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1.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e220108, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529144

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the frequency of self-medication and knowledge about out-of-counter drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic in a group of Iranian dental students. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among dental undergraduates from September 2021 to November 2021 after receiving ethical clearance from the Kerman Medical University Ethical Committee. A valid and reliable questionnaire, consisting of demographic data and questions about self-medication and knowledge about out-of-counter drugs, was sent to participants via E-mail. Data was analyzed by SPSS 26 software by using a t-test. The P-value was considered at a 0.05% significant level. Results: A total of 88 students participated in the study with a mean age of 21.39±3.71 years. Prevalence of self-medication was found in 53.4%. The most common cause for self-medication was headache. Acetaminophen was the most commonly used medicine for self-medication. Females had more self-medication than males, but there was no significant differences. There was no significant differences between entering year to university and self-medication. Younger students had significantly more self-medication (p=0.007). Knowledge about out-of-counter drugs was moderate. Conclusion: Moderate self-medication as noticed. The out-of-counter drugs were the most used. Although out-of-counter drugs seem relatively safe, their improper use can cause serious side effects. Dental students need to be educated regarding appropriate safe medication and out-of-counter drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Self Medication , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nonprescription Drugs , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Iran
2.
Univ. salud ; 25(2): E9-E18, mayo-ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1510644

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los medicamentos de venta libre (OTC por su sigla en inglés Over The Counter), son ampliamente usados por la mayoría de las personas a nivel mundial, sin embargo, solamente son usados de forma responsable en países donde existe una farmacia comunitaria profesional legalizada. Objetivo: Describir los hábitos de consumo de medicamentos de venta libre por estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, desarrollado en tres universidades de Cartagena. Se aplicó un instrumento tipo encuesta a 140 estudiantes acerca de hábitos de consumo y conocimiento sobre OTC, creencias, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: El cuestionario presentó una consistencia interna alta con Alfa de Cronbach'sde 0,77. El 59% fueron mujeres, las en edades entre 16-30 años, el 91% estuvo de acuerdo que la automedicación es perjudicial. Sin embargo, 61% asegura automedicarse porque los padecimientos son menores y frecuentes. Los medicamentos de mayor consumo, fueron el acetaminofén 52,9% y los medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINES) con 16,48%, incluyeron en sus respuestas medicamentos de no venta libre. Conclusión: Los estudiantes son conscientes del riesgo de la automedicación, sin embargo, la practican de forma frecuente. Muchos reportaron consumo de medicamentos como amitriptilina, antibióticos, opiáceos, furosemida y corticoides.


Introduction: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are widely used worldwide, however they are responsibly used only in countries with legalized professional community pharmacies. Objective:To describe over-the-counter medication use habits in university students from health programs. Materials and methods:Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in three universities from Cartagena. A survey-type instrument was applied to 140 students, asking about their use habits and knowledge regarding OTC, beliefs, attitudes and practices. Results:The questionnaire showed a high internal inconsistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.77. 59% of participants were women aged between 16 to 30 years old and 91% agreed that self-medication is harmful. Nevertheless, 61% self-medicated because of minor and frequent conditions. OTC medications with the highest use were acetaminophen (52.9%) and NSAIDs (16.48%). Conclusions:Even though students are aware of the self-medication risks, they still practice it frequently. Many participants reported the use of medications such as amitriptyline, antibiotics, opioids, furosemide, and corticosteroids.


Introdução:Os medicamentos isentos de prescrição (OTCOver The Counter) são amplamente utilizados pela maioria das pessoas em todo o mundo, porém somente são usados de forma responsável em países onde existe uma farmácia comunitária profissional legalizada. Objetivo: Descrever os hábitos de consumo de medicamentos isentos de prescrição por universitários da área da saúde. Materiais e métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal, desenvolvido em três universidades de Cartagena. Foi aplicado um instrumento do tipo inquérito a 140 alunos sobre hábitos de consumo e conhecimentos sobre OTC, crenças, atitudes e práticas. Resultados: O questionário apresentou alta consistência interna com Alfa de Cronbach ́sde 0,77. 59% eram mulheres, com idades entre 16 e 30 anos, 91% concordaram que a automedicação é prejudicial. No entanto, 61% dizem que se automedicam porque os males são leves e frequentes. Os medicamentos de maior consumo foram o acetaminofeno 52,9% e os anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais com 16,48%, incluindo medicamentos isentos de prescrição em suas respostas. Conclusão: Os alunos estão cientes do risco da automedicação, porém isto é praticado com frequência. Muitos relataram consumo de medicamentos como amitriptilina, antibióticos, opioides, furosemida e corticosteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Self Medication , Nonprescription Drugs , Acetaminophen
3.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1537194

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Non-prescription tranquilizers are a specific group of benzodiazepines, used as drugs that act on the central nervous system and have an extensive effect in patients with anxiety disorders and problems in sleep stages. Objective: To determine the prevalence of the year and month of consumption of tranquilizers without a medical prescription and the associated factors, in adolescents in school in Colombia. Methods: It is a cross-sec-tional study with an analytical scope. The universe of the study consisted of 3,243,377 students, from grades 7 to 11 (aged between 12 and 18 years), the valid surveys were 80,018. The adolescent who declared having used tranquilizers during the last 30 days and the last 12 months was considered a consumer. All variables were self-re-ported by adolescents. Results: The prevalence of tranquilizer use without medical prescription was 1.02% and 1.97% (month and year, respectively). Adolescents who presented disciplinary problems are the most predisposed to use during the last month with an OR 2.79 (95% CI: 2.20­3.53) and last year an OR of 2.77 (95 % CI: 2.34­3.27). Conclusions: There is a higher prevalence of the consumption of tranquilizers without medical prescription in women between 14 and 17 years of age, from mixed schools and it is associated with academic and disciplinary performance problems, in the last year. In addition, as age increases, the consumption of substances without a medical prescription increases


Introducción: Los tranquilizantes sin prescripción médica son un grupo específico de benzodiacepinas, usados como medicamentos que actúan sobre el sistema nervioso central y cuentan con un extenso efecto en pacientes con trastornos de ansiedad y problemas en las etapas del sueño. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de año y mes de consumo de tranquilizantes sin prescripción médica y los factores asociados en adolescentes escolarizados de Colombia. Métodos: Estudio transversal con alcance analítico. El universo del estudio estuvo constituido por 3 243 377 estudiantes de los gados 7.º a 11.º (con edades entre 12 y 18 años). Las encuestas válidas fueron 80 018. Se consideró consumidor al adolescente que declaró haber consumido tranquilizantes durante los últimos 30 días y los últimos 12 meses. Todas las variables fueron autorreportadas por los adolescentes. Resultados: La prevalencia de consumo de tranquilizantes sin prescripción médica fue del 1,02 % y del 1,97 % (mes y año, respectivamente). Los adolescentes que presentaron problemas disciplinarios son los más predispuestos al consumo durante el último mes con un OR de 2,79 (IC95 %: 2,20-3,53) y último año un OR de 2,77 (IC95 %: 2,34-3,27). Conclusiones: Existe mayor prevalencia de consumo de tranquilizantes sin prescripción médica en mujeres entre los 14 y los 17 años, de colegios mixtos, y se encuentra asociada con problemas de rendimiento académico y disciplinarios, en el último año. Además, a medida que aumenta la edad, se incrementa el consumo de sustancias sin prescripción médica


Introdução: Os tranquilizantes isentos de prescrição são um grupo específico de benzodiazepínicos, usados como medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso central e têm um efeito extenso em pa-cientes com transtornos de ansiedade e problemas no estágio do sono. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência anual e mensal do uso de tranquilizantes sem prescrição médica e os fatores associados em adolescentes em idade escolar na Colômbia. Métodos: Estudo transversal com escopo analítico. O universo do estudo consistiu em 3243377 alunos da 7ª à 11ª série (com idades entre 12 e 18 anos). Foram realizadas 80018 pesquisas válidas. Um adolescente foi considerado usuário, o qual relatou ter usado tranquilizantes nos últimos 30 dias e nos últimos 12 meses. Todas as variáveis foram autorrelatadas pelos adolescentes. Resultados: A prevalência do uso de tranquilizantes sem prescrição médica foi de 1,02% e 1,97% (mês e ano, respectivamente). Os adolescentes com problemas disciplinares apresentaram maior pro-babilidade de uso no último mês, com um OR de 2,79 (IC95%: 2,20-3,53) e no último ano, com um OR de 2,77 (IC95%: 2,34-3,27). Conclusões: Há uma maior prevalência de uso de tranquilizantes sem prescrição médica em mulheres de 14 a 17 anos, de escolas mistas, e isso está associado a problemas de desempenho acadêmico e disciplinar no último ano. Além disso, com o aumento da idade, aumenta o uso de substâncias sem prescrição médica.


