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1.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 14: 1-7, 20 de Enero del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1358819

ABSTRACT

NTRODUCCIÓN: Los roedores sinantrópicos, representados por el ratón doméstico (Mus musculus), la rata parda (Rattus norvegicus) y la rata negra (Rattus rattus), representan un riesgo importante para la salud. En Sudamérica, la fragmentación socioeconómica se refleja en marcadas diferencias entre centros urbanos y áreas periféricas, y se asocia a un registro heterogéneo. El objetivo fue relevar datos por encuestas a los habitantes de dos barrios del Gran La Plata con características contrastantes para explorar, describir y evaluar la percepción en relación con la presencia de roedores en domicilio, peridomicilio y barrio como vehículos de transmisión de enfermedades. MÉTODOS: A partir de un diseño descriptivo exploratorio, se confeccionaron y realizaron encuestas siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado. Se consideraron las variables género y grupo, de tal manera que la muestra tuviese la misma distribución. La información se transfirió a una base de datos y se analizó a través de IBM SPSS Statistics V25. RESULTADOS: Existe una preocupación común respecto al rol de los roedores urbanos como reservorios y fuentes de infección de patologías zoonóticas. En el barrio más vulnerable, la presencia de roedores fue más frecuente que en el centro de la ciudad. DISCUSIÓN: Este estudio provee un abordaje diferente en relación con roedores y patologías asociadas, considerando la percepción social y revelando su importancia para los programas de manejo y control.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Rodentia , Social Perception , Zoonoses , Noxae
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 413-417, dez 20, 2021. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354260

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a meningite bacteriana em equinos é uma enfermidade frequente em animais jovens. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli são as bactérias mais comumente isoladas nesses casos. Apesar da bactéria Providencia rettgeri já ter sido isolada em casos de meningite humana e de crocodilo, não há relatos de seu isolamento em equinos. Objetivo: relatar o isolamento e a identificação da bactéria P. rettgeri de um potro com sintomas neurológicos e avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos deste isolado. Metodologia: o isolamento foi realizado a partir do líquido cefalorraquidiano do potro, por meio de cultivo em meio ágar chocolate. Após isolamento, as colônias formadas foram identificadas por equipamento Biotyper, baseado em espectrometria de massa. O perfil de sensibilidade foi definido por teste de difusão em discos, seguindo metodologia relatada pelo CLSI M2-A8 em 2003, sendo a bactéria classificada como resistente, padrão indeterminado ou sensível aos antibióticos, de acordo com o descrito pelo EUCAST em 2021. Resultados: este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de P. rettgeri como agente etiológico de meningite em potro. Dos 15 antibióticos testados, a bactéria foi resistente a 9, sensível a 5 e com padrão indeterminado a 1 antibiótico. Conclusão: nossos resultados indicam que P. rettgeri deve ser considerada entre possíveis agentes etiológicos de quadros neurológicos em equinos e que testes de sensibilidade a antibiótico são fundamentais, uma vez que essa bactéria já apresenta resistência a diversos antibióticos disponíveis comercialmente.


Introduction: Bacterial meningitis in horses is a frequent disease in young animals. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the most commonly isolated bacteria in these cases. Although Providencia rettgeri bacterium has already been isolated in cases of human and crocodile meningitis, there are no reports of its isolation in cases of meningitis in horses. Objective: to report isolation and identification of the P. rettgeri bacteria from a foal with neurological symptoms and to assess antibiotic sensitivity profile in isolate of it. Methods: isolation was performed from the foal's cerebrospinal fluid, through cultivation in chocolate agar medium. After isolation, formed colonies were identified by Biotyper equipment, based on mass spectrometry. Sensitivity profile was verified by disk diffusion test, according to methodology that was reported by CLSI M2-A8 in 2003, which classified bacteria as resistant, indeterminate pattern or sensitive to antibiotics, as described by EUCAST in 2021. Results: this is the first report on isolation of P. rettgeri as an etiologic agent of meningitis in foals. Among 15 antibiotics that were tested, results showed bacteria resistence to 9 antibiotics, bacteria sensitivity to 5, but undetermined pattern to 1 antibiotic. Conclusion: results indicate that P. rettgeri shall be considered among potential etiologic agents of neurological conditions in horses and that antibiotic sensitivity tests are essential, since this type of bacterium is already resistant to several commercially available antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Equidae , Meningitis , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Noxae
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3)2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosensing techniques have been the subject of exponentially increasing interest due to their performance advantages such as high selectivity and sensitivity, easy operation, low cost, short analysis time, simple sample preparation, and real-time detection. Biosensors have been developed by integrating the unique specificity of biological reactions and the high sensitivity of physical sensors. Therefore, there has been a broad scope of applications for biosensing techniques, and nowadays, they are ubiquitous in different areas of environmental, healthcare, and food safety. Biosensors have been used for environmental studies, detecting and quantifying pollutants in water, air, and soil. Biosensors also showed great potential for developing analytical tools with countless applications in diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, mainly by detecting biomarkers. Biosensors as a medical device can identify nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, metabolites, etc.; these analytes may be biomarkers associated with the disease status. Bacterial food contamination is considered a worldwide public health issue; biosensor-based analytical techniques can identify the presence or absence of pathogenic agents in food. OBJECTIVES: The present review aims to establish state-of-the-art, comprising the recent advances in the use of nucleic acid-based biosensors and their novel application for the detection of nucleic acids. Emphasis will be given to the performance characteristics, advantages, and challenges. Additionally, food safety applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors will be discussed. METHODS: Recent research articles related to nucleic acid-based biosensors, biosensors for detecting nucleic acids, biosensors and food safety, and biosensors in environmental monitoring were reviewed. Also, biosensing platforms associated with the clinical diagnosis and food industry were included. RESULTS: It is possible to appreciate that multiple applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors have been reported in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, as well as to identify foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The use of PNA and aptamers opens the possibility of developing new biometric tools with better analytical properties. CONCLUSIONS: Biosensors could be considered the most important tool for preventing, treating, and monitoring diseases that significantly impact human health. The aptamers have advantages as biorecognition elements due to the structural conformation, hybridization capacity, robustness, stability, and lower costs. It is necessary to implement biosensors in situ to identify analytes with high selectivity and lower detection limits


ANTECEDENTES: Las técnicas de biodetección han sido objeto de un interés cada vez mayor debido a ventajas, tales como alta selectividad y sensibilidad, facilidad de manejo, bajo costo, tiempo de análisis corto, preparación sencilla de muestras y detección en tiempo real. Los biosensores se han desarrollado integrando la especificidad única de las reacciones biológicas y la alta sensibilidad de los sensores físicos. Por lo tanto, las técnicas de biodetección han tenido un amplio campo de aplicación y hoy en día son omnipresentes en diferentes áreas del medio ambiente, la salud y la seguridad alimentaria. Se han utilizado biosensores para estudios ambientales, detectando y cuantificando contaminantes en el agua, el aire y el suelo. Los biosensores también mostraron un gran potencial para desarrollar herramientas analíticas con innumerables aplicaciones en el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, principalmente mediante la detección de biomarcadores. Los biosensores como dispositivo médico pueden utilizarse para identificar ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, péptidos, metabolitos, etc. Estos analitos pueden ser biomarcadores asociados al estado de la enfermedad. La contaminación bacteriana de los alimentos se considera un problema de salud pública mundial; se pueden utilizar técnicas analíticas basadas en biosensores para determinar la presencia o ausencia de agentes patógenos en los alimentos. OBJETIVOS: La presente revisión tiene por objeto establecer los últimos adelantos en la utilización de biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos y su novedosa aplicación para la detección de ácidos nucleicos. Se hará hincapié en las características del desempeño, las ventajas y los desafíos. Además, se examinarán las aplicaciones de los biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos para la inocuidad de los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron artículos de investigación recientes relacionados con los biosensores a base de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores para la detección de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores y la inocuidad de los alimentos, y los biosensores para la vigilancia del medio ambiente. También se incluyeron plataformas de biosensores asociadas al diagnóstico clínico y a la industria alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Es posible apreciar que se han reportado múltiples aplicaciones de biosensores basados en ácido nucleico para el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, así como para identificar bacterias patógenas transmitidas por los alimentos. El uso de PNA y aptámeros abre la posibilidad de desarrollar nuevas herramientas biométricas con mejores propiedades analíticas. CONCLUSIONES: Los biosensores pueden ser considerados como los instrumentos más importantes para la prevención, el tratamiento y la vigilancia de las enfermedades que tienen un impacto significativo en la salud humana. Los aptámeros tienen ventajas como elemento de biorreconocimiento debido a la conformación estructural, capacidad de hibridación, robustez, estabilidad y menores costos. Es necesario implementar biosensores in situ para identificar analitos con alta selectividad y menores límites de detección


Subject(s)
Humans , Biosensing Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Noxae
4.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 79-84, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353172

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas, enfermidade causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, tem sido relacionada com frequência à transmissão oral pelo consumo de açaí. Métodos moleculares que fornecem uma identificação rápida e precisa do patógeno para a detecção da presença do parasita são de extrema importância para a detecção da presença do parasita neste alimento. Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a detecção de DNA de T. cruzi em polpa de açaí por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Foram preparadas várias diluições das formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi DTU TcI cultivadas em meio de cultivo Liver Infusion Tryptose. O DNA de T. cruzi foi extraído das células e submetido à PCR. Posteriormente, as diluições da cultura foram adicionadas às polpas de açaí para avaliar o limite de detecção do novo ensaio de PCR otimizado. Mostramos que nosso ensaio pode detectar DNA de T. cruzi em polpas de açaí na concentração de 1.08 × 10-10 ng µL-1. Concluímos que a metodologia desenvolvida se mostra eficaz e pode ser uma ferramenta importante para a detecção de contaminação por T. cruzi em açaí.(AU)


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Foodborne Diseases , Genetic Carrier Screening , Noxae
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00592020, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1357869

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) by molecular techniques has been broadly studied. These methods allow accelerating the diagnosis, in addition to presenting high specificity and sensitivity in the identification of the pathogen, critical characteristic for public health, especially when it comes to the direct diagnosis of the biologic samples, which has been little explored. This paper has evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) as a tool to diagnose TB, which was performed directly on the granulomatous material of suspicious lesions collected in a cold chamber under state inspection in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Of the 74 samples evaluated, 14.86% were positive, with 10.81% positive for mPCR and culture, 4.05% negative for cultivation and positive for mPCR. The correlation between the cultivation and the mPCR presented agreeance higher than 61.54% of the cases. The results have indicated that the protocol proved itself effective, fast and very promising in the surveillance in slaughterhouses for the diagnosis of tuberculosis directly from the granuloma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tuberculosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium , Abattoirs , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Granuloma , Noxae
6.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 37(1): 13-20, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253882

