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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 52-57, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and treatment of gastric alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion. Methods: Four cases of gastric AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion diagnosed in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University from January 2021 to December 2022 were collected, and their histomorphological characteristics, immunohistochemical (IHC), in situ hybridization of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER), next-generation sequencing results, clinicopathological features and treatment were summarized, and literature review was conducted. Results: Among the 4 patients, there were three males and one female. They presented with abdominal pain, belching and melena. Serum AFP was significantly elevated in three patients, and endoscopy showed ulcerative lesions. Microscopically, the tumor cells showed mainly diffuse flaky or nest-like growth and typical characteristics of hepatoid adenocarcinoma. In two cases there were adenoid growth, and the tumor cells in these areas possessed clear cytoplasm, suggesting enteroblastic differentiation. The tumor cell nuclei were pleomorphic with large nucleoli and brisk mitoses. The IHC results showed that the tumor cells expressed AFP, GPC3 and SALL4, and there was retained expression of broad-spectrum keratin (CKpan) and E-cadherin. IHC detection of SWI/SNF complex subunits, namely INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SMARCA2), ARID1A protein was performed. In all four cases the hepatoid adenocarcinoma region and enteroblastic differentiation region showed SMARCA2 deletion, and one case with enteroblastic differentiation also showed ARID1A deletion. SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 deletions were not seen. All the four cases were diffusely positive for p53 protein, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 80%-90%. There were no mismatch repair deletion detected; one cases showed HER2 was strongly positive (3+), and EBER was negative. None of the four cases had mutations in the SWI/SNF complex-related subunits detected by next-generation sequencing. Among the four patients, two underwent palliative surgery due to distant metastasis at the time of surgery, two underwent radical resection. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was given to three patients. Conclusions: AFP-producing adenocarcinoma is a rare subtype of gastric cancer, which can be combined with SWI/SNF complex deletion, and the pathomorphological manifestations are different from the classical SWI/SNF complex deletion of undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , alpha-Fetoproteins , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors/genetics , Glypicans
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 1138-1143, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012378

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of olfactory carcinoma (OC). Methods: Twenty-one cases of sinonasal tumors, including those initially diagnosed as olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and those with uncertain diagnosis, were collected from the Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (Anhui Provincial Hospital) from January 2016 to August 2022, among which 3 cases were reclassified as OC. The clinicopathological features were investigated, and the remaining 18 cases were used as control. Results: Of the three OC patients, 2 were male and 1 was female, with an average age of 57 years ranging from 35 to 74 years. Microscopically, the tumor cells were arranged in solid, nested or lobulated patterns with occasional palisading around the solid nests. The stroma was highly vascular with focal neurofibrillary areas. There were prominent rosettes or pseudorosettes formation. The tumor cells were mainly ovoid to spindly with scant to moderate amount of cytoplasm, one or several small nucleoli, and fine chromatin content. Brisk mitotic figures were seen. In all 3 cases of OC, there were scanty atypical glands and some were ciliated. Immunohistochemically, at least one epithelial marker and neuroendocrine marker were diffusely expressed in the tumor. Some of the tumor cells were positive for p40 and p63, and the sustentacular cells showed the expression of S-100 protein. All cases tested were negative for NUT, CD99 and desmin, with intact expression of SMARCA4 (BRG1) and SMARCB1 (INI-1). Ki-67 proliferation index varied from 20% to 80%. Follow-up after 16-18 months showed no mortality with tumor recurrence from 1 patient after 16 months. Conclusion: OC is a rare sinonasal tumor with neuroepithelial differentiation, its histomorphology is diverse, and the combination of immunohistochemical markers is essential for appropriate diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma/chemistry , Diagnosis, Differential , S100 Proteins , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 808-813, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012312

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype and prognosis of nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma. Methods: Twenty-four resection cases of NUT midline carcinoma diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China from January 2018 to September 2022, were collected, and retrospectively analyzed for their clinicopathological characteristics. Relevant literature was reviewed. Results: All 24 cases of NUT midline carcinoma occurred in the chest or head and neck, including 14 men and 10 women, with a median age of 40 years. Histological examination showed that the tumors were poorly differentiated, with solid nested or sheet-like arrangement, small to medium-sized cells, sparse cytoplasm and coarse granular chromatin, including 5 cases with abrupt squamous epithelial differentiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that all 24 cases were positive for NUT protein, while 16 cases were p63 positive, 19 cases were p40 positive, 15 out of 18 cases were CK5/6 positive. Follow-up data were obtained for 21 patients (follow-up time range, 1-21 months), of which 11 survived, 10 died, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Conclusions: NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy with unique histological, immunophenotypic and molecular features. It has a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma/surgery , Testicular Neoplasms
4.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 748-754, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011037

ABSTRACT

Objective:By analyzing the clinical phenotypic characteristics and gene sequences of two patients with Treacher Collins syndrome(TCS), the biological causes of the disease were determined. Then discuss the therapeutic effect of hearing intervention after bone bridge implantation. Methods:All clinical data of the two family members were collected, and the patients signed the informed consent. The peripheral blood of the proband and family members was extracted, DNA was extracted for whole exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was performed on the family members for the mutation site.TCOF1genetic mutations analysis was performed on the paitents. Then, the hearing threshold and speech recognition rate of family 2 proband were evaluated and compared under the sound field between bare ear and wearing bone bridge. Results:In the two pedigrees, the probands of both families presented with auricle deformity, zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia, micrognathia, hypotropia of the eye fissure, and hypoplasia of the medial eyelashes. The proband of Family 1 also presents with specific features including right-sided narrow anterior nasal aperture and dental hypoplasia, which were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Genetic testing was conducted on both families, and two heterozygous mutations were identified in the TCOF1 gene: c. 1350_1351dupGG(p. A451Gfs*43) and c. 4362_4366del(p. K1457Efs*12), resulting in frameshift mutations in the amino acid sequence. Sanger sequencing validation of the TCOF1 gene in the parents of the proband in Family 1 did not detect any mutations. Proband 1 TCOF1 c. 1350_1351dupGG heterozygous variants have not been reported previously. The postoperative monosyllabic speech recognition rate of family 2 proband was 76%, the Categories of Auditory Performance(CAP) score was 6, and the Speech Intelligibility Rating(SIR) score was 4. Assessment using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale(MAIS) showed notable improvement in the patient's auditory perception, comprehension, and usage of hearing aids. Evaluation using the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory and quality of life assessment revealed significant improvements in the child's self care abilities, daily living and learning, social interactions, and psychological well being, as perceived by the parents. Conclusion:This study has elucidated the biological cause of Treacher Collins syndrome, enriched the spectrum of TCOF1 gene mutations in the Chinese population, and demonstrated that bone bridge implantation can improve the auditory and speech recognition rates in TCS patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis/genetics , Quality of Life , Speech , Parents , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 889-906, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010805

