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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 67-77, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551223

ABSTRACT

La tasa de reintubación orotraqueal luego de la extubación se registra entre un 10 a 20%. La aplicación de soportes respiratorios no-invasivos (SRNI) posterior a la extuba-ción como cánula nasal de alto-flujo, ventilación no invasiva (dos niveles de presión) y presión positiva continua en la vía aérea demostraron ser seguras y efectivas post ex-tubación. El período pre-destete representa un momento crucial en el manejo de los pa-cientes críticos ya que el fracaso de la extubación, definido como la necesidad de reintu-bación dentro de los 2 a 7 días, demostró peores resultados al aumentar la mortalidad entre un 25-50%. Esta situación conlleva al requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada, neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica y estancias prolongadas de internación. Por lo tanto, es esencial identificar a los pacientes que se beneficiarán utilizando SRNI post extubación.


The rate of re-intubation after extubation is recorded at 10-20%. The use of non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) post-extubation such as high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation (bilevel pressure) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have been shown to be safe and effective post-extubation. The pre-weaning period represents a crucial time in the management of critically ill patients, as extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2-7 days, showed worse outcomes with mortality increasing by 25-50%. This situation leads to the requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation, ventilator-associated pneumonia and long lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, it is essential to identify patients who will benefit from NIRS post extubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Cannula/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Mortality , Review
2.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533486

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El compromiso respiratorio en la enfermedad de Pompe es una de sus manifestaciones más frecuentes, tiene un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida y facilita la aparición de múltiples complicaciones. Se puede presentar como parte evolutiva de la enfermedad o incluso ser el síntoma inicial de la patología. Contenidos: La presentación clínica del compromiso respiratorio en la enfermedad de Pompe se caracteriza por disnea, ortopnea, cefalea y tos, y sus cambios paraclínicos incluyen hipercapnia, policitemia, elevación del índice de apnea/hipopnea, así como disminución de la capacidad vital y de las presiones inspiratoria y espiratorias máximas. El compromiso respiratorio es causado principalmente por disfunción muscular (especialmente el diafragma) y alteración de la regulación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: Es fundamental la valoración acuciosa inicial de los patrones respiratorios y por supuesto su seguimiento, el cual dependerá del tipo de progresión de la disfunción respiratoria (rápida o lenta) o del requerimiento específico para cada paciente (ventilación no invasiva o invasiva).


Introduction: Respiratory compromise in Pompe disease is one of the most frequent manifestations, which has a negative impact on quality of life and leads to multiple complications. This can occur as an evolutionary part of the disease, or even be the initial symptom of the pathology. Contents: Its clinical presentation is characterized by dyspnea, orthopnea, headache, and cough, and its paraclinical changes include hypercapnia, polycythemia, elevated apnea/hypopnea index, decreased vital capacity, and decreased maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Respiratory compromise is caused mainly by muscular dysfunction (especially the diaphragm) and alteration of regulation of the central nervous system. Conclusions: An initial careful assessment of respiratory patterns is essential, and of course their follow-up, that will depend of the type of progression of respiratory dysfunction (rapid or slow) or the specific requirement for each patient (non-invasive or invasive ventilation).


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Glycogen Storage Disease Type II , Vital Capacity , Noninvasive Ventilation , Apnea , Polysomnography , Dyspnea
3.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(1): 44-73, mar2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435423

ABSTRACT

La cánula nasal de alto flujo se ha convertido en una de las principales estrategias de soporte ventilatorio no invasivo en la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda hipoxémica, principalmente después de la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, su uso se extiende más allá de este escenario y abarca diferentes condiciones clínicas como el período postextubación, período postquirúrgico, insuficiencia respiratoria hipercápnica y soporte vital en pacientes inmunodeprimidos, trasplantados u oncológicos. Los manuscritos que avalan su aplicación han sido ampliamente difundidos y el grado de evidencia es lo suficientemente alto como para recomendar su uso. Por tanto, es necesario destacar sus efectos fisiológicos como el confort, una fracción inspirada de oxígeno precisa, el lavado de CO2 o la optimización del volumen pulmonar de fin de espiración para comprender su mecanismo de acción y mejorar los resultados de los pacientes. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es ofrecer un resumen breve y conciso de los efectos y beneficios de aplicar esta terapia en diferentes escenarios clínicos sin la estructura rígida de una revisión sistemática. Con base en estas líneas, el lector curioso puede ampliar la evidencia científica que avala el empleo de la cánula nasal de alto flujo en cada escenario particular. (AU);


High-flow nasal cannula has become one of the main strategies for non-invasive ventilatory support in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, mainly after the COVID-19 pandemic. However, its use extends beyond this scenario and covers different clinical conditions such as the post-extubation period, post-surgical period, hypercapnic respiratory failure and life support in immunosuppressed, trasplant or cancer patients. Manuscripts that support its application have been widely disseminated and the degree of evidence is high enough to recommend its use. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight its physiological effects such as comfort, precise fraction of inspiratory oxygen, CO2 lavage or optimize end-expiratory lung volume to understand its mechanism of action and improve patients' outcomes. The objective of this narrative review is to offer a brief and concise summary of the benefits of applying this therapy in different clinical scenarios without the rigid structure of a systematic review. Based on these lines, the curious reader can expand the scientific evidence that supports the use of the high-flow nasal cannula in each particular scenario. (AU);


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , Risk , Review , Critical Illness
4.
Medisan ; 27(1)feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440565

