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Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3)2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363266


BACKGROUND: Biosensing techniques have been the subject of exponentially increasing interest due to their performance advantages such as high selectivity and sensitivity, easy operation, low cost, short analysis time, simple sample preparation, and real-time detection. Biosensors have been developed by integrating the unique specificity of biological reactions and the high sensitivity of physical sensors. Therefore, there has been a broad scope of applications for biosensing techniques, and nowadays, they are ubiquitous in different areas of environmental, healthcare, and food safety. Biosensors have been used for environmental studies, detecting and quantifying pollutants in water, air, and soil. Biosensors also showed great potential for developing analytical tools with countless applications in diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, mainly by detecting biomarkers. Biosensors as a medical device can identify nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, metabolites, etc.; these analytes may be biomarkers associated with the disease status. Bacterial food contamination is considered a worldwide public health issue; biosensor-based analytical techniques can identify the presence or absence of pathogenic agents in food. OBJECTIVES: The present review aims to establish state-of-the-art, comprising the recent advances in the use of nucleic acid-based biosensors and their novel application for the detection of nucleic acids. Emphasis will be given to the performance characteristics, advantages, and challenges. Additionally, food safety applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors will be discussed. METHODS: Recent research articles related to nucleic acid-based biosensors, biosensors for detecting nucleic acids, biosensors and food safety, and biosensors in environmental monitoring were reviewed. Also, biosensing platforms associated with the clinical diagnosis and food industry were included. RESULTS: It is possible to appreciate that multiple applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors have been reported in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, as well as to identify foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The use of PNA and aptamers opens the possibility of developing new biometric tools with better analytical properties. CONCLUSIONS: Biosensors could be considered the most important tool for preventing, treating, and monitoring diseases that significantly impact human health. The aptamers have advantages as biorecognition elements due to the structural conformation, hybridization capacity, robustness, stability, and lower costs. It is necessary to implement biosensors in situ to identify analytes with high selectivity and lower detection limits

ANTECEDENTES: Las técnicas de biodetección han sido objeto de un interés cada vez mayor debido a ventajas, tales como alta selectividad y sensibilidad, facilidad de manejo, bajo costo, tiempo de análisis corto, preparación sencilla de muestras y detección en tiempo real. Los biosensores se han desarrollado integrando la especificidad única de las reacciones biológicas y la alta sensibilidad de los sensores físicos. Por lo tanto, las técnicas de biodetección han tenido un amplio campo de aplicación y hoy en día son omnipresentes en diferentes áreas del medio ambiente, la salud y la seguridad alimentaria. Se han utilizado biosensores para estudios ambientales, detectando y cuantificando contaminantes en el agua, el aire y el suelo. Los biosensores también mostraron un gran potencial para desarrollar herramientas analíticas con innumerables aplicaciones en el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, principalmente mediante la detección de biomarcadores. Los biosensores como dispositivo médico pueden utilizarse para identificar ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, péptidos, metabolitos, etc. Estos analitos pueden ser biomarcadores asociados al estado de la enfermedad. La contaminación bacteriana de los alimentos se considera un problema de salud pública mundial; se pueden utilizar técnicas analíticas basadas en biosensores para determinar la presencia o ausencia de agentes patógenos en los alimentos. OBJETIVOS: La presente revisión tiene por objeto establecer los últimos adelantos en la utilización de biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos y su novedosa aplicación para la detección de ácidos nucleicos. Se hará hincapié en las características del desempeño, las ventajas y los desafíos. Además, se examinarán las aplicaciones de los biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos para la inocuidad de los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron artículos de investigación recientes relacionados con los biosensores a base de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores para la detección de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores y la inocuidad de los alimentos, y los biosensores para la vigilancia del medio ambiente. También se incluyeron plataformas de biosensores asociadas al diagnóstico clínico y a la industria alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Es posible apreciar que se han reportado múltiples aplicaciones de biosensores basados en ácido nucleico para el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, así como para identificar bacterias patógenas transmitidas por los alimentos. El uso de PNA y aptámeros abre la posibilidad de desarrollar nuevas herramientas biométricas con mejores propiedades analíticas. CONCLUSIONES: Los biosensores pueden ser considerados como los instrumentos más importantes para la prevención, el tratamiento y la vigilancia de las enfermedades que tienen un impacto significativo en la salud humana. Los aptámeros tienen ventajas como elemento de biorreconocimiento debido a la conformación estructural, capacidad de hibridación, robustez, estabilidad y menores costos. Es necesario implementar biosensores in situ para identificar analitos con alta selectividad y menores límites de detección

Humans , Biosensing Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Noxae
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888057


Nucleic acid aptamers, broad-spectrum target-specific single-stranded oligonucleotides, serve as molecules in targeted therapy, targeted delivery and disease diagnosis for the treatment of tumor or microbial infection and clinical detection. Due to the existence of components in the use of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the target is difficult to concentrate and the specificity of treatment is poor. The effective components of TCM are toxic components, so a highly sensitive detection method is urgently needed to reduce the toxicity problem at the same time. The combined application of TCM and modern medical treatment strategy are difficult and cannot improve the therapeutic effect. Aptamers, advantageous in biosensors, aptamer-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, and aptamer-siRNA chimeras, are expected to connect Chinese medicinals with nanotechnology, diagnostic technology and combined therapies. We summarized the preparation, screening, and modification techniques of nucleic acid aptamers and the biomedical applications and advantages in therapy, targeting, and diagnosis, aiming at providing a reference for the in-depth research and development in TCM.

Aptamers, Nucleotide , Drug Delivery Systems , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nucleic Acids , RNA, Small Interfering
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3890-3904, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921474


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) has been developed as a precise, efficient, affordable and sensitive nucleic acid detection tool due to its efficient targeted binding ability and programmability. At present, biosensors based on CRISPR-Cas system have shown excellent performance in the detection of nucleic acid of pathogens, which has attracted widespread attention, and is expected to replace the conventional detection methods. This review summarizes the latest research progress of biosensors based on CRISPR/Cas system for detecting nucleic acid of pathogens.

Biosensing Techniques , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Nucleic Acids/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921384


Framework nucleic acid (FNA) is a set of DNA nanostructures characterized by the framework morphology. It can design rational DNA sequences and follow the principle of complementary base pairing to construct FNA. The recent discovery of FNA constructed by DNA nanotechnology has great application potential in the field of bone regene-ration. It plays a positive role in the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, bone regeneration, vascular regeneration, neuromodulation, immune regulation, and drug delivery. Here, we reviewed the current study findings on FNA in the field of bone regeneration.

Bone Regeneration , Nanostructures , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acids , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 673-679, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878592


Nucleic acid detection technique has good sensitivity and specificity and is widely used in in vitro diagnosis, animal and plant commodity quarantine, forensic identification, and other fields. However, it is susceptible to carryover contamination during the operation and leads to false-positive results, which seriously affects the detection accuracy. Therefore, finding an effective solution to prevent and eliminate nucleic acid carryover contamination has become particularly urgent. This study compared several different methods for removing nucleic acid contamination and confirmed that sodium hypochlorite solution and PCRguard reagent could effectively eliminate nucleic acid carryover in the liquid and on surfaces of different materials. Besides, the combination of sodium hypochlorite solution and PCRguard can solve the nucleic acid aerosol contamination. This study proposes solutions for the routine prevention of carryover contamination and removal of aerosol that has occurred in molecular diagnostic laboratories.

Laboratories , Nucleic Acids , Pathology, Molecular
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893


El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)

Humans , Phosphates , Potassium , Radiotherapy , Breast Neoplasms , Nucleic Acids , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/physiopathology , Drug Therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Critical Care , Hematology , Internal Medicine , Medical Oncology
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602


El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.

Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.

O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.

Animals , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Control , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
Rev. ADM ; 77(4): 191-196, jul.-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129726


El nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 es el agente etiológico de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), convertida rápidamente en una pandemia, emergencia sanitaria y una crisis de salud pública en los países afectados a lo largo de los cinco continentes. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica fue describir algunas consideraciones sobre el diagnóstico del COVID-19 y el papel de los diagnósticos salivales. El diagnóstico molecular, la historia clínica, las manifestaciones clínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y los imagenológicos, y la prueba viral del ácido nucleico, el diagnóstico serológico, el sistema CRISPR/ Cas13 y la técnica SHERLOCK son elementos del arsenal diagnóstico de esta infección. Éstos son imprescindibles para el trabajo de los profesionales en salud, ya que generar y conocer medidas de identificación diagnóstica, son pilares esenciales, en el intento de mitigar una mayor propagación de esta infección (AU)

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly converted in a pandemic, sanitary emergency and Public Health crisis in the affected countries over the world. The objective of the present bibliographical review was to describe some considerations about the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the role of salivary diagnostics. The molecular diagnosis, the clinical history, the laboratory and imagenologic findings, the nucleic acid viral test, the serologic diagnosis, the CRISPR/Cas13 system, and the SHERLOCK technique, are all elements of the diagnostic arsenal to identify this infection. These elements are indispensables for the health professionals. Generating and knowing the diagnostic identification measures are essential pillars in the attempt of mitigating a greater propagation of this disease (AU)

Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Saliva , Serologic Tests , Nucleic Acids , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 63-75, jun. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102739


El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar una guía que sirva para la interpretación y seguimiento de los esfuerzos que se están desarrollando en todo el mundo con el objetivo de obtener una vacuna que pueda generar inmunidad contra el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 de 2019, el agente causante de la enfermedad por coronavirus denominada COVID-19. Cinco meses después de haber sido detectada la enfermedad, ya hay 102 vacunas en distintos estadios de desarrollo, registradas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), correspondientes a 8 plataformas vacunales con diferentes estrategias, y todos los días aparecen nuevas. Esto representará un enorme desafío de organismos internacionales, para la evaluación, comparación y selección de aquellas que cumplan con los criterios regulatorios indispensables de seguridad y eficacia y que, por otro lado, puedan ser producidas en cantidades suficientes para abastecer la demanda mundial. (AU)

The objective of this article is to provide a guide to help the interpretation and monitoring the efforts that are being carried out worldwide to obtain a vaccine that will be able to generate immunity against the new 2019 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the viral agent causes the disease named COVID-19. Five months after the disease was detected, there are already 102 vaccines at different stages of development, registered by World Health Organization (WHO), corresponding to 8 vaccination platforms base on different strategies, and every day new ones appear. This will represent a huge challenge for international organizations, to evaluate, compare and selects those that will meet the essential regulatory criteria of safety and efficacy and that, would be able to be produced in enough quantities to supply the worldwide demand. Key words: SARS-Cov-2 vaccine, vaccine platform, COVID-19 strategy, attenuated virus, viral vector, viral proteins, viral DNA, viral RNA, nucleic acids, viral like particles, WHO. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , DNA/therapeutic use , RNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Protein S/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Disease Vectors
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816641


Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) continues to be a significant economic problem to the swine industry. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MH) are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against PRRSV and MH in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by ELISA, and the presence of viral nucleic acids of PRRSV, including North American and European PRRS, and PCV2 was also investigated in the serum of sows and piglets from 89 domestic commercial pig farms by real-time PCR. In case of PRRSV, 78.7% (70/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV antibody, and 96.6% (86/89) of piglets were positive for PRRSV antibody. For MH, 76.4% (68/89) of sows showed positive for MH antibody. In the PRRSV viral nucleic acid detection experiment, 36.0% (32/89) of sows were positive for PRRSV nucleic acids, and virus nucleic acid was detected in 83.1% (74/89) of piglets. In case of virus type, both North American and European types were detected. In case of PCV2, 15.7% (14/89) of sows were positive for PCV2 nucleic acids. Conclusively, PCV2, PRRSV, and MH were widely distributed in pig farms in Korea. These prevalence data related with PRDC provides clinical information for vaccination strategy and development for the control of PRDC.

Agriculture , Antibodies , Circovirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Korea , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Nucleic Acids , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Vaccination
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2076-2082, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878467


The special nucleic acid fragments, 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which interact with the capsid proteins, were selected as scaffolds to investigate the assembly efficiency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus-like particles (VLPs). The assembled product was characterized by evaluation of particle size, surface potential, gel retardation assay, nuclease digestion experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism analysis. The results confirmed that the 5' UTR and IRES of FMDV co-assembled with the FMD VLPs and facilitated the assembly efficiency of FMD-VLPs. It demonstrates that the assembly efficiency of 75S particles of VLPs-5'UTR was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.001) and VLPs-IRES group (P<0.01). Comparatively the assembly efficiency of 12S particles of VLPs-IRES was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.000 1) and VLPs-5'UTR (P<0.000 1). It showed that the 5' UTR represented more effective in facilitating the assembly of VLPs. This study proposes an optimized strategy for improving the assembly efficiency of VLPs for the development of VLPs vaccine.

5' Untranslated Regions , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/physiology , Internal Ribosome Entry Sites , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Virus Assembly
Braz. j. microbiol ; 50(3): 677-684, July 2019. ilus., tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121770


Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) genus is related to several diseases, among them upper and lower respiratory tract illness. HAdV species B, C, D, and E are mainly associated with respiratory infections. The goal of this work was to identify the HAdV species associated with respiratory infections in hospitalized patients from southern Brazil. Samples were collected from 1996 to 2004 and 2011 to 2017. During this period, 28,524 samples were collected, and 9983 were positive for respiratory viruses, being 435 for HAdV. From these 435 samples, 57 were selected for characterization of HAdV species. For screening the presence of HAdV, a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene (DNApol gene) was amplified by nested PCR. Partial nucleotide sequencing was performed in positive samples, and HAdV (DNApol gene) was detected in 53 samples: species B (28;49.1%), C (16;8.0%), D (2; 3.5%), E (5; 8.7%), and untyped (2; 3.5%). Specie D was found only in 2017 and specie E in 2011 and 2012. The age of the patients ranged from < 1 to 81 years old, and 62.3%were male. No relationship between gender orage and identified HAdV species were observed. In addition, in the period of 2013­2017, 18 samples from patients who died were analyzed: 11 were related to species B, 4 to C, and 2 to D and 1 remained untyped. Circulation of HAdV species D and Evaried over the years, but species B and C were present throughout the evaluated period. In addition, respiratory infections by HAdVaffect elderly and children mainly. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Mastadenovirus/pathogenicity , Nucleic Acids , Morbidity
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 86-98, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763278


Biosensors are analytical devices for biomolecule detection that compromise three essential components: recognition moiety, transducer, and signal processor. The sensor converts biomolecule recognition to detectable signals, which has been applied in diverse fields such as clinical monitoring, in vitro diagnostics, food industry etc. Based on signal transduction mechanisms, biosensors can be categorized into three major types: optical biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and mass-based biosensors. Recently, the need for faster, more sensitive detection of biomolecules has compeled researchers to develop various sensing techniques. In this review, the basic structure and sensing principles of biosensors are introduced. Additionally, the review discusses multiple recent works about nucleic acid and exosome sensing.

Biosensing Techniques , Exosomes , Food Industry , In Vitro Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Signal Transduction , Transducers
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 76(7): 4564-4569, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272776


Background: the liver is a critical organ because it contains most of the accumulated metals where toxic effects can expected. Also, the lung is directly affected by receiving aluminum as aluminum silicate. Exposure of aluminum leads to production of free radicals that damage living organs and tissues. Aim of the work: this study aimed to evaluate the nucleic acid content in liver, lung and cerebellum tissues intoxicated by aluminum silicate (AlS) and the possible ameliorative effect of propolis extract (PP). Material and methods: Forty male albino rats (weighting 100-120 grams) were categorized randomly into four groups, ten rats on each group (n=10). The 1st group considered as the healthy control group. The 2nd group received 200 ml PP/kg b.wt., day after day by stomach gavage. The 3rd group was injected intraperitoneally by 20 mg AlS/kg b.wt., twice weekly. The 4th group was treated with AlS in addition to PP as the same doses as in the 2nd and 3rd groups. After two months for each group. Liver, lung and cerebellum organs were harvested. Results: decreased body weight gain of rats was realized with weakly stained nucleic acids contents in liver, lung and cerebellum tissues that intoxicated by AlS. While, using the supplemented treatment (PP) at the same time with the induction of AlS compound showed an ameliorative effect on the nucleic acid contents. Conclusion: propolis has anti-oxidant by inhibiting AlS toxicity on nucleic acids in the different experimental organs of rats

Aluminum Silicates , Cerebellum , Liver , Nucleic Acids , Propolis
VozAndes ; 30(1): 7-8, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047972


Para nosotros generar una defnición determinada y entendible necesitamos de elementos de comparación; así, por ejemplo, para nosotros "entender "que es el "día" necesariamente debemos conocer que es la "noche". Esta antítesis por contraste nos grafca estos dos conceptos y nos lleva al ámbito de la "certidumbre" y es por esto que un "eclipse total" en pleno día se presenta como un fenómeno de ruptura de lo conocido como "cierto" desde que nacemos y que NO admite contradicción pues es ya parte de nuestra "conciencia genética" ; es decir, un evento externo de la vida real (día-noche) condicionado a eventos internos (genéticos) generando ­ en el caso del ejemplo ­ el "ritmo circadiano", "envejecimiento celular", "esperanza de vida al nacer" , "cronobiología".

For us to generate a definition determined and understandable we need elements of comparison; Thus, for example, for us to "understand" what "day" is, we must necessarily know what is the "night". This contrast antithesis we graph these two concepts and we leads to the field of "certainty" and this is why a "total eclipse" in broad daylight it is presented as a phenomenon of rupture of the known as "true" since we were born and that does NOT admit contradiction it is already part of our "genetic consciousness"; that is, an event external real life (day-night) conditioned to internal events (genetic) generating - in the case from the example - the "circadian rhythm", "Cell aging", "hope of life at birth "," chronobiology ".