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with poor prognosis. This study aimed to depict the genetic landscape of Chinese PCNSLs. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 68 newly diagnosed Chinese PCNSL samples, whose genomic characteristics and clinicopathologic features were also analyzed. Structural variations were identified in all patients with a mean of 349, which did not significantly influence prognosis. Copy loss occurred in all samples, while gains were detected in 77.9% of the samples. The high level of copy number variations was significantly associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 263 genes mutated in coding regions were identified, including 6 newly discovered genes (ROBO2, KMT2C, CXCR4, MYOM2, BCLAF1, and NRXN3) detected in ⩾ 10% of the cases. CD79B mutation was significantly associated with lower PFS, TMSB4X mutation and high expression of TMSB4X protein was associated with lower OS. A prognostic risk scoring system was also established for PCNSL, which included Karnofsky performance status and six mutated genes (BRD4, EBF1, BTG1, CCND3, STAG2, and TMSB4X). Collectively, this study comprehensively reveals the genomic landscape of newly diagnosed Chinese PCNSLs, thereby enriching the present understanding of the genetic mechanisms of PCNSL.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Prognosis , Lymphoma/genetics , Genomics , China , Central Nervous System/pathology , Bromodomain Containing Proteins , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics
6.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 781-792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential mechanism of resistance to axitinib in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with a view to expanding the understanding of axitinib resistance, facilitating the design of more specific treatment options, and improving the treatment effectiveness and survival prognosis of patients.@*METHODS@#By exploring the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of axitinib on ccRCC cell lines 786-O and Caki-1, cell lines resistant to axitinib were constructed by repeatedly stimulated with axitinib at this concentration for 30 cycles in vitro. Cell lines that were not treated by axitinib were sensitive cell lines. The phenotypic differences of cell proliferation and apoptosis levels between drug resistant and sensitive lines were tested. Genes that might be involved in the drug resistance process were screened from the differentially expressed genes that were co-upregulated in the two drug resistant lines by transcriptome sequencing. The expression level of the target gene in the drug resistant lines was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot (WB). The expression differences of the target gene in ccRCC tumor tissues and adjacent tissues were analyzed in the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) public database, and the impact of the target gene on the prognosis of ccRCC patients was analyzed in the Kaplan-Meier Plotter (K-M Plotter) database. After knocking down the target gene in the drug resistant lines using RNA interference by lentivirus vector, the phenotypic differences of the cell lines were tested again. WB was used to detect the levels of apoptosis-related proteins in the different treated cell lines to find molecular pathways that might lead to drug resistance.@*RESULTS@#Cell lines 786-O-R and Caki-1-R resistant to axitinib were successfully constructed in vitro, and their IC50 were significantly higher than those of the sensitive cell lines (10.99 μmol/L, P < 0.01; 11.96 μmol/L, P < 0.01, respectively). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-2 '-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay showed that compared with the sensitive lines, the proliferative ability of the resistant lines decreased, but apoptosis staining showed a significant decrease in the level of cell apoptosis of the resistant lines (P < 0.01). Although resistant to axitinib, the resistant lines had no obvious new replicated cells in the environment of 20 μmol/L axitinib. Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) gene was screened by transcriptome sequencing, and its RNA (P < 0.0001) and protein expression levels significantly increased in the resistant lines. Database analysis showed that NUPR1 was significantly overexpressed in ccRCC tumor tissue (P < 0.05); the ccRCC patients with higher expression ofNUPR1had a worse survival prognosis (P < 0.001). Apoptosis staining results showed that knockdown ofNUPR1inhibited the anti-apoptotic ability of the resistant lines to axitinib (786-O, P < 0.01; Caki-1, P < 0.05). WB results showed that knocking downNUPR1decreased the protein level of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2), increased the protein level of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), decreased the protein level of pro-caspase3, and increased the level of cleaved-caspase3 in the resistant lines after being treated with axitinib.@*CONCLUSION@#ccRCC cell lines reduce apoptosis through theNUPR1 -BAX/ BCL2 -caspase3 pathway, which is involved in the process of resistance to axitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Axitinib/pharmacology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Nuclear Proteins , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 217-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child featuring short stature and postaxial polydactyly.@*METHODS@#A child who presented at Ningbo Women & Children's Hospital in May 2021 due to the"discovery of growth retardation for more than two years" was selected as the subject. Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the child, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of his family members.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a heterozygous c.3670C>T (p.Q1224) variant of the GLI2 gene, which may lead to premature termination of protein translation. The variant was not detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The child was diagnosed with Culler-Jones syndrome. The c.3670C>T (p.Q1224*) variant of the GLI2 gene probably underlay the disease in this child.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Fingers , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Polydactyly/genetics , Toes , Zinc Finger Protein Gli2/genetics
