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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 11-15, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280081

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Balanced nutrition is very important for athletes' health and competition performance, and balanced nutrition has become a hot topic in the sports industry. In this study, 30s anaerobic work test and maximal oxygen uptake test were used to test anaerobic exercise ability and aerobic exercise ability, respectively. Four groups were set up in the two test methods, and the corresponding functional test indexes, heart rate recovery index and blood lactic acid recovery value were determined. The anaerobic capacity test showed that the maximum power of male athletes in the experimental group had significant statistical difference before and after dietary balance management, and the fatigue index of female athletes in the experimental group had a significant downward trend. Five minutes and nine minutes after exercise, the blood lactic acid value of males in the experimental group was lower than before balanced nutrition. The aerobic capacity test showed that the exhaustion time of male athletes in the experimental group was significantly different before and after balanced nutrition. After the balanced nutrition, the blood lactic acid value of male athletes in the experimental group was lower than before the management immediately and nine minutes after exercise, and the heart rate value of the male athletes in the experimental group was far lower than before the management.


RESUMO Uma alimentação balanceada é muito importante para a saúde e o desempenho dos atletas em competições, tendo se tornado um tema bastante debatido no setor esportivo. Neste estudo, foram utilizados testes anaeróbios de 30 segundos e o teste captação máxima de oxigênio para testar a capacidade de exercício anaeróbio e a capacidade de exercício aeróbio, respectivamente. Foram criados quatro grupos nos dois métodos de teste, e foram determinados os índices de teste funcional, o índice de recuperação da frequência cardíaca e o valor de recuperação do ácido láctico no sangue. O teste de capacidade anaeróbia mostrou que a potência máxima dos atletas masculinos do grupo experimental apresentava diferença estatística significativa antes e depois da administração de alimentação balanceada, e o índice de fadiga dos atletas do grupo experimental apresentava uma tendência descendente significativa Cinco minutos e nove minutos após o exercício, o valor do ácido láctico no sangue dos homens do grupo experimental mostrou-se inferior ao valor anterior à alimentação balanceada. O teste de capacidade aeróbica mostrou que o tempo de esgotamento dos atletas masculinos no grupo experimental mostrou-se significativamente diferente antes e depois da administração de alimentação balanceada. Após a administração de alimentação balanceada, o valor do ácido láctico no sangue dos atletas masculinos no grupo experimental foi menor do que aquele antes da administração de alimentação balanceada imediatamente e nove minutos após o exercício, e o valor da frequência cardíaca dos atletas masculinos no grupo experimental foi muito menor do que o valor anterior à administração de alimentação balanceada.


RESUMEN Una alimentación balanceada es muy importante para la salud y el desempeño de los atletas en competencias, habiéndose vuelto un tema bastante debatido en el sector deportivo. En este estudio, fueron utilizados tests anaeróbicos de 30 segundos y el test de captación máxima de oxígeno para verificar la capacidad de ejercicio anaeróbico y la capacidad de ejercicio aeróbico, respectivamente. Fueron creados cuatro grupos en los dos métodos de test, y fueron determinados los índices de test funcional, el índice de recuperación de la frecuencia cardíaca y el valor de recuperación del ácido láctico en la sangre. El test de capacidad anaeróbica mostró que la potencia máxima de los atletas masculinos del grupo experimental presentaba diferencia estadística significativa antes y después de la administración de alimentación balanceada, y el índice de fatiga de los atletas del grupo experimental presentaba una tendencia descendente significativa Cinco minutos y nueve minutos después del ejercicio, el valor del ácido láctico en la sangre de los hombres del grupo experimental se mostró inferior al valor anterior a la alimentación balanceada. El test de capacidad aeróbica mostró que el tiempo de agotamiento de los atletas masculinos en el grupo experimental se mostró significativamente diferente antes y después de la administración de alimentación balanceada. Después de la administración de alimentación balanceada, el valor del ácido láctico en la sangre de los atletas masculinos en el grupo experimental fue menor que aquel antes de la administración de alimentación balanceada inmediatamente y nueve minutos después del ejercicio, y el valor de la frecuencia cardíaca de los atletas masculinos en el grupo experimental fue mucho menor que el valor anterior a la administración de alimentación balanceada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Exercise/physiology , Athletes , Diet, Healthy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Nutritional Requirements , Lactic Acid/blood
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 26, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess total usual nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements by age, sex, physical activity, and nutritional status, and to compare usual nutrient intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes among non-users and users of dietary supplements in an urban population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey with 506 adults conducted in the city of Brasília, Brazil, using 24h food recalls. The 24-HR was collected on two nonconsecutive days, for which individuals reported all food, supplements, and beverages consumed in the previous 24 hours. The estimates of mean and the distribution percentiles were adjusted to reflect usual nutrient intake using the Iowa State University method. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to sex using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and values above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were also considered. Also, a comparison was made of the total mean usual intake between supplement users and non-users according to BMI and physical activity. RESULTS: The total mean usual dietary intake was significantly higher among users than non-users of dietary supplements (p ≤ 0.02). Dietary supplement use increased intakes of nutrients and decreased prevalence of inadequacy according to sex, with only small (typically < 13%) increases in the population exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. There was a significant interaction between physical activity and BMI categories with supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: The population that consumes food supplements comprises individuals with more advanced age, female, normal BMI, and physically active. Our findings show that the use of supplements appears beneficial to attain nutrient adequacy. Careful monitoring of intake from food and supplements is recommended, and the statistical methods must be powerful enough to achieve relevant information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Urban Population , Brazil , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Requirements
3.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 83-90, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253061

ABSTRACT

La lactancia materna juega un papel fundamental en el niño recién nacido (desde una mirada interdisciplinar, en cuanto a lo nutricional, lo psicoemocional, e incluso a nivel de las estructuras craneofaciales) tanto en el crecimiento como en el desarrollo. La leche materna es el primer alimento natural de los niños, proporciona toda la energía y los nutrientes que necesitan durante sus primeros meses de vida y sigue aportándoles, al menos, la mitad de sus necesidades nutricionales durante la segunda mitad del primer año y hasta un tercio durante el segundo año de vida. Este trabajo tiene como objetivos una revisión bibliográfica sobre los beneficios que tiene la leche materna para el/la bebe recién nacido y la importancia que tiene el amamantamiento del/la bebe a nivel psicológico, médico y, sobre todo, odontológico (AU)


Breastfeeding plays a fundamental role in the newborn child, both in growth and development from an interdisciplinary perspective, in the nutritional, psycho-emotional, in addition to the level of the craniofacial structures. Breast milk is the first natural food for children, provides all the energy and nutrients they need during their first months of life and continues to provide at least half of their nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to a third during the second year of life. This work aims at a bibliographic review on the benefits of breast milk in the newborn baby and the importance of breastfeeding the baby on a psychological, medical and especially dental level (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Infant, Newborn , Infant Nutrition , Milk, Human , Dental Occlusion , Growth and Development , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Nutritional Requirements
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 215-234, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1223726

ABSTRACT

El impacto de la pandemia causada por el COVID-19 puede profundizar las situaciones de malnutrición, donde será necesario adaptar los programas alimentarios a este nuevo contexto. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar la metodología y los principales resultados del proceso de formulación de una guía federal basada en la evidencia científica y adaptada a la realidad de la población infanto-juvenil que asiste a los comedores escolares de las 24 jurisdicciones de Argentina. Se observó que las modalidades de implementación de CE durante la pandemia fueron: módulos alimentarios (la más frecuente); módulos alimentarios entregados en la escuela con sostenimiento del CE regular y, viandas y/o refrigerios entregados diariamente. Existió escasa evidencia a nivel global y regional sobre recomendaciones específicas aplicadas a la implementación de CE, aunque se encontraron recomendaciones sobre higiene y manipulación de alimentos. A partir de un proceso participativo entre actores claves se obtuvieron recomendaciones específicas según las dimensiones de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional (SAN). Se concluye que resulta necesario aumentar las experiencias participativas en el diseño de recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia, adaptadas al territorio y que asuman un enfoque integral desde las dimensiones de la SAN(AU)


The impact of the pandemic caused by COVID-19 may deepen the situations of malnutrition, where it will be necessary to adapt food programs to this new context. The objective of this work was to present the methodology and the main results of the process of formulating a federal guide based on scientific evidence and adapted to the reality of the child and adolescent population that attend school canteens in the 24 jurisdictions of Argentina. It was observed that the modalities for the implementation of SC during the pandemic were: food modules (the most frequent); food modules delivered at school with regular SC support and, food and/or snacks delivered daily. There was little evidence at the global and regional level on specific recommendations applied to the implementation of SC, although recommendations on hygiene and food handling were found. Based on a participatory process among key actors, specific recommendations were obtained according to the dimensions of food and nutrition security (FNS). It is concluded that it is necessary to increase participatory experiences in the design of recommendations based on evidence, adapted to the territory and that assume a comprehensive approach from the dimensions of FNS(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Coronavirus Infections , Child Nutrition , Adolescent Nutrition , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Nutritional Requirements , Relief Work , Nutrition Programs and Policies , Malnutrition , Food Guide , Pandemics
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 484-492, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126148

ABSTRACT

El sistema de porciones de intercambio es una metodología sencilla y rápida que se utiliza para entregar indicaciones alimentarias a usuarios sanos y con patologías. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar conceptos y evaluar la vigencia de su uso y sus aplicaciones. El sistema es ampliamente usado en diferentes países, incluyendo Chile, existiendo distintos tipos de listas de alimentos y preparaciones según la metodología de la definición de las porciones, o bien según diversidad y número de alimentos presentes. Su uso es mayormente con fines asistenciales, siendo también útil en educación comunitaria y docencia. En Chile, los listados de porciones intercambiables fueron publicados el año 1999 y no se han actualizado hasta la fecha. Razones como el cambio en el perfil epidemiológico, mayor acceso a la información y la diversificación de alimentos en la dieta, hace necesario una revisión in extenso de los listados nacionales, con el fin de incorporar mayor diversidad de alimentos y preparaciones típicas a tan masiva y necesaria herramienta técnica, que es fundamental para el profesional Nutricionista y un aporte a la salud y a la cultura de los países.


The food portion exchange list is a simple and fast methodology that is used to give dietary indications to healthy and sick users. A review was carried out to update concepts and evaluate the current state of the exchange list used and their application. The system is widely used in different countries, including Chile, there are different types of foods or preparations exchange lists that use different methodologies for the definition of portions, according to the diversity and number of foods present. Its use is mainly for healthcare purposes, being also useful in community education and college teaching. In Chile, the food portion exchange lists were published in 1999 and have not been updated since. Reasons such as the change in the epidemiological profile, greater access to information and the diversification of foods in the diet, make necessary an in-depth review of the national lists, in order to incorporate a greater diversity of foods and typical preparations. Exchange lists are a necessary technical tool fundamental for nutrition professionals and contribute to the health and culture of countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Food/classification , Food Analysis/methods , Menu Planning/methods , Food and Nutrition Education , Chile , Global Health , Patient Education as Topic , Nutritional Requirements
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(3): 160-164, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098857

ABSTRACT

Abstract Long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, have been linked to human health in all stages of life, from fetal development to aging. These PUFAs act as precursors for various metabolites involved in the prevention of certain diseases. The recognizable effects of these supplements prior to pregnancy (oocyte maturation), during pregnancy (improvement in the risk of premature delivery, among others) and in the offspring (in terms of cognitive function and the approach to neurodevelopmental disorders) are described in the present narrative review. We concluded that the diffusion of these supplements may improve the prognosis of these patients in a simple, effective way, and with high safety rates.


Resumo Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (AGPIs) ômega-3 (n-3) de cadeia longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenoico e docosa-hexaenoico, têm sido associados à saúde humana em todas as etapas da vida, do desenvolvimento fetal ao envelhecimento. Esses AGPIs atuam como precursores de vários metabólitos envolvidos na prevenção de algumas doenças. Os efeitos reconhecíveis desses suplementos antes da gravidez (maturação dos oócitos), durante a gravidez (melhora do risco de parto prematuro, entre outros) e nos descendentes (em termos de função cognitiva e abordagem dos distúrbios do neurodesenvolvimento) são apresentados nesta revisão narrativa. Concluiu-se que a difusão desses suplementos pode melhorar o prognóstico desses pacientes de maneira simples, eficaz, e com altas taxas de segurança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Breast Feeding , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Nutritional Requirements
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 20-29, marz. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129592

ABSTRACT

La inseguridad alimentaria (IA) y hambre afectan a 820 millones de personas en el mundo, 187 millones en América Latina y el Caribe, 18,5 millones en Latinoamérica con más severas crisis humanitarias y a más de la mitad de la población en Colombia. En niños y adolescentes la IA ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia, en parte por ausencia de instrumentos válidos y confiables. El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la validez y confiabilidad de escalas que miden la IA y las estrategias de afrontamiento (EA) ante la falta de alimentos en niños y adolescentes. Estudio transversal (n=4051) realizado en Medellín-Colombia que midió la IA (10 ítemes) y EA (9 ítemes) con instrumentos desarrollados previamente. Se utilizó SPSS v21 para realizar análisis de componentes principales (ACP), validez y confiabilidad. Siete de cada 10 niños se preocupan por la falta de alimentos. El ACP de instrumento IA arrojó dos componentes: 1. cantidad, calidad y preocupación; 2. episodios de hambre, que explican 57 % de varianza. El ACP de las EA explica 43 % de varianza. Los instrumentos de IA y EA poseen una buena confiabilidad (α-Cronbach's de 0,78 y 0,82). El instrumento de IA se validó comparándolo con la talla para la edad, que arrojó una asociación inversa y significativa entre baja talla y la seguridad alimentaria. Esta investigación es la primera en evidenciar que la problemática de IA está presente en los niños y adolescentes de Medellín. Los instrumentos de IA y EA utilizados resultaron ser altamente válidos y confiables(AU)


Food insecurity (FI) and hunger affected 820 million people in the world, 187 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 18.5 million in Latin America lived the worst severe food crises, and more than half of the Colombian population live with FI. FI in children and adolescents has been little measure, partly due to absence of valid and reliable instruments in Colombia. The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the FI and coping strategies (CS) tools in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study (n = 4051) carried out in Medellín-Colombia. A 10-ítemes scale is used to measure FI and 9-ítemes scale capture the CS. SPSS v21 program was used to analyze data. Principal component analysis (PCA), validity and reliability were applied. Seven out of 10 children mentioned they were worry for FI. PCA showed two main components of FI: 1. Related with quantity, quality and worry about food; 2. Hunger episodes, that explain 57% of variance. PCA of the CS scale resulted in one component that explains 43% of variance. FI and CS instruments resulted in good reliability (α-Cronbach 0.78; 0.82). FI instrument was validated by comparing it with height-for-age indicator, which showed an association between stunting (low height-for-age) and food insecurity. This study is the first to show that children and adolescents living in Medellín are facing FI and CS. The FI and CS scales used were found to be highly valid and reliable(AU)


Subject(s)
Eating , Hunger , Famine, Occult , Nutritional Requirements , Deficiency Diseases , Malnutrition , Severe Acute Malnutrition
8.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(1): e1150, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126819

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El balance energético equilibrado en el organismo humano permite mantener un estado nutricional y de salud adecuado, ingestas excesivas o por defecto modifican la homeostasis y producen enfermedades. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre balance energético y estado nutricional en niños de instituciones educativas del distrito de Huanchaco, departamento La Libertad, Perú. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo de corte transversal en 203 niños de 3 a 5 años en el periodo abril-junio 2014. Se evaluó el estado nutricional con los índices talla/edad, peso/edad, peso/talla usando estándares de crecimiento infantil de la Organización Mundial de la Salud 2006. El balance energético se midió con la adecuación de energía ingerida respecto a su requerimiento energético estimado, expresado en porcentaje. Se aplicó la prueba estadística Chi-cuadrado con un nivel de significancia de 5 por ciento. Resultados: Los índices para evaluar el estado nutricional fueron predominante normales. El balance energético para niños y niñas de 3 años fue 123,75 ± 46,97 por ciento y 125,82 ± 13,01 por ciento de su requerimiento respectivamente; en niños y niñas de 4 años fue de 109,90 ± 23,17 por ciento y 104,69 ± 20,96 por ciento, respectivamente y finalmente en niños de 5 años fue 105,15 ± 24,97 por ciento y en las niñas un balance energético negativo de 86,39 ± 11,99 por ciento. Existe asociación altamente significativa (p < 0,01) entre estado nutricional y balance energético. Conclusiones: El balance energético con tendencia positiva predispone hacia la obesidad para los índices peso/talla y peso/edad y el equilibrado o positivo condicionan un estado nutricional normal según talla/edad(AU)


Introduction: The balanced energy state in the human body allows maintaining a nutritional and health status; excessive or small intakes of food modify the homeostasis and produce diseases. Objective: To determine the association between energy balance and nutritional state in children from educational institutions of Huanchaco District, La Libertad, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out in 203 children from 3 to 5 years old in the period from April to June 2014. It was assessed the nutritional state with the indexes height/age, weight/age, weight/height using child growth standards of the World Health Organization 2006. The energy balance was measured with the adequacy of energy intake in relation to their estimated energy requirement, expressed as a percentage. Chi-square statistical test was applied with a significance level of 5 percent . Results: The indexes to assess the nutritional state were predominantly normal. The energy balance for boys and girls of 3 years old was 123.75 ± 46.97 percent and 125.82 ± 13.01 percent of their requirement respectively; in children of 4 years old it was 109.90 ± 23.17 percent and 104.69 ± 20.96 percent, respectively; and finally in 5 years old boys it was 105.15 ± 24.97 percent and in girls a negative energy balance of 86.39 ± 11.99 percent. There is a highly significant association (p< 0.01) between the nutritional state and the energy balance. Conclusions: The energy balance with positive trend predisposes toward obesity for the indexes weight/height and weight/age, and the balanced or positive condition to a normal nutritional state according to height/age(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Chi-Square Distribution , Nutritional Status/physiology , Nutritional Requirements , Peru , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Evaluation Studies as Topic
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAE4799, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090073

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Brazilian Consensus on Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Graft- versus -host disease was approved by Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea , with the participation of 26 Brazilian hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers. It describes the main nutritional protocols in cases of Graft- versus -host disease, the main complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


RESUMO O Consenso Brasileiro de Nutrição no Transplante de Células Tronco Hematopoiéticas: doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro foi aprovado pela Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea, com a participação de 26 centros brasileiros de transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas. O Consenso descreve as principais condutas nutricionais em casos de doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro, a principal complicação do transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas.


Subject(s)
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Nutrition Therapy/standards , Graft vs Host Disease/diet therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Nutritional Requirements , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Congresses as Topic , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diet therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Graft vs Host Disease/physiopathology
10.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 36(2): 63-78, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140290

ABSTRACT

La importancia de la nutrición en modificar el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica (ECVA) se ha enfatizado repetidas veces. Históricamente, el papel de los componentes dietarios ha sido el foco predominante; sin embargo, los alimentos, típicamente, se consumen en combinación más que aisladamente. En los últimos años, se ha puesto una mayor atención a los patrones dietarios y su relación con eventos clínicos del tipo de la ECVA, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y obesidad; paradójicamente, existe una brecha en la educación nutricional en las escuelas de medicina de todo el mundo. Por lo general, una dieta no saludable está asociada con alteraciones cardiometabólicas, una condición clínica que, gradualmente, puede empeorar y conducir a diversos factores comunes de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas, a mayor morbilidad y mortalidad y menoscabo en la calidad de vida. El público en general debe satisfacer la cantidad de calorías requeridas con una variedad de alimentos densos en nutrientes que abarquen todos los grupos de alimentos para mantener la salud a largo plazo. El estilo de patrones saludables de comer varía individualmente y frecuentemente refleja las preferencias culturales y personales. Una alimentación no saludable puede causar una elevación de la producción posprandial de insulina e hipersecreción crónica de insulina e hiperinsulinemia, lo cual promueve la acumulación de grasa, previene la lipólisis y causa incremento en el riesgo de desarrollar ECVA, obesidad y diabetes tipo(AU)


The importance of nutrition in modifying the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) has been repeatedly emphasized. Historically, the role of dietary components has been the predominant focus; however, foods are typically consumed in combinations rather than individually. Over the last few years, increasing attention has been given to dietary patterns and their relationship to clinical events such as ACVD, type 2 diabetes and obesity; paradoxically, there is a gap in nutrition education in medical school around the globe. An unhealthy diet is usually associated with cardiometabolic alterations, a clinical situation that can progressively worse, potentially leading to various common risk factors, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. People should aim to fulfill their recommended calorie intake with a variety of nutrient-dense foods that span all food groups to boost long-term health. Healthy eating styles may vary from individual to individual and frequently reflect cultural and personal preferences. An unhealthy diet may cause a high postprandial insulin production and chronic insulin hypersecretion and hyperinsulinemia, which promote fat storage, prevent lipolysis and cause increased the risk for developing ACVD, obesity and type 2 diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Atherosclerosis , Obesity , Nutritional Sciences , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Nutritional Requirements
11.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(4): e300407, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143437

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo objetiva analisar os mecanismos de gestão do cuidado voltados aos estudantes com necessidades alimentares especiais (NAE) vinculados às Secretarias Municipais de Educação do Estado de Santa Catarina. Trata-se de estudo de métodos mistos, com estratégia incorporada concomitante, realizado com 134 nutricionistas que prestam assistência a estudantes com NAE. Utilizou-se questionário enviado por correio eletrônico como instrumento de coleta de dados, que foi avaliado por meio da análise de conteúdo temática e por estatística descritiva. Os resultados indicaram que o atestado ou laudo médico para oferta da alimentação especial foram os principais documentos comprobatórios; a licitação tipo pregão foi o meio de obtenção de alimentos especiais; os manipuladores de alimentos predominaram no recebimento de orientação referente às NAE; falta de produtos e fornecedores foram indicados como dificuldades; e garantia de atendimento destacada como facilidade na gestão das NAE. Quanto às características da gestão, destacam-se a ausência de solicitação de ficha técnica (79,9%), de oferta de alimentação especial (62%), de material informativo (92,5%) e da disponibilização de utensílios (63,4%). A assistência nutricional nos municípios catarinenses possui mecanismos de gestão diversos, que atendem às necessidades dos estudantes com NAE, mas ainda possui algumas fragilidades que dificultam a efetivação da assistência integral.


Abstract To analyze the care management mechanisms aimed at students with Special Food Needs (SFN) linked to the Municipal Education Secretariats of the state of Santa Catarina. It is a study of mixed methods, with a concomitant incorporated strategy, carried out with 134 nutritionists who assist students with SFN. A questionnaire sent by electronic mail was used as a data collection instrument, being analyzed through thematic content analysis and descriptive statistics. The results indicated that the medical certificate or report for offering special food was the main supporting document; the public auction was the means of obtaining special foods; food handlers predominated in receiving guidance regarding SFN; lack of products and suppliers was indicated as difficulties, and guarantee of service highlighted as ease in the management of SFN; as for the management characteristics, the absence of a request for a technical sheet (79.9%), special food supply (62%), information material (92.5%) and availability of utensils (63.4%) stand out. The nutritional assistance in cities has different management mechanisms, which meet the needs of students with SFN, but still have some weaknesses that hinder the implementation of comprehensive care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Programs and Policies , School Feeding , Health Management , Nutritional Requirements , Brazil
12.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e200174, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136700

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It has been documented that the older adults of the population are at the greatest risk of mortality due to the coronavirus disease; consequently, they could be the population most affected by the measures of social isolation and reduction of virus contagion implemented worldwide. Social isolation can expose older adults to an increased nutritional risk due to factors such as socioeconomic insecurity, which could affect food acquisition and the need for support in daily tasks and meals. The institutionalized older adults often depend on food donations, which may have reduced due the economic crisis caused by the pandemic, and the aging process itself causes changes in nutritional necessitie and eating habits. In the coronavirus pandemic, nutritionists and dietitians can offer remote nutritional follow-up. Moreover, the government actions, such as the implementation of educational and social service programs, should be applied to support healthy aging and minimize exposure to nutritional risks and coronavirus disease.


RESUMO Tem sido documentado que os idosos são a população de maior risco para mortalidade por COVID-19. Consequentemente, pode ser a mais afetada pelas medidas de isolamento social e de redução de contágio pelo vírus implementadas em todo o mundo. O isolamento social pode expor os idosos ao risco nutricional aumentado devido a alguns fatores, como: a insegurança socioeconômica, a qual pode afetar a aquisição de alimentos; a necessidade de apoio nas tarefas e nas refeições diárias; a possível redução de doações de alimentos para idosos institucionalizados, em virtude da crise econômica ocasionada pela pandemia; e o próprio processo do envelhecimento, que causa alterações das necessidades nutricionais e do hábito de se alimentar. Contudo, no contexto da pandemia do novo coronavírus, nutricionistas podem oferecer acompanhamento nutricional remoto. Além disso, ações governamentais, como a implementação de programas educacionais e de serviço social, devem ser aplicadas para o envelhecimento saudável e para a minimização da exposição ao risco nutricional e à COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Nutritional Requirements
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(4): 245-258, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103670

ABSTRACT

Estas recomendaciones se basan en la evidencia científica actual derivada de meta-análisis y revisiones sistemáticas sobre nutrición y prevención de infecciones respiratorias causadas por los virus SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV o influenza, similares en su estructura al SARS-CoV-2. Están dirigidas al personal en la primera línea de atención de salud y al personal que presta servicios esenciales a la comunidad, con alto riesgo de infección por la COVID-19. Estas personas usan equipo de protección personal, cumplen largos turnos laborales, en ocasiones bajo condiciones extremas, lo que puede llevar a descanso insuficiente, alto nivel de estrés, depresión, pobre calidad en la alimentación y deshidratación. Todos estos factores influyen negativamente en el sistema inmune y podrían conllevar un mayor riesgo de infección. Una ingesta adecuada de micronutrientes y otros compuestos bioactivos es esencial para el desempeño óptimo del sistema inmune. Existe evidencia moderada que avala la suplementación, en forma individual, con vitamina C (2 000 mg), vitamina D (1 000-2 000 UI) y zinc (≤ 40 mg) en la prevención de infecciones respiratorias en adultos. No se encontró evidencia suficiente para avalar la suplementación con vitamina A, niacina, ácido fólico, B12, omega 3, probióticos y polifenoles, aunque si se recomienda el consumo de alimentos ricos en estos nutrientes para apoyar al sistema inmune. Se recomienda al personal seguir la recomendación de consumir 5 porciones/día (400 g) de frutas y vegetales/hortalizas, mantenerse hidratado y limitar la cafeína. No hay evidencia del consumo de alimentos alcalinos para prevenir infecciones. Estas recomendaciones son particularmente importantes durante la pandemia(AU)


These recommendations are based on current scientific evidence obtained through meta-analysis and systematic reviews on nutrition and the prevention of respiratory infections related to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or influenza, similar in structure to SARS-CoV-2. They are aimed at primary health care personnel and to those who provide essential services to the community and are, consequently, at high risk of COVID-19 infection. These individuals wear personal protective equipment, work long shifts, sometimes under extreme conditions, which can lead to insufficient rest, high stress levels, depression, poor nutrition and dehydration. Together, these factors have a negative impact on the immune system and could result in an increased risk of infection. An adequate intake of micronutrients and other bioactive compounds is essential for optimal immune performance. There is moderate evidence supporting supplementation, individually, with vitamin C (2 000 mg), vitamin D (1 000-2 000 IU) and zinc (≤40 mg) for the prevention of respiratory infections in adults. Insufficient evidence was found to support supplementation with vitamin A, niacin, folic acid, B12, omega 3, probiotics and polyphenols; however, the consumption of foods rich in these nutrients is recommended to support immune function. It is recommended that workers follow the recommendation of consuming 400 g/day of fruits and vegetables, remain hydrated and limit caffeine. There is no scientific evidence supporting the consumption of alkaline foods to prevent infections. The aforementioned recommendations are particularly relevant during the pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Immune System , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Nutritional Requirements
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 609-618, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127324

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la comprensión objetiva de cinco tipos de etiquetados frontales de paquetes (EFP) (Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud, Semáforo Múltiple, Nutri-Score, Ingestas de Referencia y Símbolo de Advertencia) en México. Material y métodos: Se reclutaron 1 001 consumidores mexicanos para clasificar tres productos de tres categorías de alimentos sin EFP, según su calidad nutricional. Se les asignó al azar uno de los cinco EFP para clasificar los mismos productos, esta vez con un EFP en el empaque. El cambio en la capacidad para clasificar correctamente los productos en las dos tareas fue evaluado por EFP, utilizando un modelo de regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Nutri-Score y Semáforo Múltiple obtuvieron un mejor desempeño, seguidos del Símbolo de Advertencia, Sistema de Clasificación de Estrellas de Salud e Ingestas de Referencia. Conclusión: Nutri-Score y el Semáforo Múltiple surgen como esquemas eficientes para informar a los consumidores sobre la calidad nutricional de los alimentos en México, donde podrían ser una herramienta útil para los consumidores en situación de compra.


Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to compare consumers' objective understanding of five FoPLs [Health Star Rating system (HSR), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes (RIs), Warning Symbol] in Mexico. Materials and methods: 1 001 Mexican consumers were recruited and asked to rank three sets of label-free products according to their nutritional quality, via a survey. Upon completion of this task, participants were randomized to one of five FoPL conditions and were again asked to rank the same sets of products, this time with a FoPL displayed on pack. Change in ability to correctly rank products across the two tasks was assessed by FoPL using ordinal logistic regression. Results: Nutri-Score and MTL performed best, followed Warning Symbol, HSR and RIs. Conclusion: Nutri-Score and MTL appear as efficient schemes to inform consumers on the nutritional quality of foods, in particular in Mexico, where it would be a helpful tool for consumers in purchasing situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Consumer Behavior , Food Labeling/methods , Nutritive Value , Socioeconomic Factors , Random Allocation , Logistic Models , Food/classification , Food Labeling/classification , Mexico , Nutritional Requirements
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3099-3106, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011887

ABSTRACT

Resumo O baixo consumo de cálcio e elevado de sódio por adolescentes configura um sério problema de saúde pública. A biodisponibilidade e o teor de cálcio contido no leite fazem dele a melhor opção no atendimento a Ingestão Dietética Recomendada (IDR) desse nutriente. Como o leite pode contribuir para a ingestão de sódio, a realização de programas que visem aumentar o seu consumo deve ser precedida de ações para diminuir o teor de sódio nele presente. O conhecimento dos teores de cálcio e sódio presentes nos leites industrializados é fundamental para que se estabeleça a quantidade adequada a ser consumida. O estudo realizado visou quantificar o cálcio e o sódio de leites em pó e ultrapasteurizados comercializados em supermercados da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e estimar a quantidade a ser consumida para atingir as necessidades diárias de cálcio e o impacto sobre a ingestão de sódio. O cálcio foi quantificado por volumetria e o sódio por fotometria de chama. Os teores médios de cálcio e sódio do leite em pó (mg/26g) foram, respectivamente, 262,5 ± 5,1mg e 116,8 ± 3,1mg, e do leite ultrapasteurizado (mg/200mL) foram, respectivamente, 246,0 ± 10,3mg e 162,5 ± 16,3mg. Para atingir a IDR do cálcio, pelo consumo de leite, os adolescentes consumiriam 584mg de sódio pelo leite em pó (39% da IDR) e 812,5mg pelo ultrapasteurizado (54% da IDR).


Abstract Low calcium consumption and high sodium intake among adolescents is a serious public health problem. Thehigh content and bioavailability of calcium in milk makes it the best choice for meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for calcium. Since milk also contributes to sodium intake, programs promoting milk consumption should be preceded by initiatives to reduce its sodium content. Knowing the calcium and sodium content of processed milk is essential for establishing the adequate consumption of milk. The aim of this study was to estimate the calcium and sodium content of different brands of powdered and ultra heat treated (UHT) milk sold in supermarkets in Rio de Janeiro and calculate the amount of these milks that should be consumed by adolescents to meet daily calcium needs and the impact of this consumption on sodium intake. Volumetric analysis was used to measure calcium content and sodium content was determined using flame photometry. The mean calcium and sodium concentrations of powdered (mg/26g) and UHT milk (mg/200ml) were 262.5 ± 5.1 mg and 116.8 ± 3.1 mg and 246.0 ± 10.3 mg and 162.5 ± 16.3 mg, respectively. Milk intake sufficient to meet the DRI for calcium among adolescents would result in a sodium intake of 584 mg (39% of the AI) from the consumption of powdered milk and 812.5 mg (54% of the AI) from the consumption of UHT milk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Sodium, Dietary/analysis , Calcium, Dietary/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Brazil , Sodium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Hot Temperature , Nutritional Requirements
16.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 29(2): 83-96, 30 de Agosto del 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015299

ABSTRACT

Propósito de la revisión: Este artículo explica las causas de desnutrición en el paciente con cáncer y los requerimientos de energía y nutrientes específicos para esta población. Recientes Hallazgos: En la caquexia cancerosa del paciente tumoral existe una incrementada lipólisis, favorecida por una disminución de la actividad de la Lipoproteína Lipasa (LPL) del Tejido Adiposo Blanco (TAB) y que propicia un aumento de niveles de Triacilgliceroles (TAG) circulantes. No existe evidencia de que el soporte nutricional incremente el crecimiento tumoral. Extracto: La desnutrición en los pacientes con cáncer se debe a tres grandes grupos, el primero relacionado a nutrientes (su déficit, metabolismo, alteraciones de absorción), el segundo grupo por la presencia de la Caquexia Cancerosa y el tercer grupo relacionado con el tumor, el paciente y los tratamientos recibidos. De acuerdo a las Guías de la Sociedad Europea de Nutrición para pacientes con cáncer, se recomienda que si el gasto de energía en pacientes oncológicos no es medido específicamente a cada paciente se haga un cálculo de 25 - 30 Kcal/Kg de peso/día.


Purpose of the Review: This article explains the causes of malnutrition in the cancer patient and the specific energy and nutrient requirements for this population. Recent Findings: In the cancerous cachexia of the tumor patient there is an increased lipolysis, favored by a decrease in the activity of the White Adipose Tissue Lipoprotein (LPL) and that promotes an increase in circulating Triacylglycerols (TAG) levels. There is no evidence that nutritional support increases tumor growth. Excerpt: Malnutrition in cancer patients is due to three large groups, the first related to nutrients (their deficit, metabolism, absorption disorders), the second group due to the presence of Cancerous Cachexia and the third group related to the tumor, the patient and the treatments received. According to the Guidelines of the European Nutrition Society for cancer patients, it is recommended that if the energy expenditure in cancer patients is not measured specifically for each patient an estimate of 25 - 30 Kcal / Kg of weight / day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Malnutrition , Neoplasms , Nutritional Requirements , Nutrients , Protein-Energy Malnutrition
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 171-179, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013772

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as diferenças entre os desfechos da terapia nutricional com ingestão ideal de calorias mais alto teor proteico e do padrão de cuidados nutricionais em pacientes críticos adultos. Métodos: Randomizamos pacientes com previsão de permanecer na unidade de terapia intensiva por pelo menos 3 dias. No grupo com ingestão ideal de calorias mais alto teor proteico, a necessidade de ingestão calórica foi determinada por calorimetria indireta e a ingestão proteica foi estabelecida em níveis de 2,0 a 2,2g/kg/dia. O grupo controle recebeu calorias em nível de 25kcal/kg/dia e 1,4 a 1,5g/kg/dia de proteínas. O desfecho primário foi o escore do sumário do componente físico obtido aos 3 e 6 meses após a randomização. Os desfechos secundários incluíram força de preensão manual quando da alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, duração da ventilação mecânica e mortalidade hospitalar. Resultados: A análise incluiu 120 pacientes. Não houve diferença significante entre os dois grupos em termos de calorias recebidas. Contudo, a quantidade de proteínas recebidas pelo grupo com nível ideal de calorias mais alto teor de proteínas foi significantemente mais alta do que a recebida pelo grupo controle. O escore do sumário componente físico aos 3 e 6 meses após a randomização não diferiu entre ambos os grupos, assim como não diferiram os desfechos secundários. Entretanto, após ajuste para covariáveis, um delta proteico negativo (proteínas recebidas menos a necessidade proteica predeterminada) se associou com escore do sumário do componente físico mais baixo nas avaliações realizadas 3 e 6 meses após a randomização. Conclusão: Neste estudo, a estratégia com ingestão calórica ideal mais elevado teor proteico não pareceu melhorar a qualidade de vida física em comparação aos cuidados nutricionais padrão. Contudo, após ajuste para covariáveis, um delta proteico negativo se associou com escores do sumário do componente físico mais baixos nas avaliações realizadas aos 3 e aos 6 meses após a randomização. Esta associação ocorreu independentemente do método de cálculo do alvo proteico.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate differences in outcomes for an optimized calorie and high protein nutrition therapy versus standard nutrition care in critically ill adult patients. Methods: We randomized patients expected to stay in the intensive care unit for at least 3 days. In the optimized calorie and high protein nutrition group, caloric intake was determined by indirect calorimetry, and protein intake was established at 2.0 to 2.2g/kg/day. The control group received 25kcal/kg/day of calories and 1.4 to 1.5g/kg/day protein. The primary outcome was the physical component summary score obtained at 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included handgrip strength at intensive care unit discharge, duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital mortality. Results: In total, 120 patients were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in calories received. However, the amount of protein received by the optimized calorie and high protein nutrition group was significantly higher compared with the control group. The physical component summary score at 3 and 6 months did not differ between the two groups nor did secondary outcomes. However, after adjusting for covariates, a negative delta protein (protein received minus predetermined protein requirement) was associated with a lower physical component summary score at 3 and 6 months postrandomization. Conclusion: In this study optimized calorie and high protein strategy did not appear to improve physical quality of life compared with standard nutrition care. However, after adjusting for covariates, a negative delta protein was associated with a lower physical component summary score at 3 and 6 months postrandomization. This association exists independently of the method of calculation of protein target.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Energy Intake , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutritional Support/methods , Critical Care/methods , Quality of Life , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Nutritional Requirements
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 210-216, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013777

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação do estado nutricional e do consumo proteico com o desfecho clínico de pacientes críticos em uso de terapia nutricional enteral em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de caráter observacional analítico, realizado por meio da coleta de dados secundários registrados nos prontuários de pacientes ≥ 18 anos, internados na unidade de terapia intensiva e que receberam terapia nutricional enteral exclusiva por pelo menos 72 horas em 2017. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corporal e pela circunferência do braço. Para a estimativa das necessidades proteicas, foi considerada a recomendação da American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. A adequação nutricional foi realizada por meio da coleta diária do volume da fórmula enteral prescrita e administrada. Nas análises, utilizaram-se testes paramétricos e não paramétricos e foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados: Dos 188 pacientes avaliados, 71,3% eram do sexo masculino, com idade mediana de 48,5 anos (31,0 - 63,75). O principal diagnóstico clínico foi o trauma (46,3%) e a eutrofia foi o estado nutricional mais frequente (54,8%), segundo o índice de massa corporal, e de 46,4% pela circunferência braquial. A adequação proteica esteve insuficiente em 56,4% dos pacientes e apenas 46,8% atingiram a recomendação proteica mínima. A ocorrência de mortalidade esteve associada ao diagnóstico nutricional, ao índice de massa corporal (p = 0,023) e à circunferência do braço (p = 0,041), assim como a adequação proteica (p = 0,012). Conclusão: O estado nutricional e o consumo proteico estiveram associados de forma siginificante ao desfecho clínico dos pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of nutritional status and protein intake with the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition therapy in an intensive care unit. Methods: A retrospective observational analytical study was performed by collecting secondary data recorded in medical records of patients ≥ 18 years of age who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who received exclusive enteral nutrition therapy for at least 72 hours in 2017. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index and arm circumference. For the estimation of protein requirements, the recommendation of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition was considered. Nutritional adequacy was assessed by the daily collection of prescribed and administered enteral formula. In the analyses, parametric and nonparametric tests were used, and significance was set at p <0.05. Results: Of the 188 patients evaluated, 71.3% were male. The median age of the patients was 48.5 years (31.0 - 63.75). The main clinical diagnosis was trauma (46.3%), and eutrophic was the most frequent nutritional status (54.8% according to body mass index and 46.4% according to arm circumference). Protein adequacy was not attained in 56.4% of patients, and only 46.8% reached the minimum protein recommendation. The occurrence of mortality was associated with nutritional diagnosis, body mass index (p = 0.023), arm circumference (p = 0.041) and protein adequacy (p = 0.012). Conclusion: Nutritional status and protein intake were significantly associated with the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutritional Status , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Critical Care/methods , Nutrition Assessment , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Nutritional Requirements
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 70-79, jun. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1048665

ABSTRACT

Las Islas Galápagos es una de las provincias de Ecuador con mayores índices de sobrepeso y obesidad en población adulta. Debido a las restricciones de producción de alimentos, la presión turística y otros factores sociales; la disponibilidad, el acceso y consumo de alimentos saludables y recomendables puede estar afectando al estado de seguridad alimentaria y nutricional de su población. Por ello, el objetivo de este estudio es analizar el consumo de alimentos de la población y su adecuación a las necesidades nutricionales. Sobre una muestra de 120 personas residentes en las Islas Galápagos se aplicaron 3 R24h. Los resultados de la valoración nutricional fueron comparados con las IDR, realizando un análisis factorial multivariante para analizar diferencias por grupo de edad o desempeño profesional. Se realizó un análisis de componentes principales para caracterizar el perfil de ingesta de nutrientes. Para energía y principios inmediatos se sobrepasan las recomendaciones, principalmente entre las mujeres, a la vez que se evidencia una ingesta inadecuada de fibra, iodo, ácido fólico y vitamina E. Respecto a los grupos de alimentos, el consumo medio de frutas y verduras frescas es muy escaso y el aporte proteico proviene en mayor medida de productos cárnicos (46%), seguido de pescado (24%) y arroz (17%). Los resultados de este estudio evidencian la necesidad de asegurar el acceso a alimentos frescos y saludables, en especial frutas y verduras, y promover la adopción de pautas nutricionales que promuevan un consumo adecuado de ciertos alimentos(AU)


The Galapagos Islands are one of the provinces of Ecuador with the highest rates of overweight and obesity among the adult population. Due to its restrictions on local production, tourist pressure and other social factors; availability, access and consumption to food is a problem that is related to the state of food and nutritional security of its population. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the pattern of food consumption of healthy and recommended foods may be affecting the food insecurity or nutritional status of its population. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the food consumption of the population and its adaptation to nutritional needs. On a sample of 120 people resident in the Galapagos Islands, 3 R24h were applied. The results of the nutritional assessment were compared with the RDI. A multivariate factor analysis has been performed to analyze differences by age group or professional performance. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to characterize the nutrient intake. Recommendations are exceeded for energy and immediate principles, mainly among women. On the other hand, there is an inadequate intake of fiber, iodine, folic acid and vitamin E. Regarding food groups, the average consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is very low and protein intake comes mostly from meat products (46%), followed by fish (24%) and rice (17%). The results of this study demonstrate the need to ensure access to fresh and healthy foods, especially fruits and vegetables, and to promote the adoption of nutritional guidelines that promote adequate food intake(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Eating , Overweight/etiology , Nutritional Requirements , Obesity/physiopathology , Nutrition Surveys , Public Health , Overnutrition , Food Security , Noncommunicable Diseases
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 306-311, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011174

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women. Materials and methods The search was performed in the electronic databases Medline (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Scopus. Review studies, experimental studies, those with adolescent pregnant women (< 20 years) and iodine supplementation were excluded. The selection followed the steps of identifying the articles in the databases, deleting the duplicates, and reading the titles, abstracts, and then the entire article. The search for the articles occurred in September 2017, using the descriptors "pregnant" and "iodine deficiency" NOT "supplementation" in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results Thirteen articles were included, the deficiency prevalence ranged from 16.1% to 84.0%, and the median of iodine intake was insufficient in 75% of the studies. There is no classification for mild, moderate or severe levels of iodine deficiency in pregnant women, which makes it impossible to know the real dimension of the problem. Conclusion The high prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women, observed worldwide, shows the need for a population classification in order to direct public policies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):306-11


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Global Health , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/deficiency , Prevalence , Nutritional Requirements
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