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ventilación no invasiva es un tratamiento efectivo en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar agudizada. Objetivo: Describir las características demográficas, clínicas, ventilatorias y hemogasométricas en pacientes tratados con ventilación no invasiva. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 234 pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada, ventilados de forma no invasiva en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba de enero de 2011 a septiembre de 2021. Resultados: En la serie predominaron el sexo masculino, la neumonía extrahospitalaria y la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica; mientras que la edad media fue de 71 años y la ventilación no invasiva fracasó en 53,8 % de los afectados. Asimismo, la frecuencia respiratoria disminuyó de 34,3 a 23,5 respiraciones por minuto en la segunda hora y se observó, además, un incremento del pH, así como de la relación presión arterial de O2/fracción inspirada de O2 y saturación de oxígeno a la pulsioximetría/fracción inspiratoria de O2. La presión arterial de CO2 tuvo valores promedio de 61,8 mmHg al inicio y de 60,7 mmHg en la segunda hora. Conclusiones: Los valores basales de las variables clínicas, hemogasométricas y ventilatorias mejoraron luego del tratamiento con ventilación no invasiva. Entre los parámetros asociados al fracaso del tratamiento figuraron: frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, presión arterial de CO2, escala de coma de Glasgow, pH y presencia de fugas; igualmente, la estadía prolongada, la ventilación por más de 48 horas y la mortalidad estuvieron relacionadas con dicho fracaso.


Introduction: The non invasive ventilation is an effective treatment in patients with acute lung disease. Objective: To describe the demographic, clinical, ventilatory and hemogasometric characteristics in patients treated with non invasive ventilation. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 234 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, non-invasive ventilated in the Intensive Cares Unit of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out, from January, 2011 to September, 2021. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of male sex, non hospital acquired pneumonia and chronic heart failure; while the mean age was 71 years and non invasive ventilation failed in 53.8 % of those affected. Also, the respiratory rate decreased from 34.3 to 23.5 breaths per minute in the second hour and an increase in pH was also observed, as well as in the relationship arterial pressure of O2/inspired fraction of O2 and oxygen saturation to the pulsioximetry/inspiratory fraction of O2. The arterial pressure of CO2 had average values of 61.8 mmHg to the beginning and of 60.7 mmHg in the second hour. Conclusions: The basal values of clinical, hemogasometric and ventilatory variables improved after treatment with non invasive ventilation. Among the parameters associated with the treatment failure there were heart frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure of CO2, coma Glasgow scale, pH and leaks; equally, the long stay, the ventilation for more than 48 hours and mortality were related to this failure.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Noninvasive Ventilation , Secondary Care , Intensive Care Units
5.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22: e20236630, 01 jan 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1433783

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar e descrever o perfil de recém-nascidos que apresentaram lesão de septo nasal em uso de Ventilação Não Invasiva e o tratamento utilizado. MÉTODO: Pesquisa descritiva, exploratória, com coleta retrospectiva de dados em prontuários de recém-nascidos hospitalizados entre janeiro/2020 a dezembro/2021, por meio de um instrumento estruturado, com análise de frequência descritiva simples. RESULTADOS: A lesão de septo nasal foi identificada em 19,0% dos recém-nascidos, com idade gestacional entre 30-35 semanas e peso ao nascer <1.500 gramas. O Estágio da lesão mais frequente foi I, tratado com Askina spray + rodízio de prongas, seguida de Hidrocoloide + Dersani Hidrogel, entre 1-7 dias (36,4%). CONCLUSÃO: A equipe de enfermagem depara-se com dificuldades na abordagem ao recém-nascido submetido a ventilação não invasiva com pronga, tornando-se relevante investir em sua qualificação e em protocolos assistenciais de cuidados com a pele para o desempenho de uma assistência segura e humanizada.


OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe the profile of newborns who presented nasal septal injury using Noninvasive Ventilation and the treatment used. METHOD: Descriptive, exploratory research, with retrospective data collection in medical records of newborns hospitalized between January/2020 and December/2021, through a structured instrument, with simple descriptive frequency analysis. RESULTS: Nasal septal injury was identified in 19.0% of newborns, with gestational age between 30-35 weeks and birth weight <1,500 grams. The most frequent stage of injury was I, treated with Askina spray + prong rotation, followed by Hydrocolloid + Dersani Hydrogel, between 1-7 days (36.4%). CONCLUSION: The nursing team encounters difficulties in the approach to newborns submitted to noninvasive ventilation with prong, making it relevant to invest in their qualification and in care protocols for skin care and for the performance of safe and humanized care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Noninvasive Ventilation , Hospitalization , Nasal Septum/injuries , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 919-926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010886

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to be one of the most life-threatening conditions for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The 2023 European Society of Intensive Care Medicine guidelines on ARDS: definition, phenotyping and respiratory support strategies (2023 Guideline) update the 2017 An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice guideline: mechanical ventilation in adult patients with ARDS (2017 Guideline), including 7 aspects of 3 topics of definitions, phenotyping, and respiratory support strategies [including high flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNO), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), extracorporeal life support (ECLS), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with recruitment maneuvers (RM), tidal volume (VT), and prone positioning]. 2023 Guideline review and summarize the literature since the publication of the 2017 Guideline, covering ARDS and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, as well as ARDS caused by novel coronavirus infection. Based on the most recent medical evidence, the 2023 Guideline provide clinicians with new ideas and approaches for nonpharmacologic respiratory support strategies for adults with ARDS. This article provides interpretation of the new concepts, the new approaches, the new recommended grading and new levels of evidence for ARDS in the 2023 Guideline.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 295-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) as post-extubation respiratory support in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, China Biology Medicine disc, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles on NHFOV and NIPPV as post-extubation respiratory support in preterm infants published up to August 31, 2022. RevMan 5.4 software and Stata 17.0 software were used for a Meta analysis to compare related indices between the NHFOV and NIPPV groups, including reintubation rate within 72 hours after extubation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) at 6-24 hours after switch to noninvasive assisted ventilation, and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), air leak, nasal damage, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).@*RESULTS@#A total of 9 randomized controlled trials were included. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the NIPPV group, the NHFOV group had significantly lower reintubation rate within 72 hours after extubation (RR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.52-0.88, P=0.003) and PCO2 at 6-24 hours after switch to noninvasive assisted ventilation (MD=-4.12, 95%CI: -6.12 to -2.13, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence rates of complications such as BPD, air leak, nasal damage, PVL, IVH, and ROP (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with NIPPV, NHFOV can effectively remove CO2 and reduce the risk of reintubation, without increasing the incidence of complications such as BPD, air leak, nasal damage, PVL, and IVH, and therefore, it can be used as a sequential respiratory support mode for preterm infants after extubation.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation , Airway Extubation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , High-Frequency Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
8.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 762-763, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982670