8.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 336-344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore pathogenesis of glucocortocoid-induced osteoporosis(GIOP) based on label-free mass proteomics.@*METHODS@#Twevle female Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, named as sham group and GIOP group. After one-week adaptive feeding, the rats of GIOP group were administered with dexamethasone via intramuscular injection according to 2.5 mg/kg weighting, while the rats of sham group were administered with the same amount of saline, twice a week. The tibias of each group were collected after 8-week modeling and made pathological sections to confirm the success of modeling. Three samples of each group were picked up to perform label-free mass proteomics. After quality control, differentially expressed proteins were identified according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. Then gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, cluster analysis as well as protein-protein interaction analysis were performed using bioinformatics analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with sham group, the structure of bone trabecular in GIOP group showed abnormal arrangement, uneven distribution and obvious fragmentation, which could demonstrate successful modeling. A total of 47 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified including 20 up-regulated and 27 down-regulated proteins. The expression of protein nucleophosmin 1(NPM1), adipocyte plasma membrane associated protein (APMAP), cytochromec oxidase subunit 6A1 (COX6A1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP5) showed a significant difference between two groups. KEGG results showed DEPs were enriched on metabolism-related pathways, immune-related pathways and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Protein NPM1, APMAP, COX6A1 and ACP5 showed a close relationship with pathogenesis of GIOP, which could serve as potential biomarkers of GIOP. AMPK signaling pathway played an important role in the occurrence and development of GIOP, which could be regarded as potential signaling pathway to treatment GIOP.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Animals , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Proteomics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Osteoporosis/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/adverse effects
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 741-748, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of polymorphisms of AF4/FMR2 family genes and IL-10 gene with genetic susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and identify the high-risk factors of AS.@*METHODS@#This case-control study was conducted among 207 AS patients and 321 healthy individuals. The tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs340630, rs241084, rs10865035, rs1698105, and rs1800896 of the AF4/FMR2 family gene and IL-10 gene of the AS patients were genotyped, and the distribution frequencies of the genotypes and alleles were analyzed to explore the relationship between different genetic models and AS and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.@*RESULTS@#Gender ratio, smoking history, drinking history, hypertension, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein differed significantly between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). The dominant model and recessive model of AFF1 rs340630, the recessive model of AFF3 rs10865035, and the recessive model of IL-10 rs1800896 were significantly different between the two groups (P=0.031, 0.010, 0.031, and 0.019, respectively). Gene-environment interaction analysis suggested that the interaction model incorporating AFF1 rs340630, AFF2 rs241084, AFF3 rs10865035, AFF4 rs1698105, IL-10 rs1800896, smoking history and drinking history was the best model. The genes related with AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 were enriched in the biological processes of AF4 super extension complex, interleukin family signal transduction, cytokine stimulation and apoptosis. The expression levels of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 were positively correlated with immune infiltration (r > 0).@*CONCLUSION@#The SNPs of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 genes are associated with the susceptibility to AS, and the interactions of AF4/FMR2 and IL-10 genes with the environmental factors contributes causes AS through immune infiltration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interleukin-10/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/genetics , Transcriptional Elongation Factors/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 351-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986860

ABSTRACT

We explored clinicopathological features and treatment strategies for thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT). Thoracic SMARCA4-UT is a new entity recently acknowledged in the 2021 edition of World Health Organization Classification of Thoracic Tumors, and doctors are relatively unfamiliar with its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Taking a case of SMARCA4-UT treated in Peking University First Hospital as an example, this multi-disciplinary discussion covered several hot issues on diagnosing and treating thoracic SMARCA4-UT, including histological features, immu- nohistochemical and molecular phenotype, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, and pathological assessment of neoadjuvant therapy response. The patient was an older man with a long history of smoking and was admitted due to a rapidly progressing solid tumor in the lower lobe of the right lung. Histologically, tumor cells were epithelioid, undifferentiated, diffusely positive for CD34, and partially positive for SALL4.The expression of BRG1 protein encoded by SMARCA4 gene was lost in all of tumor cells, and next-generation sequencing(NGS)confirmed SMARCA4 gene mutation (c.2196T>G, p.Y732Ter). The pathological diagnosis reached as thoracic SMARCA4-UT, and the preoperative TNM stage was T1N2M0 (ⅢA). Tumor proportion score (TPS) detected by immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone SP263) was 2%. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) detected by NGS of 1 021 genes was 16. 3/Mb. Microsatellite detection showed the tumor was microsatellite stable (MSS). Neo-adjuvant therapy was implemented with the combined regimen of chemotherapy and ICI. Right lower lobectomy was performed through thoracoscopy after the two weeks' neoadjuvant. The pathologic assessment of lung tumor specimens after neoadjuvant therapy revealed a complete pathological response (CPR). The post-neoadjuvant tumor TNM stage was ypT0N0M0. Then, five cycles of adjuvant therapy were completed. Until October 2022, neither tumor recurrence nor metastasis was detected, and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection was negative. At present, it is believed that if BRG1 immunohistochemical staining is negative, regardless of whether SMARCA4 gene mutation is detected, it should be classified as SMARCA4-deficient tumors. SMARCA4-deficient tumors include a variety of carcinomas and sarcomas. The essential criteria for diagnosing SMARCA4-UT includes loss of BRG1 expression, speci-fic histological morphology, and exclude other common thoracic malignant tumors with SMARCA4-deficiency, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. SMARCA4-UT is a very aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It has almost no targeted therapy mutations, and little response to chemotherapy, but ICI is currently the only effective drug. The successful diagnosis and treatment for this case of SMARCA4-UT should enlighten significance for various kinds of SMARCA4-deficient tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 345-350, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985874

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of pediatric patients with dual genetic diagnoses (DGD). Methods: Clinical and genetic data of pediatric patients with DGD from January 2021 to February 2022 in Peking University First Hospital were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among the 9 children, 6 were boys and 3 were girls. The age of last visit or follow-up was 5.0 (2.7,6.8) years. The main clinical manifestations included motor retardation, mental retardation, multiple malformations, and skeletal deformity. Cases 1-4 were all all boys, showed myopathic gait, poor running and jumping, and significantly increased level of serum creatine kinase. Disease-causing variations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene were confirmed by genetic testing. The 4 children were diagnosed with DMD or Becker muscular dystrophy combined with a second genetic disease, including hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, spinal muscular atrophy, fragile X syndrome, and cerebral cavernous malformations type 3, respectively. Cases 5-9 were clinically and genetically diagnosed as COL9A1 gene-related multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 6 combined with NF1 gene-related neurofibromatosis type 1, COL6A3 gene-related Bethlem myopathy with WNT1 gene-related osteogenesis imperfecta type XV, Turner syndrome (45, X0/46, XX chimera) with TH gene-related Segawa syndrome, Chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome with DYNC1H1 gene-related autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-1, and ANKRD11 gene-related KBG syndrome combined with IRF2BPL gene-related neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movement, language loss and epilepsy. DMD was the most common, and there were 6 autosomal dominant diseases caused by de novo heterozygous pathogenic variations. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with coexistence of double genetic diagnoses show complex phenotypes. When the clinical manifestations and progression are not fully consistent with the diagnosed rare genetic disease, a second rare genetic disease should be considered, and autosomal dominant diseases caused by de novo heterozygous pathogenic variation should be paid attention to. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing combining a variety of molecular genetic tests would be helpful for precise diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abnormalities, Multiple , Retrospective Studies , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Bone Diseases, Developmental/complications , Tooth Abnormalities/complications , Facies , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/complications , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/complications , Carrier Proteins , Nuclear Proteins
12.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 665-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological and prognostic data were collected in 127 patients with SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2020 to March 2022. The variation and expression of biomarkers related to treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients were eligible for enrollment. Among them 120 patients (94.5%) were male and 7 cases (5.5%) were female, while the average age was 63 years (range 42-80 years). There were 41 cases (32.3%) of stage Ⅰ cancer, 23 cases (18.1%) of stage Ⅱ, 31 cases (24.4%) of stage Ⅲ and 32 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅳ. SMARCA4 expression detected by immunohistochemistry was completely absent in 117 cases (92.1%) and partially absent in 10 cases (7.9%). PD-L1 immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 107 cases. PD-L1 was negative, weakly positive and strongly positive in 49.5% (53/107), 26.2% (28/107) and 24.3% (26/107) of the cases, respectively. Twenty-one cases showed gene alterations (21/104, 20.2%). The KRAS gene alternation (n=10) was most common. Mutant-type SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer was more commonly detected in females, and was associated with positive lymph nodes and advanced clinical stage (P<0.01). Univariate survival analysis showed that advanced clinical stage was a poor prognosis factor, and vascular invasion was a poor predictor of progression-free survival in patients with surgical resection. Conclusions: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, and often occurs in elderly male patients. However, SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancers with gene mutations are often seen in female patients. Vascular invasion is a prognostic factor for disease progression or recurrence in patients with resectable tumor. Early detection and access to treatment are important for improving patient survivals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , China , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 447-453, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985699

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes of gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma, and to discuss the daily diagnostics of this entity and analyze its prognosis. Methods: The cases of gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Peking University Cancer Hospital, China from January 2010 to August 2022 were collected. The histological sections were reviewed, the immunohistochemical results and clinicopathological features were analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: Pure foci of undifferentiated carcinoma were seen in 7 cases, and 1 case was accompanied by a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma component. Undifferentiated carcinoma foci showed similar sheet-like or solid diffuse growth pattern, medium-sized tumor cells characterized by 1-2 nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm and rhabdoid appearance. The average patient age was 65±8 years. Six patients were male and 2 were female. Immunohistochemical staining showed that undifferentiated carcinoma of all 8 tumors were negative for SMARCA4 (BRG1). Among 7 patients who underwent SMARCA2 (BRM) and SMARCB1 (INI1) staining, 4 cases showed loss of BRM expression, 2 cases showed weakly positive staining, and 1 case was diffusely positive, but all 7 cases were diffusely strong positive for INI1. The neuroendocrine marker, synaptophysin, was weakly positive in 5 cases, while CgA and CD56 were negative in 8 cases. Ki-67 index was more than 70%. Two cases were mismatch repair deficient and showed the loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, while 1 case showed only MSH2 loss. PD-L1 staining showed that combined positive score (CPS)≥1 in 4 cases (CPS ranging from 1 to 55) and CPS<1 in the other 3 cases. Four patients had clinical stage Ⅳ disease. Two of them died within 3 months after diagnosis. Conclusions: Gastric SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated carcinoma/rhabdoid carcinoma is a rare group of highly malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. Loss of the core subunit of SWI/SNF complex may be associated with the development of dedifferentiated histological pattern and aggressive tumor progression, which may be more frequently accompanied with mismatch repair deficiency.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Carcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cell Differentiation , Stomach Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 659-668, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The SMARCA4 mutation has been shown to account for at least 10% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present, conventional radiotherapy and targeted therapy are difficult to improve outcomes due to the highly aggressive and refractory nature of SMARCA4-deficient NSCLC (SMARCA4-DNSCLC) and the absence of sensitive site mutations for targeted drug therapy, and chemotherapy combined with or without immunotherapy is the main treatment. Effective SMARCA4-DNSCLC therapeutic options, however, are still debatable. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy and prognosis of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with chemotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*METHODS@#46 patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC were divided into two groups based on their treatment regimen: the chemotherapy group and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Efficacy assessment and survival analysis were performed in both groups, and the influencing factors for prognosis were explored for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*RESULTS@#Male smokers are more likely to develop SMARCA4-DNSCLC. There was no significant difference in the objective response rate (76.5% vs 69.0%, P=0.836) between chemotherapy and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy or the disease control rate (100.0% vs 89.7%, P=0.286). The one-year overall survival rate in the group with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy was 62.7%, and that of the chemotherapy group was 46.0%. The difference in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group and the chemotherapy group was statistically significant (9.3 mon vs 6.1 mon, P=0.048). The results of Cox regression analysis showed that treatment regimen and smoking history were independent influencing factors of PFS in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and family history was an individual influencing factor of overall survival in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Treatment regimen may be a prognostic factor for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and patients with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Prognosis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1222-1227, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics of genetic variants in 134 patients diagnosed with Acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the 134 patients with AML (non-acute promyelocytic leukemia) initially diagnosed at the 940th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from June 2017 to June 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential variants of AML-related genes were detected by next-generation sequencing, and the frequency of variants was analyzed by using SPSS v26.0 software, and likelihood ratio χ2 test and Fisher exact test were used for data analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patients had included 72 males and 62 females, with a gender ratio of 1.7 : 1 and a median age of 51 years (9 ~ 86 years old). One hundred twenty patients (76.1%) had harbored at least one genetic variant, including 26 (19.4%) having a single variant, 27 (20.1%) having two variants, and 49 (36.6%) having >= 3 variants. 32 (23.9%) had no detectable variants. Genetic variants detected in over 10% of the 134 patients had included NPM1 (n = 24, 17.91%), FLT3-ITD (n = 21, 15.67%), DNMT3A (n = 20, 14.93%), CEBPA (single variant; n = 14, 10.45%), TET2 (n = 14, 10.45%), and NRAS (n = 14, 10.45%). The patients were also divided into low risk, intermediate risk and high risk groups based on their chromosomal karyotypes. The mutational rates for genes in different groups have varied, with 19 patients from the low risk group harboring variants of NRAS (n = 4, 21.05%), KRAS (n = 4, 21.05%), and KIT (n = 2, 10.53%); and 96 patients from the intermediate risk group harboring variants of NPM1 (n = 24, 25.00%), FLT3-ITD (n = 20, 20.83%), DNMT3A (n = 18, 18.75%), CEBPA (n = 12, 12.50%), and TET2 genes (n = 12, 12.50%). The mutational frequencies for the 19 patients from the high risk group were ASXL1 (n = 7, 21.05%), NRAS (n = 3, 15.97%), TP53 (n = 3, 15.79%), and EZH2 (n = 2, 10.53%). A significant difference was found in the frequencies of KIT, NPM1, FLT3-ITD, DNMT3A, and ASXL1 gene variants among the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups.@*CONCLUSION@#AML patients have a high frequency for genetic variants, with 76.1% harboring at least one variant. The frequency of genetic variants have varied among patients with different chromosomal karyotypes, and there are apparent dominant variants. KIT, NPM1, FLT3-ITD, DNMT3A, and ASXL1 may be used as prognostic factors for evaluating their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Nuclear Proteins , Retrospective Studies , East Asian People
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1128-1133, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with Branchio-Oto syndrome (BOS).@*METHODS@#A pedigree with BOS which had presented at the Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in May 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the pedigree was collected. Peripheral blood samples of the proband and her parents were collected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the proband. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to verify the result of WES, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis was used to verify the relationship between the proband and her parents, and the pathogenicity of the candidate variant was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The proband, a 6-year-old girl, had manifested severe congenital deafness, along with inner ear malformation and bilateral branchial fistulae. WES revealed that she has harbored a heterozygous deletion of 2 466 kb at chromosome 8q13.3, which encompassed the EYA1 gene. MLPA confirmed that all of the 18 exons of the EYA1 gene were lost, and neither of her parents has carried the same deletion variant. STR analysis supported that both of her parents are biological parents. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the deletion was classified as pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2_Supporting+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous deletion of EYA1 gene probably underlay the pathogenicity of BOS in the proband, which has provided a basis for the clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pedigree , Family , Parents , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 , Exons , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 51-63, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971605

ABSTRACT

RBM46 is a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein required for gametogenesis, but the targets and molecular functions of RBM46 remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that RBM46 binds at specific motifs in the 3'UTRs of mRNAs encoding multiple meiotic cohesin subunits and show that RBM46 is required for normal synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis initiation. Using a recently reported, high-resolution technique known as LACE-seq and working with low-input cells, we profiled the targets of RBM46 at single-nucleotide resolution in leptotene and zygotene stage gametes. We found that RBM46 preferentially binds target mRNAs containing GCCUAU/GUUCGA motifs in their 3'UTRs regions. In Rbm46 knockout mice, the RBM46-target cohesin subunits displayed unaltered mRNA levels but had reduced translation, resulting in the failed assembly of axial elements, synapsis disruption, and meiotic arrest. Our study thus provides mechanistic insights into the molecular functions of RBM46 in gametogenesis and illustrates the power of LACE-seq for investigations of RNA-binding protein functions when working with low-abundance input materials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Gametogenesis/genetics , Meiosis/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 273-291, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971555

ABSTRACT

MAGED4B belongs to the melanoma-associated antigen family; originally found in melanoma, it is expressed in various types of cancer, and is especially enriched in glioblastoma. However, the functional role and molecular mechanisms of MAGED4B in glioma are still unclear. In this study, we found that the MAGED4B level was higher in glioma tissue than that in non-cancer tissue, and the level was positively correlated with glioma grade, tumor diameter, Ki-67 level, and patient age. The patients with higher levels had a worse prognosis than those with lower MAGED4B levels. In glioma cells, MAGED4B overexpression promoted proliferation, invasion, and migration, as well as decreasing apoptosis and the chemosensitivity to cisplatin and temozolomide. On the contrary, MAGED4B knockdown in glioma cells inhibited proliferation, invasion, and migration, as well as increasing apoptosis and the chemosensitivity to cisplatin and temozolomide. MAGED4B knockdown also inhibited the growth of gliomas implanted into the rat brain. The interaction between MAGED4B and tripartite motif-containing 27 (TRIM27) in glioma cells was detected by co-immunoprecipitation assay, which showed that MAGED4B was co-localized with TRIM27. In addition, MAGED4B overexpression down-regulated the TRIM27 protein level, and this was blocked by carbobenzoxyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine (MG132), an inhibitor of the proteasome. On the contrary, MAGED4B knockdown up-regulated the TRIM27 level. Furthermore, MAGED4B overexpression increased TRIM27 ubiquitination in the presence of MG132. Accordingly, MAGED4B down-regulated the protein levels of genes downstream of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) involved in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced apoptotic pathway. These findings indicate that MAGED4B promotes glioma growth via a TRIM27/USP7/receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1)-dependent TNF-α-induced apoptotic pathway, which suggests that MAGED4B is a potential target for glioma diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 7 , Cisplatin , Temozolomide , Transcription Factors , Glioma , Cell Proliferation , Melanoma , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Nuclear Proteins/genetics
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 52-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of ANP32A silencing on invasion and migration of colon cancer cells and the influence of the activity of AKT signaling pathway on this effect.@*METHODS@#Colorectal cancer HCT116 and SW480 were transfected with a small interfering RNA targeting ANP32A via a lentiviral vector. At 24, 48 and 72 h after the transfection, the changes in cell proliferation and AKT activity in the cells were detected using MTT assay and Western blotting, respectively. HCT116 and SW480 cells were treated with the AKT agonist SC79 or its inhibitor MK2206 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and the changes in cell migration and invasion ability were analyzed using Transwell chamber assay and cell proliferation was assessed using MTT assay. The effects of SC79 and MK2206 on migration and invasion abilities of HCT116 and SW480 cells with or without ANP32A silencing were examined using wound healing and Transwell chamber assays, and the changes in the expression of metadherin (MTDH), a factor associated with cells invasion and migration, was detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lentivirus-mediated ANP32A silencing significantly down-regulated the activity of AKT and inhibited the proliferation of both HCT116 and SW480 cells (P < 0.01). The application of AKT inhibitor MK2206 obviously inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of the colorectal cancer cells (P < 0.05), while the AKT agonist SC79 significantly promoted the invasion and migration of the cells (P < 0.01). In HCT116 and SW480 cells with ANP32A silencing, treatment with MK2206 strongly enhanced the inhibitory effects of ANP32A silencing on cell invasion and migration (P < 0.05) and the expression of MTDH, while SC79 partially reversed these inhibitory effects (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ANP32A silencing inhibits invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells possibly by inhibiting the activation of the AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Cell Proliferation , Blotting, Western , Cell Movement , Colonic Neoplasms , Membrane Proteins , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins
20.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 79-86, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970676

ABSTRACT

This study aims to clarify host factors of IFN treatment in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients by screening the differentially expressed genes of IFN pathway CHB patients with different response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Three cases were randomly selected in IFN-responding CHB patients (Rs), non-responding CHB patients (NRs) and healthy participants, respectively. The human type I IFN response RT 2 profiler PCR array was used to detect the expression levels of IFN-related genes in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) from healthy participants and CHB patients before and after Peg-IFN-α 2a treatment. The results showed that more differentially expressed genes appeared in Rs group than NRs group after IFN treatment. Comparing with healthy participants, IFNG, IL7R, IRF1, and IRF8 were downregulated in both Rs and NRs group before IFN treatment; CXCL10, IFIT1, and IFITM1 were upregulated in the Rs; IL13RA1 and IFI35 were upregulated in the NRs, while IFRD2, IL11RA, IL4R, IRF3, IRF4, PYHIN1, and ADAR were downregulated. The expression of IL15, IFI35 and IFI44 was downregulated by 4.09 ( t = 10.58, P < 0.001), 5.59 ( t = 3.37, P = 0.028) and 10.83 ( t = 2.8, P = 0.049) fold in the Rs group compared with the NRs group, respectively. In conclusion, IFN-response-related gene array is able to evaluate IFN treatment response by detecting IFN-related genes levels in PBMC. High expression of CXCL10, IFIT1 and IFITM1 before treatment may suggest satisfied IFN efficacy, while high expression of IL13RA1, IL15, IFI35 and IFI44 molecules and low expression of IFRD2, IL11RA, IL4R, IRF3, IRF4, PYHIN1 and ADAR molecules may be associated with poor IFN efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-15 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nuclear Proteins , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods , Interferons/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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