Subject(s)
Tranquilizing Agents , Benzodiazepines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Behavior , Nonprescription Drugs
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1700-1704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970642

ABSTRACT

Chinese patent medicines(CPMs) are unique therapeutic drugs in China. Establishing and improving the evaluation criteria is an important measure to promote the high-quality development of CPMs. Based on the "evaluation criteria of high-grade CPMs with quality as the core index" established by our group in 2018, the "high-quality evaluation criteria for CPMs based on whole process control" was proposed in the present study in 2022. The scope of application and basic principles of the new criteria were clarified. A quality evaluation scoring table was established in the new criteria, including five parts: raw material selection, production process, quality control, efficacy evaluation, and brand building. The technical evaluation indexes involved have increased from 20% in the original criteria to 70% in the new criteria, and efficacy evaluation has been added in the new criteria. The subjective evaluation indicators account for a large proportion in the original criteria, which is prone to bias. The improved criteria overcome this shortcoming. It is expected that the new criteria as a basis can play a better role in the selection of high-quality products of CPMs, guide enterprises and institutions to participate actively in the evaluation and research of high-quality CPMs, and promote the high-quality development of CPMs.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Nonprescription Drugs , Chlorobenzenes , China
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 256-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970521

ABSTRACT

Currently,the research or publications related to the clinical comprehensive evaluation of Chinese patent medicine are increasing,which attracts the broad attention of all circles. According to the completed clinical evaluation report on Chinese patent medicine,there are still practical problems and technical difficulties such as unclear responsibility of the evaluation organization,unclear evaluation subject,miscellaneous evaluation objects,and incomplete and nonstandard evaluation process. In terms of evaluation standards and specifications,there are different types of specifications or guidelines with different emphases issued by different academic groups or relevant institutions. The professional guideline is required to guide the standardized and efficient clinical comprehensive evaluation of Chinese patent medicine and further improve the authority and quality of evaluation. In combination with the characteristics of Chinese patent medicine and the latest research achievement at home and abroad,the detailed specifications were formulated from six aspects including design,theme selection,content and index,outcome,application and appraisal,and quality control. The guideline was developed based on the guideline development requirements of China Assoication of Chinese medicine. After several rounds of expert consensus and public consultation,the current version of the guideline has been developed.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Consensus , China , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 234-246, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970519

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines containing Hirudo in the treatment of atherosclerosis(AS) by network Meta-analysis, and to provide evidence-based reference for clinical treatment of AS. The clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) on the treatment of atherosclerosis with Chinese patent medicines containing Hirudo were searched in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed and EMbase from the establishment of the databases to July 1, 2022. And data extraction and quality assessment of the included RCT was performed according to the Cochrane standards. Stata 17 and ADDIS 1.16.5 were then used for Bayesian model network Meta-analysis. Finally, 67 RCTs with a total sample size of 6 826 cases were included, 3 569 cases in the experimental group and 3 257 cases in the control group, involving three oral Chinese patent medicines. Network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of reducing intima-media thickness(IMT), the top three Chinese patent medicines were Tongxinluo Capsules+sta-tins>Maixuekang Capsules+statins>Maixuekang Capsules. In terms of reducing plaque area, the top one was Maixuekang Capsules+sta-tins, and the other Chinese patent medicines had similar efficacy. For lowering AS Crouse scores, the top three were Maixuekang Capsules>Tongxinluo Capsules+statins>Naoxintong Capsules. For decreasing plaque number, the top three were Naoxintong Capsules+sta-tins>Tongxinluo Capsules+statins>Tongxinluo Capsules. With regard to adverse reactions/events, Naoxintong Capsules+statins had the lo-west incidence. In conclusion, in Chinese patent medicines containing Hirudo for the treatment of AS, Tongxinluo Capsules+statins, Maixuekang Capsules, Maixuekang Capsules+statins, and Naoxintong Capsules+statins were the primary choices to reduce IMT, AS Crouse scores, plaque area, and plaque number, respectively. The efficacy of Chinese patent medicines containing Hirudo with or without statins was more significant than that of statins alone in the four outcome indexes. Additionally, the treatment of AS should be evaluated comprehensively, and attention should be paid to Chinese patent medicines or their combination with western medicine, to optimize the treatment effect and minimize adverse reactions as the benchmark.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Capsules , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Bayes Theorem , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 292-299, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970465

ABSTRACT

Caused by endocrine disorder, hyperplasia of mammary glands(HMG) tends to occur in the young with increasing incidence, putting patients at the risk of cancer and threatening the health of women. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of HMG is attracting more and more attention. Amid the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), many scholars have found that Chinese patent medicine has unique advantages and huge potential in treatment of endocrine disorder. Particularly, Chinese patent medicine with the function of blood-activating and mass-dissipating, such as Xiaojin Pills and Xiaozheng Pills, has been commonly used in clinical treatment of HMG, which features multiple targets, obvious efficacy, small side effect, and ease of taking and carrying around. Clinical studies have found that the combination of Chinese patent medicine with other medicine can not only improve the efficacy and relieve symptoms such as hyperplasia and pain but also reduce the toxic and side effects of western medicine. Therefore, based on precious pharmacological research and clinical research, this study reviewed the mechanisms of blood-activating mass-dissipating Chinese patent medicine alone and in combination with other medicine, such as regulating levels of in vivo hormones and receptors, promoting apoptosis, inhibiting angiogenesis, improving hemorheology indexes, enhancing immunity, and boosting antioxidant ability. In addition, limitations and problems were summarized. Thereby, this study is expected to lay a theoretical basis for the further study and clinical application of blood-activating mass-dissipating Chinese patent medicine alone or in combination with other medicine against HMG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hemorheology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3965-3976, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981528

ABSTRACT

This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the clinical value of Shaoma Zhijing Granules(SZG), Changma Xifeng Tablets(CXT), and Jiuwei Xifeng Granules(JXG) in the treatment of children with tic disorder with the method of rapid health technology assessment(RHTA), which is expected to serve as a reference for medical and health decision-making and clinical rational use of drugs in children. To be specific, relevant articles were retrieved from eight databases and three clinical trial registry platforms. After the quality evaluation, rapid assessment was carried out from the dimensions of disease burden and unmet needs, technical characteristics, safety, efficacy and economy, and the results were analyzed and presented descriptively. A total of 22 articles(1 in English, 21 in Chinese) were screened out: 18 randomized controlled trials(RCTs) and 4 clinical controlled trials(CCTs). Among them, 5 were about the SZG(all RCTs) and 9 were on CXT(6 RCTs and 3 CCTs). The rest 8 focused on JXG(7 RCTs and 1 CCT). Moreover, the overall risk of bias for 94.40% RCTs was evaluated as "some concerns" and only one(5.60%) had high risk of bias. In terms of quality, the 4 CCTs scored 5-6 points(<7 points), suggesting low quality. SZG alone or in combination with tiapride has obvious advantages in improving traditional Chinese medicine syndromes and tic symptoms compared with tiapride alone, with the average daily cost of CNY 79.44-119.16. Compared with conventional western medicine or placebo, CXT alone or in combination with conventional western medicine can improve the total effective rate and alleviate tic symptoms, and the average daily cost is CNY 22.50-67.50. JXG alone or in combination with conventional western medicine can effectively relieve tic symptoms compared with conventio-nal western medicine or placebo, with the average daily cost of CNY 82.42-164.85. The adverse events related to the three Chinese patent medicines mainly occurred in the digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems, all of which were mild. In general, SZG, CXT, and JXG are effective for children with tic disorder. They have been approved to be used in this field, of which SZG was approved in 2019, with the most up-to-date research evidence and high-quality RCT in Q1 journals. However, the comparative analysis of the three was affected by many factors, which should be further clarified. Based on the large sample data available in multiple dimensions, a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the three Chinese patent medicines should be carried out, thereby highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of them and serving a reference for rational clinical use and drug supervision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Tics/drug therapy , Tic Disorders/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3949-3964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981527

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy(DN) by network Meta-analysis to explore the Chinese patent medicine with optimal efficacy and provide references for preventing renal deterioration and delaying the progression of early DN. Eight databases, including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of early DN. After the literature mee-ting the inclusion criteria was screened, the quality of the literature was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and network Meta-analysis was performed using the BUGSnet package in R 4.2.1. Seventy-two research articles with a sample size of 6 344 cases were included, involving eight Chinese patent medicines and seven outcome indicators. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that(1)in terms of improving urinary albumin excretion rate(UAER), Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment, and Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules + conventional treatment was optimal.(2)In terms of reducing serum crea-tinine(Scr), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(3)In terms of reducing 24-hour urine total protein(24hUTP), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional treatment had equivalent efficacy, and Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment was superior.(4)In terms of improving fasting blood glucose(FBG), Shenyan Kangfu Tablets + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(5)In terms of improving total cholesterol(TC), Qiyao Xiaoke Capsules +conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(6)In terms of reducing triglyceride(TG), Bailing Capsules + conventional treatment had superior efficacy.(7)In terms of safety, the occurrence of adverse reactions was reported in seven interventions, but due to the large clinical heterogeneity, the quantitative analysis could not be performed. Overall, Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment were superior to conventional treatment alone in the treatment of early DN. The results showed that Qi-supplementing and Yin-nourishing Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional treatment had good clinical efficacy, and they could significantly reduce renal function indicators such as UAER, Scr, and 24hUTP, and reduce blood sugar and blood lipid, which can provide evidence-based support for the treatment of early DN. However, due to the differences in the quantity and quality of the included research articles, large-sample, multi-center, high-quality studies are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Qi , Network Meta-Analysis , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3934-3948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981526

