Para lograr este objetivo, es fundamental el acompañamiento familiar. Estas medidas beneficiarán la calidad de vida física, psíquica y social de estos niños. El objetivo de esta comunicación es sensibilizar a la comunidad pediátrica acerca de la importancia del manejo de estos pacientes y su entorno familiar, comprometiéndose en la modificación de los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos, para lograr una mejor calidad de vida de las futuras generaciones.


Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents that cannot be attributed to other genetic, infectious, toxic or nutritional causes. It can evolve from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and can progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Its treatment consists of a change in lifestyle, promoting weight loss with the incorporation of a healthy diet and increased physical activity. To achieve this goal, family support is essential. These measures will benefit the physical, mental and social quality of life of these children. The objective of this communication is to sensitize the pediatric community about the importance of managing these patients and their family environment, committing to modifying socioeconomic risk factors, to achieve a better quality of life for future generations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity , Physician's Role , Liver Cirrhosis
2.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 465-472, 01-dic-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354746

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) tiene graves implicaciones para la salud y, asociada a la epidemia de obesidad, es una tendencia creciente. Objetivo: detectar la presencia de hígado graso en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad, así como evaluar los factores asociados con una mayor posibilidad de presentar un resultado positivo en la detección. Metódos: se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal en una unidad médica del segundo nivel de atención médica en el que fueron reclutados 102 niños. Los niveles séricos de alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) fueron cuantificados y se realizaron ecografías hepáticas. Modelos de regresión logística múltiple fueron utilizados para evaluar los factores asociados con la presencia de EHGNA (infiltración grasa en la ecografía y ALT > 52U/L para niños y > 44 U/L para niñas). Resultados: la prevalencia de EHGNA fue del 10,8%. En el análisis multivariante, una relación entre cintura y cadera ≥ 1 se asoció con una mayor posibilidad de EHNGA (razón de momios (RM) = 4.96, IC del 95%: 1.17 - 20.90). Conclusiones: nuestros hallazgos indican que uno de cada diez niños sobrepeso y obesidad tiene datos sugestivos de EHGNA y está en riesgo de presentar sus consecuencias para la salud.


Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has serious health implications and upward trends of the disease, accompanied by the obesity epidemic worldwide. Objective: To screen for fatty liver in overweight and obese children and evaluate the factors associated with an increased likelihood of presenting a positive-screen result. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 102 children were recruited at a secondary care medical unit. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were quantified and hepatic ultrasounds were performed; multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with the increased odds of presenting with NAFLD (fatty infiltration on ultrasound and ALT > 52 U/L for boys and > 44 U/L for girls). Results: The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 10.8%. In multivariate analysis, a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 1 was associated with increased odds of screening positive for NAFLD (odds ratio (OR) = 4.96, 95% CI 1.17-20.90). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that one out of ten children with overweight or obesity has data suggestive of NAFLD and is at risk of presenting its consequences on health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Health , Overweight , Fatty Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Mexico , Secondary Care , Mass Screening , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Impacts on Health , Obesity
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 307-313, set 29, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354495

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é caracterizada pela infiltração gordurosa do fígado em indivíduos sem histórico de ingestão significativa de álcool ou de outras doenças hepáticas. A DHGNA é subdividida em fígado gorduroso não alcoólico e esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (NASH). A resistência à insulina e o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) apresentam importante associação com DHGNA. Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência de DHGNA, predita por ultrassonografia, em pacientes com DM2 hospitalizados, verificando sua associação com tempo de DM2, comorbidades, terapêutica previamente utilizada, parâmetros antropométricos e controle glicêmico e pressórico. Metodologia: estudo observacional, transversal e analítico, realizado nas enfermarias de Clínica Médica e de Endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Alcides Carneiro envolvendo pacientes adultos com DM2. Foram excluídos pacientes com outras hepatopatias diagnosticadas, com histórico de etilismo significativo ou que não aceitaram participar da pesquisa. Resultados: a amostra válida foi de 20 pacientes, com média de idade de 62,9 anos (± 10,9). A prevalência de DHGNA foi de 40%. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre DHGNA e maiores níveis de índice de massa corpórea (IMC) (p = 0,025) e de circunferência abdominal (CA) (p = 0,041). Entre as comorbidades, houve relação entre DHGNA e hipotireoidismo (p = 0,049). Conclusão: Apesar das limitações relacionadas ao tamanho da amostra, observa-se que a DHGNA está associada à obesidade central, o que é apontado pelos maiores níveis de IMC e de CA, de forma que uma abordagem multidisciplinar pode impedir o desenvolvimento ou a progressão de DHGNA.


Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver in individuals without a history of significant alcohol intake or other liver diseases. NAFLD is subdivided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an important association with NAFLD. Objectives: to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD, predicted by ultrasound, in hospitalized patients with DM2, checking its association with DM2 duration, comorbidities, previously used therapy, anthropometric parameters and glycemic and blood pressure control. Methodology: observational, cross-sectional and analytical study, carried out in the Medical Clinic and Endocrinology wards of the Hospital Universitário Alcides Carneiro, involving adult patients with DM2. Patients with other diagnosed liver diseases, with a history of significant alcoholism or who did not want to participate in the research were excluded. Results: the valid sample consisted of 20 patients, with a mean age of 62.9 years (± 10.9). The prevalence of NAFLD was 40%. There was a statistically significant association between NAFLD and higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.025) and waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.041). Among comorbidities, there was a relationship between NAFLD and hypothyroidism (p = 0.049). Conclusion: despite the limitations related to the sample size, it is observed that NAFLD is associated with central obesity, which is pointed out by the higher levels of BMI and WC, so that a multidisciplinary approach can prevent the development or progression of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatty Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Analytical Methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1678, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347511

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad por depósito graso no alcohólica constituye una pandemia del mundo contemporáneo. Su espectro silente atraviesa estadios de cronicidad y puede llegar a la cirrosis hepática y sobre esta pudiera desarrollarse un hepatocarcinoma. No existen tratamientos y solo se puede actuar sobre los factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto citohepatoprotector y antifibrótico del propóleos rojo cubano oral en pacientes con esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes seleccionados de las consultas de Gastroenterología, Endocrinología y Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de abril 2017 a abril 2018. El universo de estudio fue de 120 pacientes con diagnóstico imagenológico de hígado graso. La muestra quedó conformada por 70 pacientes con diagnóstico de hígado graso, y que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas fueron análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje para las variables demográficas. La prueba T para las muestras relacionadas evaluó el comportamiento enzimático al inicio y al final del tratamiento y los cambios elastográficos fueron analizados mediante test de Kappa y porcentaje. Resultados: Las variables bioquímicas estudiadas mostraron una disminución estadísticamente significativa al final del tratamiento. Los cambios elastográficos al final del estudio evidenciaron la efectividad del tratamiento, en el cual el 91,4 por ciento de los pacientes evolucionaron hacia el menor grado de fibrosis. Conclusiones: El propóleos rojo cubano demostró ser un apifármaco con acción citohepatoprotectora y antifibrótica de valor terapéutico(AU)


Introduction: Nonalcoholic fat deposition disease is a pandemic in the contemporary world. Its silent spectrum goes through stages of chronicity and it can reach liver cirrhosis and on this a hepatic carcinoma could develop. There are no treatments and medical handling can act on only risk factors. Objective: To evaluate cytohepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of oral Cuban red propolis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in selected patients from the Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine consultations at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from April 2017 to April 2018. The study universe was 120 patients with imaging diagnosis of fatty liver. The sample consisted of 70 patients with fatty liver diagnosis, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Frequency and percentage analysis for the demographic variables were the statistical tests applied. The T test for the related samples evaluated the enzymatic behavior at the beginning and at the end of the treatment and the elastography changes were analyzed using Kappa and percentage tests. Results: The biochemical variables studied showed statistically significant decrease at the end of the treatment, which evidenced the effectiveness of the treatment. 91.4 percent of the patients progressed to a lower degree of fibrosis. Conclusions: Cuban red propolis proved to be a therapeutic drug with cytohepathoprotective and antifibrotic action(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Apitherapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
5.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(2): 1-7, 31 de agosto del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284501

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólica se caracteriza por la infiltración grasa mayor al 5% y que en la población pediátrica se encuentra asociada a alteraciones metabólicas adquiridas o congénitas, con alta prevalencia en población hispánica. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la correlación entre el índice de masa corporal y el grado ecográfico de esteatosis hepática en niños y adolescentes asistentes a una consulta de control de salud. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, retrospectivo, se llevó a cabo en pacientes de 2 a 17 años de edad con esteatosis hepática, atendidos en el área de consulta externa del Hospital de Niños Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde , Guayaquil-Ecuador, entre los años 2015 a 2019. Se midió el peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, grado de esteatosis y niveles de AST y ALT. Se estableció un análisis de correlación entre esteatosis como variable dependiente. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 77 casos con una media de 11 años y el género femenino representó el 39% de la muestra. No hubo asociación entre el grado ecográfico de esteatosis hepática vs. la edad, género, peso, talla o índice de masa corporal. En el análisis entre los niveles de transaminasas en pacientes con grado ecográfico leve a severo, se observó un ascenso significativo de AST (P=0.003) y medianamente significativo de ALT (P=0.0583). Conclusiones: Este estudio demostró la ausencia de correlación del grado ecográfico de esteatosis con el índice de masa corporal. La detección temprana con las herramientas adecuadas de la esteatosis hepática debe ser una prioridad en el cuidado de los pacientes pediátricos para evitar su progresión a cirrosis hepática, por lo cual se recomienda el uso de transaminasas como método de cribado a los pacientes con factores de riesgo.


Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by fat infiltration greater than 5% and that in the pediatric population is associated with acquired or congenital metabolic alterations, with a high prevalence in the Hispanic population. The aim of the present study was to establish the correlation between the body mass index and the ultrasound grade of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents attending a health check-up. Methods: The present observational, analytical, cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out in patients from 2 to 17 years of age with hepatic steatosis, treated in the outpa-tient area of the "Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde" Children´s Hospital, Guayaquil -Ecuador, between the years 2015 to 2019. Weight, height, body mass index, degree of steatosis and AST and ALT levels were measured. A correlation analysis was established between steatosis as a dependent variable. Results: 77 cases with an average age of 11 years entered the study and the female gender represented 39% of the sample. There was no association between the ultrasound grade of hepatic steatosis vs. age, gender, weight, height, or body mass index. In the analysis be-tween transaminase levels in patients with mild to severe ultrasound grade, a significant rise in AST (P = 0.003) and a moderately significant rise in ALT (P = 0.0583) were observed. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the absence of correlation of the ultrasound grade of steatosis with the body mass index. Early detection of hepatic steatosis with the appropriate tools should be a priority in the care of pediatric patients to avoid its progression to liver cirrhosis, for which the use of transaminases as a screening method is recommended for patients with risk factors.


Introdução: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica é caracterizada por infiltração gordurosa maior que 5% e que na população pediátrica está associada a alterações metabólicas adquiridas ou congênitas, com alta prevalência na população hispânica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e o grau ultrassonográfico de esteatose hepática em crianças e adolescentes em exame de saúde. Métodos: O presente estudo observacional, analítico, transversal e retrospectivo foi realizado em pacientes de 2 a 17 anos com esteatose hepática, atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital de Niños Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde, Guayaquil-Equador, entre os anos de 2015 a 2019. Peso, altura, índice de massa corporal, grau de esteatose e níveis de AST e ALT foram medidos. Uma análise de correlação foi estabelecida entre a esteatose como variável dependente. Resultados: Entraram no estudo 77 casos com idade média de 11 anos e o gênero feminino representou 39% da amostra. Não houve associação entre o grau de ultrassom de esteatose hepática vs. idade, sexo, peso, altura ou índice de massa corporal. Na análise entre os níveis de transaminase em pacientes com grau de ultrassom de leve a grave, um aumento significativo na AST (P = 0,003) e um aumento moderadamente significativo na ALT (P = 0,0583) foram observados. Conclusões: Este estudo demonstrou não haver correlação do grau de esteatose ultrassonográfica com o índice de massa corporal. A detecção precoce da esteatose hepática com as ferramentas adequadas deve ser uma prioridade no atendimento de pacientes pediátricos para evitar sua progressão para cirrose hepática, para a qual o uso de transaminases como método de rastreamento é recomendado para pacientes com fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Ultrasonography , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Child , Alanine Transaminase
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3642, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289614

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La obesidad, especialmente la visceral, constituye un factor de riesgo principal para múltiples enfermedades tales como: diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, enfermedades cardiovasculares, aterosclerosis, dislipidemias, enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólico y cáncer. Se plantea que el estrés oxidativo podría ser el factor causal común de las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el balance prooxidante/antioxidante en ratas con obesidad inducida con glutamato monosódico. Material y Métodos: Ratas Wistar hembras recibieron glutamato monosódico (4 mg/g de peso corporal) para inducir obesidad o NaCl 0,9 % (Controles) subcutáneamente en período neonatal. A los 90 días, se confirmó la obesidad. Se les practicó eutanasia a los 180 días para la obtención de sangre e hígado para la determinación de marcadores bioquímicos. Resultados: Las ratas obesas presentaron niveles incrementados de TAG, AU, insulina e índices HOMA y TyG. Se constataron mayores concentraciones de nitratos y nitritos, productos avanzados de la oxidación de proteínas y productos de oxidación de la 2-desoxirribosa en el ADN en las ratas obesas. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la obesidad inducida con glutamato monosódico reproduce las principales alteraciones metabólicas asociadas a la obesidad visceral humana, dentro de las que se incluye el estrés oxidativo. Este modelo podría ser útil en la evaluación de estrategias terapéuticas para prevenir o disminuir complicaciones asociadas a la obesidad(AU)


Introduction: Obesity, especially visceral, is a major risk factor for several diseases such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Oxidative stress may be a unifying mechanism for the development of major obesity-related comorbidities. Objective: To evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in monosodium glutamate-induced obesity in Wistar rats (MSG- obese rats). Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats received subcutaneous (sc) injections of monosodium glutamate solution (4 mg/g of body weight) or vehicle (NaCl 0,9 %; control) to induce obesity during the neonatal period. At 90 days of life, obesity was determined. At 180 days of life, rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood and liver samples for the determination of biochemical markers. Results: MSG obese rats presented significantly higher triglycerides, uric acid and insulin levels, as well as elevated HOMA and TyG indexes. Increased concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, 2-deoxyribose oxidation products and advanced oxidation protein products levels were observed in obese rats. Conclusions: Obesity induced by monosodium glutamate reproduces the main metabolic alterations associated with human visceral obesity, among which oxidative stress is included. This model may be useful for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies to prevent or decrease complications associated with obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Sodium Glutamate , Rats, Wistar , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Antioxidants , Comorbidity
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 234-239, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The vitamin B12 absorption can be affected in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and low serum vitamin B12 levels has been related to the high homocysteine (HCY) levels and to the degree of NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review and metanalysis of serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Original studies including serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels in humans with NAFLD were included. The searches were performed in four databases. RESULTS: 159 studies were identified, and after excluding the duplicates and non-eligible titles, eight original articles were included. Six out of eight showed higher B12 levels in NAFLD patients (404.9±136.2 pg/mL in relation to controls 353.91±117.3 pg/mL). Seven of the eight studies also showed higher HCY levels in NAFLD patients (14.2±3.44 umol/L in relation to controls 11.05±3.6 umol/L). The results for serum vitamin B12 and HCY levels were submitted to metanalysis, showing no difference in the vitamin B12 levels between patients with NAFLD and controls. However, the levels of Hcy were higher in NAFLD patients than in controls. CONCLUSION: There was no relashionship between the vitamin B12 levels and NAFLD. The levels of HCY were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD, suggesting this could be a potential marker for liver damage.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A absorção de vitamina B12 pode ser afetada em pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA), e baixos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 têm sido relacionados a níveis elevados de homocisteína (HCI) ao grau de DHGNA. OBJETIVO: Realizar revisão sistemática e metanálise dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e de HCI em pacientes com DHGNA. MÉTODOS: Estudos originais que incluíssem avaliação dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e de HCI em humanos com DHGNA foram incluídos. As buscas foram realizadas em quatro bases de dados. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 159 estudos e, após exclusão das duplicatas e dos não elegíveis, oito artigos originais foram incluídos. Seis dos oito artigos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de vitamina B12 nos pacientes com DHGNA (404,9±136,2 pg/mL) em relação aos controles (353,91±117,3 pg/mL). Sete dos oito estudos determinaram os níveis de HCI, estando aumentados em pacientes com DHGNA (14,2±3,44 umol/L) em relação aos controles (11,05±3,6 umol/L). Os resultados dos níveis séricos de vitamina B12 e HCI foram submetidos à metanálise, mostrando que não há diferença nos níveis de vitamina B12 entre os pacientes com DHGNA e os controles. No entanto, os níveis de HCI foram maiores nos pacientes com DHGNA do que nos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve relação entre DHGNA e nível sérico de vitamina B12. Os níveis de HCI foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com DHGNA, sugerindo que esse poderia ser um potencial marcador de lesão hepática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vitamin B 12 , Biomarkers , Folic Acid , Homocysteine
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
10.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250342

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica se caracteriza por un aumento de la acumulación de lípidos (triglicéridos) de forma macrovesicular, en más de 5 % de los hepatocitos, asociado o no a inflamación y/o fibrosis hepática. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica según variables de interés para el estudio. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 95 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, desde junio hasta diciembre de 2018. Entre las variables figuraron: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, resultados de exámenes complementarios, ecografía hepática y factores de pronósticos clínicos para la fibrosis. Resultados: En la serie predominaron los grupos etarios de 35-44 y de 45-54 años (65,2 %, respectivamente), el sexo femenino, la obesidad como principal factor de riesgo (50,5 %), la transaminasa glutámico pirúvica-alanina aminotransferasa (39,0 %) entre los exámenes complementario con valores alterados y la esteatosis hepática moderada como hallazgo ecográfico (55,8 %), entre otros. Conclusiones: La enfermedad hepática grasa no alcohólica prevaleció en los pacientes entre 35-54 años, donde la obesidad constituyó el factor de riesgo más importante; asimismo, un mayor número de pacientes presentó cifras elevadas de transaminasa glutámico pirúvica-alanina aminotransferasa y los hallazgos ecográficos revelaron la primacía de la esteatosis moderada. La presencia de 4 o más factores pronósticos constituyó un riesgo para el desarrollo de fibrosis hepática.


Introduction: The non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease is characterized by an increase of the lipids accumulation (triglycerides) in a macrovesicular way, in more than 5 % of the hepatic cells, associated or not with inflammation and/or hepatic fibrosis. Objective: To characterize patients with non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease according to variables of interest for the study. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients assisted in the Gastroenterology Service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from June to December, 2018. Among the variables figured: age, sex, risk factors, results of complementary exams, hepatic echography and clinical prognosis factors for the fibrosis. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the 35-44 and 45-54 age groups (65.2 %, respectively), female sex, obesity as main risk factor (50.5 %), transaminase glutamic piruvic-alanineaminotransferase (39.0 %) among the complementary exams with altered values and the moderate fatty liver as echographic finding (55.8 %), among others. Conclusions: The non alcoholic fatty hepatic disease prevailed in patients between 35-54 years, where obesity constituted the most important risk factor; also, a greater number of patients presented high figures of transaminase glutamic piruvic-alanineaminotransferase and the echographic findings revealed the primacy of the moderate steatosis. The presence of 4 or more prognosis factors constituted a risk for the development of hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Secondary Care , Alanine Transaminase
11.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 37-39, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156122

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As a common metabolic disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of liver disease in western developed countries and an important liver disease in the Asia Pacific region. At present, NAFLD lacks targeted conventional therapy and its basic treatment is the correction of bad living habits. In order to verify the effectiveness of the basic treatment of NAFLD, and explore the prevention methods of NAFLD, this study used ultrasound diagnosis, baseline survey and follow-up survey, and conducted a cross-sectional study on the correlation between nighttime and midday sleep duration and NAFLD, and carried out a prospective study on the correlation between sleep duration and NAFLD. The results showed that there was a negative correlation between the length of sleep at night and the prevalence of NAFLD, while the length of midday sleep was positively correlated with the prevalence of NAFLD. The time of night sleep was an independent factor of NAFLD, and the relationship between midday sleep time and NAFLD was not statistically significant. NAFLD-susceptible people can prevent NAFLD by ensuring adequate sleep at night and reducing midday sleep. This study is expected to provide theoretical reference and data support for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


RESUMO Como uma doença metabólica comum, a doença doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é o tipo de doença hepática mais comum nos países desenvolvidos ocidentais e uma doença hepática importante na região Ásia Pacífico. Atualmente, a DHGNA carece de terapia convencional orientada, e seu tratamento básico é a correção de maus hábitos de vida. A fim de verificar a eficácia do tratamento básico da DHGNA e explorar os métodos de prevenção da DHGNA, este estudo, baseado no diagnóstico por ultrassom, através do inquérito de base e do inquérito de acompanhamento, consistiu de estudo transversal sobre a correlação entre a duração do sono à noite e de dia e a DHGNA, e realizou um estudo prospectivo sobre a correlação entre a duração do sono e a DHGNA. Os resultados mostraram que havia uma correlação negativa entre a duração do sono à noite e a prevalência de DHGNA, enquanto a duração do sono de dia estava positivamente correlacionada com a prevalência da DHGNA. A hora do sono noturno foi um fator independente de DHGNA, e a relação entre o sono de dia e DHGNA não foi estatisticamente significativa. As pessoas sensíveis à DHGNA podem prevenir a DHGNA garantindo o sono adequado à noite e reduzindo o sono de dia. Espera-se que este estudo possa fornecer referências teóricas e suporte de dados para a prevenção e tratamento da DHGNA.


RESUMEN Como enfermedad metabólica común, la enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD) es el tipo más común de enfermedad hepática en los países desarrollados occidentales y una enfermedad hepática importante en la región de Asia que da al Pacífico. En la actualidad, la EHGNA carece de terapia convencional dirigida y su tratamiento básico es la corrección de los malos hábitos de vida. Con el fin de verificar la efectividad del tratamiento básico y explorar los métodos de prevención de la EHGNA, este estudio utilizó un diagnóstico por ultrasonido, una encuesta de referencia y una encuesta de seguimiento, condujo un estudio transversal sobre la correlación entre la duración del sueño nocturno y la siesta y la EHGNA, y realizó un estudio prospectivo sobre la correlación entre la duración del sueño y la EHGNA. Los resultados mostraron que hubo una correlación negativa entre la duración del sueño por la noche y la prevalencia de EHGNA, mientras que la duración de la siesta se correlacionó positivamente con la prevalencia de EHGNA. El tiempo de sueño nocturno fue un factor independiente de la EHGNA, y la relación entre el tiempo de siesta y la EHGNA no fue estadísticamente significativa. Las personas susceptibles a la EHGNA pueden prevenirla asegurando un sueño adecuado por la noche y reduciendo la siesta. Se espera que este estudio proporcione referencias teóricas y soporte de datos para la prevención y el tratamiento de la EHGNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Hygiene , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11391, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285650

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis, is intrinsically related to obesity. Our previous study reported on the anti-obese activity of α,β-amyrin (AMY), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Protium heptaphyllum. This study investigated its ability to prevent fatty liver and the underlying mechanism using the mouse model of NAFLD. NAFLD was induced in male Swiss mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The controls were fed a normal chow diet (ND). The mice were simultaneously treated with AMY at 10 and 20 mg/kg or fenofibrate at 50 mg/kg. Lipid levels along with metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed in liver and serum. The liver sections were histologically examined using H&E staining. RT-qPCR and western blotting assays were performed to analyze signaling mechanisms. Mice fed HFD developed severe hepatic steatosis with elevated triglycerides and lipid droplets compared with ND controls. This was associated with a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, an increase of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, and enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression, which have roles in lipogenesis, inhibition of lipolysis, and inflammatory response. AMY treatment reversed these signaling activities and decreased the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response, evidenced by serum and liver parameters as well as histological findings. AMY-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis seemed to involve AMPK-mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathways, which supported its beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202913, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287885

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and Aims: An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been previously suggested. This study aims at investigating this association and at identifying potential links between variables of the NAFLD spectrum and PDAC. Methods: A cross-sectional case-matched analytical and comparative study was carried out to analyze patients undergoing surgical resection of PDAC and compare them to a control group of individuals undergoing cholecystectomy at a public tertiary teaching hospital, matched by sex, age and BMI. Hepatic histopathological examinations were compared between cases and controls. Results: Of 56 individuals, 36 were male (64.3%) and the median age was 61.5 years old (interquartile range: 57.5 - 70). The participants' median BMI was 24.3 kg/m2 (interquartile range: 22.1-26.2 kg/m2). Microvesicular steatosis (p=0.04), hepatocellular ballooning (p=0.02), fibrosis (p=0.0003) and steatohepatitis (p=0.03) were significantly more frequent in the group of cases. Odds ratios for hepatocellular ballooning (6.2; 95%CI: 1.2-31.8; p=0.03), fibrosis (9.3; 95%CI: 2.5-34.1; p=0.0008) and steatohepatitis (3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-14.3; p=0.04) were statistically significant in relation to the PDAC prevalence. Conclusions: Significant associations were identified between histopathological aspects of NAFLD (microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, fibrosis, and steatohepatitis) and PDAC.


RESUMO Histórico e objetivos: a associação entre a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) e o adenocarcinoma ductal pancreático (ACDP) foi sugerida anteriormente. Este estudo visa investigar esta associação e identificar possíveis ligações entre as variáveis do espectro da DHGNA e o ACDP. Métodos: foi realizado estudo transversal caso-controle analítico e comparativo para analisar pacientes submetidos a ressecção cirúrgica de ACDP e compará-los a grupo controle de indivíduos submetidos a colecistectomia em hospital público terciário de ensino, pareados por sexo, idade e IMC. Os exames histopatológicos hepáticos foram comparados entre casos e controles. Resultados: dos 56 indivíduos, 36 eram do sexo masculino (64,3%) e a idade mediana era de 61,5 anos de idade (intervalo interquartil 57,5-70). A mediana do IMC dos participantes foi de 24,3 kg/m2 (intervalo interquartil 22,1 26,2). Esteatose microvesicular (p = 0,04), balonização hepatocelular (p = 0,02), fibrose (p = 0,0003) e esteato-hepatite (p = 0,03) foram significativamente mais frequentes no grupo de casos. As razões de chances para balonização hepatocelular (6,2; IC 95%: 1,2 - 31,8; p = 0,03), fibrose (9,3; IC 95%: 2,5 - 34,1; p = 0,0008) e esteato-hepatite (3,9; IC 95%: 1,1 - 14,3; p = 0,04) foram estatisticamente significativas em relação à prevalência de ACDP. Conclusões: houve associações significativas entre aspectos histopatológicos de DHGNA (esteatose microvesicular, balonização hepatocelular, fibrose e esteato-hepatite) e a ocorrência de ACDP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Middle Aged
14.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1626, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360002

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica já é considerada um problema de saúde pública, principalmente em pacientes com obesidade severa. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os diferentes escores de bioquímiosa disponíveis e determinar qual deles poderia servir melhor como uma ferramenta de avaliação da NAFLD em uma população de obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal de pacientes obesos. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados com parâmetros laboratoriais séricos 1 semana antes da biópsia e todos os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsia hepática intra-operatória, durante a cirurgia bariátrica. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e três pacientes obesos foram incluídos. Apenas APRI (0,65; IC 95%: 0,55 a 0,8) e HOMA-IR (0,7; IC 95%: 0,58 a 0,82) mostraram capacidade significativa de predição de esteatose grave. HSI, NALFDS, ALS / AST e FIB-4 não foram capazes de prever corretamente esteatose grave na biópsia hepática. APRI mostrou alta especificidade (82%) e baixa sensibilidade (54%). Em contraste, o HOMA-IR apresentou alta sensibilidade (84%) e baixa especificidade (48%). CONCLUSÃO: O NALFDS, FIB-4, AST / ALT e HSI não têm utilidade para avaliação de esteatose grave em pacientes com obesidade severa. Diabetes e avaliação bioquímica relacionada à resistência à insulina, como o HOMA-IR, podem ser empregados como boas ferramentas de rastreamento para esteatose grave em tais pacientes. O escore APRI é a ferramenta diagnóstica bioquímica mais específica para esteatose em pacientes com obesidade severa e pode ser empregado, por equipes médicas, para auxiliar na indicação de cirurgia bariátrica ou metabólica.


ABSTRACT - INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a public health problem, mainly in severely obese patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate different biochemical-based scores available and determine which one could best serve as an NAFLD predicting tool in a severely obese population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving severely obese patients. All patients were evaluated with serum laboratory parameters for 1 week before biopsy, and all patients were treated with intraoperative liver biopsy, during bariatric surgery. RESULTS: A total of 143 severely obese patients were included. The median body mass index (BMI) was 48 kg/m2 (35-65). Diabetes mellitus was present in 36%, and steatosis was present in 93% (severe steatosis in 20%). Only aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI=0.65 (95% CI: 0.55-0.8) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR=0.7 (95% CI: 0.58-0.82) showed significant capacity for the prediction of severe steatosis. Hepatic steatosis index (HSI), NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLDS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/AST, and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) were not able to correctly predict severe steatosis on liver biopsy. APRI showed high specificity of 82% and low sensitivity of 54%. In contrast, HOMA-IR showed high sensitivity of 84% and low specificity of 48%. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLDS, FIB-4, AST/ALT, and HSI have no utility for the evaluation of severe steatosis in severely obese patients. Diabetes and insulin-resistance-related biochemical assessments, such as HOMA-IR, can be used as good screening tools for severe steatosis in these patients. APRI score is the most specific biochemical diagnostic tool for steatosis in severely obese patients and can help clinicians to decide the need for bariatric or metabolic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Bariatric Surgery , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity
15.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Triglycerides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Oleic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Inflammation
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1593-1601, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Non-communicable chronic diseases have become the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. The trends and burden of "metabolic associated fatty liver disease" (MAFLD) are unknown. We aimed to investigate the cardiovascular and renal burdens in adults with MAFLD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).@*METHODS@#Nationally representative data were analyzed including data from 19,617 non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years from the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey periods, 1999 to 2002, 2003 to 2006, 2007 to 2010, and 2011 to 2016. MAFLD was defined by the presence of hepatic steatosis plus general overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of MAFLD increased from 28.4% (95% confidence interval 26.3-30.6) in 1999 to 2002 to 35.8% (33.8-37.9) in 2011 to 2016. In 2011 to 2016, among adults with MAFLD, 49.0% (45.8-52.2) had hypertension, 57.8% (55.2-60.4) had dyslipidemia, 26.4% (23.9-28.9) had diabetes mellitus, 88.7% (87.0-80.1) had central obesity, and 18.5% (16.3-20.8) were current smokers. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 10.5% to 13.1%; 19.7% (17.6-21.9) had chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Through the four periods, adults with MAFLD showed an increase in obesity; increase in treatment to lower blood pressure (BP), lipids, and hemoglobin A1c; and increase in goal achievements for BP and lipids but not in goal achievement for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Patients showed a decreasing 10-year cardiovascular risk over time but no change in the prevalence of CKDs, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Generally, although participants with NAFLD and those with MAFLD had a comparable prevalence of cardiovascular disease and CKD, the prevalence of MAFLD was significantly higher than that of NAFLD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#From 1999 to 2016, cardiovascular and renal risks and diseases have become highly prevalent in adults with MAFLD. The absolute cardiorenal burden may be greater for MAFLD than for NAFLD. These data call for early identification and risk stratification of MAFLD and close collaboration between endocrinologists and hepatologists.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879264

ABSTRACT

Unhealthy diet, habits and drug abuse cause a variety of liver diseases, including steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, which seriously affect human health. The fabrication of highly simulated cell models in vitro is important in the treatment of liver diseases and drug development. This article summarized the common strategies for the construction of liver pathology models


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879186

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) was induced by high-sugar and high-fat diet in mice to investigate the intervention effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus(TSPJ) and explore its possible mechanism. Mice were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish NASH model, and intervened with different doses of TSPJ(15, 45 mg·kg~(-1)). The animals were fed for 26 weeks. The histomorphology and pathological changes of liver tissues were observed by HE staining. The transcriptional expression levels of miR-199 a-5 p, autophagy related gene 5(ATG5) and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in mouse liver were measured by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins ATG5, P62/SQSTM1(P62), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-I/Ⅱ proteins in mouse liver. The expression of P62 protein was detected by immunofluorescence staining. In order to verify the targeting regulation relationship between miR-199 a-5 p and ATG5, miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor were transfected into Hepa 1-6 cells, and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein was detected. pMIR-reportor ATG5-3'UTR luciferase reporter gene plasmid was constructed and co-transfected with miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor into Hepa 1-6 cells to detect luciferase activity. In vivo, HE staining in the model group showed typical fatty degeneration and inflammatory infiltration, with increased expression of miR-199 a-5 p and decreased expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein. The expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 increased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ decreased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly. After the intervention by TSPJ, the pathological performance of liver tissue was significantly improved, the expression of miR-199 a-5 p decreased and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein increased, the expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 decreased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ increased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased significantly. In vitro, it was found that the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity decreased significantly in miR-199 a-5 p overexpression cells, while after inhibition of miR-199 a-5 p expression, the expression level of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity increased. The results showed that TSPJ can improve NASH in mice fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-199 a-5 p/ATG5 signal pathway, the regulation of autophagy activity and the improvement of inflammatory response of NASH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein 5 , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Panax , Saponins/pharmacology
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 428-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are two key contributors to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a classical herbal compound, has been successfully used to alleviate NAFLD. However, its specific mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we assessed the anti-NAFLD effect of SLBZP in vivo.@*METHODS@#Rats were fed an HFD with or without SLBZP or with probiotics. At the end of week 16, an echo magnetic resonance imaging (EchoMRI) body composition analyser was used to quantitatively analyse body composition; a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging system was used to evaluate whole body and liver fat; and the Moor full-field laser perfusion imager 2 was used to assess liver microcirculation, after which, all rats were sacrificed. Then, biochemical indicators in the blood and the ultrastructure of rat livers were evaluated. Protein expression related to the liver Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) signalling pathway was assessed using Western blot analysis. Further, high-throughput screening of 29 related inflammatory factors in liver tissue was performed using a cytokine array.@*RESULTS@#SLBZP supplementation reduced body weight, serum free fatty acid, and insulin resistance index (P < 0.05). It also ameliorated liver microcirculation and ultrastructural abnormalities. EchoMRI and micro-CT quantitative analyses showed that treatment with SLBZP reduced fat mass and visceral fat (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, SLBZP decreased the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated TLR4/NLRP3 signalling pathway-related proteins and altered the expression levels of some inflammatory cytokines in liver tissues.@*CONCLUSION@#SLBZP can inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β release by suppressing LPS-induced TLR4 expression in rats with HFD-induced NAFLD. Thus, SLBZP may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory damage and associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Powders , Rats , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , X-Ray Microtomography
20.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 545-554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate effects of berberine (BBR) on cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells with free fatty acid (FFA)-induced steatosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#A steatosis cell model was induced in HepG2 cell line fed with FFA (0.5 mmol/L, oleic acid:palmitic acid = 2:1), and then treated with three concentrations of BBR; cell viability was assessed with cell counting kit-8 assays. Lipid accumulation in cells was observed through oil red O staining and total cholesterol (TC) content was detected by TC assay. The effects of BBR on cholesterol synthesis mediators were assessed by Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, both silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) inhibitors were employed for validation.@*RESULTS@#FFA-induced steatosis was successfully established in HepG2 cells. Lipid accumulation and TC content in BBR groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), associated with significantly higher mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1(P < 0.05, P < 0.01), significantly lower sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), as well as higher Acetyl-FoxO1 protein level (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) compared to the FFA only group. Both SIRT1 inhibitor SIRT1-IN-1 and FoxO1 inhibitor AS1842856 blocked the BBR-mediated therapeutic effects. Immunofluorescence showed that the increased SIRT1 expression increased FoxO1 deacetylation, and promoted its nuclear translocation.@*CONCLUSION@#BBR can mitigate FFA-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells by activating SIRT1-FoxO1-SREBP2 signal pathway. BBR may emerge as a potential drug candidate for treating nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Berberine/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Forkhead Box Protein O1/genetics , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins
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