Nucleic Acids , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Epigenomics , Environment , DNA Demethylation , Methylation
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(2): 10-16, dic. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008155


Los virus han acompañado al hombre a través de toda su historia, provocando infecciones y plagas que han generado la muerte y el temor de poblaciones completas. Muchos han sido los investigadores que han contribuido a conocer la estructura, patogenia e inmunidad involucrada. Es fundamental conocer los aspectos básicos de los virus para entender la enfermedad y el tratamiento, por lo que esperamos contribuir a esto con los apuntes que a continuación presentamos...(AU)

Viruses have accompanied humankind through their history, causing infections and producing death and fear in population. A lot of researchers have contributed to know the structure, pathogeny and immunity involved. To understand the disease and treatment is fundamental to know the basic aspects, which is the reason to present these notes...(AU)

Viruses/pathogenicity , Nucleic Acids , Viral Proteins , Virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/ultrastructure
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727581


A nucleobase adenine is a fundamental component of nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides. Various biological roles of adenine have been discovered. It is not produced from degradation of adenine nucleotides in mammals but produced mainly during polyamine synthesis by dividing cells. Anti-inflammatory roles of adenine have been supported in IgE-mediated allergic reactions, immunological functions of lymphocytes and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. However adenine effects on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram negative bacteria, is not examined. Here we investigated anti-inflammatory roles of adenine in LPS-stimulated immune cells, including a macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) and peritoneal cells in mice. In RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, adenine inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and inflammatory lipid mediators, prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄. Adenine impeded signaling pathways eliciting production of these inflammatory mediators. It suppressed IκB phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) JNK and ERK. Although adenine raised cellular AMP which could activate AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), the enzyme activity was not enhanced. In BMMCs, adenine inhibited the LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 and also hindered phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt. In peritoneal cavity, adenine suppressed the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 by peritoneal cells in mice. These results show that adenine attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory reactions.

Adenine Nucleotides , Adenine , Animals , Bone Marrow , Cell Line , Cell Wall , Colitis , Cytokines , Dextrans , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-6 , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Mammals , Mast Cells , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Nucleic Acids , Peritoneal Cavity , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Sodium , Toll-Like Receptor 4
Immune Network ; : e4-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740205


The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that PRRs-triggered signaling is critically regulated by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules. In this review, we first summarize an updated understanding of cellular antiviral signaling and virus-induced activation of inflammasome and then focus on the regulation of key components by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules.

Epigenomics , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Nucleic Acids , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Phosphotransferases , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Ubiquitin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742416


The human microbiome is known to play an essential role in influencing host health. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also been reported to act on a variety of signaling pathways, distally transport cellular components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid, and have immunomodulatory effects. Here we shall review the current understanding of the intersectionality of the human microbiome and EVs in the emerging field of microbiota-derived EVs and their pharmacological potential. Microbes secrete several classes of EVs: outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), membrane vesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies. EV biogenesis is unique to each cell and regulated by sophisticated signaling pathways. EVs are primarily composed of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and recent evidence suggests they may also carry metabolites. These components interact with host cells and control various cellular processes by transferring their constituents. The pharmacological potential of microbiomederived EVs as vaccine candidates, biomarkers, and a smart drug delivery system is a promising area of future research. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate in detail the mechanisms of microbiome-derived EV action in host health in a multi-disciplinary manner.

Biomarkers , Drug Delivery Systems , Extracellular Vesicles , Membranes , Microbiota , Nucleic Acids
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713264


The laboratory-based diagnosis of viral infection has been evolving over the years, to increase objectivity, accuracy, and sensitivity via the continuous development of various technologies. Cell culture, which is one of the methods used for the diagnosis of viral infection, is a “gold-standard” approach; however, it is time consuming and is associated with a high risk of contamination. To overcome these shortcomings, molecular biology methods, such as conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR), real-time PCR, and sequencing, have been used recently for virus diagnosis. Realtime PCR has higher accuracy and sensitivity compared with cPCR. Moreover, realtime PCR can quantify viral nucleic acids by confirming the amplification using the threshold cycle, which is the initial amplification point. Real-time PCR applications for the detection of various types of viruses in clinical settings should be based on the use of appropriate samples, nucleic acid extraction according to virus characteristics, and selection of diagnostic methods using sensitivity and specificity targets. In addition, the implementation of real-time PCR requires to evaluate the performance of the test protocol by measuring sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility. The verified real-time PCR method is an easy, fast, and accurate method for monitoring the diagnosis and treatment outcomes in a clinical setting. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the typical diagnostic methods for viral infection, especially of the advanced real-time PCR method, to detect human pathogenic viruses.

Cell Culture Techniques , Diagnosis , Humans , Methods , Molecular Biology , Nucleic Acids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity