Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.380
Filter
1.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1367503

ABSTRACT

Em pacientes críticos o risco nutricional e a hiperglicemia associam-se ao aumento da incidência de desfechos desfavoráveis. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação do risco nutricional pelo Nutrition Risk in Critically III, versão modificada (mNUTRIC) e perfil glicêmico nos desfechos de alta, óbito e tempo de internação de pacientes críticos e verificar o impacto das ferramentas Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II (APACHE II) e do Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) nesses desfechos. Método: Estudo longitudinal prospectivo desenvolvido em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Foram incluídos adultos, com tempo ≥ 48 horas de internação e com registro mínimo de duas aferições glicêmicas. Excluíram-se pacientes em cuidados paliativos, readmitidos nas UTI e gestantes. O teste Exato de Fisher e Shapiro Wilk foram utilizados para avaliar as variáveis categóricas e contínuas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, utilizou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney ou t-Student não pareado. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística e linear. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Ao avaliar 35 pacientes, 45,7% apresentaram alto risco nutricional. Foi observado associação do risco nutricional com os desfechos de alta e óbito; o SOFA associou-se ao óbito e tempo de internação. O incremento de 1 ponto no escore do SOFA aumentou a chance de óbito em 83% e tempo maior de internação em 0,49 dias. O perfil glicêmico e APACHE II não se associou aos desfechos. Conclusão: o escore SOFA foi o instrumento que apresentou associações significativas com o desfecho do óbito e maior tempo de internação de pacientes críticos


In critically ill patients, nutritional risk and hyperglycemia are associated with an increased incidence of unfavorable outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the relationship of nutritional risk by the Nutrition Risk in Critically III, modified version (mNUTRIC) and glycemic profile in the outcomes of discharge, death and length of stay in critically ill patients and to verify the impact of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II (APACHE II) and the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) tools on these outcomes. Method: Prospective longitudinal study developed in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Adults were included, with ≥ 48 hours of hospitalization and with a minimum record of two blood glucose measurements. Patients in palliative care, readmitted to ICU and pregnant women were excluded. Fisher's Exact test and Shapiro Wilk test were used to evaluate categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Subsequently, the Mann-Whitney or unpaired t-Student test was used. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: When evaluating 35 patients, 45.7% were at high nutritional risk. An association was observed between nutritional risk and discharge and death outcomes; SOFA was associated with death and length of hospital stay. The increment of 1 point in the SOFA score increased the chance of death by 83% and a longer hospital stay by 0.49 days. Glycemic profile and APACHE II were not associated with outcomes. Conclusion: the SOFA score was the instrument that showed significant associations with the outcome of death and longer hospital stay in critically ill patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Blood Glucose , Malnutrition/mortality , Patient Acuity , Patient Discharge , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Longitudinal Studies , APACHE , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
3.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 26: 1-10, mar. 2021. tab, il
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282598

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as prevalências de comportamentos de saúdede brasileiros se-gundo a participação em programas públicos de estímulo à prática de atividade física.Para isso, foram utilizados dadosda Pesquisa Nacional da Saúde 2013, que entrevistou 60.202 adultos e idosos e investigou comportamentos de saúde protetores (consumo de feijão, peixe, carne sem excesso de gordura, frutas e hortaliças; e prática de atividade física) e de risco (consumo de refrigerante, doces e álcool; substituição de refeições; tabagismo e assistir televisão). Foram calculadas as prevalências e intervalos de confiança (95%). Cerca de 10% dos entrevistados participavam destesprogramas e pos-suíam comportamentos mais saudáveis (maiores prevalências de prática de atividade física e consumo de peixe; e menor ingestão de doces e tabagismo), quando comparados aos demais, com diferenças entre as macrorregiões do país. Desta forma, a expansão destes programas e a diversificação de suas atividades podem constituir importante estratégia de promoção da saúde no país


This study aimsto evaluate the prevalence of health behaviors of Brazilians according to their participation in public programs to encourage the practice of physical activity. For this, data ofNational Health Survey 2013 was used, who interviewed 60,202 adults and elderly and investigated protective health behaviors (consumption of beans, fish, meat without excess fat, fruits and vegetables; and physical activity) and risk (consumption of soda, sweets and alcohol; meal replacement; smoking and watching television). About 10% of Brazilians participated in these Programs and had healthier behaviors (higher prevalence of physical activity and fish consumption; and lower intake of sweets and smoking), when compared to the others, with differences between the country's macro-regions. This way, the expansion of these Programs and diversifica-tion of their activities can be an important health promotion strategy in the country


Subject(s)
Exercise , Nutrition Surveys , Health Surveys , Feeding Behavior , Life Style
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 13-27, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283240

ABSTRACT

To analyze the influence of individual and household factors on eating behavior (EB) and other determinants related to eating during the home lockdown in the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: Online survey (April 17 to May 10, 2020) to collect sociodemographic information, health, and various EB attitudes. Statistical analysis of the factors: country, setting, sex, BMI classification, lockdown period, a household with children under 15 years, nutritional needs, age groups, type and size household, monthly income, and religion. Results: 1055 households participated. 75% have modified their eating habits, with differences due to being overweight or obese in the person surveyed (p <0.05). Changes in EB and other lifestyles are influenced by household structure (p <0.001) and the effects that the pandemic has had on the economy of families (p <0.001). Compared to those who do not have them, households with children tend to plan much more meals, spend more time eating, seek a healthier diet, increase the number of daily meals, and look more at labeling. In contrast, people who live alone have worsened the hourly routines of the main meals. Conclusions: Confinement has modified eating behavior differently depending on the individual and domestic factors analyzed(AU)


Analizar la influencia de factores individuales y del hogar sobre el comportamiento alimentario (CA), y otros determinantes relacionados con la alimentación, durante el confinamiento domiciliario en la pandemia por Covid-19. Método: Encuesta online (17 abril al 10 de mayo de 2020) para recopilar información sociodemográfica, de salud y diversas actitudes del CA. Análisis estadístico sobre los factores: país, ámbito, sexo, IMC, tiempo de confinamiento, hogar con menores de 15 años, necesidades nutricionales, grupos de edad, tipo y tamaño del hogar, ingresos y religión. Resultados: Participaron 1055 hogares. El 75% ha modificado sus hábitos alimentarios, con diferencias por sobrepeso u obesidad de la persona encuestada (p<0.05). Los cambios en el CA y otros estilos de vida están influenciados por la estructura del hogar (p<0.001) y los efectos que la pandemia ha tenido sobre la economía de las familias (p<0.001). Los hogares que tienen hijos/as, respecto a los que no los tienen, tienden a planificar mucho más las comidas, dedicar más tiempo a la alimentación, procuran una alimentación más saludable, incrementan el número de comidas diarias y miran más el etiquetado. Por el contrario, las personas que viven solas han empeorado las rutinas horarias de las principales comidas. Conclusiones: El confinamiento ha modificado de manera diferenciada el comportamiento alimentario en función de los factores individuales y domésticos analizados(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Family , Quarantine , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19 , Housing , Life Style , Spain , Sex Factors , Nutrition Surveys , Eating , Nutritional Transition , Diet, Healthy
5.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(1): 20-26, Ene-Mar 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1283822

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la incorporación de la mujer a la planta productiva ha modificado los patrones de atención y cuidado de los hijos. Objetivo: determinar el efecto de la guardería en el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño. Metodología: diseño de cohorte antes y después en niños atendidos en guarderías; la fuente de información fue el expediente clínico que genera de manera cotidiana el personal encargado de la atención del niño. Grupo no expuesto: niños al ingresar a la guardería (43 días a 24 meses de edad); grupo expuesto: los mismos niños al salir de la guardería (31 meses a 48 meses de edad). La exposición incluyó programas de alimentación y pedagogía para estimular el desarrollo psicosocial, lingüístico, motriz y cognitivo. El tamaño de la muestra fue de 154 expedientes. Se realizó la valoración del estado nutricional (Organización Mundial de la Salud, peso para la talla) y de desarrollo psicosocial (Evaluación del Desarrollo del Niño), lingüístico, motriz y cognitivo. Se utilizaron t pareada, Wilcoxon y McNemar. Resultados: el estado nutricional no se modificó (p = 0.837). El desarrollo al egreso fue estadísticamente significativo en las áreas psicosocial (p = 0.000), lingüística (p = 0.000), motriz (p = 0.000) y cognitiva (p = 0.000). Conclusión: el niño atendido en guardería sometido a programas para el desarrollo tiene alta probabilidad de evolucionar de manera favorable en las áreas psicosocial, lingüística, motriz y cognitiva.