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various oral Chinese patent medicines in the adjuvant treatment of rotavirus gastroenteritis(RVGE) in children based on network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicine in the adjuvant treatment of RVGE in children was retrieved from the databases such as CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, and Web of Science from database inception to October 22, 2022. The quality of the included RCT was evaluated according to the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and the data were analyzed by RevMan 5.4 and Stata 16 software. Sixty-three RCTs were included, with 11 oral Chinese patent medicines involved, including Xingpi Yanger Granules, Weichang'an Pills, Qiuxieling Mixture, Erxieting Granules, and Changyanning Granules/Syrup. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of clinical total effective rate, the top 3 optimal interventions were Changyanning Granules/Syrup, Xiaoer Guangpo Zhixie Oral Liquid, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the anti-diarrheal time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Shenling Baizhu Granules, Qiuxieling Mixture, and Shuangling Zhixie Oral Liquid combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the antiemetic time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Changyanning Granules/Syrup, Xingpi Yanger Granules, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the antipyretic time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Shenling Baizhu Granules, Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules, and Qiuxieling Mixture combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the negative conversion rate of rotavirus, the top 3 optimal interventions were Xingpi Yanger Granules, Erxieting Granules, and Cangling Zhixie Oral Liquid combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing creatine kinase isoenzyme MB(CK-MB) level, the top 3 optimal interventions were Weichang'an Pills, Xingpi Yanger Granules, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of adverse reactions, no se-rious adverse reactions were reported in all studies. Oral Chinese patent medicines in the adjuvant treatment of children with RVGE have their own advantages, Specifically, Changyanning Granules/Syrup + conventional western medicine focuses on improving the clinical total effective rate and shortening the antiemetic time, Shenling Baizhu Granules + conventional western medicine on shortening the anti-diarrheal time and antipyretic time, Xingpi Yanger Granules + conventional western medicine on improving the negative conversion rate of rotavirus, and Weichang'an Pills + conventional western medicine on reducing the CK-MB level. Limited by the quantity and quality of literature included in this study, the results need to be verified by high-quality RCT with a larger sample size.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antiemetics , Antipyretics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Enteritis/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Rotavirus , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3650-3663, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981495

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of different Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The relevant randomized controlled trial(RCT) was retrieved from PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed, Wanfang, and VIP with the time interval from database inception to December 2022. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was employed to evaluate the quality of the included RCT, and Stata 15.0 and GEMTC to perform the Bayesian network Meta-analysis. Finally, 51 RCTs were included, involving 9 Chinese patent medicines and 3 591 patients. The results of network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of the total effective rate and the increase in plasma albumin, the top three interventions were Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine, Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing 24-hour urine total protein, the top three interventions were Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine, Shenfukang Capsules +conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing serum creatinine, the top three interventions were Shenfukang Capsules + conventional western medicine, Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Zhengqing Fengtongning Sustained Release Tablets + conventional western medicine. In terms of safety, Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine had fewer adverse reactions than the control group. The results suggest that Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine can improve the therapeutic effect on idiopathic membranous nephropathy, and differentiated medications can be adopted according to the specific symptoms of patients in clinical treatment. Further validation needs to be carried out in the future with multi-center, large-sample, and high-quality RCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/drug therapy , Bayes Theorem , Capsules , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Tablets
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3633-3649, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981494

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of inflammatory response in diabetic nephropathy(DN) based on network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicines for improving inflammatory response in patients with DN was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, and other databases from database inception to October 2022. All investigators independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. Stata 16.0 software and RevMan 5.4.1 were used to analyze the data of the literature that met the quality standards. Finally, 53 RCTs were included, involving 6 Chinese patent medicines. The total sample size was 4 891 cases, including 2 449 cases in the test group and 2 442 cases in the control group. The network Meta-analysis showed that(1) in terms of reducing TNF-α, the top 3 optimal interventions according to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve(SUCRA) were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine.(2) In terms of reducing hs-CRP, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine.(3) In terms of reducing IL-6, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Bailing Capsules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(4) In terms of reducing UAER, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Shenshuaining Capsules/Granules/Tablets + conventional western medicine, Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine, and Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine.(5) In terms of reducing Scr, the top 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granules + conventional wes-tern medicine, and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine.(6) In terms of reducing BUN, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Niaoduqing Granules + conventional western medicine, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine.(7) In terms of improving the clinical total effective rate, the first 3 optimal interventions according to SUCRA were Jinshuibao Capsules + conventional western medicine, Niaoduqing Granu-les + conventional western medicine, and Huangkui Capsules + conventional western medicine. The results showed that the combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine could reduce the expression of serum inflammatory factors TNF-α, hs-CRP, and IL-6 and inhibit the inflammatory response. The combination of western medicine and Chinese patent medicine was superior to western medicine alone in reducing Scr, BUN, and UAER, and improving the total effective rate of treatment. Due to the limitation of the quantity and quality of literature included, the above conclusions need to be validated by more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein , Capsules , Interleukin-6 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides , Tablets , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2092-2102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981341

ABSTRACT

With scarce resources, natural Bovis Calculus is expensive and hard to meet clinical demand. At the moment, four kinds of Bovis Calculus are available on the market: the natural product, in vitro cultured product, synthesized product, and the product formed in cow after manual intervention. In this study, papers on the four kinds of Bovis Calculus products and relevant Chinese patent medicines were searched from Web of Science, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI). CiteSpace, citexs AI, and CNKI were employed for bibliometric analysis and knowledge map analysis. On this basis, the status, trend, and focuses of research on Bovis Calculus and relevant Chinese patent medicines were summarized. The results suggested overall slow development in the research on Bovis Calculus and relevant Chinese patent medicines with three typical growth stages. It is consistent with the development of Bovis Calculus substitutes and the national policy for the development of traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the research on Bovis Calculus and relevant Chinese patent medicines has been on the rise. In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on them, particularly the quality control of Bovis Calculus and the Chinese patent medicines, the pharmacological efficacy of Chinese patent medicines, such as Angong Niuhuang Pills, and the comparison of the quality of various Bovis Calculus products. However, there is a paucity of research on the pharmacological efficacy and the mechanism of Bovis Calculus. This medicinal and the relevant Chinese patent medicines have been studied from diverse perspectives and China becomes outstanding in this research field. However, it is still necessary to reveal the chemical composition, pharmacological efficacy, and mechanism through multi-dimensional deep research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Bibliometrics , Biological Products , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs
14.
Med. UIS ; 35(2): e201, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422043

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la publicidad televisiva es una estrategia utilizada por la industria farmacéutica para ofrecer sus productos. En el caso de los medicamentos de venta libre, se tiene la responsabilidad de ajustarse a la normativa relacionada con estos productos, con el propósito de proteger al televidente de influencias negativas por posible publicidad imprecisa o engañosa. Objetivo: evaluar el cumplimiento normativo de la publicidad televisiva de medicamentos de venta libre en Colombia de agosto de 2018 en los canales nacionales Caracol y RCN. Metodología: se revisaron las grabaciones de anuncios publicitarios de medicamentos en los canales Caracol y RCN. Aleatoriamente, se seleccionaron los días 2, 4, 22 y 26 de agosto de 2018. La revisión de las grabaciones se realizó por dos evaluadores independientes. Los datos de los anuncios publicitarios se analizaron con estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se identificaron 624 anuncios publicitarios relacionados con medicamentos de venta libre: 601 pautas (96,3 %) y 23 comerciales (3,7 %). Entre los 624 anuncios emitidos, 226 (36,2 %) de 18 medicamentos no cumplieron con algunas condiciones establecidas en la normatividad. Discusión: este estudio, comparado con la publicación del 2014, mostró un incremento en la cantidad de anuncios que no cumplen con la norma, pasando de 8 % a 36,2 %. La principal situación de incumplimiento se debe al tamaño de la fuente, que puede limitar la lectura en poblaciones especiales. Conclusiones: los anuncios televisivos emitidos en los canales nacionales Caracol y RCN, en un 36,2 %, no cumplen con los requisitos definidos por la normatividad vigente.


Abstract Introduction: Advertising broadcast by mass media is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical sectors to offer their products. For of over-the-counter drugs, this sector is responsible for complying with the regulations related to these products, in order to protect the viewers from negative influences, for possible inaccurate or misleading advertising. Objective: To evaluate regulatory compliance in television advertising of over-the-counter drugs in Colombia in August 2018 on Caracol and RCN national channels. Methods: The recordings of the drug advertisements of two national television channels Caracol and RCN were reviewed. The days 2, 4, 22, 26 of august 2018 were randomly selected. Two independent evaluators reviewed the recordings. The data from the advertisements was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 624 commercials related to over-the-counter drugs were identified: 601 guidelines (96.3%) and 23 commercials (3.7%). Among the 624 advertisements broadcast by both national channels, 226 (36.2%) of 18 drugs did not meet some of the conditions established in the regulations. Discussion: Compared to the work done in 2014, shows that there was an increase in the number of advertisements that do not comply with the norm (from 8% to 36.2%). The main non-compliance situation presented by advertisements is related to the source size since small letters can limit the reading of special populations. Conclusion: 36.2% of the television advertisements broadcast on the national television channels Caracol and RCN do not meet the requirements defined by current regulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Publicity , Self Medication , Communications Media , Enacted Statutes , Nonprescription Drugs
15.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-9, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390656

ABSTRACT

This study examined the management of North-East Moroccan physicians of menopause. The poll was carried out on a representative sample of physicians in the Nador region. The sample included gynecologists and general practitioner physicians in both public and private medical sectors. The survey contained focused and open-ended questions on the good knowledge or not of physicians about menopause, their patient population, their prescribing practices, their perceptions, and the different medical approaches to managing the symptoms of menopause. Among the general practitioners interviewed, only 16% of physicians are very knowledgeable about the management of menopause and only 3 physicians have followed continuous training. The others have mainly acquired their information from the internet, medical journals, and scientific magazines. Only one-third of physicians interviewed prescribe menopausal hormonal treatment in this region. The treatment is mainly prescribed to cope with hot flashes (97.1%) and menstrual cycle disruption (85.7%). Others are in favor of non-hormonal treatments and advise women to change their bad daily habits to relieve symptoms. In this region of Morocco, hormonal treatment for menopause is not very common and the majority of general practitioners are not familiar with menopause. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:116-124).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Menopause , Prescriptions , Therapeutics , Nonprescription Drugs , Hormonal Contraception
16.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 20-27, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA).@*METHODS@#A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol.@*RESULTS@#The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case.@*CONCLUSION@#The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Androgens , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , China , Nonprescription Drugs , Saponins/therapeutic use
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1955-1988, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928192

ABSTRACT

This study aims to systematically evaluate the effect of oral Chinese patent medicines on hypertension with network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials on the treatment of hypertension with oral Chinese patent medicine combined with conventional western medicine were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library(from establishment of the database to August 2021). Two researchers independently screened the articles, extracted the data, and evaluated article quality. Then R 4.1.0 was employed for data analysis. Finally, 195 eligible articles were screened out, involving 22 546 patients and 18 oral Chinese patent medicines. The results of the network Meta-analysis are as follows. In terms of reducing systolic blood pressure(SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP), Xuesaitong, Qiangli Dingxuan Tablets, Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional western medicine are superior. In improving blood lipids, the overall effects of Xinmaitong Capsules, Compound Xueshuantong Capsules, Ginkgo Folium preparations, Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules, and Naoxintong Capsules combined with conventional western medicine are outstanding. In terms of regulating endothelial function, Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules, Xinmaitong Capsules, Zhenju Jiangya Tablets, Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, Xuesaitong with conventional western medicine have certain advantages. As for the safety, the incidence of adverse reactions of conventional western medicine combined with oral Chinese patent medicines is lower than that of conventional western medicine alone. In summary, compared with conventional western medicine alone, the 18 oral Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine in the treatment of hypertension show advantages in improving blood pressure, blood lipids, and endothelial function. Among them, Xuesaitong, Qiangli Dingxuan Tablets, and Songling Xuemaikang Capsules may be the best oral Chinese patent medicines for lowering blood pressure. The conclusion needs to be further verified by more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antihypertensive Agents , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2237-2243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928164

ABSTRACT

Clinical expertise, patient preference, and the best evidence are the three elements of evidence-based medicine. Based on high-level and high-quality evidence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the prescribing decisions of physicians is beneficial to improving clinical efficacy. A mature methodological system is available for the retrieval, analysis, summary, evaluation, and recommendation of the evidence, but there are still few studies on physicians' prescribing decisions. How to analyze the trend of physicians' prescribing decisions based on the priority ranking in addition and subtraction of prescriptions? Analytic hierarchy process(AHP) is a method for decision making, which arranges the elements of the decision problem into overall goal, criteria, and operational sub-criteria, and uses the matrix eigenvector method to solve the problem. This study aims to analyze the priority of physicians' prescribing decisions for diabetes mellitus with deficiency of both Qi and Yin based on AHP. To be specific, a database of diabetes mellitus cases with deficiency of both Qi and Yin was established and AHP was used to yield the priority ranking of Chinese patent medicine prescriptions in specific clinical scenarios. In the selected cases of diabetes mellitus with deficiency of both Qi and Yin, Xiaoke Pills was the best prescription for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus(deficiency of both Qi and Yin)(normalized=0.388), followed by Liuwei Dihuang Pills(normalized=0.269), Qishen Capsules(normalized=0.230), and Shengmai Injection(normalized=0.113). According to the analysis the available data, for type 2 diabetes mellitus(deficiency of both Qi and Yin), Xiaoke Pills was the most effective prescription in specific scenarios. When the physicians' prescribing decisions are consistent with the evidence, quantitative analysis of physicians' cognition will boost the evidence-based medical decision-making. However, the research results are also affected by the quality of literature, evidence level and priority, which are thus have some limitations. It is recommended that further small data research based on individual cases be carried out to lay a evidence-based basis for the clinical decision-making of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analytic Hierarchy Process , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Qi , Syndrome , Yin Deficiency/drug therapy
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2211-2227, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928162

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis(AS) by frequency network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)of Chinese patent medicines for AS were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library databases from the time of database establishment to January 2021. The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated according to the Cochrane bias risk standard, and the data was analyzed by RevMan 5.3 and Stata/MP 15.1. A total of 12 kinds of Chinese patent medicines in 55 RCTs were included. According to Meta-analysis, in term of the effectiveness, the top three optimal medication regimens were Biqi Capsules, Yishen Juanbi Pills and Yaobitong Capsules combined with western medicine. The top three interventions to reduce the erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)were Yishen Juanbi Pills, Xianling Gubao Capsules and Fufang Xuanju Capsules combined with western medicine. The top three interventions to reduce the C-reactive protein(CRP)were Biqi Capsules, Xianling Gubao Capsules and Fufang Xuanju Capsules combined with western medicine. In terms of the safety, top three optimal medication regimens were Total Glucosides of Paeony Capsules, Yishen Juanbi Pills, and Wangbi Tablets combined with western medicine. This network Meta-analysis suggests that Chinese patent medicines combined with conventional western medicine can effectively improve the joint pain symptoms of AS patients and reduce the acute inflammatory indicators, with high safety. However, the literature included in this study is generally of low methodological quality, and the conclusion needs to be verified by high-quality research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capsules , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2351-2357, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928115

ABSTRACT

The clinical randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) were reviewed and analyzed to provide references for clinical research, guideline development, policy formulation, and quality improvement of clinical evidence. On the basis of the collection in the Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) Clinical Evidence Database System(EVDS), CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase were searched for RCTs of Chinese patent medicine for COPD as a source of clinical evidence from database inception to December 31, 2019. The publication time, sample size, intervention and control measures, course of treatment, outcome indicators, and methodological quality of the trials were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 733 RCTs of Chinese patent medicine for COPD were included, among which 228 RCTs had a sample size higher than 100, accounting for 31.1% of total RCTs. Eighty-eight Chinese patent medicines were involved, including 40 oral medicines and 48 injections. A total of 327 RCTs mentioned intervention and control measures(Chinese patent medicine + conventional treatment vs conventional treatment), accounting for 43.0%. In addition, 94.40% of the RCTs reported the course of treatment, and 53.20% of the RCTs determined 8-14 d as the intervention course. The evaluation indicators adopted were numerous, among which physicochemical indicators(70.57%) and symptoms/signs(24.35%) were the most frequently employed. The operation of allocation concealment and blinding was not standard. Registration and the procedure related to ethics were mostly missing. The results indicate that there are prominent methodological problems in the clinical trials of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of COPD, affecting the reliability and practicability of the trials. It is necessary to further standardize the design, implementation, and quality control of clinical trials of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of COPD, highlight the clinical value of Chinese patent medicine for COPD, and improve the quality of evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results
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