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas que comprometen el aparato respiratorio, generalmente son más graves en las gestantes y en las puérperas en comparación con las no embarazadas. Dentro de estas infecciones, se encuentran las producidas por agentes virales como la influenza estacional, pandémica y zoonótica, los coronavirus SARS, el MERS; y desde el año 2019 el SARS-CoV-2 causante de la actual pandemia COVID-19. Las noxas virales pueden ejercer un efecto deletéreo sobre el feto debido a respuesta inflamatoria vía cascada de citoquinas o daño directo a nivel de algunos tejidos. Los efectos del SARS-CoV-2 a nivel placentario, no están bien entendidos, los hallazgos histopatológicos incluyen alteraciones de la perfusión venosa materna y fetal y signos de inflamación placentaria en diferentes porcentajes. La placenta es un órgano altamente especializado que confiere una protección especial generando un ambiente protegido manteniendo un equilibrio de factores inmunes y bioquímicos que favorecen el desarrollo fetal. Su estructura funciona como una barrera protectora dificultando o impidiendo el paso de noxas al producto de la gestación. Diversos patógenos, incluyendo los virus pueden alterar los diferentes componentes celulares de la placenta. En la siguiente revisión describimos los más recientes hallazgos de la interacción con la placenta de diversos virus respiratorios y sus consecuencias en la salud materno fetal(AU)


Infectious diseases of the respiratory system generally present greater severity in women during pregnancy or puerperium, than in non-pregnant women. Among them, we find those produced by viral agents such as seasonal, pandemic and zoonotic influenza, SARS coronaviruses, MERS; and since 2019 the SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Viral noxae can exert a deleterious effect on the fetus due to an inflammatory response via the cytokines cascade or direct damage at some tissues. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the placenta is not well understood, the histopathological findings include alterations of maternal and fetal perfusion and signs of placental inflammation in different degrees. The placenta is a highly specialized organ that confers a special protection by generating a protected environment maintaining a balance of immune and biochemical factors that favor the fetal development. Its structure works as a protective barrier, hindering or preventing the passage of noxae to the fetus. Several pathogens, including viruses, can alter different cellular components of the placenta. In the review, we describe the most recent findings of the interaction of various respiratory viruses with the placenta and their consequences on maternal and fetal health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Puerperal Infection , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Communicable Diseases , Pregnant Women , Viruses , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , Noxae
8.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 4-14, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neutrophils play an important role in immune defence against several pathogens. These cells actively participate in the innate immune response through different functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst and degranulation, which have been widely studied. However, in the last few years, a new function has been described; activated neutrophils are able to release web-like chromatin structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These structures formed by DNA, histones, and proteins, immobilize and kill microorganisms. Disruption in NET formation is associated with the pathophysiology of several disorders, including the autoimmune diseases. NETs are an important source of the autoantigens involved in the production of autoantibodies and maintenance of the inflammatory milieu. This review provides a summary of the contribution of NETs to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary findings on NETs components in Sjögren.'s syndrome will also be described.


RESUMEN Los neutrófilos juegan un papel muy importante en la defensa inmune contra diferentes patógenos. Estas células participan activamente en la respuesta inmune innata a través de diferentes funciones como quimiotaxis, fagocitosis, estallido oxidativo y degranulación, las cuales han sido estudiadas ampliamente. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha descrito una nueva función; los neutrófilos activados son capaces de liberar redes de cromatina llamadas trampas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs). Estas estructuras están formadas por ADN, histonas y proteínas capaces de inmovilizar y matar microorganismos. Alteraciones en la formación de estas NETs están asociadas con la fisiopatología de varios trastornos, incluyendo las enfermedades autoinmunes (EAI). Las NETs son consideradas una fuente de autoantígenos que ayudan a la producción de autoanticuerpos y al mantenimiento de un ambiente inflamatorio. Esta revisión resume la contribución de las NETs a la patogénesis de vasculitis asociada a anticuerpos contra el citoplasma de los neutrófilos, lupus eritematoso sistémico y artritis reumatoide. Adicionalmente, se describirán los resultados preliminares de la detección de componentes de las NETs en pacientes con síndrome de Sjögren.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Extracellular Traps , Neutrophils , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Immunity , Noxae
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 524-528, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362782

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los abscesos hepáticos son infecciones focales supurativas. La Klebsiella pneumoniae es el agente etiológico más frecuente. Afecta principalmente a hombres de edad media, diabéticos, con afecciones hepáticas o en contexto de inmunodepresión. Se clasifican en abscesos colangíticos, pioflebíticos, hematógenos, por continuidad, traumáticos y criptogénicos, según mecanismo de producción. Se manifiestan con dolor abdominal en hipocondrio derecho, sd. febril y sd. colestásico en presencia de obstrucción de vía biliar. La ecografía, TAC y la Resonancia magnética de abdomen son los métodos de elección para determinar topografía y morfología de las colecciones. El tratamiento consiste en el drenaje oportuno de la colección por vía percutánea o quirúrgica, asociado al tratamiento antibiótico. Objetivos: 1. Análisis epidemiológico de abscesos hepáticos durante la Pandemia por Covid 19 en una Institución privada de Tucumán. 2. Estudiar la fisiopatología y agentes patógenos responsables de los mismos. 3. Comparar estadísticas con era similar no Covid 19. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se incluyeron seis pacientes con diagnóstico de Absceso Hepático, cinco de ellos del período de la era Covid 19 y uno de la era no Covid 19. Las variables analizadas fueron: cantidad de pacientes ingresados al Servicio, pacientes con absceso hepático, sexo, edad, comorbilidades, métodos de diagnóstico imagenológico utilizados, localización anatómica del absceso, número de lesiones, microbiología de la muestra quirúrgica y en sangre, tratamiento implementado, días desde el diagnóstico hasta la resolución, STROC y recidiva. Resultados: En el análisis epidemiológico se evidenció un notable descenso de la actividad quirúrgica en el periodo del 2020, respecto al mismo período del año previo, a predominio del mes de abril con un porcentaje de descenso del 52%, coincidiendo este período con el inicio de la cuarentena en la provincia. En nuestra serie resultaron todos masculinos, hipertensos y 3 de ellos diabéticos. Todos estudiados por ecografía y 3 complementaron con TAC con contraste EV. Fueron tratados en un promedio de 48hs desde el diagnóstico. Cultivos positivos, Klebsiella Pn (3), St aureus (1), E. Coli (1), Bacilo gram ­ (1). Hemocultivos: 3 negativos, 2 positivos para Klebsiella Pn y 1 para St. Aureus. 3 pacientes fueron sometidos a drenaje percutáneo, 2 a laparoscópico y uno convencional. Se registraron 2 STROC IIIA y 1 IIIB. Un paciente obitó, el resto recibió alta sanatorial. Se registraron 2 recidivas. Conclusiones: Nuestros pacientes, en su totalidad masculinos y diabéticos, desarrollaron abscesos hepáticos piógenos; el agente patógeno más frecuente fue la Klebsiella Pneumoniae. Los abscesos criptogénicos fueron los más prevalentes. En las recidivas documentadas, se determinó misma ubicación topográfica y agente etiológico del primer episodio, lo que nos lleva a preguntarnos sobre la eficacia del tratamiento implementado en cada caso.


Introduction: liver abscess is a common infection. Klebsiella pneumoniae was de most frecuently etiologic agent. The patients were middle-aged men with diabetes, another liver afection or immunodepression context. According to the production mechanism, they are classified in colangitics, pyophlebics, haematogenes, by continuity, traumatic and cryptogrnics. Patients usually present with right upper quadrant, fever, colestasic síndrome when bile-way obstruction exist. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance are useful tools to demostrtate a space occupying lesión and morfology of liver abscess. Treatment consist in timely drainage by percutaneous or surgical route, plus antibiotic treatment. Objetives: 1. Epidemiological análisis of liver abscesses during the pandemic Covid 19 in a private center in Tucumán. 2. Study physiology and pathogenic agents. 3. Campare statistics whit previusly period. Materials and methods: retrospective descriptive study. Six live abscess diagnosis patient were included, five of them included in stage Covid 19 and only one belong stage no Covid 19. Variables analysed: number of patients belong to the Service, number of patients whit liver abscess diagnosis, sex, age, comorbilities, imaging methods, location and number of abscess, microbiology of surgical sample and blood, treatment, days from diagnosis to resolution, STROC and recidivation. Results: epidemiological análisis showed a decrease in surgeries in the period 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year, a predominance in April with a percentage decrease of 52%, coinciding with the start of quarantine in the province. All patients were male, hypertensive and 3 of them with diabetes. Al lof them studied by ultrasound and tomography with contrast. They were treated at 48hours of diagnosis. Microbiology of surgical sample positive: Klebsiella Pn (3), St aureus (1), E. Coli (1), Bacillos gram ­ (1). Microbiology of blood: 3 negative, 2 positive to Klebsiella Pn and 1 to St. Aureus. 3 patients were drainage by percutaneous , 2 by laparoscopic and 1 by surgical conventional. They registered 2 STROC IIIA y 1 IIIB. 1 patiente dead, the rest were external from hospital. Conclusions: our patients developed liver abscess, they were male, diabetics and the most frecuently agent was the Klebsiella pneumoniae. Criptogenics abscess were the most prevalent. The same topographic location in the liver and the etiologic agent was determined in recurrence. That´s why we wonder about the effectiveness of the treatment implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Recurrence , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/physiopathology , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/therapy , COVID-19 , Liver Abscess/pathology , Noxae/immunology
10.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

ABSTRACT

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
11.
Infectio ; 24(2): 93-97, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114847

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The tourniquet used in venipuncture appears as a potential vehicle for the transmission of microorganisms that interferes with safety and the quality of clinical services. Objective: Mapping the scientific evidence on the microbiological contamination of the tourniquets used in peripheral venipuncture. Methodology: Scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Results: 20 studies have been included, in which of 1477 tourniquets were analyzed. The rates of microbiological contamination varied between 10-100% and 19 studies reported the presence of S. aureus, 11 of them detected methicillin-resistant strains with prevalence between 3.3-58.3%. Conclusion: The contamination rate in the majority of studies was ≥70%, including 4 studies which had sampled ≥100 tourniquets. The evidence of our study is that the tourniquets are reservoirs of potential pathogens and can be transmitted to patient on staff hands. We recommend studies that confirm the reusable tourniquets can be responsible to healthcare associated infections.


