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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1325-1338, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922632

ABSTRACT

A strong animal survival instinct is to approach objects and situations that are of benefit and to avoid risk. In humans, a large proportion of mental disorders are accompanied by impairments in risk avoidance. One of the most important genes involved in mental disorders is disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), and animal models in which this gene has some level of dysfunction show emotion-related impairments. However, it is not known whether DISC1 mouse models have an impairment in avoiding potential risks. In the present study, we used DISC1-N terminal truncation (DISC1-N


Subject(s)
Animals , Interneurons/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 828-834, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921286

ABSTRACT

As a kind of mental illness, depression produces great difficulties in clinical diagnosis and treatment, and has a high disability rate. It is urgent to clarify the mechanism of depression to find potential therapeutic targets and effective clinical treatment methods. As a deacetylase, silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is involved in many biological processes such as cell aging, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, more and more studies have found that SIRT1 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression, but the mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this review mainly summarizes the relevant research progress on the role and mechanism of SIRT1 gene in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, and nucleus accumbens in depression, in order to provide new ideas for exploring the mechanism and prevention of depression.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence , Depression/genetics , Hippocampus/metabolism , Humans , Nucleus Accumbens , Sirtuin 1/metabolism
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190297, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132158

ABSTRACT

Abstract The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a role in appetitive and negative motivation with sex differences in responses. NAcSh and its laterality in metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic stress in female rats is evaluated via transient inactivation of this nucleus during stress induction. Animals in the stress groups received consecutive stress for four days and transient inactivation of NAcSh was performed by administrating lidocaine (0.2%) unilaterally or bilaterally in the nucleus for five minutes before electric foot shock induction. After stress termination, food and water intake, latency to eat, plasma glucose, corticosterone, estradiol and progesterone were measured in all groups. Results showed that stress increased food intake and blood glucose level, but there were no change in the latency to eat and the amount of water intake. The right side, the left side, and both sides of NAcSh may be dominant in latency to eat, food intake, and both water intake and plasma glucose level, respectively. Although chronic stress included no changes for corticosterone and progesterone, it increased estradiol level in plasma. Also, bilateral and right sides of NAcSh may have modulatory effects on stress in corticosterone and progesterone, respectively, without affecting estradiol. It can be concluded that the NAc shell plays a pivotal role in metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic stress in a laterality manner in female rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Functional Laterality/physiology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens/physiology , Chronic Disease , Rats, Wistar , Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 255-261, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827061

ABSTRACT

Preclinical studies suggest that the GABA receptor is a potential target for treatment of substance use disorders. Baclofen (BLF), a prototypical GABA receptor agonist, is the only specific GABA receptor agonist available for application in clinical addiction treatment. The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) is a key node in the circuit that controls reward-directed behavior. However, the relationship between GABA receptors in the AcbSh and memory reconsolidation was unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-AcbSh injection of BLF on the reconsolidation of morphine reward memory. Male C57BL/6J mice were used to establish morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) model and carry out morphine reward memory retrieval and activation experiment. The effects of intra-AcbSh injection of BLF on morphine-induced CPP, reinstatement of CPP and locomotor activity were observed after environmental cues activating morphine reward memory. The results showed that intra-AcbSh injection of BLF (0.06 nmol/0.2 μL/side or 0.12 nmol/0.2 μL/side), rather than vehicle or BLF (0.01 nmol/0.2 μL/side), following morphine reward memory retrieval abolished morphine-induced CPP by disrupting its reconsolidation in mice. Moreover, this effect persisted for more than 14 days, which was not reversed by a morphine priming injection. Furthermore, intra-AcbSh injection of BLF without morphine reward memory retrieval had no effect on morphine-associated reward memory. Interestingly, administration of BLF into the AcbSh had no effect on the locomotor activity of mice during testing phase. Based on these results, we concluded that intra-AcbSh injection of BLF following morphine reward memory could erase morphine-induced CPP by disrupting its reconsolidation. Activating GABA receptor in AcbSh during drug memory reconsolidation may be a potential approach to prevent drug relapse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baclofen , Conditioning, Classical , GABA-B Receptor Agonists , Locomotion , Male , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Morphine , Nucleus Accumbens , Opioid-Related Disorders , Reward
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential neural pathway connecting the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and whether the pathway participates in the regulation of cardiovascular function in a model rat of anorexia nervosa (AN).@*METHODS@#Rat models of AN were established by allowing voluntary activity in a running wheel with restricted feeding, with the rats having free access to normal chow without exercise as the control group. FluoroGold (FG) retrograde tracing method and multi-channel simultaneous recording technique were used to explore the possible pathway between the NAc and the RVLM.@*RESULTS@#The rats in AN group exhibited significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) with significantly increased discharge frequency of RVLM neurons in comparison with the control rats. After the injection of FG into the RVLM, retrograde labeled neurons were observed in the NAc of the rats in both the normal control and AN groups. In both groups, SBP and HR were significantly decreased in response to 400 μA electrical stimulation of the NAc accompanied by an obvious increase in the discharge frequency of the RVLM neurons; the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and MAP were significantly lower in AN model rats than in the normal rats in response to the stimulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We successfully established a rat model of AN via hyperactivity and restricted feeding and confirm the presence of a neural pathway connecting the NAc and the RVLM. This pathway might participate in the regulation of cardiovascular function in AN model rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anorexia Nervosa , Blood Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Medulla Oblongata , Neural Pathways , Nucleus Accumbens , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787132

ABSTRACT

The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are a family of membrane-associated proteins known to play roles in cell-shape determination as well as in signaling pathways. We have previously shown that amphetamine decreases phosphorylation levels of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important neuronal substrate mediating rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we further examined what molecular pathways may be involved in this process. By direct microinjection of LY294002, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, or of S9 peptide, a proposed GSK3β activator, into the NAcc core, we found that phosphorylation levels of ERM as well as of GSK3β in this site are simultaneously decreased. These results indicate that ERM proteins are under the regulation of Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in the NAcc core. The present findings have a significant implication to a novel signal pathway possibly leading to structural plasticity in relation with drug addiction.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine , Animals , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Microinjections , Negotiating , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plastics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Rats , Reward , Signal Transduction , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 387-396, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717413

ABSTRACT

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is the major component of the ventral striatum that regulates stress-induced depression. The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the role of VTA-NAc neurons in stress response has been recently characterized. The NAc also receives glutamatergic inputs from various forebrain structures including the prelimbic cortex (PL), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and ventral hippocampus (vHIP), whereas the role of those glutamatergic afferents in stress response remains underscored. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which descending glutamatergic neurons activated by stress in the PL, BLA, and vHIP project to the NAc. To specifically label the input neurons into the NAc, fluorescent-tagged cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which can be used as a retrograde neuronal tracer, was injected into the NAc. After two weeks, the mice were placed under restraint for 1 h. Subsequent histological analyses indicated that CTB-positive cells were detected in 170~680 cells/mm² in the PL, BLA, and vHIP, and those CTB-positive cells were mostly glutamatergic. In the PL, BLA, and vHIP regions analyzed, stress-induced c-Fos expression was found in 20~100 cells/mm². Among the CTB-positive cells, 2.6% in the PL, 4.2% in the BLA, and 1.1% in the vHIP were co-labeled by c-Fos, whereas among c-Fos-positive cells, 7.7% in the PL, 19.8% in the BLA, and 8.5% in the vHIP were co-labeled with CTB. These results suggest that the NAc receives a significant but differing proportion of glutamatergic inputs from the PL, BLA, and vHIP in stress response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basolateral Nuclear Complex , Cholera Toxin , Depression , Hippocampus , Mice , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Prosencephalon , Ventral Striatum , Ventral Tegmental Area
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Apathy is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). It may have adverse impacts on the progression of AD. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between AD patients with apathy and those without apathy. METHODS: Sixty-six apathetic AD patients and 66 AD patients without apathy completed Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and underwent technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans. Voxel-wise differences in rCBF between the 2 groups were examined. Association between rCBF and levels of apathy in the apathetic group was also assessed. RESULTS: AD patients with apathy showed lower rCBF in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, left putamen, left nucleus accumbens, left thalamus, and bilateral insula than those without (all p < 0.005). Mean perfusion across all significant clusters showed a negative linear correlation with NPI apathy score in AD patients with apathy (β = −0.25; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoperfusion in the prefrontal, striatal, and insular areas may be neural correlates of apathy in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Apathy , Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Nucleus Accumbens , Perfusion , Prefrontal Cortex , Putamen , Regional Blood Flow , Thalamus , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 120-128, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714114

