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1.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(3): 140-145, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144333

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo y la innovación de nuevas tecnologías ha permitido mejorar la detección de la infección por el virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo. La captura de híbridos II es un ensayo que se basa en hibridación y quimioluminiscencia. Cobas VPH Test es una PCR cualitativa y Aptima VPH Assay permite detectar la expresión de ARN mensajero de las oncoproteínas E6/E7 del VPH de alto riesgo. Estas técnicas presentan ventajas en comparación con la citología convencional, que se utiliza como prueba de rutina para la detección temprana del cáncer de cuello uterino. En el estudio ESTAMPA se realizaron 13.691 procesamientos que permitieron identificar que para el planteamiento de proyectos de investigación o para la implementación de pruebas de tamizaje de VPH es necesario analizar las ventajas y desventajas de las pruebas del mercado.


Abstract The development and innovation of new technologies has improved the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infection. Hybrid capture II is an assay that is based on hybridization and chemiluminescence. Cobas HPV Test is a qualitative PCR and Aptima HPV Assay allows to detect the expression of messenger RNA of the high- risk HPV E6 / E7 oncoproteins. These techniques have advantages, in comparison, with conventional cytology that is routinely used for the detection of cervical cancer. In the ESTAMPA study, 13,691 prosecutions were carried out that allowed to identify that for the planning of research projects or for the implementation of HPV screening tests, it is necessary to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of market tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Research Design , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Mass Screening , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Triage , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Luminescent Measurements , Nucleic Acid Hybridization
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of copy number variations (CNV) on developmental aspects of children suspected of having delayed development. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was done for 65 children who underwent array-comparative genomic hybridization after visiting physical medicine & rehabilitation department of outpatient clinic with delayed development as chief complaints. Children were evaluated with Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), or Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES). A Mann-Whitney U test was conducted to determine statistical differences of developmental quotient (DQ), receptive language quotient (RLQ), and expressive language quotient (ELQ) between children with CNV (CNV(+) group, n=16) and children without CNV (CNV(–) group, n=37). RESULTS: Of these subjects, the average age was 35.1 months (mean age, 35.1±24.2 months). Sixteen (30.2%) patients had copy number variations. In the CNV(+) group, 14 children underwent DDST-II. In the CNV(–) group, 29 children underwent DDST-II. Among variables, gross motor scale was significantly (p=0.038) lower in the CNV(+) group compared with the CNV(–) group. In the CNV(+) group, 5 children underwent either SELSI or PRES. In the CNV(–) group, 27 children underwent above language assessment examination. Both RLQ and ELQ were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The gross motor domain in DQ was significantly lower in children with CNV compared to that in children without CNV. This result suggests that additional genetic factors contribute to this variability. Active detection of genomic imbalance could play a vital role when prominent gross motor delay is presented in children with delayed development.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Child , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Developmental Disabilities , DNA Copy Number Variations , Humans , Infant , Mass Screening , Motor Skills , Muscle Hypotonia , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170631, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Using two groups of mini-implants (successful and failed) the objectives of this in vivo study were: to evaluate the microbial contamination by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique and to quantify the bacterial endotoxin by the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Material and Methods The 15 successful and 10 failed mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter × 7.0 or 9.0 mm long), placed in the maxilla and/or mandible, were obtained from 15 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test using the SAS software (a=0.05). Results All 40 microbial species were detected in both groups of mini-implants, with different frequencies. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to microbial complexes (blue, purple, yellow, green, orange, red and other species) and endotoxin quantification (p>0.05). Conclusion Neither microbial contamination nor endotoxin quantification was determinant for the early loss of stability of the mini-implants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dental Implants/microbiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Reference Values , DNA, Bacterial , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Limulus Test/methods , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods
4.
Appl. cancer res ; 37: 1-8, 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-915111