Resumen Introducción: El torniquete utilizado en la venopunción aparece como potencial vehículo para transmisión de microorganismos que entorpece la seguridad y calidad de los servicios clínicos. Objetivo: Mapear pruebas científicas sobre contaminación microbiológica de los torniquetes utilizados en la venopunción periférica. Metodología: Revisión de acuerdo con la metodología del Instituto Joanna Briggs. Resultados: Se han incluido 20 estudios, en los que se analizó un total de 1477 torniquetes. Las tasas de contaminación microbiológica variaron entre 10-100% y 19 estudios informaron la presencia de S. aureus, 11 detectaron cepas resistentes a meticilina con prevalencia entre 3.3-58.3%. Conclusión: La tasa de contaminación en mayoría de los estudios fue ≥70%, 4 estudios que habían muestreado ≥100 torniquetes. Nuestro estudio evidencia que los torniquetes son reservorios de patógenos y pueden transmitirse al paciente en manos del personal. Recomendamos estudios que confirmen que los torniquetes pueden ser responsables de las infecciones asociadas a la atención médica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tourniquets , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross Infection , Anti-Infective Agents , Noxae
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146440

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.


A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.


Subject(s)
Soil , Plant Extracts , Datura metel , Fungi , Pesticides , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota , Control , Phenolic Compounds , Phytochemicals , Fusarium , Noxae
13.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-10, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1293153

ABSTRACT

As esponjas de banho podem carrear contaminação, pois sua estrutura favorece a multiplicação microbiana. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verifica a eficiência de dois métodos de desinfecção para diminuir a quantidade de microrganismos de importância clínica nas esponjas de banho. Foram analisadas 30 esponjas de banho (15 vegetais e 15 sintéticas) que foram cortadas em três partes iguais. Uma delas serviu como controle. As demais partes foram submetidas à desinfecção por fervura durante cinco minutos e à imersão em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Os resultados demonstraram média de contaminação de bactérias heterotróficas de 4,1 LogUFC/mL e 4,7 LogUFC/mL, para as vegetais e sintéticas, respectivamente. A maioria (80%) das esponjas (10 sintéticas e 14 vegetais) apresentou contaminação por microrganismos de importância clínica. Os métodos de desinfecção reduziram as contagens de bactérias heterotróficas em 3,3 LogUFC/mL com fervura durante cinco minutos e 1,8 LogUFC/mL com desinfecção em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Conclui-se, portanto, que as esponjas de banho possuem contaminação microbiológica de importância clínica e que a fervura por cinco minutos é um método de fácil execução, baixo custo e capaz de controlar a quantidade de bactérias nas esponjas utilizadas para banho, reduzindo a disseminação de doenças. (AU)


Bath sponges can carry contamination, because their structure favors microbial multiplication. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of two disinfection methods to decrease the number of microorganisms of clinical importance in bath sponges. Thirty bath sponges (15 loofah and 15 synthetic) were analyzed and cut in three equal parts. One served as control. The other parts were boiled disinfected for five minutes and immersed in 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. The results showed a mean contamination of heterotrophic bacteria of 4.1 LogUFC/mL and 4.7 LogUFC/mL, for plants and synthetic, respectively. The majority (80%) of the sponges (10 synthetic and 14 loofah) presented contamination by microorganisms of clinical importance. Disinfection methods reduced the counts of heterotrophic bacteria by 3.3 LogUFC/mL with boiling for five minutes and 1.8 LogUFC/mL with disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded, therefore, that bath sponges present microbiological contamination of clinical importance and that boiling for five minutes is an easily executed low-cost method that is able to control the amount of bacteria in sponges used for bathing, reducing the risk of dissemination of disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Disease Reservoirs , Disinfection , Luffa , Personal Hygiene Products , Noxae
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 546-555, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146419

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter spp. is an emerging pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and the consumption of dairy food can characterize sources of infection. We aimed to verify the viability and a presence of transcripts associated with characteristics of virulence and adaptation of C. jejuni isolated from Minas Frescal cheeses, produced with contaminated milk and stored under refrigeration for up to ten days. The samples were analyzed for bioindicators, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidity, moisture and sodium chloride. Campylobacter spp. recovered were evaluated for the production of transcripts of: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 and sodB. The results were correlated with the viability of C. jejuni and changes in their transcriptome. Storage at lowtemperatures reduced C. jejuni from the first to the fourth day. The variations in humidity, pH and acidity influenced the decreasing of C. jejuni. There was a reduction in transcripts' production of the four genes, more pronounced on the fourth day, indicating the inability of the microorganism to perform its metabolic activities, due to the conditions of injury. Despite the presence of mechanisms of virulence and adaptation, C. jejuni could not remain viable four days after production. However, consumption of fresh cheese contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni can be a source of infection when consumed up to four days after production.


Campylobacter spp. é um patógeno emergente que causa gastroenterite em seres humanos e o consumo de produtos lácteos pode caracterizar fontes de infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade e a presença de transcritos associadas a características de virulência e adaptação de C. jejuniisoladas de queijos frescos, produzidos com leite contaminado e mantidos refrigeradas por dez dias. Foram analisados bioindicadores, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidez, umidade e cloreto de sódio. Campylobacter spp. recuperados foram avaliados quanto à produção dos transcritos: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 e sodB. Os resultados foram correlacionados com a viabilidade de C. jejuni e alterações no transcriptoma. O armazenamento em baixas temperaturas reduziu C. jejuni do primeiro ao quarto dia. As variações na umidade, pH e acidez influenciaram a queda de C. jejuni. Houve uma redução na produção de transcritos dos quatro genes, mais pronunciada no quarto dia, indicando a incapacidade do micro-organismo em realizar suas atividades metabólicas, devido às condições de injúria. Apesar da presença de mecanismos de virulência e adaptação, C. jejuni não permaneceu viável quatro dias após a produção. Porém, o consumo de queijo fresco contaminado com Campylobacter jejunipode ser uma fonte de infecção quando consumido até quatro dias após a produção.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Cheese , Campylobacter jejuni , Virulence , Dairy Products , Gastroenteritis , Infections , Noxae
15.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(1): 42-48, 24 de febrero de 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1052270

ABSTRACT

Los reportes de casos de microcefalia en Brasil han significado un reto para la salud pública, especialmente en países de Latinoamérica como Colombia, pues a pesar de su presunta relación con el virus Zika, se desconoce cómo los otros factores implicados en la etiología de la microcefalia se relacionan con este aumento de casos. También se cuenta con pocas estadísticas epidemiológicas acerca del comportamiento de los factores etiológicos de microcefalia hasta el año clave de 2015, no solo en Brasil sino en la mayoría de países latinoamericanos. Las estimaciones de la incidencia y prevalencia de microcefalia son variables debido a diferencias en las definiciones, estándares de seguimiento y diferencias entre las poblaciones que tienen y las que no tienen validados los estándares de diagnóstico y seguimientos de microcefalia. Se realiza una revisión con una mirada general a la microcefalia, se unifican definiciones, clasificación y etiología.


The reports of cases of microcephaly in Brazil have posed a challenge for the public health, in particular, in Latin American countries such as Colombia, since despite their alleged relationship with the Zika virus, there is no information on the relation of other factors involved in the etiology of microcephaly are related with this increase in cases. There are also very few epidemiological statistics on the behavior of the etiological factors of microcephaly until the crucial year of 2015, not only in Brazil, but also in most Latin American countries. The changes in the incidence and prevalence of microcephaly are very variable due to the dissimilarities in the definitions, the development criteria and the differences among the populations with and without certified diagnostic standards and follow-up criteria for microcephaly. A general review of the microcephaly issue is made, in order to unify definitions, classification and etiology.


Os relatórios de casos de microcefalia no Brasil há significado um desafio para a saúde pública, especialmente nos países da América Latina como a Colômbia, pois a pesar de sua suposta relação com o vírus Zika, se desconhece como os outros fatores implicados na etiologia da microcefalia se relacionam com este aumento de casos. Também se conta com poucas estadísticas epidemiológicas sobre o comportamento dos fatores etiológicos de microcefalia até o ano chave de 2015, não só no Brasil se não na maioria de países latino-americanos. As estimações da incidência e prevalência de microcefalia são variáveis devido a diferenças nas definições, padrões de seguimento e diferenças entre as populações que têm e as que não têm validados os padrões de diagnóstico e seguimentos de microcefalia. Se realiza uma revisão com uma olhada geral à microcefalia, se unificam definições, classificação e etiologia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zika Virus , Public Health , Microcephaly , Noxae
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0862018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118055

ABSTRACT

Production and storage environments influence the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the herbicide flumioxazin applied as a preharvest desiccant and storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of adzuki bean seeds. A randomized block design was used in a split-plot scheme, with four replications. Plots consisted of five doses of the herbicide flumioxazin (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 g ai·ha-1) and subplots consisted of two evaluation times (harvest and six months after harvest). Two controls, with no herbicide application, were tested for each evaluation time. The physiological seed quality was maintained with doses from 25 to 35 g·ha-1 of flumioxazin. Increasing herbicide doses reduced the electrical conductivity of seeds. The increased doses also reduced the percentage of normal seedlings in the first germination count after six months of storage and caused seedling vigor loss. The storage of adzuki bean for six months reduced its physiological quality, leading to losses in germination and seed vigor. Storage and increasing doses of the desiccant flumioxazin reduced the incidence of the pathogens Rhizopus, Cladosporium, and Fusarium in the seeds. The increased doses of this herbicide reduced Aspergillus incidence. Penicillium incidence was not affected by treatments.(AU)


A qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes é influenciada pelo ambiente de produção e de armazenamento. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do herbicida flumioxazin aplicado como dessecante em pré-colheita e do armazenamento sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijão azuki. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as cinco doses do herbicida flumioxazin (20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 g i.a·ha-1) e nas subparcelas as duas épocas de avaliação (colheita e 6 meses após a colheita), com quatro repetições. Foram testados dois tratamentos sem aplicação do herbicida para cada época de avaliação. Nas doses entre 25 a 35 g·ha-1 de flumioxazin observou-se a manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Em doses crescentes reduziu-se a condutividade elétrica das sementes. O aumento das doses reduziu a porcentagem de plântulas normais na primeira contagem da germinação, após seis meses de armazenamento, e causou perda no vigor das plântulas. O armazenamento de feijão azuki durante seis meses reduziu a qualidade fisiológica, causando perdas na germinação e vigor das sementes. O armazenamento e o aumento das doses do dessecante flumioxazin reduziram a incidência dos patógenos Rhizopus, Cladosporium e Fusarium nas sementes. O aumento das doses reduziu a incidência de Aspergillus. A incidência de Penicillium não foi afetada pelos tratamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/physiology , Vigna , Herbicides/adverse effects , Hygroscopic Agents , Noxae
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0612019, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130105

ABSTRACT

The use of highly toxic pesticides to control soil pathogens, such as Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has generated concern, due to the irreversible impacts caused on the environment, in addition to selecting resistant isolates. In this way, essential oils appear as an efficient alternative in control of diseases. Facing the problem of soil pathogens control and high antimicrobial fungicide that essential oils present, this work aimed to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal potential of essential oils in control of Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum. A completely randomized design, factorial scheme 2×4×8 was used, with two isolates (Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum), four essential oils (Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba and Ocimum americanum), eight essential oil concentrations (0.0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.2 and 1.4 ?L·mL-1), and ten replicates. The essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of the fungi in different concentrations, being their potential justified by the presence of antifungal chemical compounds. Essential oils of A. citriodora, C. winterianus, L. alba and O. americanum present high fungicidal potential, being viable alternatives for formulation of commercial products, boosting the pesticides industry.(AU)


O uso de pesticidas com alta toxicidade para controlar patógenos do solo, como Fusarium spp. e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, tem gerado preocupação, devido aos impactos irreversíveis causados no meio ambiente, além de selecionar isolados resistentes. Dessa forma, os óleos essenciais surgem como uma alternativa eficiente no controle de doenças. Diante da problemática de controle de patógenos do solo e alto potencial antimicrobiano que os óleos essenciais possuem, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial fungicida de óleos essenciais no controle de Fusarium spp. e S. sclerotiorum, in vitro. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente randomizado, esquema fatorial 2×4×8, com dois isolados (Fusarium spp. e S. sclerotiorum), quatro óleos essenciais (Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba e Ocimum americanum) e oito concentrações de óleo essencial (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 ?L·mL-1), com dez repetições. Os óleos essenciais inibiram o crescimento micelial dos fungos em diferentes concentrações, sendo seu potencial justificado pela presença de compostos químicos antifúngicos. Os óleos essenciais de A. citriodora, C. winterianus, L. alba e O. americanum apresentam alto potencial fungicida, sendo alternativas viáveis para formulação de produtos comerciais, impulsionando a indústria de agrotóxicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pesticides/toxicity , Pesticide Utilization , Oils, Volatile , Noxae , Ascomycota , Soil , Ocimum canum , Environment , Fusarium , Antifungal Agents
18.
Medisan ; 23(6)nov.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091151

ABSTRACT

La hipoxia es un factor importante que regula el desarrollo placentario y estimula la invasión del trofoblasto y la diferenciación, la angiogénesis y la vasculogénesis. Cuando ocurre la fecundación, la hipoxia a la que está expuesta el blastocisto regula su crecimiento, a la vez que limita el número de células del trofoblasto y el desarrollo placentario posterior, lo cual es clave en el transporte de nutrientes y oxígeno al feto en desarrollo; sin embargo, la hipoxia crónica fetoplacentaria conduce a disfunción vascular placentaria y a la programación intrauterina de enfermedades vasculares y metabólicas, ya que regula, a largo plazo, la expresión de enzimas relacionadas con la vía L-arginina/óxido nítrico en células endoteliales de diferentes lechos vasculares, incluyendo la placenta. Teniendo en cuenta los planteamientos anteriores en la presente investigación se describen los efectos de la hipoxia como noxa durante la vida intrauterina y su influencia en el origen temprano de la obesidad y sus complicaciones.


Hypoxia is an important factor that regulates the placental development and stimulates the invasion of trophoblast as well as differentiation, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. At the moment of fertilization, hypoxia to which the blastocyte is exposed, regulates its growth, at the same time that it limits the number of trophoblast cells and the posterior placental development, that is essential in the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus; however, chronic fetus-placental hypoxia leads to vascular placental dysfunction and to intra-uterine programming of vascular and metabolic diseases, since it regulates, at long term, the expression of enzymes related to the L-arginine/nitric oxide way in endothelial cells of different vascular beds, including placenta. Taking this into account the effects of hypoxia as noxa during intra-uterine life and its influence in the early origin of obesity and its complications are described in the present investigation.


Subject(s)
Fetal Development , Hypoxia , Noxae , Pediatric Obesity
19.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 27-33, Sep.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Genital hair is one of the secondary sexual traits that marks the beginning of puberty; its removal has been part of human culture since ancient times. This practice may lead to modifications in vaginal microbiome with potential repercussions on skin health and balance. We conducted a narrative review with the purpose of describing normal skin microbiota, its impact under microenvironment changes and genital hair removal. Menses, pathological conditions and pubic hair removal may alter vaginal microbiota, being the latter of special relevance giving the risk of hair microtrauma, irritations and potential spread of infectious agents. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):27-33


Resumo O cabelo genital é um dos traços sexuais secundários que marcam o início da puberdade; sua remoção faz parte da cultura humana desde os tempos antigos. Essa prática pode levar a modificações no microbioma vaginal com possíveis repercussões na saúde e equilíbrio da pele. Realizamos uma revisão narrativa com o objetivo de descrever a microbiota normal da pele, seu impacto nas alterações do microambiente e na remoção de pelos genitais. A menstruação, as condições patológicas e a remoção de pelos pubianos podem alterar a microbiota vaginal, sendo esta última de especial relevância dando o risco de microtraumatismo capilar, irritações e potencial disseminação de agentes infecciosos. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3): 27-33


Resumen El vello genital es uno de los rasgos sexuales secundarios que marca el comienzo de la pubertad; su eliminación ha sido parte de la cultura humana desde la antigüedad. Esta práctica puede conducir a modificaciones en el microbioma vaginal con posibles repercusiones potenciales en la salud y el equilibrio de la piel. Realizamos una revisión narrativa con el propósito de describir la microbiota cutánea normal, su impacto bajo los cambios del microambiente y la depilación genital. La menstruación, las condiciones patológicas y la depilación púbica pueden alterar la microbiota vaginal, siendo esta última de especial relevancia dado el riesgo de microtraumatismos, irritaciones y posible propagación de agentes infecciosos. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3): 27-33


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Microbiota , Hair Removal , Rupture , Skin , Staphylococcus , Actinomycetales , Humans , Health , Risk , Puberty , Dermatology , Genitalia, Female , Hair , Infections , Menstruation , Noxae
20.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 26(3): 151-159, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126330

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background & aim: Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease, its pathogenesis encompasses numerous organs. About 50% of cases of SLE are anemic; multiple pathways are attributed to the occurrence of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease is generally due to reduced erythropoietin function, reduced production and low response to erythropoietin action on red blood cells, which play a role in the development of anemia of chronic disease seen in several conditions with autoimmune etiology. There were three main contributions in our research: First: To evaluate the types of anemia associated with SLE. Second: To evaluate the role of erythropoietin in pathogenesis of SLE associated anemia. Third: To evaluate the correlation between level of anemia and erythropoietin level. Subjects & methodology: 150 patients with SLE were registered in our study. SLE activity was measured by SLE disease activity index. Results: Our study encompassed (150) SLE patients, 20 men and 130 women and (50) controls, 9 men and 41 women. Among them, anemia of chronic disease was the most prevalent (41.3%), then anemia due to iron deficiency (33.3%), and lastly anemia of autoimmune etiology (25.3%). Our study also showed that there was statistically significant dissimilarity (P value = 0.023) between all groups of anemia in erythropoietin value but there was no significant correlation between erythropoietin and hemoglobin levels in any of the three groups. Conclusion: Erythropoietin level variation was detected among the dissimilar groups of anemia but no correlation between hemoglobin level and erythropoietin was found (blunted erythropoietin response).


Resumen Antecedentes y objetivo: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune, su patogénesis abarca numerosos órganos. Alrededor del 50% del lupus sistêmico es anémico; las múltiples vías se atribuyen a la aparición de anemia. La anemia por enfermedad crónica generalmente se debe a la función reducida de la eritropoyetina, la producción reducida y la baja respuesta a la acción de la eritropoyetina en los glóbulos rojos que desempeñan un papel en el desarrollo de la anemia de la enfermedad crónica observada en varias enfermedades con etiología autoinmune. Hubo 3 contribuciones principales en nuestra investigación: Primero: evaluar los tipos de anemia asociados con el lupus sistémico. Segundo: evaluar el papel de la eritropoyetina en la patogénesis de la anemia asociada al lupus sistêmico. Tercero: evaluar la correlación entre el nivel de anemia y el nivel de eritropoyetina. Sujetos y metodología: Ciento cincuenta pacientes con lupus sistémico se registraron en nuestro estudio. La actividad sistémica del lupus se calculó mediante el índice de actividad de la enfermedad del LES. Resultados: Nuestro estudio abarcó 150 pacientes con lupus sistêmico, 20 varones y 130 mujeres y 50 controles, 9 varones y 41 mujeres. Entre ellos, la anemia de la enfermedad crónica fue la más prevalente (41,3%), seguida de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro (33,3%) y, finalmente, la anemia con etiología autoinmune (25,3%). Nuestro estudio también mostró que hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (valor de p = 0,023) entre todos los grupos de anemia en el valor de eritropoyetina, pero no hubo una correlación significativa entre los niveles de eritropoyetina y hemoglobina en ninguno de los 3 grupos. Conclusión: Se detectó una variación en el nivel de eritropoyetina entre los diferentes grupos de anemia, pero no se encontró correlación entre el nivel de hemoglobina y la eritropoyetina (respuesta de eritropoyetina atenuada).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Erythropoietin , Noxae , Prevalence , Anemia , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
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