Introduction: The incorporation of women into the economcally active sector has changed the patterns of children development and childcare. Objective: Determine the impact that a childcare center may have on the growth and development of children. Methods: Before and after cohort design in childcare center, using the information gathered in the clinical file, by personnel in charge of watching the children. Unexposed group, children upon entering the childcare center (from 43 days to 24 months of age); exposed group, the same children after leaving the childcare center (from 31 months to 48 months of age). Intervention included feeding and pedagogical program to stimulate psychosocial, language, motor and cognitive development. The sample size was 154 files. Assessment of nutritional status (World Health Organization tables for weight for height) and psychosocial, language, motor and cognitive development (Child Development Assessment instrument) was performed.Paired t, Wilcoxon and McNemar were used. Results: Nutritional condition was not modified (p = 0.837). After visiting the childcare center, the development of children was statistically significant in the psychosocial (p = 0.000), language (p = 0.000), motor (p = 0.000) and cognitive (p = 0.000) areas. Conclusion: The children in childcare centers undergoing a program of development, evolve favorably in the psychoso-cial, language, motor, and cognitive areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Schools, Nursery , Child Development , Nutrition Surveys , Cohort Studies , Language Development
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00300020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339543

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This article aims to present general methodological aspects of the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019), from the conception of the study design to details of the data collection. This is a household-based population survey with a sample calculated at 15,000 households to identify children under five years of age, conducted in 123 municipalities in Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District. ENANI-2019 includes data on breastfeeding and dietary intake; anthropometric nutritional status of all children and their biological mothers; and nutritional status concerning the following micronutrients: iron (hemoglobin and ferritin), zinc, selenium, and vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, D, E, and folic acid of children from 6 to 59 months of age. A total of 193,212 households were visited, of which 19,951 were eligible, and 12,524 were included in the study. A total of 14,558 children were studied, of whom 13,990 (96.1%) and 13,921 (95.6%) had their body mass and length/stature measured, respectively, and 14,541 (99.9%) underwent 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Of the 12,598 children eligible for blood sample collection, 8,739 (69.3%) had at least one laboratory parameter measured. Data were collected from February 2019 to March 2020, when the survey was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The evidence produced by the ENANI-2019 survey can back the formulation, follow-up, and/or reorientation of food and nutrition policies such as the promotion of breastfeeding and healthy eating and the prevention and control of different forms of malnutrition.


Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar aspectos metodológicos gerais do Estudo Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição Infantil (ENANI-2019), desde a concepção do desenho da pesquisa até o detalhamento da coleta dos dados. Trata-se de um inquérito populacional de base domiciliar com amostra calculada de 15 mil domicílios para identificação de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade, realizado em 123 municípios dos 26 estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. O ENANI-2019 engloba dados de práticas de aleitamento materno e consumo alimentar; estado nutricional antropométrico das crianças e das mães biológicas; e estado nutricional para os seguintes micronutrientes: ferro (hemoglobina e ferritina), zinco, selênio e as vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D, E e folato das crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade. Foram visitados 193.212 domicílios, dos quais 19.951 eram elegíveis e 12.524 foram incluídos no estudo. Foram estudadas 14.558 crianças, sendo obtidas 13.990 (96,1%) e 13.921 (95,6%) medidas de massa corporal e comprimento/estatura, respectivamente; e realizados 14.541 (99,9%) recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas. Das 12.598 elegíveis para coleta de sangue, 8.739 (69,3%) tiveram pelo menos um parâmetro laboratorial avaliado. Os dados foram coletados de fevereiro de 2019 a março de 2020, quando a pesquisa foi interrompida devido à pandemia de COVID-19. As evidências produzidas pelo ENANI-2019 poderão subsidiar a formulação, o acompanhamento e/ou o redirecionamento de políticas de alimentação e nutrição, tais como as de promoção do aleitamento materno e da alimentação saudável e as de prevenção e controle de diferentes formas de má nutrição.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es presentar aspectos metodológicos generales del Estudio Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición Infantil (ENANI-2019) en Brasil, desde la concepción del diseño de la investigación, hasta el detalle de la recogida de datos. Se trata de una encuesta poblacional de base domiciliaria con una muestra calculada de 15.000 domicilios para la identificación de niños menores de cinco años de edad, realizado en 123 municipios de los 26 estados y en el Distrito Federal. El ENANI-2019 engloba datos de prácticas de lactancia materna y consumo alimentario; estado nutricional antropométrico de los niños y madres biológicas; así como el estado nutricional para los siguientes micronutrientes: hierro (hemoglobina y ferritina), zinc, selenio y vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D, E y ácido fólico en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad. Se visitaron 193.212 domicilios, de los cuales 19.951 eran elegibles y 12.524 se incluyeron en el estudio. Se estudiaron a 14.558 niños, obteniéndose 13.990 (96,1%) y 13.921 (95,6%) medidas de masa corporal y longitud/estatura, respectivamente; y se realizaron 14.541 (99,9%) recordatorios alimentarios de 24 horas. De las 12.598 muestras elegibles para recogida de sangre, 8.739 (69,3%) contaron con por lo menos un parámetro de laboratorio evaluado. Los datos se recogieron de febrero de 2019 a marzo de 2020, cuando se interrumpió la investigación, debido a la pandemia de COVID-19. Las evidencias producidas por el ENANI-2019 podrán apoyar la formulación, seguimiento y/o redirección de políticas de alimentación y nutrición, como las de promoción de la lactancia materna y alimentación saludable, así como las de prevención y control de diferentes formas de mala nutrición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Nutrition Surveys , Brazil , Nutritional Status , Data Collection , Diet
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 26, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess total usual nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements by age, sex, physical activity, and nutritional status, and to compare usual nutrient intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes among non-users and users of dietary supplements in an urban population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey with 506 adults conducted in the city of Brasília, Brazil, using 24h food recalls. The 24-HR was collected on two nonconsecutive days, for which individuals reported all food, supplements, and beverages consumed in the previous 24 hours. The estimates of mean and the distribution percentiles were adjusted to reflect usual nutrient intake using the Iowa State University method. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to sex using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and values above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were also considered. Also, a comparison was made of the total mean usual intake between supplement users and non-users according to BMI and physical activity. RESULTS: The total mean usual dietary intake was significantly higher among users than non-users of dietary supplements (p ≤ 0.02). Dietary supplement use increased intakes of nutrients and decreased prevalence of inadequacy according to sex, with only small (typically < 13%) increases in the population exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. There was a significant interaction between physical activity and BMI categories with supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: The population that consumes food supplements comprises individuals with more advanced age, female, normal BMI, and physically active. Our findings show that the use of supplements appears beneficial to attain nutrient adequacy. Careful monitoring of intake from food and supplements is recommended, and the statistical methods must be powerful enough to achieve relevant information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Urban Population , Brazil , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Requirements
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight among Mexican preschoolers. METHODS This study was conducted with anthropometric (weight, height/length), sociodemographic (age, gender, education level of household head, socioeconomic status, country region and area, ethnicity, and beneficiary of social programs), and dietary data (Semiquantitative-food frequency questionnaire) on children aged from 1 to 4 years collected from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Dietary patterns were derived by principal components analysis. The association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight was assessed by prevalence ratios (PR), estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS In total, 1,112 preschoolers (mean age 3.06 years, SD = 1.08 years; 48.8% females) were included in the study; 11.9% of whom presented stunting, and 6.7% overweight. We identified four dietary patterns: Fruits and Vegetables [F&V], Western [W], Traditional [T], and Milk and Liquids [M&L]. Considering the lowest tertile of each dietary pattern as reference, the prevalence of stunting was 2.04 times higher [95%CI: 1.17-3.56] among children in the highest tertile of the "F&V" pattern. The prevalence of stunting was lower among children in the highest tertile of the "W" pattern [PR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.27-0.85]. Overweight was negatively associated with the "F&V" dietary pattern [PR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.16-0.85 for its highest tertile], and children whose consumption was mostly equivalent to the "T" pattern showed higher prevalence of stunting [PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.01-3.00]. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of stunting and overweight in a nationwide sample of Mexican preschoolers was associated with dietary patterns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/etiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet
10.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 16, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152746

ABSTRACT

Abstract Backgrounds: It is important to improve our understanding of the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health for preventing osteoporosis. We aimed at exploring the associations between serum calcium, vitamin D level, and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 - 2006. Methods: Weighted multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of serum calcium, 25(OH)D level with total BMD. Smooth curve fitting was used to explore the potential non-linear relationship. Results: A total of 5990 individuals aged between 12 and 19 years were included in this study. The fully-adjusted model showed serum calcium positively correlated with total BMD. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship was found when we performed the smooth curve fitting method, and the inflection point was calculated at 9.6 mg/dL using the two-piecewise linear regression model. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and total BMD after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The present study revealed a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D level and total BMD, and an inverted U-shaped relationship between serum calcium and total BMD.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Vitamin D/analysis , Bone Density , Calcium/analysis , Linear Models , Nutrition Surveys , Multivariate Analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921354

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to determine the independent and joint associations of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among Chinese adults.@*Methods@#The study analyzed data from 4,865 adults aged ≥ 18 years who participated in the 2009 and 2015 China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS). Four types of leisure ST and three types of PA self-reported at baseline were collected. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine the independent and joint associations of ST and PA with the odds of MetS or its components.@*Results@#For independent effects, higher levels of television time and total leisure ST was associated with higher MetS risk [odds ratio ( @*Conclusions@#MVPA and total PA have independent preventive effects, and sedentary behavior (mainly watching TV) has an unsafe effect on MetS and its components. Strengthening the participation of MVPA and combining the LPA to replace the TV-based ST to increase the total PA may be necessary to reduce the prevalence of MetS in Chinese adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921344

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of the National Nutrition and Health Systematic Survey for children 0-17 years of age in China (CNHSC) was to collect basic data on the nutrition, development, and health status for children in different regions across China using evidence-based, reliable, and cost-effective approaches. Children and their parents or guardians from seven regions (south, southwest, north, northwest, eastern, central, and northeast China) in China were recruited. A multi-stage stratified randomized sampling method was used. Two provinces were randomly sampled from each of the seven regions, from which one urban district and one rural country were also randomly sampled, resulting in a total of 28 survey counties/districts. Dietary surveys, health examinations, laboratory testing, and questionnaires were used to collect dietary intake, nutritional status, child development, and health status information. Nutrition, health, and lifestyle assessment of children and their parents was determined using the Knowledge Attitude Practice (KAP) survey. Greater than 100,000 children (38,000 children < 6 years of age and 66,000 children 6-17 years of age) completed the survey. The survey provided comprehensive data on child nutrition and health status for future studies and will serve as the basis for an integrated nutrition and health improvement strategies proposal for children in China.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child Development , Child, Preschool , China , Health Status , Health Surveys , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nutrition Surveys
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887713

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was aimed at examining the trends and correlates of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors among Chinese children.@*Methods@#A total of 4,341 subjects (6,936 observations) aged 6-17 years who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004-2015) were included. Of the subjects, 41% participated in the survey twice or more. Random-effects ordinal regression models and repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to examine the PA trends. Quantile regression models were applied to examine the factors influencing PA and sedentary behaviors.@*Results@#From 2004 to 2015, the prevalence of physical inactivity among Chinese children aged 6-17 years increased by 5.5% [odds ratio ( @*Conclusions@#A declining PA trend among Chinese children aged 6-17 years was observed from 2004 to 2015, and certain subgroups and geographical areas are at higher risk of physical inactivity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child Behavior/ethnology , China/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Regression Analysis , Sedentary Behavior/ethnology
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1593-1601, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Non-communicable chronic diseases have become the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. The trends and burden of "metabolic associated fatty liver disease" (MAFLD) are unknown. We aimed to investigate the cardiovascular and renal burdens in adults with MAFLD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).@*METHODS@#Nationally representative data were analyzed including data from 19,617 non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years from the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey periods, 1999 to 2002, 2003 to 2006, 2007 to 2010, and 2011 to 2016. MAFLD was defined by the presence of hepatic steatosis plus general overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of MAFLD increased from 28.4% (95% confidence interval 26.3-30.6) in 1999 to 2002 to 35.8% (33.8-37.9) in 2011 to 2016. In 2011 to 2016, among adults with MAFLD, 49.0% (45.8-52.2) had hypertension, 57.8% (55.2-60.4) had dyslipidemia, 26.4% (23.9-28.9) had diabetes mellitus, 88.7% (87.0-80.1) had central obesity, and 18.5% (16.3-20.8) were current smokers. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 10.5% to 13.1%; 19.7% (17.6-21.9) had chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Through the four periods, adults with MAFLD showed an increase in obesity; increase in treatment to lower blood pressure (BP), lipids, and hemoglobin A1c; and increase in goal achievements for BP and lipids but not in goal achievement for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Patients showed a decreasing 10-year cardiovascular risk over time but no change in the prevalence of CKDs, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Generally, although participants with NAFLD and those with MAFLD had a comparable prevalence of cardiovascular disease and CKD, the prevalence of MAFLD was significantly higher than that of NAFLD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#From 1999 to 2016, cardiovascular and renal risks and diseases have become highly prevalent in adults with MAFLD. The absolute cardiorenal burden may be greater for MAFLD than for NAFLD. These data call for early identification and risk stratification of MAFLD and close collaboration between endocrinologists and hepatologists.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875754