ABSTRACT

Current strategies for cancer patient management include the use of genomic and proteomic test results to help guide therapeutic selection. The need for multi-target variant analysis is highlighted by the growing number of novel therapies to treat tumors with specific profiles and the increasing recognition that cancer is an extremely heterogeneous syndrome. Microarray analysis is a powerful genomic tool that provides genome-wide genetic information that is critical for guiding cancer treatments. Unlike constitutional applications of microarray analysis which are performed on whole blood samples, microarray analysis of solid tumors is challenging because tumor tissues are typically formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Genomic DNA extracted from FFPE tissues can also be fragmented into small pieces and yield much lower concentrations of DNA. We validated and implemented the Affymetrix OncoScan® FFPE assay to enable genome-wide analysis from these types of samples. The Affymetrix OncoScan® assay utilizes molecular inversion probes that generate multiplexed array hybridization targets from as short as 40 base-pairs of sequence and as low as approximately 80 ng of genomic DNA. OncoScan microarray analysis provides genomic information that includes structural variations, copy number variations and SNPs in a timely and a cost-effective manner from FFPE tumor tissues (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Genomics , Proteomics , Microarray Analysis , Diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Hybridization
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 93-100, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772615

ABSTRACT

Developing a fast, inexpensive, and specific test that reflects the mutations present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates according to geographic region is the main challenge for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) control. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular platform to make a rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant TB based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations present in therpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA genes from Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The amplification and sequencing of each target gene was performed. Capture oligonucleotides, which were tested before being used with isolates to assess the performance, were designed for wild type and mutated codons, and the platform was standardised based on the reverse hybridisation principle. This method was tested on DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates from 160 Colombian patients who were previously phenotypically and genotypically characterised as having susceptible or MDR M. tuberculosis. For our method, the kappa index of the sequencing results was 0,966, 0,825, 0,766, 0,740, and 0,625 forrpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were ranked between 90-100% compared with those of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Our assay helps to pave the way for implementation locally and for specifically adapted methods that can simultaneously detect drug resistance mutations to first and second-line drugs within a few hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Colombia , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/classification , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Gene Amplification , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 292-305, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337414

ABSTRACT

Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA surrogate in which the phosphate deoxyribose backbone of DNA is replaced by repeating N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units. PNA can hybridize to the complementary DNA and RNA with higher affinity than their oligonucleotide counterparts. This character of PNA not only makes it a new tool for the studies of molecular biology but also the potential candidate for gene-targeting drugs. The non-ionic backbone of PNA leads to stable hybrids with the nucleic acids, but at the same time, the neutral backbone results in poor cellular uptake. To address this problem, studies on modified PNA progress rapidly in recent years. We reviewed literature reports combined with our study about the delivery methods, including backbone modified PNA and PNA-ligand conjugates, and the cellular uptake of modified PNA. In addition, we summarized the problems and future prospect of the cellular delivery of modified PNA.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Drug Delivery Systems , Glycine , Humans , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Oligonucleotides , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Chemistry , RNA
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228473

ABSTRACT

Chromosome 11q13 deletion syndrome has been previously reported as either otodental syndrome or oculo-oto-dental syndrome. The otodental syndrome is characterized by dental abnormalities and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, and by ocular coloboma in some cases. The underlying genetic defect causing otodental syndrome is a hemizygous microdeletion involving the FGF3 gene on chromosome 11q13.3. Recently, a new form of severe deafness, microtia (small ear) and small teeth, without the appearance of eye abnormalities, was also reported. In this report, we describe a 1-year-old girl presenting with ptosis of the left upper eyelid, right auricular deformity, high-arched palate, delayed dentition, simian line on the right hand, microcephaly, and developmental delay. In this patient, we identified a deletion in the chromosome 11q13.2-q13.3 (2.75 Mb) region by using an array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The deletion in chromosome 11q13 results in a syndrome characterized by variable clinical manifestations. Some of these manifestations involve craniofacial dysmorphology and require a functional workup for hearing, ophthalmic examinations, and long-term dental care.


Subject(s)
Coloboma , Congenital Abnormalities , Congenital Microtia , Deafness , Dental Care , Dentition , Eye Abnormalities , Eyelids , Female , Hand , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Microcephaly , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Palate , Tooth , Tooth Abnormalities
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228472

ABSTRACT

Pediatric epilepsy can be caused by various conditions, including specific syndromes. 1p36 deletion syndrome is reported in 1 in 5,000–10,000 newborns, and its characteristic clinical features include developmental delay, mental retardation, hypotonia, congenital heart defects, seizure, and facial dysmorphism. However, detection of the terminal deletion in chromosome 1p by conventional G-banded karyotyping is difficult. Here we present a case of epilepsy with profound developmental delay and characteristic phenotypes. A 7-year- and 6-month-old boy experienced afebrile generalized seizure at the age of 5 years and 3 months. He had recurrent febrile seizures since 12 months of age and showed severe global developmental delay, remarkable hypotonia, short stature, and dysmorphic features such as microcephaly; small, low-set ears; dark, straight eyebrows; deep-set eyes; flat nasal bridge; midface hypoplasia; and a small, pointed chin. Previous diagnostic work-up, including conventional chromosomal analysis, revealed no definite causes. However, array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed 1p36 deletion syndrome with a 9.15-Mb copy loss of the 1p36.33-1p36.22 region, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) confirmed this diagnosis. This case highlights the need to consider detailed chromosomal study for patients with delayed development and epilepsy. Furthermore, 1p36 deletion syndrome should be considered for patients presenting seizure and moderate-to-severe developmental delay, particularly if the patient exhibits dysmorphic features, short stature, and hypotonia.


Subject(s)
Chin , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Diagnosis , Ear , Epilepsy , Eyebrows , Fluorescence , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intellectual Disability , Karyotyping , Male , Microcephaly , Muscle Hypotonia , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Phenotype , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical significance of the HPV DNA chip genotyping assay (MyHPV chip, Mygene Co.) compared with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) chemiluminescent nucleic acid hybridization kit (Digene Corp.) in 867 patients. RESULTS: The concordance rate between the MyHPV chip and HC2 was 79.4% (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.55). The sensitivity and specificity of both HPV tests were very similar (approximately 85% and 50%, respectively). The addition of HPV result (either MyHPV chip or HC2) to cytology improved the sensitivity (95%, each) but reduced the specificity (approximately 30%, each) compared with the HPV test or cytology alone. Based on the MyHPV chip results, the odds ratio (OR) for ≥ high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) was 9.9 in the HPV-16/18 (+) group and 3.7 in the non-16/18 high-risk (HR)-HPV (+) group. Based on the HC2 results, the OR for ≥ HSILs was 5.9 in the HR-HPV (+) group. When considering only patients with cytological diagnoses of “negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy” and “atypical squamous cell or atypical glandular cell,” based on the MyHPV chip results, the ORs for ≥ HSILs were 6.8 and 11.7, respectively, in the HPV-16/18 (+) group. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of the MyHPV chip test are similar to the HC2. Detecting HPV-16/18 with an HPV DNA chip test, which is commonly used in many Asian countries, is useful in assessing the risk of high-grade cervical lesions.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Diagnosis , DNA , Epithelial Cells , Human papillomavirus 16 , Human papillomavirus 18 , Humans , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Odds Ratio , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273786

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a novel colorimetric method for detecting the tumor biomarker vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) based on aptamer and magnetic beads.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The capture aptamer was hybridized to urease functionalized single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and immobilize on the surface of magnetic beads by specific biotin-avidin binding. In the presence of VEGF, aptamers bound to VEGF to form a specific stem-loop structure to release the urease functionalized ssDNA. After separation, the supernatant was transferred to a tube and urea and phenol red were added. Urease hydrolyzed urea to produce ammonia to cause an increase of the pH value and a color change of phenol red. The results were inspected with either the naked eyes or by a UV spectrophotometer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Under optimized conditions, the detection system showed a good linear relationship for VEGF detection in the range of 0.1 to 10 pmol/L with a detection limit as low as 0.06 pmol/L. The results of VEGF detection in the serum of patients with lung cancer were consistent with those using an ELISA Kit. The results of examination of 10 serum samples with this aptamer-based method and ELISA kit showed that the accuracy of this method was 90%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This aptamer-based system provides an simple and convenient method for VEGF detection with a high sensitivity and selectivity.</p>


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biomarkers, Tumor , Colorimetry , DNA, Single-Stranded , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272486

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the gene mutation spectrum of β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of 2 border region in Chinese Yunnan Province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The patients with β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of Dehong and Xishuangbanna autonamic prefecture were screened by using blood routine detection and capillary electrophoresis. The β-globin gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia were detected by using PCR reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-RDB), the constitutive rate of gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia of Dai ethnic population in two border regions was analyzed and compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 186 patients with gene mutation of β-thalassemia were confirmed. Among them, 10 gene mutation were found, and the 5 main gene mutations were CD26 (62.56%), CD41-42 (18.97%), CD17 (14.36%), CD71-72 (2.05%) and IVS-II-654 (1.54%). Among Dai ethinic population in Dehong region, 4 gene mutations were found including CD26 (80.31%), CD17 (11.02%), CD41-42 (6.30%) and CD71-72 (2.36%). Among Dai ethinic population in Xishuangbanna region, 6 gene mutations were found, out of them the more common gene mutations were CD41-42 (42.64%), CD26 (29.41%) and CD17 (20.59%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The gene mutations of β-thalassemia in Dai ethinic population of Yunnan province has been confirmed to be more genetic heterogenicity, the spectrums of β-thalassemia mutations in Dai ethinic population of different regions were significant different.</p>


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Genetics , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , DNA Mutational Analysis , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Ethnic Groups , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Polymerase Chain Reaction , beta-Globins , Genetics , beta-Thalassemia , Ethnology , Genetics
12.
Femina ; 43(4): 181-184, jul.-ago. 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771210

ABSTRACT

A infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV) é extremamente comum e está associada a várias condições clínicas, que variam de infecções assintomáticas a doenças benignas e malignas da mucosa genital, como as verrugas genitais, a neoplasia intraepitelial cervical e o câncer do colo do útero. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar as técnicas de biologia molecular por captura híbrida (CH) e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), utilizadas no diagnóstico do HPV e suas aplicações. Métodos mais precisos, quando aplicados em situações especiais, principalmente no caso de divergência entre outros métodos diagnósticos, podem ser aplicados às políticas de saúde pública, visando diminuir a mortalidade causada pelo câncer do colo do útero em consequência do HPV.(AU)


HPV infection is extremely common and is associated with various clinical conditions, ranging from asymptomatic infections to benign and malignant diseases of the genital mucosa, such as genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to present the techniques of molecular biology by hybrid capture and PCR, used in the diagnosis of HPV and its applications. More accurate methods when applied in special situations, especially in the case of divergence between other diagnostic methods can be applied to public health policies in order to reduce mortality caused by cervical cancer because of HPV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , DNA/analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , Databases, Bibliographic
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(6): 304-310, Nov. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730262

ABSTRACT

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important economic and oilseed crop. Long-term rainless conditions and seasonal droughts can limit peanut yields and were conducive to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which peanut responds and adapts to water limited conditions, we isolated and characterized several drought-induced genes from peanut roots using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. Results RNA was extracted from peanut roots subjected to a water stress treatment (45% field capacity) and from control plants (75% field capacity), and used to generate an SSH cDNA library. A total of 111 non-redundant sequences were obtained, with 80 unique transcripts showing homology to known genes and 31 clones with no similarity to either hypothetical or known proteins. GO and KEGG analyses of these differentially expressed ESTs indicated that drought-related responses in peanut could mainly be attributed to genes involved in cellular structure and metabolism. In addition, we examined the expression patterns of seven differentially expressed candidate genes using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and confirmed that all were up-regulated in roots in response to drought stress, but to differing extents. Conclusions We successfully constructed an SSH cDNA library in peanut roots and identified several drought-related genes. Our results serve as a foundation for future studies into the elucidation of the drought stress response mechanisms of peanut.


Subject(s)
Arachis/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Droughts , RNA/isolation & purification , Gene Library , Sequence Analysis , DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Plant Roots , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dehydration , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(5): 230-237, Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724789

ABSTRACT

Background Head smut of maize, which is caused by Sporisorium reilianum f. sp. zeae (Kühn), is a serious disease in maize. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of the resistance to head smut in maize, a microarray containing ~ 14,850 probes was used to monitor the gene expression profiles between a disease resistant near isogenic line (NIL) and a highly susceptible inbred line after S. reilianum was injected with an artificial inoculation method. Results Levels of expression for 3,532 genes accounting for 23.8% of the total probes changed after inoculation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes participated in physiological and biochemical pathways. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that plant-pathogen interaction, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and benzoxazinoid biosynthesis pathways play important roles in resistance to head smut. Three head smut resistance-related candidate genes, CLAVATA1, bassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 and LOC100217307 with leucine-rich repeat (LRR) conserved domains were identified, each of which is in maize mapping bin 2.09, a region previously shown to include a major QTL for head smut resistance. Furthermore, LOC100217307 was validated by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR inferring that this gene may be involved in the resistance to head smut of maize. Conclusions This study provided valuable information for cloning, functional analysis and marker assisted breeding of head smut resistance genes.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/genetics , Zea mays/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , RNA/isolation & purification , Gene Expression , Microarray Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology , Nucleic Acid Hybridization
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 307-314, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711730

ABSTRACT

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens global TB control and is a major public health concern in several countries. We therefore developed a multiplex assay (LINE-TB/MDR) that is able to identify the most frequent mutations related to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction, membrane hybridisation and colorimetric detection targeting of rpoB and katG genes, as well as the inhA promoter, which are all known to carry specific mutations associated with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay was validated on a reference panel of 108 M. tuberculosis isolates that were characterised by the proportion method and by DNA sequencing of the targets. When comparing the performance of LINE-TB/MDR with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for RMP and 77.6%, 90.6% and 88.9%, respectively, for INH. Using drug sensibility testing as a reference standard, the performance of LINE-TB/MDR regarding sensitivity, specificity and agreement was 100%, 100% and 100% (95%), respectively, for RMP and 77%, 100% and 88.7% (82.2-95.1), respectively, for INH. LINE-TB/MDR was compared with GenoType MTBDRplus for 65 isolates, resulting in an agreement of 93.6% (86.7-97.5) for RIF and 87.4% (84.3-96.2) for INH. LINE-TB/MDR warrants further clinical validation and may be an affordable alternative for MDR-TB diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Catalase/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Colorimetry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Rifampin/pharmacology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312596

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate single-molecule detection and characterization of DNA replication.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as the template of DNA replication was attached to DNA origami by a hybridization reaction based on the complementary base-pairing principle. DNA replication catalyzed by E.coli DNA polymerase I Klenow Fragment (KF) was detected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The height variations between the ssDNA and the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), the distribution of KF during DNA replication and biotin-streptavidin (BA) complexes on the DNA strand after replication were detected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was employed to analyze the changes in the DNA after replication.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The designed ssDNA could be anchored on the target positions of over 50% of the DNA origami. The KF was capable of binding to the ssDNA fixed on DNA origami and performing its catalytic activities, and was finally dissociated from the DNA after replication. The height of DNA strand increased by about 0.7 nm after replication. The addition of streptavidin also resulted in an DNA height increase to about 4.9 nm due to the formation of BA complexes on the biotinylated dsDNA. The resulting dsDNA and BA complex were subsequently confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The combination of AFM and DNA origami allows detection and characterization of DNA replication at the single molecule level, and this approach provides better insights into the mechanism of DNA polymerase and the factors affecting DNA replication.</p>


Subject(s)
Biotinylation , DNA , Chemistry , DNA Replication , DNA, Single-Stranded , Chemistry , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Streptavidin
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 514-523, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279497

ABSTRACT

The aim was to establish an effective screening microarray at genus level for Pospiviroid. We analyzed nucleotide sequences from Pospiviroid viroid and designed 19 probes with genus identification characteristics. The standards of these probes included the characters of (i) a GC content between 40 and 60%, (ii) less than 50% of single nucleotide, (iii) less than 4 continuous mononucleotides, and (iv) less than 6 nucleotides in the inner hairpin. We synthesized microarrays by using these probes on glass slides. The validation results of microarray probes show effective signals from chrysanthemum stunt viroid and tomato planta macho viroid standard samples hybridization. The sensitivity results show that the microarray detected 200 pg/microL of total RNA. The microarray can be used to screen Pospiviroid viroid.


Subject(s)
Base Composition , Base Sequence , Microarray Analysis , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Plant Diseases , Virology , Plant Viruses , Classification , RNA , Viroids , Classification
19.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2014; 37 (1): 1-7
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160182

ABSTRACT

The development of new genetic diagnostic, and hence therapeutic possibilities, has brought the realization that genetic disease is now an integral part of medical practice. Advances in cytogenetic and molecular testing have drastically improved the ability to diagnose with certainty many previously unrecognized genetic diseases. However, this advance in technology does not come without new questions. New tests are not always the most cost-effective ones and some have significant diagnostic limitations. Genetic tests fall under three major categories: chromosomal genetic tests; molecular genetic tests [DNA and gene tests]; and biochemical genetic tests [measuring the amount and activity of proteins]. This review article focuses on chromosomal anomalies and cytogenetic tests. The different types of cytogenetic tests, their indications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are discussed. This review will also present the strategy of choice for each one of these tests depending on the type of chromosomal anomalies that we are searching for and the available specimen for diagnosis. Chromosomal anomalies represent one of the entities of genetic diseases. A large number of cytogenetic tests exist for diagnosis of these chromosomal anomalies. However, the choice of cytogenetic test to be carried out should be based on clinical indications, on the type and size of cytogenetic anomaly that we are searching for, and on the available specimen for diagnosis


Subject(s)
Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Karyotyping/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/genetics , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/statistics & numerical data
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193127

ABSTRACT

Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) represents an increasing proportion of all mycobacterial diseases. We investigated recent occurrences of NTM and evaluated the clinical significance of NTM isolates from 752 respiratory specimens collected from patients at National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital between January 2007 and May 2011. Specimens were incubated on solid and liquid media (BACTEC MGIT 960, BD, USA) for 6-8 weeks, and PCR and reverse blot hybridization were performed (REBA Myco-ID, Molecules & Diagnostics, Korea). Clinical features of the patients were reviewed through medical records. The most frequently isolated organism was Mycobacterium avium (46.7%), followed by M. intracellulare (14.8%), M. fortuitum (7.2%), and M. abscessus (6.6%). The most common mycobacteria among definitive cases of NTM lung disease were M. avium (42/351, 12.0%), M. intracellulare (19/111, 17.1%), M. abscessus (11/50, 22.0%), M. massiliense (4/13, 30.8%), and M. fortuitum (4/54, 7.4%). Clinically significant cases of NTM lung disease increased from 4 patients in 2007 to 32 in 2011. The mean patient age was 64 yr (range: 35-88 yr), and 58 (64%) patients were women. Patients suffered from cough, productive sputum, and hemoptysis. In summary, the most common mycobacteria causing NTM lung disease were M. avium and M. intracellulare; however, cases of M. massiliense and M. abscessus infection are on the rise in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Female , Hospitals, General/standards , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/genetics , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Republic of Korea , Sputum/microbiology
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