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1.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(2): e1677, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341369

ABSTRACT

La falta de cultura preventiva y un diagnóstico precoz oportuno representan dos de los factores más importantes a considerar en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles a nivel mundial, por lo que la tecnología móvil constituye una alternativa que bien puede ser utilizada en la medicina preventiva. En este sentido, el presente artículo tuvo como objetivo validar una aplicación tecnológica que permita realizar el diagnóstico de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, utilizando el dispositivo móvil. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que utilizó la encuesta como técnica y el cuestionario como instrumento para la recolección de la información en una muestra de 60 personas mayores de 18 años, todos usuarios de la red social Facebook, quienes seguían la página https://es-la.facebook.com/DrLuisPacoraCamargo/. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron demostrar que el 57,1 por ciento de los encuestados presentaba edades comprendidas entre los 21 y 40 años de edad, de los cuales el 88,3 por ciento reportó que utilizaba internet diariamente; el 53,3 por ciento respondió que utilizaba sus dispositivos frecuentemente para comunicarse a través de las redes sociales; el 53,4 por ciento de los encuestados había descargado un aplicativo relacionado con la salud y, finalmente, el 82,8 por ciento de las personas respondió tener conocimiento del término de medicina preventiva y, que de tener información en sus dispositivos móviles, la utilizaría con frecuencia. En conclusión, el diseño e implementación de un servicio de salud a través de los dispositivos móviles, como el CHECKEATE, es viable en un mercado joven, potencialmente interesado en temas de salud preventiva(AU)


Lack of a preventive culture and of timely early diagnosis are two of the most important factors to be considered in the prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Mobile technology is therefore an alternative which could very well be used in preventive medicine. The purpose of the study was to validate a technological application for the diagnosis of chronic non-communicable diseases using a mobile device. A descriptive study was conducted based on the survey as technique and the questionnaire as data collection tool. The sample was 60 people aged over 18 years, all of them users of the social network Facebook, who follow the webpage https://es-la.facebook.com/DrLuisPacoraCamargo/. Results show that 57.1 percent of the respondents were aged 21-40 years; 88.3 percent reported using the Internet daily; 53.3 percent that they used their devices frequently for communication through social networks; 53.4 percent had downloaded a health-related application, and 82.8 percent were familiar with the term "preventive medicine" and would used it more frequently if they had more information on their mobile devices. In conclusion, design and implementation of a health service through mobile devices, as is the case with CHECKEATE, would be viable in a young market potentially interested in preventive health topics(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Preventive Medicine/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cell Phone/trends , Early Diagnosis , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Preventive Health Services/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Collection , Social Networking
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 43-51, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151409

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Usuários do sistema de saúde com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis devem estar em acompanhamento constante para evitar complicações em seu estado de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os indicadores laboratoriais de saúde em usuários de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde com e sem o diagnóstico para a diabetes e hipertensão. Métodos: A amostra foi de 231 usuários de uma unidade básica de saúde da cidade de Santarém-PA, maiores de idade, que foram agrupados em pacientes com DM/HAS (DM/HAS; n=144), e sem o diagnóstico para DM/HAS (AUS; n=87). As coletas envolveram informações socioeconômicas, clínicas e laboratoriais. Os dados foram tratados com estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se p<0.05. Resultados: Tanto no DM/HAS como no AUS predominou o sexo feminino, estado civil casado, com vínculo empregatício, cor de pele parda, com 4-7 anos de estudo, renda de 1-2 salários, não tabagistas, não etilista e faixa etária de 38-77 anos. A HAS foi a doença mais presente de forma geral, bem como por sexo. Identificou-se no DM/HAS valores menores para a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) e maiores valores para a glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, LDL-c e não HDL-c. Conclusão: De acordo com a proposta desenvolvida, destaca-se que os usuários com DM/HAS apresentam associação positiva para valores alterados de glicemia, colesterol total, não HDL-c, triglicerídeos, TFG e para a presença da síndrome metabólica e risco cardiovascular moderado/alto.


Introduction: Users of the health system with chronic non-communicable diseases must be constantly monitored to avoid complications in their health status. Objective: Analyze laboratory health indicators in users of a Basic Health Unit with and without a diagnosis for diabetes and hypertension. Methods: The sample consisted of 231 users of a basic health unit in the city of Santarém-PA, all of them of age, grouped into patients with DM/SAH (DM/SAH; n=144), and without the diagnosis for DM/SAH (ABS; n=87). The collections involved socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory information. The data were treated with descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p <0.05. Results: In both DM/SAH and ABS groups, there was a predominance of female individuals, married status, employed, brown skin color, with 4-7 years of study, income of 1-2 salaries, non-smokers, non-alcoholic drinkers, and aged between 38-77 years. SAH was the most common disease in general, as well as when analyzing by gender. Lower values for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were identified in the DM/SAH and higher values for the glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c. Conclusion: According to the proposal of this paper, it is noteworthy that users with DM/SAH have a positive association for altered values of blood glucose, total cholesterol, non-HDL-c, triglycerides, GFR, and for the presence of metabolic syndrome and moderate/high cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Health Centers , Health Status Indicators , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cholesterol/blood , Chronic Disease/nursing , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/diagnosis , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e30, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252025

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study analyzes the conditions and possibilities of sustainability of the Salud al Paso program of the Metropolitan Health Secretariat of the Municipality of Quito, Ecuador, as an example for similar initiatives, in the context of the changes made by the new administration in May 2019. The analysis of the implementation of this initiative, focused on the prevention of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), was based on the program's user database, the information gathered on the perspectives of operational staff, knowledge of the program, and the opinion of local leaders and opinion leaders of the Quito Metropolitan District, as well as official information. Based on this data, the study identified factors that could have facilitated or hindered its sustainability and documented the rationale to suspend the on-demand activities included in the program and limit activities to the care of populations under municipal responsibility (day-care centers, schools and colleges, markets, elder care programs, and employees) and patients with identified cardiometabolic risk. The insufficient institutionalization of the program, conceived as a project with an insufficient vision of its sustainability in time, was mentioned as a possible obstacle by leaders and operational staff. The growing prevalence of NCDs requires initiatives for their prevention, which must be institutionalized to ensure their continuity and overcome eventual changes of government. In addition, future interventions similar to Salud al Paso should establish better sectoral coordination articulation, especially with the Ministry of Public Health and other service networks.


RESUMEN El presente estudio analiza las condiciones y posibilidades de permanencia del programa Salud al Paso de la Secretaría Metropolitana de Salud del Municipio de Quito, Ecuador, como ejemplo para iniciativas similares, en el contexto de los cambios efectuados por la nueva administración en mayo del 2019. El análisis de esta implementación enfocada en la prevención de enfermedades no transmisibles se centró en la base de datos de usuarios del programa, la información recabada desde las perspectivas del personal operativo, el conocimiento del programa y el posicionamiento de líderes locales y de opinión del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito, así como información oficial. Con base en estos datos, el estudio identificó factores que podrían haber facilitado u obstaculizado su permanencia y documentó la fundamentación de las nuevas autoridades para suspender las actividades de libre demanda propias del programa y limitar la atención a las poblaciones bajo responsabilidad municipal (guarderías, escuelas y colegios, mercados, programas de atención a la tercera edad y empleados) y de pacientes con riesgo cardiometabólico identificado. La institucionalización insuficiente del programa, concebido más como proyecto y con una también insuficiente visión de permanencia en el tiempo, fue mencionada como un posible obstáculo por líderes y personal operativo. La prevalencia creciente de enfermedades no transmisibles demanda iniciativas para su prevención, que deben institucionalizarse para asegurar su continuidad y superar eventuales cambios de gobierno. Además, intervenciones futuras semejantes a Salud al Paso deberán establecer una mejor articulación sectorial, en especial con el Ministerio de Salud Pública y otras redes de servicios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Preventive Health Services , Health Programs and Plans , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Disease Prevention , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Program Evaluation , Ecuador , Health Policy
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49931, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1128455

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil de internações por Doenças Crônicas não Transmissíveis (DCNT) e sua relação com a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório e de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em São Carlos-SP, no período de 2016 a 2018. As informações foram coletadas no sistema e-SUS e nas fichas de Autorizações de Internação Hospitalar. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de São Carlos. Resultados: destaca-se que as taxas de internação por angina, insuficiência cardíaca, diabetes e hipertensão diminuíram, sobretudo entre 2017 e 2018, quando houve ampliação da cobertura de ESF. Conclusão: a expansão da ESF foi determinante para reduzir as internações por DCNT; contudo, faz-se necessário ampliar os serviços prestados aos usuários, e reavaliar as estratégias de cuidado, especialmente aquelas direcionadas aos idosos e indivíduos acometidos por doenças cerebrovasculares e pulmonares.


Objective: to analyze the profile of hospitalizations for Chronic non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and their relationship with coverage by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). Method: this exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was conducted from 2016 to 2018 at 21 FHS units in São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil. Information was collected from the e-SUS system and Hospitalization Authorization forms and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study was approved by the research ethics committee of São Carlos Federal University. Results: hospitalization rates for angina, heart failure, diabetes, and hypertension were found to have decreased between 2017 and 2018, when FHS coverage expanded. Conclusion: expansion of the FHS was crucial to reduce NCD admissions. However, the services provided to users need to be expanded, and care strategies, especially those directed to the elderly and individuals suffering from cerebrovascular and pulmonary diseases, need to be reassessed and intensified.


Objetivo: analizar el perfil de las hospitalizaciones por Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles (ENT) y su relación con la cobertura de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia (ESF). Método: este estudio exploratorio, cuantitativo y descriptivo se realizó de 2016 a 2018 en 21 unidades de la ESF en São Carlos, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Se recopiló información del sistema e-SUS y de los formularios de Autorización de Hospitalización y se analizaron los datos mediante estadística descriptiva. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación de la Universidad Federal de São Carlos. Resultados: se encontró que las tasas de hospitalización por angina, insuficiencia cardíaca, diabetes e hipertensión disminuyeron entre 2017 y 2018, cuando se expandió la cobertura de la ESF. Conclusión: la expansión de la ESF fue crucial para reducir los ingresos por ENT. Sin embargo, es necesario ampliar los servicios que se brindan a los usuarios y reevaluar e intensificar las estrategias de atención, especialmente las dirigidas a las personas mayores y a las personas que padecen enfermedades cerebrovasculares y pulmonares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Family Health Strategy , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Preventive Health Services , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 865-869, set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138623

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las legumbres son un alimento de origen vegetal, con gran variedad en el aporte de nutrientes; contienen proteínas, minerales, fibra y antioxidantes. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en las bases de datos PUBMED y SCIELO, que incluyó artículos entre 2013 y 2019, bajo los términos claves "legumbres", "obesidad", "enfermedad cardiovascular" y "síndrome metabólico" y se incluyeron estudios que concluyeron una asociación beneficiosa entre consumo de legumbres y ECNT, síndrome metabólico y riesgo cardiovascular. Entre los resultados destacó que el consumo regular de legumbres aporta beneficios para la salud cardiovascular, el control de glicemia y la liberación de insulina, regulación de presión arterial, entre otros. Como conclusión esta revisión destaca que existen beneficios directos para mejorar la salud cardiometabólica provenientes del consumo regular de legumbres.


ABSTRACT Legumes are natural foods from plants with a high quantity of different nutrients, such as proteins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants. An investigation was conducted in the PUBMED and SCIELO databases, between 2013 and 2019 using the following key words: "legumes/beans", "obesity", "cardiovascular disease", and "metabolic syndrome". Articles identified showed a beneficial association between legume intake and chronic disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk. An important result was that regular legume intake contributes to cardiovascular health, glycemic control, insulin liberation, and control of the arterial pressure. In conclusion, this review highlighted the direct benefits of regular legume intake and improved metabolic and cardiovascular health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Fabaceae , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Obesity/prevention & control
8.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 11 ago. 2020. 9 p. tab. (OPS/EIH/IS/COVID-19/20-0015).
Non-conventional in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117108

ABSTRACT

As doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs) são a principal causa de morte e incapacidade em todo o mundo. O controle eficaz dessas doenças crônicas depende em grande parte de serviços continuados, responsivos, acessíveis e de qualidade, além de engajamento e autocontrole satisfatórios por parte dos pacientes. A saúde digital, em especial as teleconsultas médicas, os prontuários eletrônicos e as prescrições eletrônicas, já demonstrou ser vantajosa para assegurar a continuidade da assistência, principalmente quando os serviços são interrompidos, além do monitoramento e da avaliação de intervenções em DNTs.


Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) son la primera causa de muerte y discapacidad en el mundo. El tratamiento eficaz de estos trastornos crónicos depende en gran medida de la continuidad de unos servicios receptivos, accesibles y de calidad, así como de la participación de los pacientes y su autocuidado. Está comprobado que la salud digital ­en particular la telemedicina y las historias clínicas y recetas electrónicas­ es ventajosa para resguardar la continuidad de la atención, especialmente cuando hay alteraciones de los servicios, además de facilitar el seguimiento y evaluación de las intervenciones contra las ENT.


Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability worldwide. Effective management of these chronic conditions depends largely on continuous, responsive, accessible, and quality services and successful patient engagement and self-management. Digital health, and in particular telemedicine visits, electronic records, and electronic prescriptions, have already demonstrated having advantages in successfully ensuring continuity of care, especially when services are disrupted, as well as monitoring and evaluating interventions for NCDs.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Information Management/organization & administration , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Infection Control/organization & administration
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e2906, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139181

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Diversos estudios a través del tiempo han demostrado los potenciales beneficios de la práctica de la Actividad Física (AF); sin embargo, también se han identificado algunos de sus moduladores conocidos como determinantes que modifican su práctica. Objetivo: Recopilar y resumir la información disponible sobre la importancia de la actividad física, su definición, determinantes y métodos de evaluación en adultos, así como establecer el desarrollo de las recomendaciones a lo largo del tiempo. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos entre el período comprendido entre 1996 y 2019, con términos de búsqueda en inglés y español de actividad física, recomendaciones, determinantes. Se incluyeron artículos relacionados con adultos y se excluyeron aquellos sobre niños y adolescentes. Desarrollo: Las recomendaciones han evolucionado desde 1978 del Colegio Americano de Medicina Deportiva (ACSM) con unas especificaciones muy generales como prácticas AF de 3 a 5 días por semana con una intensidad de 60 por ciento al 90 por ciento de la Frecuencia Cardíaca de Reserva (FCR) hasta las más recientes recomendaciones de 2018 realizadas por el Centro para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC). Dentro de los métodos de evaluación se encuentra criterio, objetivos y subjetivos. Conclusiones: La práctica regular de AF es una estrategia eficiente para disminuir los factores de riesgo asociados con Enfermedades No Transmisibles (ENT). Asimismo, se identifican métodos criterio, objetivos y subjetivos para su evaluación; las recomendaciones han evolucionado desde 1978 hasta 2018, y establecen que los adultos deberán practicar entre 150 a 300 minutos/semana de AF(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have shown the potential benefits of the practice of Physical Activity (PA) over the years; however, some modulators known as determinants that modify its practice have also been identified. Objective: To gather and summarize available information on the importance of physical activity, its definition, determinants and evaluation methods in adults, as well as to establish the development of recommendations over time. Material and Methods: A search was made in different databases using search terms of physical activity, recommendations, and determinants in both English and Spanish during the period between 1996 and 2019. Articles related to adults were included and those about children and adolescents were excluded. Development: The recommendations have evolved from 1978 when the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) established very general specifications such as PA practices from 3 to 5 days per week at an intensity between 60 percent and 90 percent Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) until the most recent recommendations made by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018. Objective and subjective criteria are among the evaluation methods. Conclusions: Regular PA practice is an efficient strategy to reduce the risk factors associated with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Likewise, subjective and objective criteria are identified for its evaluation. The recommendations have evolved from 1978 to 2018 establishing that adults should be involved in PA from 150 to 300 minutes per week(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Exercise , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Life Style , Motor Activity
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s118-s129, agosto 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118605

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ENT) se han convertido en la principal causa de mortalidad global y han aumentado en América Latina. La contribución de recursos de la ciencia del desarrollo, la epigenética, las neurociencias, las ciencias ambientales, la epidemiología y la investigación ha generado evidencia del origen de las ENT desde la programación fetal. Los resultados de salud y enfermedad devienen de una trayectoria dinámica en la que se agregan factores protectores para una vida saludable o factores de riesgo para enfermedades del individuo y las comunidades.El concepto de Developmental Origins of Health and Disease redimensiona el papel del equipo de salud materno-infantil y debe guiar las políticas públicas para priorizar los primeros mil días de vida para un desarrollo saludable y la prevención de ENT. Se presenta una actualización sobre las principales condiciones ambientales adversas que pueden alterar la programación del desarrollo y predisponer a ENT en el curso de la vida.


In recent decades, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of global mortality and increased in Latin America. The contribution of the resources from development science, epigenetics, neurosciences, environmental sciences, epidemiology and research has generated evidence of the origin of NCDs since fetal programming. The healt and disease outcomes result from a dynamic trajectory where protective factors are added for a healthy life or risk factors for diseases of the individual and the communities. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept resizes the role of the maternal and child health team and should guide public policies by prioritizing the first 1000 days of life for healthy development and NCDs prevention. We present an update on principal adverse environmental conditions that may alter development programming and predispose NCDs in life course


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Environment , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Child Development , Public Health , Maternal and Child Health , Environmental Exposure , Epigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 11 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117907

ABSTRACT

El Programa Subregional para América del Sur (SAM) representa la visión estratégica de la OPS/OMS a mediano plazo para la subregión sudamericana. El Programa apoya las prioridades subregionales en materia de salud y busca armonizar el trabajo de OPS/OMS con los mecanismos de integración, particularmente con el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), el Organismo Andino de Salud - Convenio Hipólito Unanue (ORAS-CONHU), la Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica (OTCA), PROSUR, Alianza del Pacífico y otros socios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Personnel Management , Health Systems/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Pandemics/prevention & control , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pan American Health Organization , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Border Areas , Climate Change , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mercosur , Betacoronavirus , Latin America
12.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; June 4, 2020. 8 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104286

ABSTRACT

This brief report presents a snapshot of the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on NCD services in the Region of the Americas. It represents the views and perspectives of the national health authorities responsible for overseeing the governmental NCD programs during a period of 4 weeks in May 2020, at a time when the Region of the Americas was considered the epicenter of the global COVID-19 pandemic.


En este informe se presenta un panorama general del impacto que la pandemia de COVID-19 ha tenido en los servicios contra las enfermedades no transmisibles en la Región de las Américas, con datos obtenidos a lo largo de cuatro semanas en mayo del 2020, en un momento en el que se consideraba que la Región era el epicentro de la pandemia mundial de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e351, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126583

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La producción y consumo de aceites vegetales refinados ha incrementado de manera notable en los últimos años a nivel mundial a la vez que han aumentado determinadas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. En sus inicios estos productos se recomendaban como saludables y sustitutos de grasas animales, pero con el paso de los años y el avance científico que conlleva se publicaron varios estudios que cuestionan dichas recomendaciones al encontrar posibles problemas para la salud relacionado con su ingesta. Objetivo: Evidenciar los impactos negativos que han tenido sobre la salud el uso de estas tecnologías en el campo de la nutrición humana. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en Pubmed y Google Académico, con las palabras clave: Aceites refinados, enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, inflamación, riesgo. Conclusiones: La producción actual de aceites vegetales refinados procedentes de semillas representa un serio riesgo a la salud humana al estar correlacionado con diversas enfermedades(AU)


Introduction: Production and consumption of refined vegetable oils have notably increased worldwide in recent years, and so has increased the occurrence of a number of chronic non-communicable diseases. Initially, these products were recommended as healthy substitutes for animal fats, but with the passing of time and the consequent advancement of science, several studies have been published which question the worth of such recommendations in the light of potential risks to health related to vegetable oil consumption. Objective: Describe the negative impact of the use of these human nutrition technologies on health. Methods: A search was conducted for papers about the topic published in the databases PubMed and Google Scholar. The search words used were refined oils, chronic non-communicable diseases, inflammation, risk. Conclusions: Current production of refined vegetable oils from seeds is a serious risk to human health, being as it is correlated to various diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutritional Sciences , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Health Risk , Sunflower Oil/adverse effects
14.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268160

ABSTRACT

Background: Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, certain cancers, and all-cause mortality. Office employees are particularly exposed to such diseases, due to the nature of their work, which mainly involves passive activities that require less energy expenditure. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the leisure-time physical activity participation (LTPAP) among government employees in Kigali, Rwanda, as well as to highlight the factors that motivate, or hinder their participation. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative study was conducted with 600 participants. A stratified sampling technique was used to determine the study sample from the Government of Rwanda's Sports Policy stakeholder institutions. Then, a convenience sample of participants was selected from each stratum to form the final study sample. Data were collected using a three-part customised, self-administered questionnaire to capture demographic data, leisure-time physical activity levels (LTPA) using the Godin-Shephard questionnaire, and the factors that influenced participation. Analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to summarise and draw meaningful associations between different variables. Results: More than half (61.1%) of the participants were not sufficiently active. Physical activity levels declined significantly with advancing age (p = 0.004) and increasing working experience (p = 0.002); female participants were less active than males. The prevention of diseases and maintenance of good health were the most frequently reported contributors (48.8%) to physical activity participation, while time and tight work schedules were the most frequently reported hindrances (62.2%). Conclusion: The majority of government office employees in Kigali did not engage in sufficient leisure-time physical activity, hence they may be at high risk of developing NCDs. Strategies to increase LTPA among employees should be implemented


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Leisure Activities , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Rwanda
15.
Guatemala; MSPAS; sept. 2019. 46 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025886

ABSTRACT

Este modelo: "de atención y gestión basado en la estrategia atención primaria en salud renovada", tiene como prioridad las intervenciones en el marco de la prevención de la enfermedad, promoción de la salud y vigilancia epidemiológica, con el objetivo de incidir en determinantes de la salud, contribuyendo con el desarrollo de las comunidades y promoviendo la reducción de daños a la población. Fundamentalmente el modelo de acciones extramuros, considera la implementación de acciones fuera de los establecimientos de salud, que permitan identificar las necesidades de la comunidad y establecer medidas preventivas que contribuyan a mejorar la salud de la población de manera oportuna. Por lo que, el personal de salud debe facilitar el acceso a los servicios a la población de acuerdo a los riesgos de la salud identificados en el análisis de situación de salud, a la demanda y oferta para establecer acciones oportunas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Health Services Administration , Population Health Management , Community Health Status Indicators/organization & administration , Health Planning/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services , Health Infrastructure/standards , Allied Health Personnel/organization & administration , Disease Prevention , Epidemiologic Surveillance Services , Health Information Management , Culturally Competent Care/organization & administration , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Guatemala , Health Plan Implementation/organization & administration , Health Promotion , Health Services Research , House Calls/trends , Institutional Management Teams/organization & administration
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 824-838, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094092

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: ciertas conductas y la falta de percepción del riesgo, principalmente en los jóvenes, pueden conducirlos a ser víctimas de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como el cáncer. Objetivo: caracterizar los hábitos y conductas de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas en Cienfuegos que pueden incidir como factores de riesgo en la aparición de afecciones cancerígenas. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal y retrospectivo realizado a 98 estudiantes entre 18 y 22 años de edad. Resultados: los principales eventos de salud detectados en la conducta de los estudiantes fueron el consumo regular de bebidas alcohólicas y la poca práctica de ejercicios físicos. Conclusiones: los comportamientos de salud establecidos por los estudiantes universitarios pueden tener un impacto significativo en la adultez tardía.


ABSTRACT Introduction: certain behaviors and lack of perception of risk, especially among young people, can lead them to be victims of chronic noncommunicable diseases such as cancer. Objective: to characterize the habits and behaviors of the students of the University of Medical Sciences in Cienfuegos that can influence as risk factors in the appearance of cancerous affections. Materials and methods: cross-sectional and retrospective study of 98 students between 18 and 22 years of age. Results: the main health events detected in the behavior of the students were the regular consumption of alcoholic beverages and the little practice of physical exercises. Conclusions: health behaviors established by university students can have a significant impact on late adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Risk-Taking , Students , Universities , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Education, Medical , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Health Risk Behaviors , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sexual Behavior , Behavior , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Social Vulnerability , Dangerous Behavior , Habits , Life Style
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(supl): 2-7, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020968

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 Global Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, was dedicated to promoting successful cases and best practices in fighting and preventing noncommunicable disease (NCDs). The global effort undertaken by WHO aims to reduce road traffic deaths in order to meet goal number 3.4 of the sustainable development goals. OBJECTIVES: To describe two Brazilian road safety prevention programs, presented at the WHO 2017 Global Conference: São Paulo Traffic Safety Movement (Movimento Paulista de Segurança no Trânsito) and Safe Life Program of Brasília (Programa Brasília Vida Segura), along with their governance structures, models and results. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a descriptive case study conducted in São Paulo and Brasilia from 2015 to 2018. These programs aimed to reduce the number of deaths caused by road accidents to 8.3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo by 2020 and in Brasília by 2016; and to reduce harmful use of alcohol by 10% by 2020. METHODS: These two initiatives were designed, managed and operated to bring together government and civil society, i.e. industry, academia, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), etc., around the common goal of saving lives. They were collaborative and guided by sharing of best practices, learning and information, thereby making it possible to attain more and better results. Their format enables reproduction in cities across all Brazilian regions. RESULTS: The results attest to the efficacy of the programs implemented in these two cities. In Brasília, the initiative helped reduce the number of traffic-related deaths by 35% (2017). In the same year in the state of São Paulo, 7,600 deaths were avoided. CONCLUSION: Both programs are innovative public policies that deal with health issues caused by the external agents that ultimately account for the rapid increase in days lost to disability. Prevention of external causes of deaths and injuries, such as traffic violence, strongly correlates with changes in habits and actions, especially excessive consumption of alcohol, and with NCDs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Health Education/methods , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Efficiency, Organizational , Age Distribution , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/organization & administration , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 127-138, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996722

ABSTRACT

A nutrigenômica representa uma ciência emergente que estuda a relação entre os nutrientes e os genes humanos. Dessa forma, as necessidades de alimentos, compostos bioativos e nutrientes variam entre os indivíduos, por conta dos polimorfismos gênicos, principalmente os de nucleotídeo único, podendo resultar no desenvolvimento de diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNTs). Este artigo objetiva conhecer as mais recentes informações sobre a nutrigenômica e os principais polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às DCNTs, bem como o impacto dos nutrientes na modulação da expressão gênica e prevenção destas patologias. Para o levantamento bibliográfico, optou-se pela busca de artigos nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, nos idiomas Português e Inglês. Aplicou-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "nutrigenômica e necessidades nutricionais", "nutrigenômica e obesidade", "nutrigenômica e diabetes mellitus tipo 2", "nutrigenômica e câncer" e "nutrigenômica e doença inflamatória intestinal". Evidências indicam que diversos tipos de polimorfismos estão associados à incidência, progressão e gravidade de doenças como a obesidade, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), câncer e doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DIIs). Os principais polimorfismos encontrados que se relacionam com as DCNTs são: rs9939609 do fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 do Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu do receptor ß-adrenérgico 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn do receptor de leptina (LEPR), -174C/G da interleucina 6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma gama 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 da lipina 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 no gene da adiponectina, rs10920533 em adiponectina receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 da Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), alelo G para o polimorfismo -11377C>G, alelo A para o polimorfismo 11391 G>A, Cdx2 do receptor de vitamina D (RVD), genes de selenoproteínas sob baixas concentrações de selênio (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPX-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS e TXNRD2) e alelo G do rs12212067 do Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3). É fundamental entender as interações gene-nutriente nestas doenças e as diferentes respostas metabólicas envolvidas, para que assim se possa orientar a alimentação de cada indivíduo conforme a sua herança genética. Enfim, os estudos não são conclusivos sobre o papel de cada fator na alteração dos genes, e a nutrigenômica é um fator importante e complexo que precisa avançar com a ciência nutricional.


Nutrigenomics represents an emerging science that studies the relation between nutrients and the human genes. Thus, the need for food, bioactive composts and nutrients vary from person to person due to genic polymorphisms, mainly single nucleotide polymorphism, which can result in the developing of many Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). This article aims at making a scientific literature review regarding the most recent information on nutrigenomics and the main polymorphisms related to the NCDs, as well as the impact of nutrients on the modulation of the genic expression and prevention of those pathologies. For the literature survey, a search was performed in PubMed and SciELO databases, in Portuguese and English using the combination of the following descriptors: "nutrigenomics and nutritional requirements", "nutrigenomics and obesity", "nutrigenomics and diabetes mellitus, type 2", "nutrigenomics and cancer", and "nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel disease". Evidence has shown that many types of polymorphisms are associated with the incidence, progression and severity of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The main polymorphisms found to be related to NCDs are: rs9939609 of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 of the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu of the ß-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn of the leptin receptor (LEPR), -174 G/C of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 of lipin 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 in the adiponectin gene, rs10920533 in adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 of Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), G allele of the -11377C>G polymorphism, allele A of the 11391 G>A polymorphism, Cdx2 of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), selenoprotein genes under low selenium concentrations (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPx-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS and TXNRD2), and G allele of the Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) rs12212067. It is fundamental to understand the interaction between gene-nutrients in these diseases and the different metabolic answers involved to guide the eating habits of each person according to their genetic heritage. Finally, the studies are not conclusive on the role of each factor in the alteration of the genes, and nutrigenomics is an important and complex factor that needs to advance with nutritional science.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Nutrigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Obesity/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Selenium , Vitamin D , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/prevention & control , Gene Expression , Nutrients , Apoptosis , Leptin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Alleles , Adiponectin , Selenoproteins , Nutritional Sciences , Genes , Neoplasms
20.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 4-11, mar. 2019. ilus., tab., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021445

ABSTRACT

El sedentarismo está aumentando en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA). Es importante estudiar el ambiente construido que promueve la realización de actividad física (AF). Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la distribución del espacio verde (EV) apto para realizar AF, así como la oferta estatal de actividades deportivas gratuitas en la ciudad. Se realizó un estudio ecológico analizando y mapeando datos según fuentes e informes oficiales de CABA para 2015. Hicimos un análisis por número absoluto, superficie, densidad poblacional y valor promedio del metro cuadrado construido por comuna. Además, realizamos un análisis cualitativo según imágenes satelitales de la ciudad. La mediana de espacio verde apto para AF era de 2,6 m2/habitante (rango intercuartílico de 1,0 a 4,6). La menor cantidad estuvo en las comunas céntricas, más densamente pobladas, así como en la mayoría de las de menor valor del terreno (una de estas tenía buena cantidad de EV, pero con un ambiente construido que podría limitar la realización de AF). En cambio, en cuanto a las actividades deportivas gratuitas, a menor valor del terreno había mayor oferta. Estos resultados deben analizarse junto con condiciones ambientales y de seguridad para la planificación integral de la ciudad. (AU)


Sedentary lifestyle is increasing in Buenos Aires City (CABA). It is important to study the built environment that promotes physical activity (PA). Our objective was to analyze the distribution of the green spaces or urban open spaces (GS) suitable for PA, as well as the state offer of free sports activities in the city. We did an ecological study, analyzing and mapping data according to sources and official reports of CABA for 2015. We performed analyses by absolute number, area, population density and average value of the built squared meter for each district (comuna). In addition, we did a qualitative analysis according to satellite images of the city. The median of green space suitable for PA was 2.6 m2 / inhabitant (interquartile range 1.0 to 4.6). The smallest amount was in the central districts, more densely populated, as well as in most of the lower landvalue ones (one of these had a good amount of GS, but with a built environment that could limit the practice of PA). In contrast, regarding free sports activities, the lower the value of the land, the greater the state offer. These results must be analyzed along with environmental and safety conditions for an integral planning of the city. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Regional Health Planning/organization & administration , Sports/trends , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Green Areas/statistics & numerical data , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Built Environment/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Quality of Life , Regional Health Planning/trends , Social Class , Sports/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/organization & administration , Ecological Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Sense of Coherence , Healthy Lifestyle , Built Environment/supply & distribution , Built Environment/trends , Health Promotion/organization & administration
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