ABSTRACT

µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored. Here, we determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of MOR in different cell types of the hippocampus by utilizing MOR-mCherry mice and two different antibodies against MOR. Consistent with previous findings, we demonstrate that MOR expression in the CA1 pyramidal layer is co-localized with axon terminals from GABAergic inhibitory neurons but not with soma of pyramidal neurons. More importantly, we demonstrate that MOR is highly expressed in CA1 hippocampal astrocytes. The ultrastructural analysis further demonstrates that the astrocytic MOR is localized in soma and processes, but not in microdomains near synapses. Lastly, we demonstrate that astrocytes in ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens also express MOR. Our results provide the unprecedented evidence for the presence of MOR in astrocytes, implicating potential roles of astrocytic MOR in addictive behaviors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Astrocytes , Behavior, Addictive , beta-Endorphin , Brain , Carisoprodol , Enkephalins , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Microscopy, Electron , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Presynaptic Terminals , Pyramidal Cells , Receptors, Opioid , Synapses , Ventral Tegmental Area
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56245

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence supports that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered as ‘behavioral addiction’ with neurobiological alterations. We have reviewed previous research into the clinical and neurobiological features of IGD, and suggest a flowchart for the comprehensive evaluation of IGD. Several self-rating screening tests based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 5th edition (DSM-5) IGD criteria were developed. IGD is often comorbid with depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and smartphone addiction. Individuals with IGD are prone to act impulsively and make risky decisions, especially in response to game-related cues. Functional neuroimaging results have shown altered functional activities in prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Structural neuroimaging demonstrated gray matter volume changes in prefrontal cortex and NAc, while showing white matter integrity disruption in thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex. There are few evidences on the attribution of specific genes to IGD. To evaluate IGD comprehensively, self-rating scales based on DSM-5 are useful, but a diagnostic interview by a clinician is more helpful to assess functional impairments of IGD. Presence of psychiatric comorbidities such as depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, ADHD, and smartphone addiction should be evaluated. Neurocognitive tests that assess impulsivity, decision-making under risk, and cue-reactivity are helpful when planning individualized IGD treatment.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Comorbidity , Cues , Depressive Disorder , Functional Neuroimaging , Gray Matter , Gyrus Cinguli , Immunoglobulin D , Impulsive Behavior , Internet , Mass Screening , Mental Disorders , Neuroimaging , Nucleus Accumbens , Prefrontal Cortex , Smartphone , Software Design , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus , Weights and Measures , White Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169714

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a deficit in social behaviors and nonverbal interactions such as reduced eye contact, facial expression, and body gestures in the first 3 years of life. It is not a single disorder, and it is broadly considered to be a multi-factorial disorder resulting from genetic and non-genetic risk factors and their interaction. Genetic studies of ASD have identified mutations that interfere with typical neurodevelopment in utero through childhood. These complexes of genes have been involved in synaptogenesis and axon motility. Recent developments in neuroimaging studies have provided many important insights into the pathological changes that occur in the brain of patients with ASD in vivo. Especially, the role of amygdala, a major component of the limbic system and the affective loop of the cortico-striatothalamo-cortical circuit, in cognition and ASD has been proved in numerous neuropathological and neuroimaging studies. Besides the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens is also considered as the key structure which is related with the social reward response in ASD. Although educational and behavioral treatments have been the mainstay of the management of ASD, pharmacological and interventional treatments have also shown some benefit in subjects with ASD. Also, there have been reports about few patients who experienced improvement after deep brain stimulation, one of the interventional treatments. The key architecture of ASD development which could be a target for treatment is still an uncharted territory. Further work is needed to broaden the horizons on the understanding of ASD.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Autistic Disorder , Axons , Brain , Child , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Cognition , Deep Brain Stimulation , Facial Expression , Gestures , Humans , Limbic System , Neurobiology , Neuroimaging , Nucleus Accumbens , Reward , Risk Factors , Social Behavior
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 307-317, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172189

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors. The viral vector system AAV2-CaMKII-ChR2-eYFP was injected into the BLA to trace the axonal tracts of BLA neurons. This axon labeling analysis led us to identify the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, habenula, CA3 pyramidal neurons, central amygdala, and ventral hippocampus as the neuroanatomical sites receiving synaptic inputs of BLA neurons. Focusing on these regions, we then carried out stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction analysis after activating orexin receptors or MCH receptors of BLA neurons. Stereotaxic injection of an orexin receptor agonist or an MCH receptor agonist in the BLA induced c-Fos expression in the NAc, PVN, central amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral habenula and lateral hypothalamus, which are all potentially important for depression-related behaviors. Among these neural correlates, the NAc, PVN and central amygdala were strongly activated by stimulation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors in the BLA, whereas other BLA targets were differentially and weakly activated. These results identify a functional connectivity of BLA neurons regulated by orexin and MCH receptor systems in sociability and mood-related behaviors.


Subject(s)
Axons , Basolateral Nuclear Complex , Brain , Central Amygdaloid Nucleus , Depression , Extremities , Habenula , Hippocampus , Hypothalamic Area, Lateral , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Nucleus Accumbens , Orexin Receptors , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Pyramidal Cells , Up-Regulation
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 132-139, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741181

ABSTRACT

The effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on anxiety and depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) and naïve female rats were investigated. The animals were divided into Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham and OVX groups. Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility times in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were higher than in the Sham group. In the open field, the numbers of central crossings in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, and the number of peripheral crossings in the OVX group was lower than the number in the Sham group. In the elevated plus maze, the numbers of entries to the open arm among the animals in the Sham-TAM and OVX groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, while the number of entries to the open arm in the OVX-TAM group was higher than the number in the OVX group. It was shown that deletion of ovarian hormones induced anxiety and depression-like behavior. Administration of tamoxifen in naïve rats led to anxiety and depression-like behavior that was comparable with the effects of ovarian hormone deletion. It can be suggested that tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones. It also seems that tamoxifen has anxiolytic effects on ovariectomized rats.


Foram investigados os efeitos do tamoxifeno (TAM) no comportamento semelhante a ansiedade de depressão de ratas ooforectomizadas (OVX) e controles. Os animais foram divididos em Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham e OVX groups. Tamoxifeno (1 mg/kg) foi administrado por quatro semanas. No teste de natação forçada, os tempos de imobilidade nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram maiores que aqueles do grupo Sham. No campo aberto, os números de cruzamento no centro nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram menores que aquele do grupo Sham, e o número dos cruzamentos na periferia no grupo OVX foi menor que o número no grupo Sham. No labirinto elevado, os números de entradas com braços abertos entre os animais nos grupos Sham-TAM e OVX foram menores do que aqueles do grupo Sham, enquanto o número de entradas com os braços abertos no grupo OVX-TAM foi maior que aquele no grupo OVX. Foi observado que a deleção dos hormônios ovarianos induziu comportamento similar a ansiedade e depressão. A administração de tamoxifeno em ratos controle induziu a um comportamento que era comparável aos efeitos da deleção do hormônio ovariano. Pode ser sugerido que o tamoxifeno antagoniza os efeitos dos hormônios ovarianos. Parece também que o tamoxifeno tem efeito ansiolítico nas ratas ooforectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Dendrites/drug effects , Dendrites/metabolism , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects , Nucleus Accumbens/enzymology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65504

ABSTRACT

Sucrose and alcohol are rewarding and appetitive. They are occasionally over-consumed and cause addiction. The parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the second taste relay in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is an important neural substrate in the reward system. Intake of sucrose or alcohol induces dopamine release in the NAcc. Although alcohol is not classified as a taste stimulus, a substantial number of sucrose-responsive neurons in the PbN respond to stimulation by alcohol on the tongue. In the present study, we investigated whether or not application of 0.5 M sucrose, 10% ethanol (EtOH), mixture of sucrose and EtOH, and double-distilled water (DDW) to the tongue induces c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (cFLI) in the PbN and NAcc. We also examined whether or not the number of cFLI following sucrose/EtOH is comparable to the number of cFLIs following sucrose and EtOH, respectively. Male Sprague-Dwaley rat was anesthetized with a mixture of Zoletil and Rompun while stimulation solution was applied to the anterior tongue. The rat was sacrificed by perfusion, and the fixed brain was sectioned and immunostained. Data from a total of 18 animals were analyzed. The number of cFLI following stimulation with sucrose and/or EtOH was greater than that of DDW in the PbN. Numbers of cFLI following sucrose, EtOH, and sucrose/EtOH were not significantly different from each other in the PbN. The number of cFLI in response to stimulation solution was not different from that of DDW in the NAcc. The result of the present study suggests that not only sucrose but also EtOH activates some neurons in the PbN, and that some pontine neurons possibly respond to both sucrose and EtOH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Dopamine , Ethanol , Humans , Male , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Perfusion , Rats , Reward , Sucrose , Tongue , Water , Xylazine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727821

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of dopaminergic receptors (DR) in behavioral sensitization, as measured by locomotor activity, and the over-expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides after repeated administration of cocaine in mice. Repeated administrations of cocaine induced behavioral sensitization and CART over-expression in mice. The levels of striatal CART mRNA were significantly increased on the 3rd day. CART peptides were over-expressed on the 5th day in the striata of behaviorally sensitized mice. A higher proportion of CART+ cells in the cocaine-treated mice were present in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell than in the dorsolateral (DL) part of caudate putamen (CP). The concomitant administration of both D1R and D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (D1R selective) and raclopride (D2R selective), blocked cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression, and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) signal pathways. SCH 23390 more predominantly inhibited the locomotor activity, CART over-expression, pCREB and PKA activity than raclopride. Cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization was also attenuated in the both D1R and D2R knockout (KO) mice, respectively. CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways were inhibited in the D1R-KO mice, but not in the D2R-KO mice. It is suggested that behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways induced by repeated administration of cocaine could be more predominantly mediated by D1R.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Animals , Cocaine , Mice , Motor Activity , Nucleus Accumbens , Peptides , Phosphotransferases , Putamen , Raclopride , Receptors, Dopamine , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186082

ABSTRACT

Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by a combination of motor and vocal tics, often associated with psychiatric comorbidities including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite an onset early in life, half of patients may present symptoms in adulthood, with variable degrees of severity. In select cases, the syndrome may lead to significant physical and social impairment, and a worrisome risk for self injury. Evolving research has provided evidence supporting the idea that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is directly related to a disrupted circuit involving the cortex and subcortical structures, including the basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala. There has also been a notion that a dysfunctional group of neurons in the putamen contributes to an abnormal facilitation of competing motor responses in basal ganglia structures ultimately underpinning the generation of tics. Surgical therapies for Tourette syndrome have been reserved for a small group of patients not responding to behavioral and pharmacological therapies, and these therapies have been directed at modulating the underlying pathophysiology. Lesion therapy as well as deep brain stimulation has been observed to suppress tics in at least some of these cases. In this article, we will review the clinical aspects of Tourette syndrome, as well as the evolution of surgical approaches and we will discuss the evidence and clinical responses to deep brain stimulation in various brain targets. We will also discuss ongoing research and future directions as well as approaches for open, scheduled and closed loop feedback-driven electrical stimulation for the treatment of Tourette syndrome.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Comorbidity , Deep Brain Stimulation , Electric Stimulation , Humans , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Putamen , Tics , Tourette Syndrome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192178

ABSTRACT

Synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-250 in 'herbal incense' also called 'spice' were first introduced in many countries. Numerous synthetic cannabinoids with similar chemical structures emerged simultaneously and suddenly. Currently there are not sufficient data on their adverse effects including neurotoxicity. There are only anecdotal reports that suggest their toxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity of two synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-081 and JWH-210) through observation of various behavioral changes and analysis of histopathological changes using experimental mice with various doses (0.1, 1, 5 mg/kg). In functional observation battery (FOB) test, animals treated with 5 mg/kg of JWH-081 or JWH-210 showed traction and tremor. Their locomotor activities and rotarod retention time were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. However, no significant change was observed in learning or memory function. In histopathological analysis, neural cells of the animals treated with the high dose (5 mg/kg) of JWH-081 or JWH-210 showed distorted nuclei and nucleus membranes in the core shell of nucleus accumbens, suggesting neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that JWH-081 and JWH-210 may be neurotoxic substances through changing neuronal cell damages, especially in the core shell part of nucleus accumbens. To confirm our findings, further studies are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabinoids , Learning , Membranes , Memory , Mice , Motor Activity , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Traction , Tremor
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243435

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyse the relationship between the electrical activity changes of nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and the drug-seeking behavior by recording NAc shell electrical activity in conditioned place preference (CPP) rats induced by morphine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty SD rats were randomly divided into operation-only control group and the morphine-induced CPP group after stereotaxic electrode was buried on rats NAc shell and the latter group was used to establish the morphine CPP model(n = 20). A CPP video system combining with the technique of electrical activity wireless telemetry was used in the study. The NAc electrical activity from each group of rats was recorded by wireless telemetry respectively, which included staying in black or white chamber of video box, shuttling between black-white chambers and between white-black chambers. The electrical activity differences were analyzed by the percentage of each wave.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When the morphine-induced rats staying in black chamber, compared with the operation-only control group, the NAc shell electrical activity showed that the percentage of 0 - 10 Hz was increased(P < 0.05), meanwhile, those of 10 - 20 Hz and 30 - 40 Hz were reduced(P < 0.05, P < 0.01); when the morphine-induced rats staying in white chamber, the NAc shell electrical activity showed that the percentage of 0 - 10 Hz and 30 - 40 Hz were increased(P < 0.05 , P < 0.01) , that of 10 - 20 Hz was reduced(P < 0.05 , P < 0. 01); when the morphine-induced rats in black- white shuttling status, the NAc shell electrical activity showed that the percentage of 0 - 10 Hz was increased(P <0.05, P <0.01), that of 10- 30 Hz was reduced( P <0.05); and in the white-black shuttling status, the electrical activity showed that the percentage of 0 - 10 Hz was reduced(P <0.05), that of 10 - 30 Hz was increased(P < 0.05) ; the electrical activity was further compared between staying status and shuttling status in the morphine-induced CPP group. There was no significant difference of electrical activity between the rats in white-black shuttling status and staying in white chamber. However, when rats in black-white shuttling status, compared with staying in black chamber, the electrical activity showed that the percentage of 0 - 10 Hz and 40 - 50 Hz were increased(P < 0.05), meanwhile, those of 10 - 20 Hz and 30 - 40 Hz were reduced(P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The electrical activity changes of NAc shell in morphine-induced CPP rats were different from those of the operation-only control group, and these changes might be associated to the rat's drug-seeking behavior.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Conditioning, Psychological , Drug-Seeking Behavior , Morphine , Pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Telemetry
20.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 17(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729420

ABSTRACT

Obesity and its related pathologies are well- known health hazards. Although obesity and overweight have multifactorial causes, overeating is common in both of these conditions. According to animal models, endocannabinoids and their receptors in the brain play a key role in the genesis and development of obesity. It has been proposed that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 (RCB1) expressed in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAC) are involved in the increase of the hedonic properties of food. To test this hypothesis, this study aimed to assess the effects of activating the NACs RCB1 on standard food intake during the light phase of the light-dark cycle. The effects of activating the RCB1 with CP 55,940 and WIN 55-212-2 (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 nmol) in the NACS on feeding behavior and the behavioral satiety sequence of rats were assessed. It was found that both agonists increased food intake and delayed expression of satiety during the light phase. These results suggest that cannabinoid agonists encourage food intake when motivation is low and palatability is normal.


La obesidad y sus patologías relacionadas son riesgos de salud muy conocidos. Aunque la obesidad y el sobrepeso tienen causas multifactoriales, la sobreingesta de alimento es frecuente en estas condiciones. De acuerdo con modelos animales, los endocanabinoides y sus receptores en el cerebro juegan un papel clave en la génesis y desarrollo de la obesidad. Se ha propuesto que los receptores a canabinoides CB1 (RCB1) expresados en el núcleo accumbens shell (NAcS) están involucrados en el incremento de las propiedades hedónicas del alimento. Para probar esta hipótesis, este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos de la activación de los RCB1 en el NAcS sobre la ingesta de alimento estándar durante la fase de luz del ciclo luz-oscuridad. Se evaluaron los efectos de la activación de los RCB1 con WIN 55-212-2 y CP 55,940 (0.125, 0.25, y 0.5 nmol) en el NAcS sobre la conducta alimentaria y la secuencia de saciedad conductual en ratas. Se encontró que ambos agonistas aumentaron la ingesta de alimento y demoraron la expresión de la saciedad durante la fase de luz. Lo anterior sugiere que los agonistas canabinoides estimulan el consumo de alimento cuando la motivación por el mismo es baja y la palatabilidad es normal.


A obesidade e suas patologias relacionadas são riscos de saúde muito conhecidos. Ainda que a obesidade e o sobrepeso possuam causas multifatoriais, a sobre ingestão de alimento é frequente nestas condições. De acordo com modelos animais, os endocanabinóides e seus receptores no cérebro jogam um papel chave na gênese e desenvolvimento da obesidade. Foi proposto que os receptores a canabinóides CB1 (RCB1) expressos no núcleo accumbens shell (NAcS) estão envolvidos no aumento das propriedades hedônicas do alimento. Para testar esta hipótese, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da ativação dos RCB1 nos NAcS sobre a ingestão de alimento padrão durante a fase de luz do ciclo luz-escuridão. Avaliaram-se os efeitos da ativação dos RCB1 com WIN 55-212-2 e CP 55,940 (0.125, 0.25, e 0.5 nmol) no NAcS sobre a conduta alimentar e a sequência de saciedade condutual em ratos. Encontrou-se que ambos agonistas aumentaram a ingestão de alimento e demoraram a expressão da saciedade durante a fase de luz. Isso sugere que os agonistas canabinóides estimulam o consumo de alimento quando a motivação pelo mesmo é baixa e a palatabilidade é normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Satiation , Cannabinoids , Nucleus Accumbens
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