ABSTRACT

As a new respiratory support technique, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) has been widely used in clinical practice in recent years. During HFNC treatment, due to the long time and continuous wearing of nasal stopper and fasteners on the patient face, it is easy to cause medical device-related pressure injury on multiple facial skin. Moreover, when the patient's position changes greatly, because there is no good fixed design at the HFNC nasal stopper, it is easy to shift or turn the nasal stopper outward, causing abnormal ventilation and failure to achieve the purpose of clinical oxygen therapy. To overcome above problems, medical staff in the intensive care unit of department of infectious diseases, Tongji Hospital Tongji Medical College of HUST designed a new type of decompression fixator to prevent HFNC face pressure injury, and obtained national utility model patent (ZL 2022 2 0754626.1). The integrated design structure of the device has the functions of decompression of facial skin and fixation of nasal stopper, which can ensure the effect of oxygen therapy and improve the oxygen therapy experience and patient comfort, which is suitable for clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cannula , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen , Decompression , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(2): 45-47, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444746

ABSTRACT

La cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) es una modalidad ventilatoria no invasiva segura y efectiva, usada ampliamente en patología respiratoria aguda en adultos y niños. Objetivo: presentar casos clínicos pediátricos que utilizaron CNAF por tiempo prolongado por problemas respiratorios crónicos. Descripción de casos clínicos, revisión de fichas clínicas de 5 pacientes que utilizaron CNAF por más de 1 mes, entre los años 2017-2020 en el Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río. Aprobado por Comité de Ética. Resultados: 5 pacientes varones de mediana 61 (44 a 212) días de edad al inicio del uso de CNAF. Diagnóstico de base: displasia broncopulmonar (2/5), síndrome de Treacher Collins (1/5), síndrome de cimitarra con hipoplasia pulmonar derecha (1/5) y traqueobroncomalacia severa (1/5). Todos requirieron previamente uso de ventilación invasiva o no invasiva con mediana de 59 (4 a 78) días. A todos se les realizó broncoscopia, saturometría contínua o poligrafía para diagnóstico y titulación de CNAF y oxígeno. Todos mejoraron clínicamente, la SpO2 y el número de apneas. Dos pacientes se enviaron a domicilio con uso de Airvo2 nocturno. La mediana de uso de CNAF fue 165 (34 a 445) días. Conclusiones: el uso prolongado de CNAF es útil en pacientes pediátricos seleccionados, bien tolerado y factible de utilizar en domicilio.


The high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a safe and effective non-invasive ventilation support widely used in acute respiratory pathology in adults and children. Objective: To present pediatric clinical cases that used HFNC for an extended period due to chronic respiratory disease. Description of clinical cases, review of medical records of 5 patients who used HFNC for more than 1 month, between the years 2017-2020 at Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río. Approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: 5 male patients with a median age of 61 (44 to 212) days at the start of HFNC use. Underlying diagnoses: bronchopulmonary dysplasia (2/5), Treacher Collins syndrome (1/5), Scimitar syndrome with right pulmonary hypoplasia (1/5), and severe tracheobronchomalacia (1/5). All of them previously required invasive or non-invasive ventilation for a median of 59 (4 to 78) days. All patients underwent bronchoscopy, continuous pulse oximetry or polygraphy for diagnosis and titration of HFNC and oxygen. All showed clinical improvement, including SpO2 levels and the number of apneas. Two patients were discharged with nocturnal use of Airvo 2 at home. The median duration of HFNC use was 165 (34 to 445) days. Conclusions: Prolonged use of HFNC is useful in selected pediatric patients, well tolerated, and feasible for home use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Cannula , Time Factors , Chronic Disease , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Tracheomalacia/therapy , Lung Injury/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation
10.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(2): 45-47, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444644

ABSTRACT

Se realiza comentario de estudio de Israel en el cual analizan 75 pacientes pediátricos que utilizaron cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) en domicilio, evaluando la seguridad, las indicaciones, los parámetros de utilización, la duración del tratamiento, los resultados clínicos y la satisfacción de los padres. Se acompaña de una revisión de la literatura del tema.


A comment is made on a study conducted in Israel analyzing 75 pediatric patients who used high-flow nasal cannula at home, evaluating safety, indications, utilization parameters, treatment duration, clinical outcomes, and parental satisfaction. It is accompanied by a literature review on the topic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cannula , Home Nursing , Lung Diseases/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy
11.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 676-679, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520351

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients with burns to the head and neck maybe difficult to intubate or ventilate via facemask. Furthermore, post-burn scarring and microstomia may reduce the success of rescue supraglottic airway placement. While awake tracheal intubation using a flexible intubation scope is considered the optimal technique for these patients, it may not always be feasible in the pediatric population. We report a case of successful management of a difficult airway in a child with extensive post-burn head and neck deformity using a noninvasive positive pressure system to aid with inhalational induction and deep sedation during intubation using a flexible scope.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Noninvasive Ventilation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pediatrics , Burns
12.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 22(1): 1-19, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451269

ABSTRACT

El proceso deglutorio requiere de una adecuada coordinación entre respiración y deglución. En el contexto clínico, el uso de dispositivos ventilatorios no invasivos, como la cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) o la ventilación no invasiva (VNI), ha cobrado gran relevancia durante los últimos años. Sin embargo, existe escasa información respecto a la interferencia que estos dispositivos podrían ocasionar en la fisiología deglutoria. En este contexto, y con el objetivo de describir el impacto de la CNAF y la VNI en la fisiología deglutoria, se realizó una revisión de la literatura en PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs y Scielo. Se incorporaron estudios que incluyeran población ≥18 años, con uso de CNAF o VNI. Se excluyeron estudios en población con antecedentes de disfagia, necesidad de intubación, presencia de enfermedad neurológica, neuromuscular o respiratoria, entre otros. Los resultados de los estudios muestran que la CNAF podría disminuir el número de degluciones (en flujos ≥ 20 L/min; p<0,05),disminuir el tiempo medio de activación de la respuesta deglutoria proporcional al flujo empleado (p<0,05), incrementar el riesgo aspirativo en flujos altos (>40 L/min, p<0,05) e incrementar en promedio la duración del cierre del vestíbulo laríngeo (p<0,001). La VNI modo BiPAP, por su parte, podría aumentar el riesgo aspirativo debido al incremento en la tasa de inspiración post deglución (SW-I, p<0,01). Si bien la evidencia disponible es limitada, los resultados aportan información relevante a considerar en el abordaje de usuarios que utilicen estos dispositivos ventilatorios. Futuras investigaciones deberían ser desarrolladas para fortalecer la evidencia presentada.


Deglutition requires adequatecoordination between breathing and swallowing. In the clinical context, the use of non-invasive ventilatory devices such as high-flow nasal cannulas(HFNC) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has become highlyrelevantin recent years. However, there is little information regarding howthese devices could interferewith the physiologyof deglutition. This study aimedto describe the impact of HFNC and NIV on swallowing physiology. To this end, aliterature review was carried out usingPubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs,and Scielo. Studies performed onpopulations≥18 years old where HFNC or NIV were used were included. Studies where thepopulation hada history of dysphagia, need for intubation, and presentedneurological, neuromuscular,or respiratory diseases, among others, were excluded. The results show that HFNC could decrease the swallowing rate(with flows≥ 20 L/min; p<.05), decrease the mean activation time of the swallowing reflex in proportion to the flow (p<.05), increase the risk of aspiration when usinghigherflows (>40 L/min, p<0.05),and increase the average duration of the laryngeal vestibuleclosure(p<.001).NIV, particularly BiPAP, could increase the risk of aspiration due to the higherrate of post-swallowing inspiration (SW-I, p<.01). Although the evidence available on this matter is limited, theseresults offerrelevant information that should beconsideredwhen working with patients who use these ventilatory devices. Furtherresearch should be carriedoutto strengthen the evidence that is provided in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition/physiology , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects
13.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 23(40): 60-66, dic.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1401637

ABSTRACT

La manera de proveer oxígeno ha sido una idea en permanente evolución que ha gatillado en los médicos la inquietud de implementar distintos dispositivos de soporte, desde la cánula nasal, la máscara de reinhalación y bajo flujo, hasta la presión continua en la vía aérea (CPAP) y la ventilación no invasiva (VNI). Recientemente se ha insertado entre ambos extremos mencionados un nuevo dispositivo que provee oxígeno a alto flujo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir aspectos clínicos y técnicos en la administración de Oxigenoterapia de Alto Flujo (OAF) en pacientes pediátricos del Hospital de Niños de la Santísima Trinidad, en el servicio de UEPE (Unidad estabilización pediátrica en emergencia) 2017 y SIP (sala de internación pediátrica) 500 2018, 2019, en el periodo estival. Se realizó un Estudio descriptivo transversal, retrospectivo. El universo fueron los pacientes pediátricos que recibieron OAF en el Hospital de Niños Santísima Trinidad, en el servicio de UEPE del 2017 y SIP 500 2018, 2019 en el periodo estival. Se utilizó como instrumento la tabla de volcado de datos. Los principales resultados demuestran que se asistieron un total de 697 pacientes. La edad prevalente fue de menores de 6 meses, con un promedio del 60%. Los niños que requerían este tratamiento, en su gran mayoría ingresaban por diagnóstico de bronquiolitis, seguido de BOR (bronquitis obstructiva recurrente).En relación al escore de tal modifcado al ingreso, podemos observar que en el sector de UEPE la media es de 8, mientras que la SIP 500 es de 7. En referente al recurso material, existen varios sistemas de OAF. No hay estudios que demuestren la superioridad de un sistema sobre otro.Por último, se observó que el haber implementado esta técnica en la institución, se logró evitar en gran numero la escalada ventilatoria máxima requerida, ya que en el servicio de UEPE la evolución fue 65% la OAF, mientras que en la SIP 500 en el 2018 fue 72%y en el 2019 fue 79%. Por lo que podemos establecer que la OAF logra una mejoría clínica a través de su impacto en el síndrome funcional respiratorio, así como en el score de Tal modifcado en los niños y permite un tratamiento de estos pacientes en salas de internado general, con mínimos efectos adversos, disminuyendo el ingreso a cuidados intensivos[AU]


Te way to provide oxygen has been an idea in constant evolution that has triggered in doctors the concern to implement different support devices, from the nasal cannula, the rebreathing mask and low flow, to continuous pressure in the airway (CPAP). ) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Recently, a new device that provides high-flow oxygen has been inserted between both extremes. Te objective of the present work was to describe clinical and technical aspects in the administration of High Flow Oxygen Terapy (OAF) in pediatric patients of the Santísima Trinidad Children's Hospital, in the UEPE service (Emergency Pediatric Stabilization Unit) 2017 and SIP ( pediatric hospitalization room) 500 2018, 2019, in the summer period. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. Te universe was the pediatric patients who received HFO at the Santísima Trinidad Children's Hospital, in the UEPE service in 2017 and SIP 500 2018, 2019 in the summer period. Te data dump table was used as an instrument. Te main results show that a total of 697 patients were attended. Te prevalent age was under 6 months, with an average of 60%. Te vast majority of children who required this treatment were admitted due to a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, followed by BOR (recurrent obstructive bronchitis). In relation to the score of such modifed on admission, we can observe that in the UEPE sector the mean is 8, while the SIP 500 is 7. Regarding the material resource, there are several OAF systems. Tere are no studies that demonstrate the superiority of one system over another. Finally, it was observed that having implemented this technique in the institution, the maximum required ventilatory escalation was avoided in large numbers, since in the UEPE service the evolution was 65% of the OAF, while in the SIP 500 in 2018 it was 72% and in 2019 it was 79%. Terefore, we can establish that HFO achieves clinical improvement through its impact on functional respiratory syndrome, as well as on the modifed Tal score in children, and allows treatment of these patients in general hospital wards, with minimal effects. adverse effects, reducing admission to intensive care[AU]


A forma de fornecer oxigênio tem sido uma ideia em constante evolução que desencadeou nos médicos a preocupação em implementar diferentes dispositivos de suporte, desde a cânula nasal, a máscara de reinalação e baixo fluxo, até a pressão contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP). ) -ventilação invasiva (VNI). Recentemente, um novo dispositivo que fornece oxigênio de alto fluxo foi inserido entre os dois extremos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever aspectos clínicos e técnicos na administração de Oxigenoterapia de Alto Fluxo (OAF) em pacientes pediátricos do Hospital Infantil Santísima Trinidad, no serviço UEPE (Unidade de Emergência Pediátrica de Estabilização) 2017 e SIP (internação pediátrica quarto) 500 2018, 2019, no período de verão. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal retrospectivo. O universo foram os pacientes pediátricos que receberam HFO no Hospital Infantil Santísima Trinidad, no serviço da UEPE em 2017 e SIP 500 2018, 2019 no período de verão. A tabela de despejo de dados foi utilizada como instrumento. Os principais resultados mostram que foram atendidos um total de 697 pacientes, sendo a idade prevalente inferior a 6 meses, com média de 60%. A grande maioria das crianças que necessitaram desse tratamento foi internada por diagnóstico de bronquiolite, seguido de BOR (bronquite obstrutiva recorrente). Em relação ao escore desta modifcada na admissão, observa-se que no setor da UEPE a média é 8 , enquanto o SIP 500 é 7. Em relação ao recurso material, existem vários sistemas OAF. Não há estudos que demonstrem a superioridade de um sistema sobre o outro. Por fm, observou-se que com a implantação dessa técnica na instituição, evitou-se em grande número o escalonamento ventilatório máximo necessário, pois no serviço da UEPE a evolução foi de 65% de na OAF, enquanto no SIP 500 em 2018 foi de 72% e em 2019 foi de 79%. Portanto, podemos estabelecer que a HFO obtém melhora clínica por meio de seu impacto na síndrome respiratória funcional, bem como no escore de Tal modifcado em crianças, e permite o tratamento desses pacientes em enfermarias de hospital geral, com efeitos mínimos. tratamento intensivo[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/nursing , Bronchiolitis , Critical Care , Noninvasive Ventilation
14.
Medisan ; 26(5)sept.-oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405838

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La monitorización del dióxido de carbono espirado se utiliza con frecuencia en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, pero su empleo en ventilación no invasiva es escaso. Objetivo: Identificar la asociación entre la presión arterial de dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de carbono espirado, durante la ventilación no invasiva, en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 126 pacientes ingresados con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada, tratados con ventilación no invasiva en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2019 hasta igual mes de 2022, seleccionados por muestreo intencional no probabilístico. Se analizaron variables clínicas, ventilatorias y hemogasométricas, de las cuales se identificaron los valores mínimo y máximo, así como la media, la desviación estándar y la mediana. Se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Los valores promedio de dióxido de carbono espirado fueron 57,83+8,9 y los de presión arterial de dióxido de carbono, de 59,85+9,3. Al analizar la correlación entre las variables se observó correlación positiva entre ambas, para un coeficiente de correlación de Pearson de 0,920. Conclusiones: La monitorización del dióxido de carbono espirado se erige como una variable a considerar en la monitorización de los pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica agudizada, tratados con ventilación no invasiva, siempre que se utilice la máscara facial adecuada y se controlen las fugas, con fuerte correlación con la presión arterial del dióxido de carbono.


Introduction: The monitoring of the carbon dioxide exhaled is frequently used in the intensive cares units, but its use in non invasive ventilation is scarce. Objective: To identify the association between the blood pressure of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide exhaled, during non invasive ventilation, in patients with acute chronic obstructive lung disease. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 126 patients admitted with acute chronic obstructive lung disease was carried out, they were treated with non invasive ventilation, in the Intensive Cares Unit of Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2019 to the same month in 2022, selected by intentional non probabilistic sampling. Clinical, ventilatory and hemogasometric variables were analyzed, of which the minimum and maximum values were identified, as well as the mean, standard and medium deviation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was applied. Results: The average values of carbon dioxide exhaled were 57.83 ± 8.9 and those of arterial pressure of carbon dioxide, 59.85± 9.3. When analyzing the correlation among the variables, positive correlation was observed among both, for a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.920. Conclusions: The monitoring of carbon dioxide exhaled acts as a variable to consider in the monitoring of patients with acute chronic obstructive lung disease, treated with non invasive ventilation, whenever the appropriate face mask is used and the leaks are controlled, with strong correlation with the arterial pressure of the carbon dioxide.


Subject(s)
Capnography , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Noninvasive Ventilation
15.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441675

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ventilación mecánica no invasiva es una alternativa ventilatoria para los casos con COVID-19. Objetivo: Describir las características y la evolución de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva en los pacientes egresados en el Centro Provisional para pacientes moderados con COVID-19 en Figali, Panamá. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, longitudinal. Incluyó a todos los pacientes adultos egresados entre junio y julio del 2021 que recibieron ventilación mecánica no invasiva. Se utilizó un cuestionario cuya fuente primaria fue la historia clínica individual digital. Se emplearon técnicas de la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: De 217 ingresados con COVID-19 moderado, 78 (35,9 por ciento) necesitaron ventilación mecánica no invasiva, iniciada con media al noveno día de síntomas y segundo después del ingreso. De estos, el 62,8 por ciento eran obesos y el 29,5 por ciento hipertensos. En el 56,4 por ciento, la frecuencia respiratoria ≥30 y la disminución de la razón PaO2/FiO2 fueron los indicadores principales que decidieron el inicio de la VMNI. Del total de ventilados, el 62,8 por ciento tuvo un síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo moderado-grave y esto se relacionó con el fracaso de la ventilación. La ventilación fue exitosa en el 65,4 por ciento. La razón PaO2/FiO2 <150 (62,9 por ciento), la frecuencia respiratoria ≥30 (55,6 por cientpo y el agotamiento físico (51,85 por ciento), indicaron la falla de la ventilación. Conclusiones: La ventilación mecánica no invasiva es un proceder efectivo en pacientes con COVID-19 y distrés respiratorio moderado o severo; aunque su éxito se relaciona con las formas menos graves. La PaO2/FiO2 baja junto a la clínica, fueron indicadores clave para evaluar inicio, éxito o fracaso de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva; no así los valores de PaO2, PaCO2 y SpO2(AU)


Introduction: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a ventilatory alternative for COVID-19 cases. Objective: To describe the characteristics and evolution of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients discharged from Provisional Center for moderate COVID-19 patients in Figali, Panama. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal stu was carried out in all adult patients discharged from June to July 2021 and who received non-invasive mechanical ventilation. A questionnaire was used using the digital individual medical record as primary source. Descriptive statistics techniques were used. Results: 35.9percent of the patients (78/217) who were admitted required non-invasive mechanical ventilation on the ninth day of symptoms and the second day after admission. 62.8percent (49/78) were obese and 29.5percent (23/78) hypertensive. The respiratory rate ≥30 and the decrease in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio decided the begining of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in 56.4percent (78/217) of those admitted. 62.8percent (49/78) had moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the severity was related to ventilation failure out of the total number of ventilated patients. Ventilation was successful in 65.4percent (51/78). PaO2/FiO2 <150 (62.9percent), respiratory rate ≥30 (55.6percent) and physical exhaustion (51.85percent) decided ventilation failure. Conclusions: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is an effective procedure in COVID-19 patients and moderate or severe respiratory distress; although its success is related to the less severe forms. Low PaO2/FiO2, together with symptoms, were key indicators to assess the begining, success or failure of NIMV; not so the values of PaO2, PaCO2 and SpO2(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
16.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(3)set. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401757

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study to assess medical records of patients with ALS followed-up at the State Rehabilitation and Readaptation Medical Center Dr. Henrique Santillo, Goiânia, GO, Brazil, between 2005 and 2018. In addition, we registered and created a photographic panel with the main clinical findings of ALS cases. Results: From 224 investigated patients, 51.8% were male, and 67.4% manifested the classic form of the disease. Initial symptoms were more frequent in the lower limbs (37.9%), and complications resulted in 45.5% of tracheostomy, 60.3% of gastrostomy, and 49.1% of deaths. Most patients had a five-year survival from the onset of symptoms, and no significant association between the use of non-invasive ventilation and increased survival were found. The analysis of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics showed a more extended time between the first symptoms and the diagnosis of the disease was observed. Conclusion: In this study, the time between the first symptoms and diagnosis was longer than in the literature, resulting in late treatments. In addition, there was no satisfactory result regarding survival with the use of non-invasive ventilation. Therefore, clinical-epidemiological studies of the disease in Brazil, as well as public awareness and training of professionals in recognition of ALS clinical signs will assist in early and more efficient interventions (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes com Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal descritivo para avaliação de prontuários de pacientes com ELA acompanhados no Centro Médico Estadual de Reabilitação e Readaptação Dr. Henrique Santillo, Goiânia, GO, Brasil, entre 2005 e 2018. Além disso, registramos e criamos um painel fotográfico com os principais achados clínicos dos casos de ELA. Resultados: Dos 224 pacientes investigados, 51,8% eram do sexo masculino e 67,4% manifestavam a forma clássica da doença. Os sintomas iniciais foram mais frequentes em membros inferiores (37,9%) e as complicações resultaram em 45,5% de traqueostomia, 60,3% de gastrostomia e 49,1% de óbitos. A maioria dos pacientes teve sobrevida de cinco anos desde o início dos sintomas, e nenhuma associação significativa entre o uso de ventilação não-invasiva e aumento da sobrevida foi encontrada. A análise das características clínico-epidemiológicas mostrou um tempo mais prolongado entre os primeiros sintomas e o diagnóstico da doença. Conclusão: Neste estudo, o tempo entre os primeiros sintomas e o diagnóstico foi maior quando comparado à literatura, resultando em tratamentos tardios. Além disso, não houve resultado satisfatório em termos de sobrevida com o uso da ventilação não-invasiva. Portanto, estudos clínico-epidemiológicos sobre a doença no Brasil, bem como a conscientização pública e o treinamento de profissionais para o reconhecimento dos sinais clínicos de ELA, auxiliarão em intervenções precoces e mais eficazes (AU)


Subject(s)
Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Noninvasive Ventilation , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/epidemiology
17.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e304, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1383645

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el síndrome de Hamman es la aparición de neumomediastino espontáneo asociado a enfisema, patología poco frecuente en pediatría. Sus síntomas principales son dolor torácico agudo, disnea y enfisema subcutáneo. Objetivo: describir una experiencia clínica en la que se sospechó este síndrome analizando el proceso diagnóstico, estudios complementarios y el tratamiento. Caso clínico: varón de 4 años, con antecedentes personales de laringitis a repetición. Presenta laringitis aguda severa, requirió ventilación no invasiva por 12 horas. A las 24 horas del ingreso instaló de forma brusca estridor inspiratorio, dificultad respiratoria, edema de cuello y cara con crepitación a nivel de cuello y cara anterior del tórax que se fue extendiendo a ambos brazos. Se realiza radiografía de tórax que evidencia enfisema subcutáneo extenso. Se realiza tomografía de cuello y tórax que descarta lesión en vía aérea. Con el planteo de síndrome de Hamman en un niño que presentaba como factor predisponente el episodio de laringitis aguda, se decidió no continuar con estudios complementarios. Se realizó tratamiento fisiopatológico con buena evolución clínica. Alta a la semana del ingreso. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico en la urgencia del neumomediastino espontáneo puede representar un desafío, con una variedad de diagnósticos diferenciales potencialmente mortales. La alta sospecha permitirá realizar una evaluación clínica e imagenológica adecuada que permitan confirmar su diagnóstico y evitar procedimientos invasivos innecesarios.


Introduction: Hamman's syndrome involves the appearance of spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with emphysema, a rare pathology in pediatrics. Its main symptoms include acute chest pain, dyspnea and subcutaneous emphysema. Objective: to describe a clinical case of this suspected syndrome by analyzing the diagnostic process, supplementary studies, and treatment. Clinical case: 4-year-old male with personal history of repeated laryngitis. He presented severe acute laryngitis, requiring non-invasive ventilation for 12 hours. Twenty-four hours after admission he developed abrupt inspiratory stridency, respiratory distress, neck, and face edema with crepitation at neck level and front of thorax spreading to both arms. A chest X-ray shows extensive subcutaneous emphysema. A neck and chest CT scan rules out airway injury. With the suggestion of Hamman's syndrome in a child who presented acute laryngitis as a predisposing factor the episode, it was decided not to continue with additional studies. Physio-pathological treatment was carried out with good clinical evolution. He was discharged a week after admission. Conclusions: diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum can be challenging in an emergency setting and having a variety of potentially life-threatening differential diagnoses. High suspicion levels will enable an adequate clinical and imaging assessment to confirm its diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive procedures.


Introdução: síndrome de Hammam é o aparecimento de pneumomediastino espontâneo associado ao enfisema, uma patologia rara na pediatria. Seus principais sintomas são dor aguda no peito, dispneia e enfisema subcutâneo. Objetivo: descrever um caso clínico com suspeita dessa síndrome por meio da análise do processo diagnóstico, estudos complementares e tratamento. Caso clínico: menino de 4 anos com histórico pessoal de laringite recorrente. Teve laringite aguda grave, o que exigiu ventilação não invasiva por 12 horas. Dentro de 24 horas após a internação, instalou-se abruptamente estridor inspirador, dificuldade respiratória, edema do pescoço e rosto com estalos ao nível do pescoço e face anterior do peito, estendido para ambos braços. Raios-x do tórax mostram enfisema subcutâneo extenso. Tomografia do pescoço e tórax exclui lesões nas vias aéreas. Com a sugestão da síndrome de Hammam em uma criança que apresentou como fator predisponente o episódio de laringite aguda, decidiu-se não continuar com estudos complementares. O tratamento fisiopatológico mostrou boa evolução clínica. A alta teve lugar dentro de uma semana da data da internação. Conclusões: o diagnóstico na urgência do pneumomediastino espontâneo pode representar um desafio, além do mais quando existem uma variedade de diagnósticos diferenciais que ameaçam a vida. A alta suspeita permitirá uma avaliação clínica e de imagem adequada para confirmar o diagnóstico e evitar procedimentos invasivos desnecessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/therapy , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Chest Pain , Noninvasive Ventilation , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/complications
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408146

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La alteración en el intercambio gaseoso es una complicación de la cirugía cardíaca con circulación extracorpórea. La causa de este deterioro es multifactorial. Durante la derivación, ambos pulmones colapsan y al término de la circulación extracorpórea los pulmones se vuelven a expandir, sin existir una técnica estándar para ello. La aplicación de reclutamiento alveolar durante la anestesia general en este tipo de cirugía mejora la oxigenación arterial. Objetivo: Describir aspectos esenciales de fisiopatología de la injuria pulmonar asociada a la ventilación mecánica en procedimientos quirúrgicos cardíacos y el efecto de la ventilación mecánica protectora perioperatoria como estrategia para prevenirla. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura publicada durante el período comprendido entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2020 que hiciera referencia a las estrategias de ventilación mecánica protectora en cirugía cardiovascular. Resultados: La evidencia experimental y clínica sugiere que los bajos volúmenes corrientes de ventilación pulmonar y la aplicación por un corto período del aumento de las presiones inspiratorias, conocidas como "maniobras de reclutamiento" seguidas de la aplicación de presión positiva al final de la espiración para mantener los alveolos reclutados abiertos, incrementan la capacidad residual funcional y reducen la injuria pulmonar asociada a la ventilación mecánica. Estas recomendaciones han sido extrapoladas de estudios retrospectivos realizados en otro tipo de poblaciones. Conclusiones: No existe evidencia contundente de que esta estrategia disminuya la respuesta proinflamatoria, mejore la función pulmonar posoperatoria y disminuya la mortalidad perioperatoria, cuando se compara con la ventilación convencional(AU)


Introduction: The alteration in gas exchange is a complication of cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The cause of this deterioration is multifactorial. During the shunt, both lungs collapse and at the end of the extracorporeal circulation the lungs expand again, without a standard technique for it. The application of alveolar recruitment during general anesthesia in this type of surgery improves arterial oxygenation. Multiple strategies are used and have as a reference the extracorporeal circulation and its contribution to the pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response. This forces the anesthesiologist to understand the pathophysiology of lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. Objective: Describe essential aspects of pathophysiology of pulmonary injury associated with mechanical ventilation in cardiac surgical procedures and the effect of perioperative protective mechanical ventilation as a strategy to prevent it. Method: A search of the literature published during the period between January 1990 and December 2020 was carried out that referred to protective mechanical ventilation strategies in cardiovascular surgery. Results: Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that low current volumes of pulmonary ventilation and the application for a short period of increased inspiratory pressures, known as "recruitment maneuvers" followed by the application of positive pressure at the end of expiration to keep the recruited alveoli open, increase functional residual capacity and reduce lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. These recommendations have been extrapolated from retrospective studies conducted in other types of populations. Conclusions: There is no strong evidence that this strategy decreases the pro-inflammatory response, improves postoperative lung function and decreases perioperative mortality, when compared to conventional ventilation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods
19.
Brasília; CONITEC; mar. 2022.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1368853

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O baricitinbe, um imunomodulador que atua sobre a atividade da IL-6 (citocina pró-inflamatória), pode representar uma estratégia para o tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19 que tiveram comprometimento pulmonar devido a resposta hiperinflamátoria desencadeada pela tempestade de citocinas característica na infecção causada pelo vírus SARS-COV2. TECNOLOGIA: Baricitinibe (Olumiant®). EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: Para seleção das evidências clínicas foi conduzida uma revisão sistemática da literatura em busca de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR), estudos observacionais (mundo real) e revisões sistemáticas que avaliassem os efeitos do baricitinibe como monoterapia ou associado aos cuidados usuais - definidos aqui como 'terapia padrão' (corticoesteróides sistêmicos, anticoagulantes, antimicrobianos/antivirais) no tratamento de pacientes adultos com COVID-19, hospitalizados e que necessitam de suplementação de oxigênio (máscara ou cateter nasal, alto fluxo de oxigênio ou ventilação não invasiva). As buscas eletrônicas foram realizadas nas bases de dados: the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via Pubmed, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), EMBASE e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). O risco de viés dos estudos primários incluídos foi avaliado pelas ferramentas Risk of Bias versão 2 da Cochrane (para ECR) ou ROBINS-I (para estudos observacionais), e a qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada pela ferramenta AMSTAR-2. A qualidade da evidência foi avaliada pelo sistema GRADE. Seis artigos foram incluídos na presente revisão, sendo dois deles referentes a um ensaio clínico randomizado (ECR), um estudo observacional e três revisões sistemáticas com meta-análise (RSMA), sendo uma


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Unified Health System , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Inpatients
20.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(1)2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396790

ABSTRACT

La ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) es una estrategia importante de manejo en el paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA). En la pandemia por COVID-19 los innumerables casos de SDRA han llevado al uso de otros dispositivos de oxigenación no invasivos, que han expuesto al paciente a mayor esfuerzo respiratorio, evidenciándose lo que se conoce como "lesión pulmonar autoinducida por el paciente" (P-SILI, por sus siglas en inglés). El objetivo de esta revisión es exponer la evidencia científica disponible relacionada con este fenómeno en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura del tema mencionado; la búsqueda se realizó hasta septiembre de 2020 en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Central y Google Académico y se seleccionaron los artículos más representativos. La VMI es fundamental en el tratamiento del SDRA, pero en manos inexpertas puede generar lesión pulmonar por diferentes mecanismos. Por otro lado, el uso de otros dispositivos de ventilación no invasiva como la cánula nasal de alto flujo, podrían favorecer la P-SILI, una condición que al parecer, perpetúa la inflamación y lesión pulmonar inicial al paciente en respiración espontánea. La información disponible aún es insuficiente.


In the COVID-19 pandemic, invasive mechanical ventilation is an important management strategy in handling patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The multitudinous ARDS cases have resulted in use of other non-invasive oxygenation devices, which expose the patient to a greater breathing effort, developing patient self-induced lung injury (PSILI). The goal of the present review is to present the available scientific evidence associated with this phenomenon in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A narrative literature review on the topic was performed with a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Google Scholar databases until September 2020. Based on the abstracts the most representative articles were selected. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IVM) is essential in ARDS, however, in unexperienced hands it can lead to lung injury by different mechanisms. In other side, ARDS patients have been managed with other non-invasive ventilation devices, such as high-flow nasal cannula, which favor PSILI; a condition that apparently perpetuates initial lung lesion and inflammation by different mechanisms, when patients are submitted to spontaneous breathing. The information is still insufficient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Injury , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
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