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1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 56-61, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of comprehensive rhinoplasty with autogenous costal cartilage grafting and prosthesis augmentation rhinoplasty in the treatment of secondary nasal deformity with saddle nasal deformity after cleft lip surgery.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 96 patients with secondary nasal deformity with saddle nasal deformity after cleft lip surgery between September 2008 and January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 17 males and 79 females with an average age of 25.6 years (range, 17-38 years). Autogenous costal cartilage grafts were used to construct stable nasal tip framework and enhance the strength of alar cartilage. Nasal dorsum prostheses (39 cases of bulge, 45 cases of silicone prosthesis) or autogenous costal cartilage (12 cases) were used for comprehensive rhinoplasty. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the postoperative satisfaction subjectively, and nasal alar height symmetry index, nasal alar width symmetry index, nasal dorsum central axis deviation angle, and nasal columella deviation angle were calculated to evaluate objectively before and after operation.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up 6 months to 8 years, with an average of 13.4 months. Nasal septal hematoma occurred in 3 patients after operation, which was improved after local aspiration and nasal pressure packing. Two cases had mild deformation of the rib cartilage graft of the nasal dorsum, one of which had no obvious deviation of the nasal dorsum and was not given special treatment, and one case underwent the cartilage graft of the nasal dorsum removed and replaced with silicone prosthesis. The incisions of the other patients healed by first intention, and there was no complication such as postoperative infection and prosthesis displacement. The nasal alar height symmetry index, nasal alar width symmetry index, nasal dorsum central axis deviation angle, and nasal columella deviation angle significantly improved after operation when compared with preoperative ones ( P<0.05). Postoperative subjective satisfaction evaluation reached the level of basic satisfaction or above, and most of them were very satisfied.@*CONCLUSION@#Comprehensive rhinoplasty using autologous rib cartilage grafting to construct a stable nasal tip support, combined with dorsal nasal prosthesis or autologous cartilage implantation, can achieve good effectiveness on secondary nasal deformity with saddle nasal deformity after cleft lip surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Rhinoplasty , Cleft Lip/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Nose/surgery , Nasal Septum/surgery , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Silicones , Treatment Outcome
2.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 29(1): 19-23, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1428468

ABSTRACT

La estética de la superficie de la nariz y especialmente de la punta nasal se crea mediante ciertas líneas, sombras y reflejos, con proporciones y puntos de ruptura específicos. La evaluación de la estética de la superficie nasal se logra utilizando el concepto de polígonos geométricos como subunidades estéticas, tanto para definir la deformidad existente como los objetivos estéticos. Los principios de los polígonos geométricos permiten al cirujano analizar las deformidades de la nariz, definir un plan operatorio para lograr objetivos específicos y seleccionar la técnica operatoria adecuada


The aesthetics of the surface of the nose and specially of the nasal tip is created through certain lines, shadows and reflections with proportions and specific breaking points. The evaluation of the aesthetics of the nasal surface is achieved using the concept of geometric polygons like aesthetics subunits to define the existing deformity as for the aesthetics objectives. The principles of the geometric polygons allow the surgeon to analyze the deformities of the nose, to define an operating plan to achieve specific objectives and to select the most accurate operating technique


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Esthetics
3.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 421-425, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the relationship between alveolar cleft and secondary nasal deformity post unilateral cleft lip repair in adults.@*METHODS@#A total of 27 patients aged 16-30 years old with unilateral secondary nasal deformity and alveolar cleft were included, 13 of whom underwent bone grafting. Spiral CT data of all preoperative and postoperative patients who had alveolar bone grafting were collected. Then, Mimics software was used for three-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate the correlation between the width, height, and volume of the alveolar cleft and those of the nasal deformity. The difference in nasal deformity before and after alveolar bone grafting was also explored.@*RESULTS@#The width of the alveolar cleft was positively correlated with the difference in bilateral nostril floor width (P<0.05). As the effective depth of the alveolar cleft increased, the sub-alare inclination angle largened (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the nasal deformity between before and after alveolar bone grafting.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Alveolar cleft is closely related to secondary nasal deformities post unilateral cleft lip repair, especially nasal floor deformities. Alveolar bone grafting benefits adult patients for the improvement of secondary nasal deformities post unilateral cleft lip repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Young Adult , Nose/surgery , Cleft Lip/surgery , Rhinoplasty/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Treatment Outcome , Cleft Palate/complications
4.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 126-132, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971419

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce a classification of alar retraction, and to discuss the therapeutic strategy of alar retraction with cartilage graft and the satisfaction evaluation of patients after operation. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 88 patients with alar retraction admitted to the Department of Plastic and Aesthetic (Burn) Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2015 to December 2020, including 20 males and 68 females, aged 20 to 48 years, with an average age of 28.98 years. All patients underwent external rhinoplasty according to a series of treatment plans determined by the classification of alar retraction based on nostril exposure. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE) were used to conduct satisfaction survey before and 12 months after operation. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze patient satisfaction. Results: A total of 88 patients were included in this study. According to the classification of alar retraction based on nostril exposure, 45 cases were mild, 23 cases were moderate, and 20 cases were severe. There were 16 cases of unilateral and 72 cases of bilateral alar retraction. The patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months, with an average of 13.37 months. The VAS score and ROE score after each type of surgery were higher than those before surgery, with statistically significant (all P<0.05). Among them, the difference in VAS score (6.75±1.29) and in ROE satisfaction (67.70±7.38) of patients with severe alar retraction were the most significant improvement. Conclusion: The classification of alar retraction based on nostril exposure in the frontal view can comprehensively evaluate the severity of alar retraction, and makes the treatment algorithms systematic and comprehensive. The satisfaction of patients is relatively high.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Rhinoplasty , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Treatment Outcome , Esthetics , Nose/surgery
5.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(4): 435-442, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431932

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La desviación de la punta nasal suele producir alteración estética y funcional nasal. Generalmente, asocia alteraciones morfológicas de los cartílagos alares, además de dismorfia del cartílago septal. Objetivo: Presentar una técnica quirúrgica alternativa para el tratamiento de la laterorrinia en tercio inferior nasal y sus resultados. Material y Método: Se trataron 27 pacientes con una laterorrinia en punta nasal con la técnica del septum bisagra, incluyendo la colocación de uno o dos injertos de expansión. Describimos el protocolo de anamnesis y exploración que seguimos en estos pacientes y la descripción detallada de la técnica quirúrgica. Resultados: En 19 pacientes se utilizó un injerto de expansión unilateral para completar la técnica y en ocho de forma bilateral. Se obtuvo una puntuación media en la escala visual analógica (EVA) de ventilación de 8,3, con una mejoría de seis puntos, y en la EVA de aspecto estético de 8,1, mejorando en 4,6 puntos. Conclusión: la utilización de la técnica del septum bisagra es beneficiosa para el tratamiento de la desviación de la punta nasal, tanto a nivel funcional como estético. Presenta ciertas diferencias frente a otras técnicas descritas. La indicación se debe adecuar a cada paciente de manera individualizada.


Introduction: Deviation of nasal tip usually produces aesthetic disturbance and nasal ventilation decrease. It is usually associated with alar cartilages morphologic disturbances and dysmorphia of the septal cartilage. Aim: To present an alternative surgical technique for treating laterorrhinia in the nasal inferior third and its outcomes. Material and Method: 27 patients with nasal tip laterorrhinia were treated with the hinge septum technique, including the placement of one or two spreader grafts. We describe the anamnesis and exploration protocol that we carried out in these patients and a detailed description of the surgical procedure. Results: Unilateral spreader graft was used in 19 patients to complete the technique, and bilateral spreader graft was used in eight. The average score in visual analogue scale (VAS) related to nasal flow was 8.3, which means an improvement of six points, and in VAS related to aesthetic appearance the score was 8.1, improving 4.6 points. Conclusion: The use of the hinge septum technique is useful to treat the deviation of the nasal tip in a functional and aesthetic way. There are several differences compared to other described techniques. The indication has to be suitable for each patient individually.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Nasal Septum/surgery , Nasal Obstruction , Nose/abnormalities , Retrospective Studies , Nasal Septum/abnormalities
6.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 28(1): 8-12, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392203

ABSTRACT

Durante los últimos años, la cirugía endoscópica transesfenoidal se ha convertido en el procedimiento quirúrgico de elección para el tratamiento de tumores hipofisarios. La técnica de abordaje actual es el resultado de una evolución histórica de vía por craneotomía a vía endonasal con ingreso a través del seno esfenoidal. Aunque la cirugía de tumores hipofisarios vía transesfenoidal endoscópica ha permitido disminuir las complicaciones graves asociadas a los abordajes externos, no está exenta de complicaciones, como la fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. A nivel del abordaje nasal, hay escasas descripciones de complicaciones y el compromiso del cartílago septal con deformidad en silla de montar no es una complicación documentada. Se presenta un caso de rinodeformidad en silla de montar poscirugía transesfenoidal de hipófisis en una paciente de 32 años a quien se le practicó una reconstrucción nasal con cartílago costal autólogo. En nuestra búsqueda bibliográfica es el primer caso registrado en Iberolatinoamérica


In recent years, transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery has become the surgical procedure of choice for the treatment of pituitary tumors. The current approach technique is the result of an historical evolution from craniotomy surgery to an endonasal procedure with entry through the sphenoid sinus. Although endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has made it possible to reduce serious complications associated with external approaches, it is not without complications, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistula. At the level of the nasal approach, there are few descriptions of complications and involvement of the septal cartilage with saddle deformity is not a documented complication. We present a case of saddle rhinodeformity after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in a 32-year-old patient who underwent nasal reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage. In our bibliographic search, it is the first case registered in IberoLatin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pituitary Diseases/complications , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Transplantation, Autologous , Nose/surgery , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Costal Cartilage/transplantation
7.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 295-300, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936211