ABSTRACT

@#Background: The low detection rate of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Malaysia remains a challenge in the effort to end TB by 2030. The collaboration between private and public health care facilities is essential in addressing this issue. As of now, no private-public health care collaborative program in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) screening exists in Malaysia. Aim: To determine the feasibility of a collaborative program between private general practitioners (GPs) and the public primary health clinics in PTB screening and to assess the yield of smearpositive PTB from this program. Methods: A prospective cohort study using convenient sampling was conducted involving GPs and public health clinics in the North-East District, Penang, from March 2018 to May 2019. In this study, GPs could direct all suspected PTB patients to perform a sputum acid fast bacilli (AFB) direct smear in any of the dedicated public primary health clinics. The satisfaction level of both the GPs and their patients were assessed using a self-administered client satisfaction questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistical Software was used to analyze the data. Results: Out of a total of 31 patients who underwent the sputum investigation for PTB, one (3.2%) was diagnosed to have smear-positive PTB. Most of the patients (>90%) and GPs (66.7%) agreed to continue with this program in the future. Furthermore, most of the patients (>90%) were satisfied with the program structure. Conclusion: It is potentially feasible to involve GPs in combating TB. However, a more structured program addressing the identified issues is needed to make the collaborative program a success.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Malaysia , Adult , Nutrition Surveys
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Little is known about the effects of environmental cobalt exposure on insulin resistance (IR) in the general adult population. We investigated the association between cobalt concentration and IR.@*METHODS@#A total of 1281 subjects aged more than 20 years with complete blood cobalt data were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2015-2016 cycle. Blood cobalt levels were analyzed for their association with IR among all populations and subgroups by sex. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of blood cobalt concentrations in association with fasting glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were estimated using multivariate linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, education level, and household income. A multivariate generalized linear regression analysis was further carried out to explore the association between cobalt exposure and IR.@*RESULTS@#A negative association between blood cobalt concentration (coefficient = - 0.125, 95% CI - 0.234, - 0.015; P = 0.026) and HOMA-IR in female adults in the age- and sex-adjusted model was observed. However, no associations with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin were found in the overall population. In the generalized linear models, participants with the lowest cobalt levels had a 2.74% (95% CI 0.04%, 5.50%) increase in HOMA-IR (P for trend = 0.031) compared with subjects with the highest cobalt levels. Restricted cubic spline regression suggested that a non-linear relationship may exist between blood cobalt and HOMA-IR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results provide epidemiological evidence that low levels of blood cobalt are negatively associated with HOMA-IR in female adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cobalt/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 781-792, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, and it is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The classic symptoms of the disease have been well defined by the World Health Organization; however, olfactory/gustatory disorders have been reported in some studies, but there are still several missing points in the understanding and in the consensus about the clinical management of these cases. Objective: To identify evidence in the scientific literature about olfactory/gustatory disorders, their clinical presentation, prevalence and possible specific treatments associated with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to April 25, 2020 was performed in Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine and Reasearch Gate. Inclusion criteria: (1) Studies on patients with COVID-19; (2) Records of COVID-19 signs/symptoms, and olfactory/gustatory functions. Exclusion criteria: (1) Studies on non-human coronavirus; (2) Review articles; (3) Experimental studies (in animals or in vitro); (4) Olfactory/gustatory disorders initiated prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk assessment of bias of the selected studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: Six articles from the 1788 records met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 1457 patients of different ethnicities were assessed; of them, 885 (60.7%) and 822 (56.4%) had smell and taste disorders, respectively, with women being most often affected. There were olfactory/gustatory disorders even without nasal obstruction/rhinorrhea and beginning even before the signs/symptoms of COVID-19; the recovery of smell/taste, when it occurs, usually happened in the first two weeks after COVID-19 resolution. There is evidence that olfactory/gustatory disorders are strong predictors of infection by SARS-CoV-2, and it is possible to recommend patient isolation, as early as of the medical consultation, preventing the spread of the virus. No scientific evidence has been identified for effective treatments for any of the disorders. Conclusion: Olfactory/gustatory disorders may occur at varying intensities and prior to the general symptoms of COVID-19 and should be considered as part of the clinical features of COVID-19, even in mild cases. There is still no scientific evidence of specific treatments for such disorders in COVID-19 disease.


Resumo Introdução: O vírus SARS-CoV-2 causa a COVID-19 e é responsável pela maior pandemia desde o surto de influenza H1N1 de 1918. Os sintomas clássicos da doença já foram bem definidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde; entretanto, distúrbios olfativo-gustativos têm sido relatados em alguns estudos, mas ainda com várias lacunas no entendimento e no consenso sobre a condução clínica desses casos. Objetivo: Identificar evidências na literatura científica sobre os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos acerca da apresentação clínica, prevalência e possíveis tratamentos específicos associados à COVID-19. Método: Revisão sistemática de artigos publicados até 25 de abril de 2020 nas bases de dados: Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus e Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine e Research Gate. Foram critérios de inclusão: 1) Estudos com indivíduos com COVID-19; 2) Registro dos sinais/sintomas da COVID-19 e das funções olfativo-gustativa. Foram critérios de exclusão: 1) Estudos sobre coronavírus não humano; 2) Artigos de revisão; 3) Estudos experimentais (em animais ou in vitro); 4) Distúrbios olfativos-gustativos iniciados previamente à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. A avaliação de risco de viés dos estudos selecionados foi feita por meio da escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Seis artigos dos 1.788 registros foram selecionados. Um total de 1.457 pacientes de diversas etnias foi avaliado; desses, 885 (60,7%) apresentaram perda do olfato e 822 (56,4%) perda do paladar, sendo as mulheres as mais afetadas. Os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos estiveram presentes mesmo sem obstrução nasal/rinorreia e com início mesmo antes dos sinais/sintomas clínicos da COVID-19; a recuperação do olfato/paladar, quando ocorre, geralmente se dá nas duas primeiras semanas após a resolução da doença. Há evidências de que os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos sejam fortes preditores de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, podendo-se recomendar o isolamento do paciente, já a partir da consulta médica, para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Não foram identificadas evidências científicas para tratamentos eficazes para qualquer dos distúrbios. Conclusão: Podem ocorrer distúrbios olfativo-gustativos em intensidades variáveis e prévios aos sintomas gerais da COVID-19, devem ser considerados como parte dos sintomas da doença, mesmo em quadros leves. Não há ainda evidências científicas de tratamentos específicos para tais distúrbios na COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Betacoronavirus
19.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e2039, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144553

