ABSTRACT The delivery of nucleic acids to cells is considered a crucial step for the success of genetic modifications aimed at therapeutic purposes or production of genetically modified animals. In this context, nanotechnology is one of the most promising fields of science, with the potential to solve several existing problems. Nanostructures have desirable characteristics to be used as carriers, such as nanometric size, large surface area, cell internalization capacity, prolonged and controlled release, among others. Genetically modified animals can contribute to the production of biopharmaceuticals, through the expression of high-associated-value molecules. The production of these animals, also known as biofactories, further enhances Brazilian agribusiness, since it allows adding value to the final product, and favors the integration between the agricultural market and the pharmaceutical sector. However, there is a growing concern about the safety and possible harmful effects of nanostructures, since data on the safe use of these materials are still insufficient. The objective of this review was to address aspects of the use of nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes as nucleic acid carriers, aiming at the production of genetically modified animals, with the certainty that progress in this field of knowledge depends on more information on the mechanisms of interaction between nanostructures, cells and embryos, as well as on its toxicity.
Subject(s)Animals , Nucleic Acids , Nanotubes, Carbon , Nanostructures/toxicity , Nanostructures/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanotechnology
El cavo de olor (Syzygium aromaticum) es un árbol, originario de Indonesia, con altura variable, pero que sobre pasa los 10 metros de altura, perteneciente a la familia de las Myrtaceae y cuyas flores que no han abierto, se convierten en botones, que al secar son los mencionados clavos de olor. Poseen como componente principal el Eugenol, entre otros compuestos orgánicos. Por sus características bioquímicas y organolépticas, le proporcionan varios beneficios para la salud, por actuar como estimulantes, antioxidante, con acción antibacterial, antiespasmódicas, además de su marcada acción analgésica y anestésica. Por su parte, la microbiota oral, está conformada por un amplio conjunto de microorganismos pertenecientes al ecosistema bucal y que a través del equilibrio de los mismos, se logrará un adecuado funcionamiento y desarrollo de las funciones fisiológicas en pro de la salud bucal del individuo. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo examinar los datos específicos en el uso del clavo de olor como agente bactericida en las afecciones bucodentales, encontrándose que si puede ser usado como agente bactericida por su marcado efecto sobre la microbiota oral a nivel de eliminar los microorganismos nocivos presentes en la misma, ya que actúa inhibiendo la recomposición de las proteínas, los ácidos nucleicos y la membrana de la pared celular, cambiando la permeabilidad de las células de los microorganismos, favoreciendo su muerte y a su ves favoreciendo el adecuado equilibrio de la microbiota oral, necesario para la adecuada salud bucodental(AU)
The clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a tree, native to Indonesia, with variable height, but that exceeds 10 meters in height, belonging to the Myrtaceae family and whose flowers that have not opened, become buttons, that when drying are the aforementioned cloves. Their main component is Eugenol, among other organic compounds. Due to their biochemical and organoleptic characteristics, they provide several health benefits, for acting as stimulants, antioxidant, with antibacterial, antispasmodic action, in addition to their marked analgesic and anesthetic action. For its part, the oral microbiota is made up of a wide set of microorganisms belonging to the oral ecosystem and that through their balance, an adequate functioning and development of physiological functions will be achieved in favor of the oral health of the individual. The objective of this research is to examine the specific data on the use of cloves as a bactericidal agent in oral conditions, finding that it can be used as a bactericidal agent due to its marked effect on the oral microbiota at the level of eliminating harmful microorganisms present in it, since it acts by inhibiting the recomposition of proteins, nucleic acids and the cell wall membrane, changing the permeability of the cells of microorganisms, favoring their death and in turn favoring the proper balance of the oral microbiota, necessary for proper oral health(AU)
Subject(s)Syzygium , Microbiota , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Mouth , Eugenol , Nucleic Acids , Oral Health , Ecosystem
This study aimed to explore the application value of new biological specimen oral fluid in SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and antibody detection. Oral fluid and paired respiratory and blood specimens from 7 confirmed cases of two COVID-19 cluster epidemic were collected in Beijing from October to November 2021. SARS-CoV-2 virus and IgG antibody were detected by real time PCR kits and serum antibody detection reagents, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in oral fluids was detected by a new established method of magnetic particle chemiluminescence. The results showed that the nucleic acid amplification test of SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs and oral fluid specimens from 3 confirmed cases of COVID-19 was positive, among which the Ct value for ORF1a/b and N gene of oral fluid samples in 2 cases was close to that of throat swab, and the Ct value of oral fluid sample for 1 case was higher than that of throat swab. The complete genome sequence of one oral fluid specimen was obtained, which belonged to the VOC/Delta variant strain. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies of the paired oral fluid and serum were all positive, and the S/CO values of oral fluid were all lower than those of serum. The series of oral fluid results showed that SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody level increased from 11 to 32 days after the onset of the disease.
Subject(s)COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and influencing factors of COVID-19 confirmed cases with viral nucleic acid re-positive in anal and/or throat swabs after discharge during the domestic imported epidemic stage in Guangdong Province in early 2020. Methods: The COVID-19 confirmed cases with the onset time before March 1, 2020 in Guangdong Province were collected to analyze the demographic data, epidemiological characteristics, and specimen collection and testing data after discharge. Logistic regression model was used for influencing factors analysis of re-positive cases. Results: A total of 1 286 COVID-19 confirmed cases were included, the M(Q1,Q3) of age was 44(32,58)years, 617 cases were male, 224 cases were re-positive in anal and/or throat swabs with the re-positive rate 17.42%. The M(Q1,Q3) of age of re-positive cases was 35(23, 50) years, which was younger than that of re-negative cases age was those 46(33, 59) years (P<0.001). With the increase of age, re-positive rate decreased (χ2trend=52.73, P<0.001). 85.27% (191/224) of re-positive cases were found in 14 d after discharge, the duration time of re-positive status was 13(7, 24) d, and 81.69% (183/224) of re-positive cases were re-tested negative in 28 d after re-positive date. No fever and other symptoms had been observed among re-positive cases during the whole follow-up. No secondary infectious cases had been found among close contacts after 14 d of centralized isolation and sampling screening. Univariate logistic regression model analysis revealed that the influencing factors of the re-positive cases included age, occupation, clusters, clinical types, and admission time. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis revealed that age was an independent risk factor. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid re-positive is found in COVID-19 confirmed cases after discharge in Guangdong Province. Most re-positive cases are confirmed among 14 d after discharge and re-test to negative among 28 d after re-positive date. Age is an risk factor for re-positive cases after discharge.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Male , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
The significant clinical feature of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is the exposure of the necrotic jaw. Other clinical manifestations include jaw pain, swelling, abscess, and skin fistula, which seriously affect the patients' life, and there is no radical cure. Thus, new methods need to be found to prevent the occurrence of BRONJ. Here, a novel nanoparticle, tFNA-KLT, was successfully synthesized by us, in which the nanoparticle tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (tFNA) was used for carrying angiogenic peptide, KLT, and then further enhanced angiogenesis. TFNA-KLT possessed the same characteristics as tFNA, such as simple synthesis, stable structure, and good biocompatibility. Meanwhile, tFNA enhanced the stability of KLT and carried more KLT to interact with endothelial cells. First, it was confirmed that tFNA-KLT had the superior angiogenic ability to tFNA and KLT both in vitro and in vivo. Then we apply tFNA-KLT to the prevention of BRONJ. The results showed that tFNA-KLT can effectively prevent the occurrence of BRONJ by accelerating angiogenesis. In summary, the prepared novel nanoparticle, tFNA-KLT, was firstly synthesized by us. It was also firstly confirmed by us that tFNA-KLT significantly enhanced angiogenesis and can effectively prevent the occurrence of BRONJ by accelerating angiogenesis, thus providing a new avenue for the prevention of BRONJ and a new choice for therapeutic angiogenesis.
Subject(s)Angiogenic Proteins/therapeutic use , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use
According to the characteristics of short time and large amount of samples for out of hospital emergency nucleic acid detection, this study introduces an out of hospital emergency nucleic acid detection cloud platform system, which realizes the functions of rapid identification of the detected person and one-to-one correspondence with the samples, and real-time upload of the detection results to Zhejiang Government service network for quick viewing and statistics, so as to complete the task of national nucleic acid screening efficiently and accurately that we must provide information support.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Cloud Computing , Humans , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the consistency of cytomegalovirus deoxyribo nucleic acid (CMV-DNA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody detections in patients with different clinical characteristics and their guiding value for clinical practice.@*METHODS@#From December 2014 to November 2019, a total of 507 patients who were detected with both CMV-IgM and CMV-DNA were collected in Peking University International Hospital. Their general information, such as gender, age and clinical data, including the patient's diagnosis, medication, and outcome were also collected. The groups were stratified according to whether CMV-DNA was negative or positive, CMV-IgM was negative or positive, age, gender, and whether they received immunosuppressive therapy or not. The Pearson Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of the rates between the groups. P < 0.05 means the difference is statisti-cally significant.@*RESULTS@#Of the 507 patients submitted for examination, 55 (10.85%) were positive for CMV-DNA, 74 (14.60%) were positive for CMV-IgM, and 20 (3.94%) were positive for both CMV-DNA and CMV-IgM. Of the 55 patients with CMV-DNA positive, 37 were male, accounting for 67.27%. In addition, 25 patients were older than 60 years, accounting for 45.45% and 33 patients received immunosuppressive therapy, accounting for 60%. The rates were higher than that of CMV-DNA negative group, 47.35% (P=0.005), 68.14% (P=0.043), 46.02% (P=0.050), respectively. Of the patients with both CMV-DNA and IgM positive, 45% received immunosuppressive threapy, which was lower than that of CMV-DNA positive but IgM negative patients (68.57%, P=0.086), and also lower than CMV-DNA negative but IgM positive patients (68.52%, P=0.064). In the patients with both CMV-DNA and IgM positive, 91.67% showed remission after receiving ganciclovir, whereas in the patients with CMV-DNA positive but IgM negative, the rate was only 60% (P=0.067).@*CONCLUSION@#CMV-IgM antibody detection is affected by age, gender, and immune status. It is not recommended to use CMV-IgM alone to determine CMV infection in patients with immunosuppressive status and those older than 60 years. CMV-DNA and CMV-IgM combined detection may help to predict patients' immune status and outcomes of antiviral therapy.
Subject(s)Antibodies, Viral , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , DNA , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Nucleic Acids
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and the effect of vaccination on virus load and disease severity of the cases in Beijing. Methods: The data of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China Information for Disease Control and Prevention and Epidemiology investigation. The data were processed and analyzed by Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0. Results: From June 1 to September 30, 2021, a total of 171 imported COVID-19 cases were reported in Beijing, of which 66.67% (114/171) were asymptomatic. The cases were mainly from the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation, accounting for 67.84% (116/171). The male to female ratio of the cases was 2∶1 (114∶57). The median age M (Q1, Q3) of the cases was 28 (23, 36) years. The cases of Chinese accounted for 80.12% (137/171). The sequencing of the whole genome of the virus in 47 imported COVID-19 cases showed that the proportion of Delta variant was 76.60% (36/47). The COVID-19 vaccination coverage rate in the cases was 60.82% (104/171), but the full vaccination coverage rate was 53.80% (92/171). In the imported COVID-19 cases, 13.53% (23/170) were screened to be SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive on the day when they arrived in Beijing, and all the cases were positive for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid within 28 days. The severity of the disease was higher in the unvaccinated group than in the partially vaccinated group and fully vaccinated group (P<0.001). In the unvaccinated group, there were 1 severe case and 1 critical case. The median Ct values M (Q1, Q3) of N gene and ORFlab gene in unvaccinated group were 32.51 (23.23, 36.06) and 32.78 (24.00, 36.38), respectively. There was no significant difference in the median of double-gene Ct value between the partially vaccinated group and the fully vaccinated group. Conclusions: During the study period, most of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were asymptomatic. No matter vaccinated or not, the viral loads in the COVID-19 cases were similar, but the vaccination could reduce the severity of the disease.
Subject(s)Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
Objective: To analyze the time distribution of the first positive nucleic acid detection in imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported nationwide in China and provide references for further improvement of the prevention and control of COVID-19 in international travelers. Methods: The data of imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported by provinces from 24 July 2020 and 23 July 2021 were collected for the analysis on the time distribution of the first positive nucleic acid detection after entering China. Results: A total of 7 199 imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 were reported in 28 provinces during 24 July 2020 to 23 July 2021. The median interval (Q1, Q3) from the entry to the first positive nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 was 1 (0, 5) day. The imported cases who had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 14 days and 14 days later after the entry accounted for 95.15% (6 850/7 199) and 4.85% (349/7 199) respectively. Among these cases, 3.65% (263/7 199), 0.88% (63/7 199) and 0.32% (23/7 199) had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 15-21 days, 22-28 days and 28 days later after the entry respectively. The proportion of asymptomatic infections were 47.24% (3 236/6 850) and 63.61% (222/349) among the cases who had the first positive nucleic acid detections within 14 days and 14 days later after the entry respectively. A total of 39.54% (138/349) of cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 with the first positive nucleic acid detections 14 days later after the entry had inter-provincial travel after the discharge of entry point isolation. Conclusions: About 5% of the imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 were first positive 14 days later after the entry. In order to effectively reduce the risk of domestic COVID-19 secondary outbreaks caused by imported cases, it is suggested to add a nucleic acid test on 8th -13th day after the entry.
Subject(s)Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
BACKGROUND: Biosensing techniques have been the subject of exponentially increasing interest due to their performance advantages such as high selectivity and sensitivity, easy operation, low cost, short analysis time, simple sample preparation, and real-time detection. Biosensors have been developed by integrating the unique specificity of biological reactions and the high sensitivity of physical sensors. Therefore, there has been a broad scope of applications for biosensing techniques, and nowadays, they are ubiquitous in different areas of environmental, healthcare, and food safety. Biosensors have been used for environmental studies, detecting and quantifying pollutants in water, air, and soil. Biosensors also showed great potential for developing analytical tools with countless applications in diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, mainly by detecting biomarkers. Biosensors as a medical device can identify nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, metabolites, etc.; these analytes may be biomarkers associated with the disease status. Bacterial food contamination is considered a worldwide public health issue; biosensor-based analytical techniques can identify the presence or absence of pathogenic agents in food. OBJECTIVES: The present review aims to establish state-of-the-art, comprising the recent advances in the use of nucleic acid-based biosensors and their novel application for the detection of nucleic acids. Emphasis will be given to the performance characteristics, advantages, and challenges. Additionally, food safety applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors will be discussed. METHODS: Recent research articles related to nucleic acid-based biosensors, biosensors for detecting nucleic acids, biosensors and food safety, and biosensors in environmental monitoring were reviewed. Also, biosensing platforms associated with the clinical diagnosis and food industry were included. RESULTS: It is possible to appreciate that multiple applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors have been reported in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, as well as to identify foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The use of PNA and aptamers opens the possibility of developing new biometric tools with better analytical properties. CONCLUSIONS: Biosensors could be considered the most important tool for preventing, treating, and monitoring diseases that significantly impact human health. The aptamers have advantages as biorecognition elements due to the structural conformation, hybridization capacity, robustness, stability, and lower costs. It is necessary to implement biosensors in situ to identify analytes with high selectivity and lower detection limits
ANTECEDENTES: Las técnicas de biodetección han sido objeto de un interés cada vez mayor debido a ventajas, tales como alta selectividad y sensibilidad, facilidad de manejo, bajo costo, tiempo de análisis corto, preparación sencilla de muestras y detección en tiempo real. Los biosensores se han desarrollado integrando la especificidad única de las reacciones biológicas y la alta sensibilidad de los sensores físicos. Por lo tanto, las técnicas de biodetección han tenido un amplio campo de aplicación y hoy en día son omnipresentes en diferentes áreas del medio ambiente, la salud y la seguridad alimentaria. Se han utilizado biosensores para estudios ambientales, detectando y cuantificando contaminantes en el agua, el aire y el suelo. Los biosensores también mostraron un gran potencial para desarrollar herramientas analíticas con innumerables aplicaciones en el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, principalmente mediante la detección de biomarcadores. Los biosensores como dispositivo médico pueden utilizarse para identificar ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, péptidos, metabolitos, etc. Estos analitos pueden ser biomarcadores asociados al estado de la enfermedad. La contaminación bacteriana de los alimentos se considera un problema de salud pública mundial; se pueden utilizar técnicas analíticas basadas en biosensores para determinar la presencia o ausencia de agentes patógenos en los alimentos. OBJETIVOS: La presente revisión tiene por objeto establecer los últimos adelantos en la utilización de biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos y su novedosa aplicación para la detección de ácidos nucleicos. Se hará hincapié en las características del desempeño, las ventajas y los desafíos. Además, se examinarán las aplicaciones de los biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos para la inocuidad de los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron artículos de investigación recientes relacionados con los biosensores a base de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores para la detección de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores y la inocuidad de los alimentos, y los biosensores para la vigilancia del medio ambiente. También se incluyeron plataformas de biosensores asociadas al diagnóstico clínico y a la industria alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Es posible apreciar que se han reportado múltiples aplicaciones de biosensores basados en ácido nucleico para el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, así como para identificar bacterias patógenas transmitidas por los alimentos. El uso de PNA y aptámeros abre la posibilidad de desarrollar nuevas herramientas biométricas con mejores propiedades analíticas. CONCLUSIONES: Los biosensores pueden ser considerados como los instrumentos más importantes para la prevención, el tratamiento y la vigilancia de las enfermedades que tienen un impacto significativo en la salud humana. Los aptámeros tienen ventajas como elemento de biorreconocimiento debido a la conformación estructural, capacidad de hibridación, robustez, estabilidad y menores costos. Es necesario implementar biosensores in situ para identificar analitos con alta selectividad y menores límites de detección
Subject(s)Humans , Biosensing Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Noxae
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Considering the persistent positivity on RT-qPCR tests, the results of SARS-CoV-2 were monitored to evaluate the viral RNA shedding period. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, the sequential results of 29 healthcare workers' were monitored using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of the individuals remained RT-qPCR positive after 14 days. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe positive RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 in a healthcare worker with mild symptoms 95 days after the first positive test. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential RT-qPCR results were heterogeneous, and the viral RNA shedding period is unique for each person.
Subject(s)Humans , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) has been developed as a precise, efficient, affordable and sensitive nucleic acid detection tool due to its efficient targeted binding ability and programmability. At present, biosensors based on CRISPR-Cas system have shown excellent performance in the detection of nucleic acid of pathogens, which has attracted widespread attention, and is expected to replace the conventional detection methods. This review summarizes the latest research progress of biosensors based on CRISPR/Cas system for detecting nucleic acid of pathogens.
Subject(s)Biosensing Techniques , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Nucleic Acids/genetics
Framework nucleic acid (FNA) is a set of DNA nanostructures characterized by the framework morphology. It can design rational DNA sequences and follow the principle of complementary base pairing to construct FNA. The recent discovery of FNA constructed by DNA nanotechnology has great application potential in the field of bone regene-ration. It plays a positive role in the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, bone regeneration, vascular regeneration, neuromodulation, immune regulation, and drug delivery. Here, we reviewed the current study findings on FNA in the field of bone regeneration.
Subject(s)Bone Regeneration , Nanostructures , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acids , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering
Nucleic acid aptamers, broad-spectrum target-specific single-stranded oligonucleotides, serve as molecules in targeted therapy, targeted delivery and disease diagnosis for the treatment of tumor or microbial infection and clinical detection. Due to the existence of components in the use of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the target is difficult to concentrate and the specificity of treatment is poor. The effective components of TCM are toxic components, so a highly sensitive detection method is urgently needed to reduce the toxicity problem at the same time. The combined application of TCM and modern medical treatment strategy are difficult and cannot improve the therapeutic effect. Aptamers, advantageous in biosensors, aptamer-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, and aptamer-siRNA chimeras, are expected to connect Chinese medicinals with nanotechnology, diagnostic technology and combined therapies. We summarized the preparation, screening, and modification techniques of nucleic acid aptamers and the biomedical applications and advantages in therapy, targeting, and diagnosis, aiming at providing a reference for the in-depth research and development in TCM.
Subject(s)Aptamers, Nucleotide , Drug Delivery Systems , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nucleic Acids , RNA, Small Interfering
Nucleic acid detection technique has good sensitivity and specificity and is widely used in in vitro diagnosis, animal and plant commodity quarantine, forensic identification, and other fields. However, it is susceptible to carryover contamination during the operation and leads to false-positive results, which seriously affects the detection accuracy. Therefore, finding an effective solution to prevent and eliminate nucleic acid carryover contamination has become particularly urgent. This study compared several different methods for removing nucleic acid contamination and confirmed that sodium hypochlorite solution and PCRguard reagent could effectively eliminate nucleic acid carryover in the liquid and on surfaces of different materials. Besides, the combination of sodium hypochlorite solution and PCRguard can solve the nucleic acid aerosol contamination. This study proposes solutions for the routine prevention of carryover contamination and removal of aerosol that has occurred in molecular diagnostic laboratories.
Subject(s)Laboratories , Nucleic Acids , Pathology, Molecular
El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Phosphates , Potassium , Radiotherapy , Breast Neoplasms , Nucleic Acids , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/physiopathology , Drug Therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Critical Care , Hematology , Internal Medicine , Medical Oncology
El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.
Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.
O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.
Subject(s)Animals , Arteriosclerosis , Spectrum Analysis , Blood , Nucleic Acids , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sucrose , Saccharum , Fatty Acids , Anemia , Sucrose , Therapeutics , Water , Affect , Dental Caries , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Diabetes Mellitus , Sugars , Food , Food Handling
El nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 es el agente etiológico de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), convertida rápidamente en una pandemia, emergencia sanitaria y una crisis de salud pública en los países afectados a lo largo de los cinco continentes. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica fue describir algunas consideraciones sobre el diagnóstico del COVID-19 y el papel de los diagnósticos salivales. El diagnóstico molecular, la historia clínica, las manifestaciones clínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y los imagenológicos, y la prueba viral del ácido nucleico, el diagnóstico serológico, el sistema CRISPR/ Cas13 y la técnica SHERLOCK son elementos del arsenal diagnóstico de esta infección. Éstos son imprescindibles para el trabajo de los profesionales en salud, ya que generar y conocer medidas de identificación diagnóstica, son pilares esenciales, en el intento de mitigar una mayor propagación de esta infección (AU)
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly converted in a pandemic, sanitary emergency and Public Health crisis in the affected countries over the world. The objective of the present bibliographical review was to describe some considerations about the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the role of salivary diagnostics. The molecular diagnosis, the clinical history, the laboratory and imagenologic findings, the nucleic acid viral test, the serologic diagnosis, the CRISPR/Cas13 system, and the SHERLOCK technique, are all elements of the diagnostic arsenal to identify this infection. These elements are indispensables for the health professionals. Generating and knowing the diagnostic identification measures are essential pillars in the attempt of mitigating a greater propagation of this disease (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Saliva , Serologic Tests , Nucleic Acids , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar una guía que sirva para la interpretación y seguimiento de los esfuerzos que se están desarrollando en todo el mundo con el objetivo de obtener una vacuna que pueda generar inmunidad contra el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 de 2019, el agente causante de la enfermedad por coronavirus denominada COVID-19. Cinco meses después de haber sido detectada la enfermedad, ya hay 102 vacunas en distintos estadios de desarrollo, registradas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), correspondientes a 8 plataformas vacunales con diferentes estrategias, y todos los días aparecen nuevas. Esto representará un enorme desafío de organismos internacionales, para la evaluación, comparación y selección de aquellas que cumplan con los criterios regulatorios indispensables de seguridad y eficacia y que, por otro lado, puedan ser producidas en cantidades suficientes para abastecer la demanda mundial. (AU)
The objective of this article is to provide a guide to help the interpretation and monitoring the efforts that are being carried out worldwide to obtain a vaccine that will be able to generate immunity against the new 2019 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the viral agent causes the disease named COVID-19. Five months after the disease was detected, there are already 102 vaccines at different stages of development, registered by World Health Organization (WHO), corresponding to 8 vaccination platforms base on different strategies, and every day new ones appear. This will represent a huge challenge for international organizations, to evaluate, compare and selects those that will meet the essential regulatory criteria of safety and efficacy and that, would be able to be produced in enough quantities to supply the worldwide demand. Key words: SARS-Cov-2 vaccine, vaccine platform, COVID-19 strategy, attenuated virus, viral vector, viral proteins, viral DNA, viral RNA, nucleic acids, viral like particles, WHO. (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , DNA/therapeutic use , RNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Protein S/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/physiology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/genetics , Disease Vectors
The special nucleic acid fragments, 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which interact with the capsid proteins, were selected as scaffolds to investigate the assembly efficiency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus-like particles (VLPs). The assembled product was characterized by evaluation of particle size, surface potential, gel retardation assay, nuclease digestion experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism analysis. The results confirmed that the 5' UTR and IRES of FMDV co-assembled with the FMD VLPs and facilitated the assembly efficiency of FMD-VLPs. It demonstrates that the assembly efficiency of 75S particles of VLPs-5'UTR was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.001) and VLPs-IRES group (P<0.01). Comparatively the assembly efficiency of 12S particles of VLPs-IRES was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.000 1) and VLPs-5'UTR (P<0.000 1). It showed that the 5' UTR represented more effective in facilitating the assembly of VLPs. This study proposes an optimized strategy for improving the assembly efficiency of VLPs for the development of VLPs vaccine.