ABSTRACT

Objective: To propose total posterior nasal neurectomy with transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle from anatomy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, and to explore its clinical application. Methods: Two fresh cadaveric heads (4 sides) were dissected through endoscopic transnasal middle meatus approach at Otorhinolaryngology Anatomy Laboratory of China-Japan Friendship Hospital. The structures of the craniofacial bone related to the surgical approach were observed. Twelve patients with allergic rhinitis who treated in Department of Otorhinolaryngology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital from Feb. 1 2019 to Jun. 10 2021 were selected. All the patients were treated by posterior nasal neurotomy with the technique of complete transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle and followed up for 1 year after sugery. During the follow-up, 2 patients were lost. The other 10 patients included 4 males and 6 females, aging from 29 to 69 years. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were used to evaluate the effect of the surgery. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Important anatomic landmarks of transnasal middle meatus approach were obtained during anatomy, such as ethmoid crest, sphenopalatine foramen/notch, palatine orbital process and sphenopalatine process. The postoperative VAS scores of nose, eye, pharynx, ear and whole body and total VAS scores were significantly lower than those before operation, with statistically significant difference (nose 2.50±1.70 vs 6.47±2.17, eyes 1.15±0.89 vs 3.60±2.57, pharynx 1.30±1.36 vs 4.25±3.64, ear 1.10±1.03 vs 2.67±2.00, whole body 1.08±1.24 vs 3.60±1.17, total 7.13±4.31 vs 20.58±9.05, all P<0.05). The postoperative RQLQ scores of sleep, nose, eyes, practical problems, emotion, activity and the total RQLQ scores of patients were significantly lower than those before operation, with statistically significant difference (sleep 0.80±0.69 vs 2.93±1.33, nose 1.38±1.18 vs 3.93±1.50, eyes 0.58±0.66 vs 1.80±1.25, practical problems 1.10±1.22 vs 3.03±1.84, emotion 1.00±1.81 vs 2.58±2.00, activity 2.77±2.93 vs 6.00±1.85, total 8.99±8.92 vs 22.42±8.69, all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative scores of non-nasal/ocular symptoms (1.37±1.60 vs 2.16±1.12, P=0.166). There was no other complication except 2 cases with short-term postoperative numbness. Conclusions: Total posterior nasal neurectomy with transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle is a safe, effective and feasible method for the treatment of intractable allergic rhinitis, and its long-term efficacy needs further observation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Denervation/methods , Nose/surgery , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic/surgery , Treatment Outcome
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 59-65, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153602

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The most difficult aspect of radix lowering is determining the maximum amount of bone that can be removed with osteotomes; here, we describe use of a radix saw, which is a new tool for determining this amount. Objective: In this study, we describe use of a radix saw, which is a new tool to reduce the radix. Methods: The medical charts of 96 patients undergoing surgery to lower a high radix between 2016 and 2017 were assessed retrospectively. All operations were performed by the senior surgeon. Outcomes were assessed by comparing preoperative photographs with the most recent follow-up photographs (minimum of 6 months postoperatively). The photographs were all taken using the same imaging settings, and with consistent subject distance and angulation. The photographs were subsequently analysed by authors. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients (70 women, 26 men) who underwent rhinoplasty between 2016 and 2017. The mean age of the patients was 28.8 years (range: 18-50 years) and the mean clinical follow-up period was 1.8 years. No patient required revision surgery due to radix problems, and there were no cases with unwanted bone fragments or radix asymmetry. The swelling and oedema seen immediately after surgery subsided after an average of 7-10 days. Conclusion: In conclusion, a radix saw can be used for rhinoplasty requiring delicate bone removal in patients with a high radix. Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention, such as case studies. Dramatic results in uncontrolled trials might also be regarded as this type of evidence.


Resumo Introdução: O aspecto mais difícil do rebaixamento do radix nasal é determinar a quantidade máxima de osso que pode ser removida com o osteótomo; aqui, descrevemos o uso de uma serra para radix nasal, uma nova ferramenta para redução dessa estrutura. Método: Prontuários médicos de 96 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia para redução do radix entre 2016 e 2017 foram avaliados retrospectivamente. Todas as cirurgias foram realizadas pelo cirurgião sênior. Os resultados foram avaliados comparando-se fotografias pré-operatórias com as fotografias de acompanhamento mais recentes (mínimo de 6 meses de pós-operatório). Todas as fotografias foram tiradas utilizando as mesmas configurações de imagem e com distância e ângulo consistentes do indivíduo. As fotografias foram posteriormente analisadas pelos autores. Resultados: A população do estudo foi composta por 96 pacientes (70 mulheres, 26 homens) que realizaram rinoplastia entre 2016 e 2017. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 28,8 anos (18 a 50 anos) e o tempo médio de acompanhamento clínico foi de 1,8 anos. Nenhum paciente necessitou de cirurgia de revisão por problemas relacionados ao radix nasal e não houve casos com fragmentos ósseos indesejados ou assimetria do radix. O inchaço e o edema observados imediatamente após a cirurgia diminuíram após uma média de 7 a 10 dias. Conclusão: Uma serra para radix nasal pode ser utilizada para rinoplastia, exige manipulação óssea delicada em pacientes com radix alto, com nível de evidência IV. Evidência IV é obtida de várias séries temporais com ou sem intervenção, como estudos de caso. Resultados significativos em ensaios não controlados também podem apresentar esse tipo de evidência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rhinoplasty , Reoperation , Nose/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Esthetics , Middle Aged
9.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 1174-1178, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the application of island flap and combined flap in one-stage reconstruction of nasal alae defects after external nasal tumor resection. Methods: Data of 11 patients with perforating or full-thickness defects of the alae after nasal tumor resection in XuanWu Hospital, Capital Medical University between June 2016 and February 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 7 males and 4 females, and the ages ranged from 51 to 89 years. Island flap, island flap combined with nasolabial flap or V-Y advancement flap, and island flap combined with bilobed flap were applied according to the range of defects. Descriptive statistical method was applied to analyze the treatment effects. Results: All flaps of the 11 patients were successful survival and the incisions were primary healing. Being followed up for 5 to 59 months, the patients had satisfying appearance and ventilation function, and no tumor relapsed. Conclusion: For the patients with nasal alae defects after external nose tumor resection, selecting suitable island skin flap or combined skin flap can be used to reconstruct the ideal nasal appearance and function of the nose.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/surgery , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Rhinoplasty , Skin Transplantation , Surgical Flaps
10.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 242-248, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942420

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of reconstruction of nasal tip with septal cartilage and auricular cartilage. Methods: From September 2018 to October 2019, 17 patients (two males and fifteen females) with low noses underwent rhinoplasty under general anesthesia. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 39, with an average of 27 years old. Among them, all the 17 cases were primary rhinoplasty. During the operation, autologous nasal septum cartilage was used as septal extension graft to extend the caudal septum, and the auricular cartilage was used to enhance the stability of the strut and to elevate the tip for adjusting the shape of nose by making into spreader graft, columellar strut graft, derotation graft and onlay graft. The nasal dorsum was filled with polytetrafluoroethylene. Digital scanning technology was used to evaluate the nasal structure before and after operation. SPSS 22 software was used to analyze the data with paired t-test. Results: The follow-up was from 6 to 12 months, with an avaerge of 7.6 months. Seventeen patients were satisfied with postoperative nasal morphology and height. There was no infection, prosthesis displacement, skin flap necrosis, no auricle deformation and other complications. Statistical software SPSS 22 performed paired t-test on the preoperative and postoperative data obtained by digital technology: postoperative nasal length and nasal tip protrusion increased compared with that before surgery, and it was statistically significant(length:(3.60±0.77)mm, tip protrusion:(3.61±0.64)mm, t value was -19.203 and -23.132 respectively, both P<0.001). The nasolabial Angle was smaller than that before surgery, and the data were statistically significant(3.40°±2.11°,t=6.635, P<0.001). Conclusion: The nasal tip and nasal septum extension complex constructed by autogenous nasal septal cartilage combined with auricular cartilage can increase the length of nasal tip, increase the height of nasal tip and reduce the angle of nasolabial angle.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Ear Cartilage , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Nasal Septum/surgery , Nose/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Rhinoplasty
11.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 69-74, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942388

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the value of Hadad-Bassagasteguy flap (HBF) in endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) skull base reconstruction by radioanatomic measurements on CT of the skull base of Chinese adults. The following data in terms of anterior skull base defect and reconstruction, sphenoid platform area and middle skull base defect and reconstruction including sphenoid platform and sella area, clivus area defect and reconstruction, and HBF were collected and assessed. Methods: CT image data of 42 Chinese adults were selected to obtain radioanatomic measurement data related to HBF, anterior skull base defect and reconstruction, middle skull base defect and reconstruction, and defect and reconstruction of clivus area. SPSS 26.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The radioanatomic measurement data about HBF and skull base of 42 Chinese adults were obtained. The width of the leading edge of HBF [(37.49±2.86) mm] was 6 mm more than the anterior skull base width at the level of the anterior ethmoidal artery [(30.87±8.61) mm], and the width of the trailing edge of HBF [(42.61±3.95) mm] was also 6 mm more than the anterior skull base width at the level of the sphenoethmoidal junction [(26.79±2.79) mm]. The total length of HBF including the pedicle [(79.68±4.96) mm] was 6 mm more than the length of the anterior skull base reconstruction [(54.06±8.67) mm], and the length of HBF without pedicle [(46.27±3.14)] mm was 6 mm more than the length of anterior skull base defect [(30.87±8.61) mm]. The trailing edge width was 6 mm more than the planum sphenoidal width at the level of the optic strut [(30.87±8.61) mm]. The total length of HBF including the pedicle was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal, and the sella reconstruction [(64.44±10.25) mm], also was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal reconstruction [(73.61±8.28) mm]. The length of HBF without pedicle was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal, and the sella defect [(27.88±3.74) mm], also was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal defect [(15.50±3.38) mm]. The width of the leading edge of HBF and the width of the trailing edge were both 6 mm more than the width of clivus reconstruction at the level of the foramen lacerum [(21.68±2.30) mm]. The total length of HBF including pedicles was 6 mm more than the clivus reconstruction length [(67.09±5.44) mm], while the length of HBF without pedicles was also 6 mm more than the clivus defect length [(37.19±3.80) mm]. Conclusions: In this study, the radiosanatomic measurements ensured that HBF could provide sufficient tissue flap for the reconstruction of the anterior skull base and sphenoid plateau and extend the reconstruction area to sella and clivus. Preoperative radiosanatomic measurement can be used to predict the size of HBF required for skull base reconstruction, which provides important guidance for flap harvest.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Endoscopy , Nose/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery , Sphenoid Bone , Surgical Flaps
12.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 560-565, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to compare the postoperative outcome of the new and classical muscular reconstruction technique combined with nasal internal-fixation method for secondary deformity post unilateral cleft lip repair. A rationale is provided for the further surgical improvement of secondary deformities.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients aged 4-18 years with secondary unilateral cleft lip-nose deformity were involved in this research. The deformities of 28 patients were repaired using the muscular force balance technique through nasal internal fixation method, and 32 were repaired using classical muscular reconstruction technique. Two-dimensional analysis was used to evaluate the nose-lip morphology of pre- and post-operative patients through standardized photographs seven days after surgery.@*RESULTS@#Compared with preoperative nasal morphology in the muscular force balance technique group, the 7-days postoperative results of this group showed the significantly improved short-term outcomes in the correction of columellar deflection, alar rim angle, nasal shape, and the symmetry of alar base width, nostril width, nostril height, alar rim angle (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The new muscular reconstruction technique with nasal internal-fixation method has a significant effect on nasal repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cleft Lip/surgery , Nose/surgery , Postoperative Period , Rhinoplasty , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 35(2): 254-257, apr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103842

ABSTRACT

Hemangioma infantil (HI) é o tumor vascular mais comum e a neoplasia benigna mais frequente da infância, com maior incidência no sexo feminino e na população branca. Quase 60% dos casos ocorrem em cabeça e pescoço, sendo o tratamento ativo durante a fase proliferativa mais frequentemente indicado, em decorrência dos possíveis problemas funcionais e do potencial desfigurante. Relatamos um caso de paciente com hemangioma infantil involuído de ponta nasal e lábio superior, tratado de forma expectante durante a infância, submetida à correção da deformidade residual com técnicas de rinoplastia, associado à zetaplastia e lipoenxertia do lábio superior com bom resultado e satisfação do paciente.


Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor and the most frequent benign neoplasm in childhood, with the highest incidence in females and the white population. Almost 60% of cases occur in the head and neck, and active treatment during the proliferative phase is the most frequently indicated, due to possible functional problems and disfiguring potential. We report a case of a patient with involute infantile hemangioma of the nasal tip and upper lip, treated expectantly during childhood, submitted to residual deformity correction with rhinoplasty techniques, associated with zetaplasty and upper lip grafting with good results and patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Rhinoplasty , Wounds and Injuries , Case Reports , Nose , Nose Diseases , Vascular Neoplasms , Hemangioma , Lip , Rhinoplasty/adverse effects , Rhinoplasty/methods , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Nose/surgery , Nose/pathology , Nose Diseases/surgery , Nose Diseases/pathology , Vascular Neoplasms/surgery , Vascular Neoplasms/pathology , Hemangioma/surgery , Hemangioma/pathology , Lip/surgery , Lip/pathology
14.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 35(2): 258-259, apr.-jun. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103844

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da projeção da ponta nasal às vezes se torna necessário para a obtenção de uma boa proporção entre ela e o dorso. Inúmeras técnicas e táticas são descritas com essa finalidade utilizando enxertos cartilaginosos obtidos do septo nasal, concha auricular e cartilagem costal. Quando esse aumento deve ser discreto é proposto o uso dos excedentes de cartilagens alares laterais em forma de "pseudo-retalhos". Métodos: Em rinoplastias abertas primárias os excedentes das cartilagens alares, geralmente removidas, são utilizados como "pseudo-retalhos", dobrados sobre si mesmos, em forma de "suspensório de soldado francês", sobre o domus das cartilagens alares, tendo como acolchoamento de apoio os tecidos moles delas próprias, e o tecido mole interdomal, geralmente desprezado, que é liberado, e elevado para sobre os domus. Ele é mantido, descolado e deslocado para a ponta nasal, e fica contido pelos "pseudo-retalhos" das cartilagens alares ali suturados ou cobrindo o extremo do enxerto estrutural da columela. Foram operados com essa tática 36 pacientes. Resultados: 35 com bons resultados e um apresentou um abcesso de ponta nasal, provocado pela exposição endonasal de um fio de sutura não absorvível, que foi removido. Houve necessidade de uma segunda intervenção, utilizando novo enxerto auricular, ainda com resultado insatisfatório. O método é relativamente simples para quem opera narizes. Conclusão: A ponta nasal pode ser discretamente mais projetada utilizando os excessos de cartilagens alares, "pediculadas" no domus.


Introduction: An increased nasal tip projection is sometimes necessary to achieve an appropriate proportion between nasal tip and dorsum. Numerous techniques and tactics have been described for this purpose using cartilaginous grafts obtained from the nasal septum, auricular concha, and costal cartilage. When this increased projection must be discrete, the use of excess lateral alar cartilage in the form of "pseudo-flaps" is proposed. Methods: In primary open rhinoplasty, excess alar cartilage, which is generally removed, was used to produce "pseudo-flaps". The cartilages were folded over themselves in the form of a "French soldier's suspender" over the domes of the alar cartilage and supported by interdomal soft tissue padding raised over the domus. It was kept detached, and relocated to the nasal tip and was contained by "pseudoflaps" of the alar cartilages sutured there or covering the columella's structural graft. Thirty-six patients underwent surgery using this technique. Results: Thirty-five had good results and one had a nasal tip abscess, caused by endonasal exposure to a non-absorbable suture, which was removed. A second intervention was then performed using a new auricular graft, but the result was still unsatisfactory. The "pseudoflaps" method is relatively simple for those performing nasal surgery. Conclusion: The nasal tip can be projected discretely using the excess of alar cartilage "pedicled" in the domus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Paranasal Sinuses , Rhinoplasty , Case Reports , Nose , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Study , Nasal Cartilages , Nasal Mucosa , Paranasal Sinuses/surgery , Rhinoplasty/adverse effects , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Nasal Mucosa/surgery
15.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 47-54, mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179305

ABSTRACT

La rinoplastia es una de las cirugías estéticas más realizadas en el mundo y entre las complicaciones más frecuentes está el colapso valvular por la excesiva resección del cartílago alar. La parálisis facial, así como el envejecimiento pueden colapsar la pared lateral en inspiración por disfunción del músculo nasal, al provocar debilitamiento del tejido fibroalveolar de la pared lateral nasal, existiendo también causas genéticas que producen colapso valvular. Actualmente se practican diversas técnicas para mejorar el colapso valvular y ninguna es cien por ciento efectiva, la mayor parte se centran en corregir la propia válvula nasal o el cartílago triangular, lo que indica que se fijan en un solo factor y no en la etiología multifactorial que la produce. Este estudio revisa la evidencia clínica que guía a un diagnóstico correcto y al manejo efectivo de la disfunción de la válvula nasal externa, mediante el uso de diversas técnicas que se emplean actualmente para perfeccionar el colapso valvular nasal.


Rhinoplasty is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgeries in the world and among the most common complications is valve collapse due to excessive resection of the alar cartilage. Facial paralysis, as well as aging, can collapse the lateral wall in inspiration due to dysfunction of the nasal muscle, causing weakening of the fibroalveolar tissue of the nasal lateral wall, and there are also genetic causes that produce valve collapse. Currently, various techniques are practiced to improve valve collapse and none are one hundred percent effective, most of them focus on correcting the nasal valve itself or the triangular cartilage, which indicates that they are fixed on a single factor and not on multifactorial etiology that produces it. This study reviews the clinical evidence that guides a correct diagnosis and effective management of external nasal valve dysfunction, using various techniques that are currently used to improve nasal valve collapse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nasal Obstruction , Nose/surgery
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 445-451, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047898

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O aumento da projeção da ponta nasal às vezes se torna necessário para a obtenção de uma boa proporção entre ela e o dorso. Inúmeras técnicas e táticas são descritas com essa finalidade utilizando enxertos cartilaginosos obtidos do septo nasal, concha auricular e cartilagem costal. Quando esse aumento deve ser discreto é proposto o uso dos excedentes de cartilagens alares laterais em forma de "pseudo-retalhos". Métodos: Em rinoplastias abertas primárias os excedentes das cartilagens alares, geralmente removidas, são utilizados como "pseudo-retalhos", dobrados sobre si mesmos, em forma de "suspensório de soldado francês", sobre o domus das cartilagens alares, tendo como acolchoamento de apoio os tecidos moles delas próprias, e o tecido mole interdomal, geralmente desprezado, que é liberado, e elevado para sobre os domus. Ele é mantido, descolado e deslocado para a ponta nasal, e fica contido pelos "pseudo-retalhos" das cartilagens alares ali suturados ou cobrindo o extremo do enxerto estrutural da columela. Foram operados com essa tática 36 pacientes. Resultados: 35 com bons resultados e um apresentou um abcesso de ponta nasal, provocado pela exposição endonasal de um fio de sutura não absorvível, que foi removido. Houve necessidade de uma segunda intervenção, utilizando novo enxerto auricular, ainda com resultado insatisfatório. O método é relativamente simples para quem opera narizes. Conclusão: A ponta nasal pode ser discretamente mais projetada utilizando os excessos de cartilagens alares, "pediculadas" no domus.


Introduction: An increased nasal tip projection is sometimes necessary to achieve an appropriate proportion between nasal tip and dorsum. Numerous techniques and tactics have been described for this purpose using cartilaginous grafts obtained from the nasal septum, auricular concha, and costal cartilage. When this increased projection must be discrete, the use of excess lateral alar cartilage in the form of "pseudo-flaps" is proposed. Methods: In primary open rhinoplasty, excess alar cartilage, which is generally removed, was used to produce "pseudo-flaps". The cartilages were folded over themselves in the form of a "French soldier's suspender" over the domes of the alar cartilage and supported by interdomal soft tissue padding raised over the domus. It was kept detached, and relocated to the nasal tip and was contained by "pseudoflaps" of the alar cartilages sutured there or covering the columella's structural graft. Thirty-six patients underwent surgery using this technique. Results: Thirty-five had good results and one had a nasal tip abscess, caused by endonasal exposure to a non-absorbable suture, which was removed. A second intervention was then performed using a new auricular graft, but the result was still unsatisfactory. The "pseudoflaps" method is relatively simple for those performing nasal surgery. Conclusion: The nasal tip can be projected discretely using the excess of alar cartilage "pedicled" in the domus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Rhinoplasty , Nose , Retrospective Studies , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Esthetics , Nasal Cartilages , Nasal Mucosa , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Nasal Cartilages/abnormalities , Nasal Cartilages/surgery , Nasal Mucosa/surgery
17.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 576-581, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047935

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A rinoplastia é uma cirurgia que muitas vezes apresenta resultados imprevisíveis, mesmo em mãos de cirurgiões experientes. Neste sentido, a rinomodelação com preenchedores é um procedimento não-cirúrgico para corrigir pequenas alterações externas nasais em casos específicos. Métodos: Os autores descrevem a técnica de aplicação de preenchedores (ácido hialurônico ou hidroxiapatita de cálcio) para modelação nasal. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes submetidos ao preenchimento nasal, entre 2009 e 2012. Foi avaliado o edema da ponta nasal, a dor e o grau de satisfação dos pacientes com o resultado. Resultados: Foram incluídos 39 pacientes no estudo. Com relação aos desfechos analisados com ácido hialurônico: 52% apresentaram edema leve; 74% tiveram dor leve; 15% se mostraram muito satisfeitos e 74% satisfeitos com o resultado. Com relação aos pacientes submetidos à rinomodelação com hidroxiapatita de cálcio: 67% apresentaram edema moderado; 50% dor moderada; 17% dor intensa e 84% se mostraram satisfeitos com o resultado. Conclusão: A rinomodelação com preenchedores reabsorvíveis é um procedimento simples, com resultados estéticos aceitáveis, sendo necessário um profundo conhecimento anatômico para diminuir o risco de complicações.


Introduction: Rhinoplasty often leads to unpredictable results, even in the hands of experienced surgeons. However, in specific cases, rhinomodelation with fillers, a non-surgical procedure to correct minor nasal external changes, can be used. Methods: This study describes the application technique of fillers (hyaluronic acid or calcium hydroxyapatite) for nasal modeling. Patients undergoing nasal filling between 2009 and 2012 were included. Edema of the nasal tip, pain, and the degree of patient satisfaction with the outcome were assessed. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. Regarding the outcomes of rhinomodelation with hyaluronic acid, 52% patients presented with mild edema, 74% had mild pain, 15% were very satisfied, and 74% were satisfied with the result. For the outcomes of rhinomodelation with calcium hydroxyapatite, 67% patients presented with moderate edema, 50% had moderate pain; 17% had severe pain, and 84% were satisfied with the result. Conclusion: Rhinomodelation with resorbable fillers is a simple procedure with acceptable esthetic results. However, a deep anatomical knowledge is necessary to decrease the risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Postoperative Complications , Rhinoplasty , Nose , Nose Deformities, Acquired , Nose Diseases , Dermal Fillers , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nose/surgery , Nose/injuries , Nose Deformities, Acquired/surgery , Nose Deformities, Acquired/rehabilitation , Nose Diseases/complications , Nose Diseases/therapy , Dermal Fillers/adverse effects , Dermal Fillers/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 362-367, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047155

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os retalhos interpolados são opções cirúrgicas eficazes para reconstruções de defeitos cutâneos em várias áreas do corpo, inclusive na face. O retalho proposto dispensa cuidados pós-operatórios com o pedículo exposto e pode ser realizado em tempo único. O objetivo é avaliar a utilidade do retalho interpolado de sulco nasogeniano (RISN) em ilha, na reconstrução de segmentos nasais e do canto interno da órbita, bem como discutir refinamentos em seu design e execução. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuários de pacientes com defeitos nasais ou de canto interno da órbita, e que foram reparados com retalho interpolado do sulco nasogeniano. Todos os retalhos foram confeccionados de maneira randômica, realizando-se túnel subcutâneo para evitar pedículo exposto e cicatriz que comunicasse a área doadora e o defeito. Resultados: cinco pacientes foram incluídos no estudo, com idade entre 30 e 92 anos. Em todos os casos foi realizada biópsia de congelação intraoperatória que revelou margens livres de doença, orientando a extensão da ressecção. O CBC foi encontrado em 4 pacientes e o CEC em um paciente. Não houve complicações como sangramento pós-operatório ou necrose. Bons resultados funcionais e estéticos foram alcançados em todos os pacientes. Discussão: Vale ressaltar a versatilidade do retalho nasogeniano interpolado, sendo capaz de auxiliar na reconstrução de defeitos extensos não apenas de asa, ponta e columela nasais, mas também de dorso e canto medial do olho. Destaca-se também o aspecto estético mais favorável do pedículo do retalho interpolado em ilha comparado ao de transposição. Conclusão: O RISN interpolado em único estágio é uma opção confiável na reconstrução de segmentos faciais. Apresenta boa vascularização, possibilidade se ser realizado em único tempo e pode ser utilizado para cobertura nos locais onde há poucas opções reconstrutivas disponíveis.


Introduction: Interpolation flaps are effective surgical options for reconstructing skin defects in various areas of the body, including the face. The proposed flap does not require postoperative care with the pedicle exposed and can be performed in a single surgery. The objective is to evaluate the usefulness of the nasolabial interpolation island flap (NIF) for reconstructing nasal segments and the inner corner of the eye, as well as discuss improvements in its design and performance. Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of patients with nasal defects that were repaired with a nasolabial interpolation flap were reviewed. All flaps were created with a subcutaneous tunnel to avoid pedicle exposure and prevent scar connection with the donor area and the defect. Results: Five patients aged 30­92 years were included. In all cases, intraoperative frozen biopsy revealed disease-free margins, indicating the extent of the resection. Basal cell carcinoma was found in four patients and squamous cell carcinoma in one. There were no complications such as postoperative bleeding or necrosis. Good functional and aesthetic results were achieved. Discussion: The NIF can help in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the nasal ala, tip, columella, and medial dorsum as well as the corner of the eye. We also highlight the more favorable aesthetic aspect of the pedicle in the interpolation island versus transposition flap. Conclusion: The single-stage NIF flap is a reliable option for reconstructing facial segments as it has good vascularization, can be performed in a single surgery, and can be used to cover places where few other reconstructive options are available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , History, 21st Century , Orbit , Nose , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Face , Nasolabial Fold , Perforator Flap , Neoplasms , Orbit/abnormalities , Orbit/surgery , Nose/abnormalities , Nose/surgery , Medical Records/standards , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Face/abnormalities , Face/surgery , Nasolabial Fold/abnormalities , Nasolabial Fold/surgery , Perforator Flap/surgery , Perforator Flap/adverse effects , Neoplasms/surgery
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 41-49, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004382

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirugía ortognática y la rinoplastia son procedimientos consolidados con altas tasas de éxito. La sinergia entre ambos procedimientos ha sido presentada en diferentes investigaciones pero aún no es un procedimiento estándar para pacientes con deformidades faciales. Objetivo: Analizar una serie de casos tratados con cirugía ortognática y rinoplastia y discutir las opciones y fundamentos de la técnica combinada. Material y método: 14 pacientes operados de forma consecutiva fueron incluidos en el estudio. Se identificaron sujetos según el tipo de deformidad facial, el tipo de deformidad nasal y los tipos de cirugías realizadas. El seguimiento mínimo de cada sujeto fue de 12 meses. Resultados: El 50% de los sujetos presentaba deformidad facial de clase III, seguido de deformidades de clase II y I. Las deformidades nasales, de la punta y del puente nasal fueron más prevalentes, siendo el ancho nasal también una deformidad común. En la etapa intraoperatoria, después de realizar la cirugia ortognática, fue necesario realizar un análisis nuevo respecto de la morfologia nasal debido a los cambios que generaba el movimiento maxilar en la condición nasal. Conclusión: La cirugía combinada es sinérgica y viable de ser realizada con bajo número de complicaciones; protocolos y nuevos criterios de análisis son necesarios para obtener mayor predictibilidad en los resultados estéticos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Orthognathic surgery and rhinoplasty are procedures with high success rate. The synergy between both surgeries has been showed in the past by researches but still they are not standardized procedures for the treatment of patients with facial deformities. Aim: To analyze a case series treated with orthognathic surgery and rinoplasty in the same surgical time, discussing surgical options and techniques in the combined procedure. Material and method: 14 patients were treated consecutively and were included in this research. Subjects were selected by facial deformity, nasal deformity and type of surgery. Minimal follow up was for 12 months to observe results. Results: 50% of subjects showed class III facial deformity, follow by class II and class I facial deformity. In nasal deformities, tip and nasal bridge were more prevalent, being the nasal width a common deformity; in the intraoperative time, after orthognathic surgery, it was necessary to make a new analysis and approach to nasal morphology because the new conditions related to movement of the maxilla. Conclusion: Orthognathic and nasal surgery are good complement and it is possible to do with few complications; surgical protocol and criteria for the analysis are necessaries to obtain more predictability in the esthetic results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rhinoplasty/methods , Orthognathic Surgery/methods , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Nose/surgery , Dentofacial Deformities/surgery , Dentofacial Deformities/diagnostic imaging
20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 677-686, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Functional endonasal endoscopic surgery is a frequent surgical procedure among otorhinolaryngologists. In 2014, the European Society of Rhinology published the "European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses", aiming to unify the terms in the English language. We do not yet have a unified terminology in the Portuguese language. Objective: Transcultural adaptation of the anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal cavities of the "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses" to Portuguese. Methods: A group of rhinologists from diverse parts of Brazil, all experienced in endoscopic endonasal surgery, was invited to participate in the creation of this position paper on the anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the Portuguese language according to the methodology adapted from that previously described by Rudmik and Smith. Results: The results of this document were generated based on the agreement of the majority of the participants according to the most popular suggestions among the rhinologists. A cross-cultural adaptation of the sinonasal anatomical terminology was consolidated. We suggest the terms "inferior turbinate", "nasal septum", "(bone/cartilaginous) part of the nasal septum", "(middle/inferior) nasal meatus", "frontal sinus drainage pathway", "frontal recess" and "uncinate process" be standardized. Conclusion: We have consolidated a Portuguese version of the European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses, which will help in the publication of technical announcements, scientific publications and the teaching of the internal anatomical terms of the nose and paranasal sinuses in Brazil.


Resumo: Introdução: A cirurgia endoscópica funcional endonasal é um procedimento cirúrgico frequente entre os otorrinolaringologistas. Em 2014, a Sociedade Europeia de Rinologia publicou o "Documento Europeu para Posicionamento sobre a Terminologia Anatômica Interna do Nariz e das Cavidades Paranasais" com o objetivo de unificar os termos na língua inglesa. Ainda não dispomos de uma terminologia unificada na língua portuguesa. Objetivo: Adaptação transcultural dos termos anatômicos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais para o português da "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses". Método: Um grupo de rinologistas de todo o Brasil, com experiência em cirurgia endoscópica endonasal, foi convidado a participar da elaboração desse posicionamento sobre os termos anatômicos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais para o português conforme metodologia adaptada da previamente descrita por Rudmik e Smith. Resultados: Os resultados desse documento foram gerados a partir da concordância da maioria dos participantes conforme as sugestões mais populares entre os rinologistas. Uma adaptação transcultural da terminologia anatômica nasossinusal foi consolidada. Sugerimos que se busque uniformizar termos como "concha inferior", "septo nasal", "porção (óssea/cartilaginosa) do septo nasal", "meato (médio/ inferior) nasal", "via da drenagem do seio frontal", "recesso frontal" e "processo uncinado". Conclusão: Consolidamos uma versão adaptada em português da "European Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses" que auxiliará a publicação de comunicados técnicos, publicações científicas e o ensino dos termos anatômicos internos do nariz e das cavidades paranasais no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paranasal Sinuses/anatomy & histology , Nose/anatomy & histology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Terminology as Topic , Paranasal Sinuses/surgery , Brazil , Nose/surgery , Prospective Studies , Consensus , Language , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Nasal Cavity/surgery
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