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los hábitos alimentarios no saludables potencian las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen las primeras causas de muerte en Cuba. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de una intervención nutricional sobre los cambios en los conocimientos de alimentación-nutrición y hábitos alimentarios en adolescentes. Métodos: Se realizó una intervención nutricional participativa con adolescentes de 12-15 años del municipio Habana Vieja, durante sus tres años curriculares. De los 604 adolescentes que comenzaron el estudio 155 formaron los grupos promotores que lideraron las actividades realizadas. Se aplicaron encuestas de conocimientos, consumo y hábitos alimentarios antes y después de la intervención. Para comparar la puntuación alcanzada se utilizó la prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas. Para la comparación entre escuelas se utilizó análisis de la varianza simple y para comparar los porcentajes de respuestas correctas de las preguntas de conocimientos, consumo de hortalizas y azúcar antes y después de la prueba de estimación de diferencias entre proporciones. Se definió como umbral de significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: Los grupos promotores mostraron aumentos significativos de los conocimientos (p < 0,001). Se encontraron diferencias entre escuelas para los grupos promotores (p < 0,001) y para el resto de los estudiantes (p = 0,024). Decreció el azúcar añadido a los refrescos para los grupos promotores (p < 0,001) y a la leche para todos los adolescentes (p = 0,002). No hubo cambios en el hábito de desayunar, en el gusto por alimentos fritos, ni en el consumo de refrescos, frituras, dulces y pizzas. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones de educación nutricional son necesarias para alcanzar patrones dietéticos más saludables y de esta manera contribuir a detener la epidemia de enfermedades no transmisibles, además permiten que los adolescentes tengan un acercamiento al tema alimentación-nutrición(AU)


Introduction: Non-healthy food habits boost chronic diseases that represent the main death causes in Cuba. Objectives: To assess the effects of a nutritional intervention on the changes in the knowledge of diet-nutrition and food habits of adolescents. Methods: It was carried out a participative nutritional intervention with adolescents from 12 to 15 years from Habana Vieja municipality during their 3 middle school years. From 604 adolescents that started the study, 155 formed the promoter groups which leadered the activities implemented. There were applied knowledge surveys on food consumption and habits before and after the intervention. For comparing the scores, it was used t-Student test for paired samples. It was used the analysis of simple variance for comparing among schools and the percentages of right answers in the knowledge questions, intake of vegetables and sugar before and after of the test for the estimation of differences among proportions. It was defined p<0,05 as the threshold of statistical signification. Results: The promoter groups showed significative increase of knowledge (p<0,001). There were found differences among schools for promoter groups (p<0,001) and for the rest of the students (p<0,024). In the promoter groups decreased the intake of sugar added to soft drinks (p<0,001) and to milk for all the adolescents studied (p<0,002). There were no changes in breakfast habits, liking fried food, or the consumption of soft drinks, fritters, sweets and pizzas. Conclusions: Nutritional education interventions are needed to reach healthier diet patterns and in this way contributing to stop the epidemic of non-communicable diseases; in addition, they allow adolescents to have an approach to food-nutrition topic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Food and Nutrition Education , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Feeding Behavior , Cuba
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL