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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 751-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985557


Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in China, identify the factors influencing the scale of outbreaks, and provide scientific evidences for early control of norovirus infection outbreaks. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological analysis approach was applied to analyze the incidence of national norovirus infection outbreaks by using the data from the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System in China from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2021. The unconditional logistic regression model was applied to analyze the risk factors that affected the outbreaks' scale. Results: A total of 1 725 norovirus infection outbreaks were recorded in China from 2007 to 2021, with an upward trend in the number of the reported outbreaks. The southern provinces had their annual outbreak peaks from October to March; the northern provinces had two outbreak peaks from October to December and from March to June annually. The outbreaks occurred mainly in southeastern coastal provinces with a trend of gradual spread to central, northeastern and western provinces. The outbreaks mainly occurred in schools and childcare setting (1 539 cases, 89.22%), followed by enterprises and institutions (67 cases, 3.88%) and community households (55 cases, 3.19%). Human to human transmission was the main infection route (73.16%), and norovirus GⅡ genotype was the predominate pathogen causing the outbreaks (899 cases, 81.58%). The time interval between the onset of the primary case and the outbreak reporting M (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2, 6) days and the case number of the outbreak M (Q1, Q3) was 38 (28, 62). The timeliness of outbreak reporting was improved in recent years and the scale of the outbreaks showed a decreasing trend over the years, the differences in reporting timeliness and outbreak scale among different settings were significant (P<0.001). The factors that affected outbreaks' scale included the outbreak setting, transmission route, outbreak reporting timeliness and type of living areas (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2007 to 2021, the number of the norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks increased in China and the more areas were affected. However, the outbreak scale showed a decreasing trend and the outbreak reporting timeliness was improved. It is important to further improve the surveillance sensitivity and reporting timeliness for the effective control of the outbreak scale.

Humans , Child , Norovirus , Disease Outbreaks , China , Child Care , Gastroenteritis
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 976-982, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985504


Objective: To explore the characteristics of viral infections in children with diarrhea in Beijing from 2018 to 2022. Methods: Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect viral nucleic acid of Norovirus (NoV), Sappovirus (SaV), Astrovirus (AstV), Enteric Adenovirus (AdV) or antigen of Rotavirus (RV) in 748 stool samples collected from Beijing Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2018 to December 2021. Subsequently, the reverse transcription PCR or PCR method was used to amplify the target gene of the positive samples after the initial screening, followed by sequencing, genotyping and evolution analysis, so as to obtain the characteristics of these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Mega 6.0. Results: From 2018 to 2021, the overall detection rate of the above five common viruses was 37.6%(281/748)in children under 5 years old in Beijing. NoV, Enteric AdV and RV were still the top three diarrhea-related viruses, followed by AstV and SaV, accounting for 41.6%, 29.2%, 27.8%, 8.9% and 7.5%, respectively. The detection rate of co-infections with two or three diarrhea-related viruses was 4.7% (35/748). From the perspective of annual distribution, the detection rate of Enteric AdV was the highest in 2021, while NoV was predominant in the other 4 years. From the perspective of genetic characteristics, NoV was predominant by GⅡ.4, and after the first detection of GⅡ.4[P16] in 2020, it occupied the first two gene groups together with GⅡ.4[P31]. Although the predominant RV was G9P[8], the rare epidemic strain G8P[8] was first detected in 2021. The predominant genotypes of Enteric AdV and AstV were Ad41 and HAstV-1. SaV was sporadic spread with a low detection rate. Conclusion: Among the diarrhea-related viruses infected children under 5 years of age in Beijing, the predominant strains of NoV and RV have changed and new sub-genotypes have been detected for the first time, while the predominant strains of AstV and Enteric AdV are relatively stable.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Beijing/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 76-85, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970292


OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial distribution patterns of human norovirus outbreaks in China, identify high-risk areas, and provide guidance for epidemic prevention and control.@*METHODS@#This study analyzed 964 human norovirus outbreaks involving 50,548 cases in 26 provinces reported from 2012 to 2018. Epidemiological analysis and spatiotemporal scanning analysis were conducted to analyze the distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China.@*RESULTS@#The outbreaks showed typical seasonality, with more outbreaks in winter and fewer in summer, and the total number of infected cases increased over time. Schools, especially middle schools and primary schools, are the most common settings of norovirus outbreaks, with the major transmission route being life contact. More outbreaks occurred in southeast coastal areas in China and showed significant spatial aggregation. The highly clustered areas of norovirus outbreaks have expanded northeast over time.@*CONCLUSION@#By identifying the epidemiological characteristics and high-risk areas of norovirus outbreaks, this study provides important scientific support for the development of preventive and control measures for norovirus outbreaks, which is conducive to the administrative management of high-risk settings and reduction of disease burden in susceptible areas.

Humans , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Norovirus , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology , Genotype
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 18-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971208


During the recent emergence of COVID-19, an increased practice of hand hygiene coincided with the reduced incidence of the norovirus epidemic in Japan, which is similar to experience with the pandemic flu in 2009. We investigated the relationship between the sales of hand hygiene products, including liquid hand soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and the trend of norovirus epidemic. We used national gastroenteritis surveillance data across Japan in 2020 and 2021 and compared the base statistics of incidence of these two years with the average of the previous 10 years (2010-2019). We calculated the correlations (Spearman's Rho) between monthly sales of hand hygiene products and monthly norovirus cases and fitted them to a regression model. In 2020, there was no epidemic, and the incidence peak was the lowest in recent norovirus epidemics. In 2021, the incidence peak was delayed for five weeks to the usual epidemic seasons. Correlation coefficients between monthly sales of liquid hand soap and skin antiseptics and norovirus incidence showed a significantly negative correlation (Spearman's Rho = -0.88 and p = 0.002 for liquid hand soap; Spearman's Rho = -0.81 and p = 0.007 for skin antiseptics). Exponential regression models were fitted between the sales of each hand hygiene product and norovirus cases, respectively. The results suggest hand hygiene using these products is a potentially useful prevention method against norovirus epidemics. Effective ways of hand hygiene for increasing the prevention of norovirus should therefore be studied.

Humans , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Soaps , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Norovirus
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 92-97, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935355


Objective: To evaluate the application of real-time RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR in the detection of norovirus in oysters and analyzing the genetic characteristics of the isolates. Methods: Real-time fluorescent RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ in fresh oysters collected from the markets in Beijing from November 2014 to October 2015. The detection rate of the parallel test was also analyzed. In addition, the reliability of semi-nested RT-PCR was evaluated by agreement rate and consistency test (Kappa value). The positive products of norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ capsid protein region gene by semi-nested RT-PCR were sequenced. Software BioEdit was used for sequence alignment, and software Mega 6.0 was used to construct the evolutionary tree. Results: In 72 samples, the detection rate of norovirus was 31.94% (23/72) by real-time RT-PCR, 38.89% (28/72) by semi-nested RT-PCR and 48.61% (35/72) by parallel test. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 73.61%, a moderate degree (Kappa value =0.43). A total of 13 norovirus strains were successfully sequenced, and 11 strains (7 GⅡ.17 strains, 2 GⅡ. 4 Sydney_ 2012 strains, 1 GⅡ. 1 strain and 1 GⅡ. 21 strain) were obtained from norovirus positive samples by two RT-PCR methods, two strains (1 GⅡ. 17 strain and 1 GⅡ. 3 strain) were obtained from real-time RT-PCR negative samples which were positive for norovirus by semi-nested RT-PCR. The similarity between these strains and reference strains from diarrhea patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products were 84.4% - 100.0%. Conclusions: The parallel test of norovirus in oysters by two RT-PCR methods can improve the detection rate and detect more genotypes. Norovirus strains in oysters were highly homologous with reference strains from diarrheal patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products. Therefore, surveillance, prevention and control for norovirus should be carried out in people who have frequent contacts with oysters and related environments.

Animals , Humans , Beijing , Norovirus/genetics , Ostreidae , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044


Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)

Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)

Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1027-1032, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922386


OBJECTIVES@#To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of children with acute gastroenteritis who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to December 2019. A total of 1 458 stool samples were collected from the children, and viral RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for gene amplification, sequencing, and genotype identification of the VP1 region of capsid protein in norovirus.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 458 stool samples, 158 (10.8%) were positive for norovirus. There was no significant difference in the positive detection rate of norovirus between different years (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the major epidemic strain in the children with norovirus gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. Although norovirus infection can exist throughout the year, August to October is the peak period. During this period, norovirus surveillance and key population protection are strengthened to help prevent and control norovirus diarrhea.

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Feces , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9529, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132492


Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Although NoV spreads mainly from person to person, it is estimated that a large proportion of NoV outbreaks are caused by foodborne transmission. Bivalve mollusks are one of the most important foods involved in NoV transmission to humans. Little is known about NoV prevalence in shellfish harvested and commercialized in Brazil. The aim of this study was to map, for the first time, the distribution of NoV contamination in oysters and mussels harvested and commercialized in the coast of Pernambuco state, northeast Brazil. A total of 380 mollusks (260 oysters and 120 mussels) were collected between February and August 2017 either directly from harvesting areas or obtained from beach vendors at 17 sites in Pernambuco. Samples were processed and tested for NoV contamination using a SYBR Green real-time PCR assay. All samples were negative for NoV GI or GII contamination, suggesting a low risk of NoV contamination from this food source during the study period. Additional surveys in different areas of the Brazilian coast are warranted to monitor the risk of NoV infection upon seafood consumption.

Humans , Animals , Norovirus/genetics , Shellfish , Brazil/epidemiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Seafood
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 76(4): 176-181, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089127


Resumen Introducción: Debido a la disponibilidad de técnicas moleculares en la atención clínica, las gastroenteritis agudas (GEA) por norovirus han retomado importancia como un agente causante de hospitalización. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características clínicas y evolutivas de pacientes menores de 16 años hospitalizados por GEA por norovirus. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo. Se recabó información clínica de los pacientes atendidos en hospitalización del 1 de noviembre del 2016 al 28 de febrero del 2018 por GEA con detección de norovirus (genotipo I y II) en heces por medio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa. Resultados: Estudiamos 103 pacientes; 96 (93.2%; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%]: 86.6-96.7%) con deteccion de genotipo II y 7 (6.8%; IC 95%: 5.3-8.7%) de genotipo I; 76 (73.8%) ≤5 anos. El 48.5% fueron atendidos durante el invierno. La evolucion fue a la autolimitacion en menos de 7 días en todos con manejo hidroelectrolitico. No hubo diferencias en la gravedad y sintomas segun el grupo viral: en ambos predominaron los vómitos (82%). Solo un paciente cursó con perforación intestinal por coinfección con Shigella sp.; tres pacientes (3.1%) manifestaron crisis convulsivas (dos febriles y una epiléptica). Conclusiones: La GEA por norovirus, a pesar de causar una enfermedad meritoria de hospitalización, tiene un pronóstico favorable con autolimitación rápida. Su detección por pruebas rápidas en heces podría evitar la prescripción injustificada de antibióticos.

Abstract Background: Because of the availability of molecular techniques in clinical care, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to norovirus has returned to importance as a causative agent of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and evolution of patients less than 16 years hospitalized for AGE associated with norovirus. Methods: Retrospective study. Clinical information of the patients attended from November 1, 2016 to February 28, 2018 by AGE with detection of norovirus (genotype I and II) in faeces by means of polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcriptase was collected. Results: We studied 103 patients; 96 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 86.6-96.7%) with genotype II detection and seven (6.8%; 95% CI: 5.3-8.7%) genotype I; 76 (73.8%) ≤5 years. 48.5% attended during the winter. The evolution was to self-limitation in less than 7 days in all with hydro electrolytic management. There were no differences in the severity and symptoms according to the viral group; in both cases the vomiting predominated (82%). Only one patient had intestinal perforation due to co-infection with Shigella sp.; three patients (3.1%) manifested seizures (two febrile and one epileptic convulsions). Conclusions: Despite causing a meritorious disease of hospitalization, GEA by norovirus has a favorable prognosis with rapid self-limitation. Its timely detection by rapid tests in feces could avoid the unjustified prescription of antibiotics.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Vomiting/virology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Norovirus/genetics , Gastroenteritis/therapy , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype , Hospitalization
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 141 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177901


Os rotavírus A (RVA) e os norovírus são os principais vírus associados à etiologia da gastroenterite aguda (GA) em <5 anos. A partir de 2006, com a introdução das vacinas de RVA, observou-se um declínio expressivo da morbidade/mortalidade por estes vírus, em detrimento a crescente importância das infecções pelos norovírus nesta faixa etária. Antígenos do grupo histosanguíneo humano (HBGAs), presentes na mucosa intestinal, têm sido descritos como potenciais ligantes e/ou cofatores requeridos nos estágios da patogênese das infecções por estes vírus, influenciando na epidemiologia molecular e evolução em diferentes populações. Este estudo teve como objetivo associar o perfil de susceptibilidade (HBGA/Secretor/Lewis) de crianças residentes na comunidade de Manguinhos, no Rio de Janeiro, à eficácia da resposta a vacina RV1 (Rotarix®/G1P[8]), assim como às infecções naturais pelos norovírus. Com este propósito realizou-se o monitoramento das infecções por RVA e norovírus em uma coorte de crianças de 0-11 meses, pela detecção e caracterização molecular destes vírus em amostras de fezes de crianças sintomáticas ou não. No período de 2014 a 2018, 132 crianças foram incluídas neste estudo, disponibilizando o mesmo número de amostras de saliva para determinação do perfil de susceptibilidade por ELISA e 569 amostras de fezes para investigação de ambos os vírus por métodos moleculares.

O vírus vacinal excretado foi caracterizado em 78% (85/109) das amostras RVA. A presença da mutação F167L (RV1), demonstrada pelo sequenciamento do gene VP8*, foi observada em 20,1% das crianças. Quatro casos de rotaviroses pelos genótipos G3P[8], G12P[8] e G3P[9] foram observados. Os norovírus foram detectados em 21,2% (28/132) das crianças, com incidência de 5,8 infecções em 100 criança-meses. A razão de detecção foi de 5,6% (17,1% dos casos diarrêicos e 4,7% dos assintomáticos), sendo seis diferentes genótipos detectados (GII.4_Sydney_2012[P31], GII.4_Sydney_2012[P16],GII.4_Sydney_2012[P4_New_Orleans_2009],GII.2[P16],GII.6[P7] e GI.3[P13]). Em relação ao perfil HBGA, observou-se 80,3% das crianças com o status secretor. A caracterização do gene FUT2 (Se) em crianças secretoras Le (a+b+) e não secretoras, e do gene FUT3 (Le) em Le (a-b-), possibilitou a identificação de novas mutações nesta população.

A mutação F167L na RV1 excretada foi identificada em 86,4% das crianças que apresentaram o fenótipo secretor Le (a+b+), indicando que os HBGAs poderiam ser importantes marcadores na avaliação da RV1; significante associação entre infecção sintomática pelos norovírus e o status secretor (Leb) também foi observada. A ocorrência de norovírus na coorte e a sua crescente importância epidemiológica, determinou a ampliação deste estudo, com a análise de 61 amostras fecais oriundas de 49 crianças na faixa etária de 1-4 anos residentes em Manguinhos. Os norovírus foram detectados em 47,5% (29/61) das amostras (46,7% dos casos diarrêicos e 50% dos assintomáticos) e quatro novos genótipos foram identificados, sendo o recombinante GII.2[P16] detectado pela primeira vez no Brasil. Os dados de vigilância epidemiológica deste estudo comprovam a importância do monitoramento dos principais vírus responsáveis pela gastroenterite infantil aguda, evidenciando a diversidade genética e a dinâmica destes vírus considerando novas abordagens como o perfil HBGA, que trouxe uma importante contribuição em relação à avaliação da eficácia da RV1 na coorte estudada. (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Genetic Variation , Child , Rotavirus , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Norovirus
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 408-411, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785648


No abstract available.

Liver , Norovirus , Transaminases
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 474-480, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742557


PURPOSE: The 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games involved 2925 elite athletes, and providing proper health care services for these elite athletes was a critical priority. We established an emergency department (ED) in the Pyeongchang Mountain Polyclinic during the Olympics, which served staff and athletes from many countries. This experience, as well as a description of illnesses and injuries encountered during the games, may provide useful information for planning medical care at similar events in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The polyclinic ED operated from January 25 to February 27, 2018. All cases were enrolled in this study, and their data were analyzed by date and category. In addition, the number of injuries by body part, number of illnesses by organ system, and illness symptoms and causes were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 288 patients were encountered in the ED. These included 113 injuries and 175 illnesses. We consulted with 153 staff members and 75 athletes, and reported that the fingers were the most commonly injured body part, followed by the knee. The respiratory system was the most commonly involved organ system, and the most common cause of illness was infection. Thirty-eight influenza tests were performed, among which the results of seven were positive. We performed 17 norovirus tests, among which the results of four were positive. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of our ED experience will aid arrangements for medical services in future Winter Games. Additionally, given our new experience, we will now be able to provide better medical services for future winter sports events.

Humans , Athletes , Delivery of Health Care , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fingers , Influenza, Human , Knee , Norovirus , Respiratory System , Sports
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e64-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758957


Calf diarrhea caused by infectious agents is associated with economic losses in the cattle industry. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents and epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea in Korean native calves (KNC). In total, 207 diarrheal KNC aged less than 7 months were investigated. Fecal samples collected from the rectum were examined for causative agents using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR and the number of oocysts were counted. Fourteen causative agents were detected from 164 of the 207 diarrheal KNC. Rotavirus was the most common agent (34.8%), followed by Eimeria spp. (31.7%), Escherichia coli (22.0%), Giardia spp. (14.0%), Clostridium difficile (9.8%), bovine viral diarrhea virus (8.5%), coronavirus (7.9%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.3%), torovirus (6.7%), parvovirus (5.5%), norovirus (4.9%), kobuvirus (1.8%), adenovirus (1.2%), and Salmonella spp. (0.6%). About 95 (57.9%) of 164 calves were infected with a single causative agent and 42.1% were infected by multiple agents. No significant difference was observed in mortality between calves infected with a single agent and multiple agents. The occurrence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Eimeria spp., kobuvirus, and Giardia spp. was significantly different based on onset age, and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus or C. difficile was significantly different between seasons. This study help the understanding of KNC diarrhea for the development of an effective strategy for disease prevention and control, especially in Eastern provinces of South Korea.

Animals , Cattle , Adenoviridae , Age of Onset , Clostridioides difficile , Coronavirus , Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Eimeria , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Giardia , Kobuvirus , Korea , Mortality , Norovirus , Oocysts , Parvovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum , Rotavirus , Salmonella , Seasons , Torovirus
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 81-88, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764232


Noroviruses (NoV) are the major viral pathogen causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne illness. During the local festival in Chungnam province, group food poisoning occurred outbreak by NoV infections in Jan 2019. In this study, epidemiological analysis and molecular characterization were conducted such as genotyping, phylogeny. The prevalent genotypes of food poisoning events were NoV GII.3 and GII.17, and NoV GII.3 and GII.17 isolates of this study were completely matched in nucleotide sequence comparison of capsid gene region, respectively. In underground water and stream water, various multiple genotypes of noroviruses were detected including NoV GII.3, GII.8 and GI.4 in aquatic environment of the local festival site. Among 32 worker samples, various NoVs of five genotypes (GI.7, GI.8, GII.3, GII.8, GII.17) were detected in 12 samples and expected to causing NoV contaminated by exposure to groundwater. NoV genotype GII.3, which was detected from groundwater 2, was completely consistent with that of patients and workers. Therefore, groundwater within the local festival site could be main cause of food poisoning event. Because NoV outbreaks are caused by fecal to oral transmission, proper management of sewage purification facilities, groundwater and sanitary toilets is required for many visitors, and efforts are needed to maintain clean environment.

Humans , Base Sequence , Capsid , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiologic Studies , Foodborne Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Genotype , Groundwater , Holidays , Korea , Norovirus , Phylogeny , Rivers , Sewage , Water
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 139-143, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774114


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus (NoV) among children with acute gastroenteritis in Tianjin in 2017.@*METHODS@#A total of 758 stool specimens were collected from the children with acute gastroenteritis possibly caused by viral infection in Tianjin Children's Hospital between January and December, 2017. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used for primary screening of NoV, and conventional RT-PCR was used for gene amplification, sequencing and genotype identification of the VP1 region of capsid protein in positive specimens.@*RESULTS@#Among the 758 specimens, 241 (31.8%) were found to have GII NoV. Sequencing of the VP1 region of capsid protein in positive specimens showed that among the 241 specimens with GII NoV, 69 (28.6%) had GII.4 subtype, 51 (21.2%) had GII.3 subtype, 24 (10.0%) had GII.2 subtype, and 18 (7.5%) had other subtypes. There was a significant difference in NoV detection rate between different age groups (P=0.018), and the 1- <4 years group had the highest NoV detection rate (37.3%). There was also a significant difference in NoV detection rate across seasons (P<0.001), and there was a highest NoV detection rate in winter (48.1%). Twenty-seven children (3.6%) had co-infections with NoV and rotavirus.@*CONCLUSIONS@#NoV is one of the major pathogens of the children with acute gastroenteritis from Tianjin in 2017. GII genotype, especially GII.4 subtype, is the prevalent strain. NoV infection is commonly seen in children less than 4 years and reaches the peak in winter. Some children are found to have co-infections with rotavirus.

Child , Humans , Caliciviridae Infections , China , Epidemiology , Feces , Gastroenteritis , Epidemiology , Genotype , Molecular Epidemiology , Norovirus , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 33-36, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760340


This study examined complex infections with various enteropathogens and the genetic diversity of bovine norovirus (BNoV) in 932 fecal samples from diarrheic calves in South Korea. Overall, seventeen (1.8%) of the samples tested positive for BNoV following RT-PCR examination. All BNoV-positive samples were co-infected with other intestinal pathogens, including bovine Rotavirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Escherichia coli. The genetic diversity of the BNoVs shared high nucleotide identity (98.1–99.5%) and amino acid homology (93.5–98.1%) with genotype 2 BNoV (GIII.2) strains. In conclusion, BNoV infections with GIII genotypes were detected in complex infections of diarrheic calves in South Korea.

Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Giardia , Korea , Norovirus , Rotavirus
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018290, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012077


Objetivo: descrever casos de doença diarreica aguda por norovírus em crianças menores de 5 anos do município de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal com dados provenientes da Vigilância Epidemiológica das Gastroenterites Causadas por Rotavírus; foi definido como caso o paciente internado em unidade sentinela por doença diarreica aguda e identificação laboratorial do norovírus como agente etiológico, entre os anos de 2010 e 2016. Resultados: durante o período estudado, a proporção de casos de norovírus em menores de 5 anos de idade ultrapassou a proporção de casos de rotavírus, agente considerado predominante na infância; o norovírus foi associado a 28,4% do total de casos notificados, ocorrendo o ano todo, principalmente nos meses mais quentes. Conclusão: norovírus foi o principal agente etiológico identificado em crianças menores de 5 anos com doença diarreica aguda no município de São Paulo.

Objetivo: describir casos de enfermedad diarreica aguda por Norovirus en niños menores de 5 años provenientes del Municipio de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal con datos de la Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Gastroenteritis causadas por Rotavirus. Se definió como caso el paciente internado en unidad centinela por enfermedad diarreica aguda e identificación de laboratorio del Norovirus como agente etiológico entre los años de 2010 y 2016. Resultados: Durante el período estudiado, la proporción de casos de Norovirus en menores de 5 años superó la proporción de casos de Rotavirus, agente considerado predominante en la infancia. El Norovirus fue asociado al 28,4% del total de los casos notificados, ocurriendo todo el año, principalmente en los meses más cálidos. Conclusión: el Norovirus fue el principal agente etiológico identificado en niños menores de 5 años con enfermedad diarreica aguda en el Municipio de São Paulo.

Objective: to describe cases of acute diarrheal disease caused by norovirus in children under 5 years old in São Paulo city, Brazil. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study using data from Epidemiological Surveillance of Gastroenteritis due to Rotavirus; cases were defined as patients hospitalized in a sentinel unit because of acute diarrheal disease and laboratory identification of norovirus as the etiological agent between 2010 and 2016. Results: during the study period, the proportion of norovirus cases in children under 5 years old exceeded the proportion of Rotavirus, an agent considered predominant in childhood; norovirus was associated with 28.4% of total reported cases, occurring all year round, especially in warmer months. Conclusion: norovirus was the leading etiological agent identified in children under 5 years old with acute diarrheal disease in São Paulo city.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Caliciviridae Infections/diagnosis , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Norovirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/virology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 264-266, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973891


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is an important etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis and infects individuals of all ages, especially children in Brazil and worldwide. NoV GII.4 was the most prevalent genotype worldwide because of your extensive genetic diversity. In Brazil, especially in the Northeast, few studies have been developed for identify and molecularly characterize NoV. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to detect and describe the molecular epidemiology of NoV associated with acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The viral RNA extracted from stool samples were subjected to Nested RT-PCR and the genotypes were determined by nucleotide sequences analysis. In total, 278 stool samples assisted at Aliança Hospital in the city of Salvador, with acute gastroenteritis were examined, between March 2009 and July 2012. RESULTS: A high NoV rate (54.2%) was identified in children under 5 years of age. We detected the circulation of different NoV GII.4 variants in Salvador, during the study period as Den Haag 2006b, New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012. CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce the need to study the molecular epidemiology of NoV infections in acute gastroenteritis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Norovírus (NoV) é o agente etiológico mais importante nas gastroenterites agudas e infecta indivíduos de todas as idades, especialmente crianças no Brasil e no mundo. O NoV GII.4 é o genótipo mais prevalente em todo o mundo devido a sua elevada diversidade genética. No Brasil, principalmente no Nordeste, poucos estudos têm sido desenvolvidos a fim de identificar e caracterizar molecularmente o NoV. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever a epidemiologia molecular do NoV associado com gastroenterite aguda. MÉTODOS: RNA viral extraído a de amostras de fezes foi submetido a amplificação por Nested-RT-PCR e o genótipo determinado por analise da sequência de nucleotídeos. Um total de 278 amostras de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Aliança, na cidade de Salvador, com gastroenterite aguda foram examinados, entre março de 2009 a julho de 2012. RESULTADOS: Uma alta taxa de NoV (54,2%) foi identificado em crianças de até 5 anos de idade. Detectou-se a circulação de diferentes variantes de NoV GII.4 em Salvador, durante o período do estudo, tais como Den Haag 2006b, New Orleans 2009 e Sydney 2012. CONCLUSÃO: Estes achados reforçam a necessidade de maiores estudos para esclarecer a epidemiologia molecular das infecções por NoV em casos de gastroenterite aguda.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Norovirus/genetics , Gastroenteritis/virology , Phylogeny , Reference Values , Genetic Variation , Brazil , RNA, Viral , Base Sequence , Acute Disease , Molecular Epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Genotype , Middle Aged
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 279-284, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889243


Abstract This molecular study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on identification of norovirus, NoV GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants, from blue mussels collected from UK coastal waters. Blue mussels (three pooled samples from twelve mussels) collected during the 2013 summer months from UK coastal sites were screened by RT-PCR assays. PCR products of RdRP gene for noroviruses were purified, sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All the samples tested positive for NoVs. Sequencing revealed that the NoV partial RdRP gene sequences from two pooled samples clustered with the pandemic "GII.4 Sydney variants" whilst the other pooled sample clustered with the NoV GII.2 variants. This molecular study indicated mussel contamination with pathogenic NoVs even during mid-summer in UK coastal waters which posed potential risk of NoV outbreaks irrespective of season. As the detection of Sydney 2012 NoV from our preliminary study of natural coastal mussels interestingly corroborated with NoV outbreaks in nearby areas during the same period, it emphasizes the importance of environmental surveillance work for forecast of high risk zones of NoV outbreaks.

Animals , Genotype , Mytilus edulis/virology , Norovirus/classification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Aquatic Organisms/virology , Cluster Analysis , Mass Screening , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Seasons , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , United Kingdom
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 1-7, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713360


BACKGROUND: We attempted to determine the characteristics of diarrheal pathogens according to species, seasonal variations, and patient age using multiplex PCR for the epidemiologic study of diarrheal disease in Jeju Island. METHODS: From March 2015 to Feb 2017, stool specimens were collected from 537 diarrheal patients older than 16 years. Multiplex PCR was used to identify pathogens and found Group A Rotavirus, enteric Adenovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Astrovirus, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile toxin B (CDB), Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). RESULTS: Pathogens were isolated from 221 of 537 samples (41.2%); 9.3% were positive only for viral pathogens; 30.2%, only for bacterial pathogens; and 1.7%, for both viral and bacterial pathogens. Bacteria were more prevalent in spring, summer, and autumn, but viral pathogens were more prevalent in winter. Overall prevalence were Campylobacter spp. (26.7%), Clostridium perfringens (23.9%); Norovirus GII (11.4%), CDB (8.2%), Aeromonas spp. (6.3%), Group A Rotavirus (5.1%), Salmonella spp. (3.9%), Astrovirus (3.9%), Norovirus GI (3.1%), Vibrio spp (2.7%), enteric Adenovirus (1.6%), Shigella spp. (1.2%), VTEC (1.2%), and Yersinia enterocolitica (0.4%). Group A Rotavirus and Norovirus GII were more prevalent in winter and early spring. Campylobacter spp., CDB, and C. perfringens were detected frequently, without seasonal variation. CONCLUSION: Bacterial pathogens are more prevalent than viruses in acute diarrhea in adults living in Jeju Island, especially in spring, summer, and autumn. Viral pathogens are prevalent in winter. Campylobacter spp., CDB, and Clostridium perfringens are the major pathogens occurring without seasonal variations. These data will be helpful in identifying diarrheal pathogens and for treatments and prevention strategies.

Adult , Humans , Adenoviridae , Aeromonas , Bacteria , Campylobacter , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium perfringens , Diarrhea , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Norovirus , Prevalence , Rotavirus , Salmonella , Seasons , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Shigella , Vibrio , Yersinia enterocolitica