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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.


La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 617-625, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether astragalus polysaccharides (APS) combined with berberine (BBR) can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice.@*METHODS@#Except for normal mice, 32 HFD-induced obese mice were randomized into HFD, APS (1,000 mg/kg APS), BBR (200 mg/kg BBR), and APS plus BBR (1,000 mg/kg APS plus 200 mg/kg BBR) groups, respectively. After 6-week treatment (once daily by gavage), the obesity phenotype and pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated by histopathological examination of epididymal fat, liver, and colon using hematoxylin-eosin staining and serum biochemical analyses by an automated chemistry analyzer. The feces were collected at the 12 th week, and taxonomic and functional profiles of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Compared with HFD group, the average body weight of APS plus BBR group was decreased (P<0.01), accompanied with the reduced fat accumulation, enhanced colonic integrity, insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Importantly, APS combined with BBR treatment was more effective than APS or BBR alone in improving HFD-induced insulin resistance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). 16S rRNA sequence-based analysis of fecal samples demonstrated that APS combined with BBR treatment exhibited a better impact on HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, exclusively via the enriched abundances of Bacteroides, which corresponded to the large increase of predicted bacterial genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.@*CONCLUSION@#APS combined with BBR may synergistically reduce obesity and modulate the gut microbiota in HFD-fed mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Berberine/therapeutic use , Mice, Obese , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/drug therapy , Insulin Resistance , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469007

ABSTRACT

Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Liver/drug therapy , Fatty Liver/veterinary , Obesity/drug therapy , Portulaca , Mice, Obese
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5113-5121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008709

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been identified as a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and a key risk factor for diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and malignancies, and has become an urgent global health burden. Adipose tissue macrophages play a significant role in adipose immune homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Under different conditions, they can be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In obese individuals, there is abnormal polarization of macrophages in adipose tissue, leading to an imbalance in the M1/M2 phenotype dynamic equilibrium and the development of pathological inflammation. Therefore, restoring the balance of M1/M2 macrophage polarization is an important potential target for the treatment of chronic inflammation in obesity. Studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can positively modulate macrophage polarization and produce beneficial effects on obesity. Based on existing evidence, this paper systematically reviewed the potential mechanisms of TCM in improving chronic inflammation in obesity from the perspective of macrophage polarization, in order to provide evidence for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammation in obesity with TCM and offer new insights for related research design and the development of new TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Obesity/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Asteraceae , Antioxidants , DNA Damage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Obesity/drug therapy
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1390959

ABSTRACT

Liraglutida e terapia padrão (modificação no estilo de vida, com dieta e prática regular de exercícios), como opção disponível no Sistema Único de Saúde. Indicação: Tratamento da obesidade. Pergunta: Liraglutida, comparada à terapia padrão, é mais eficaz e segura para promover redução do peso em pessoas adultas com obesidade? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências, revisão de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews version 2). Resultados: Foi selecionada uma revisão sistemática que atendeu aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Liraglutida em dose ≤ 1,8 mg e em dose > 1,8 mg, comparadas a placebo (com terapia padrão) promoveram redução estatisticamente significativa de peso (-2,99 kg e -4,55 kg, respectivamente) e maior risco relativo de descontinuação do tratamento devido a efeitos adversos, com alta certeza de evidência para esses desfechos, além de maior risco relativo de náusea e de vômitos


Liraglutide and standard therapy (lifestyle modification, diet and regular exercise), as a option available in the Brazilian Public Health System. Indication: Treatment of obesity. Question: Is Liraglutide, compared to standard therapy, more effective and safer for weight reduction in obese adults? Methods: Rapid review of evidence, overview of systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured search strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews version 2). Results: A unique systematic review that met the inclusion criteria was selected. Conclusion: Liraglutide at a dose ≤ 1.8 mg and at a dose > 1.8 mg, compared to placebo (and standard therapy) induced statistically significant weight reduction (-2.99 kg and -4.55 kg, respectively) and greater relative risk of treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects, with high certainty of evidence, and greater relative risk of nausea and vomiting


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Liraglutide/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Liraglutide/adverse effects , Systematic Reviews as Topic
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 17-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929201

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an important risk factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an important factor threatening human health. However, no perfect drug choice for obesity exists. Semaglutide is a kind of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that promotes insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion through a glucose concentration-dependent mechanism. GLP-1 can also delay stomach emptying and suppress appetite to help lose weight. This review summarizes clinical evidence of the semaglutide effect on T2D and obesity and establishes expectations on future clinical trials for obesity treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Motivation , Obesity/drug therapy
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of modified Linggui Zhugan Decoction (, MLZD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including normal, obese T2DM (ob-T2DM), MLZD low-dose [MLDZ-L, 4.625 g/(kg·d)], MLZD middle-dose [MLD-M, 9.25 g/(kg·d) ] and MLZD high-dose [MLD-H, 18.5 g/(kg·d)] groups, 10 rats in each group. After 4-week intervention, blood samples and liver, pancreas, muscle tissues were collected to assess the insulin resistance (IR), blood lipid, adipokines and inflammation cytokines. The alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1 )/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 α) pathways were also studied.@*RESULTS@#MLZD dose-dependently reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for IR index and increased insulin sensitive index compared with ob-T2DM rats (P<0.05). Similarly, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acids were also decreased compared with ob-T2DM rats after 4-week treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Improvements in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines were observed with a raised level of adiponectin and a reduced level of leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). MLZD regulated the PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways and restored the tissue structure of liver and pancreas (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MLZD ameliorated glycolipid metabolism and inflammation, which may be attributed to the regulation of PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycolipids , Inflammation , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 715-725, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345249

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos A L-carnitina (LC) tem muitos efeitos benéficos em animais diabéticos e humanos, mas seu efeito regulatório sobre a quemerina como uma citocina inflamatória e seu receptor no estado diabético são desconhecidos. Objetivos O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito regulatório da LC na expressão do receptor semelhante ao de quimiocina 1 e quemerina (CMKLRI) em tecidos adiposo e cardíaco de camundongos diabéticos. Métodos Sessenta camundongos NMARI foram divididos em quatro grupos, incluindo controle, diabético, diabético + suplementação com LC e controle + suplementação com LC. O diabetes foi induzido pela alimentação dos animais com dieta hipercalórica por 5 semanas e injeção de estreptozotocina. Os animais foram tratados com 300 mg/kg de LC por 28 dias. Nos dias 7, 14 e 28 após o tratamento, os níveis de mRNA e proteína da quemerina e CMKLRI nos tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais foram determinados utilizando análise por qPCR e ELISA. Os índices de resistência à insulina também foram medidos em todos os grupos experimentais. A diferença com p<0,05 foi considerada significativa. Resultados A expressão de quemerina e CMKLRI aumentou nos tecidos cardíaco e adiposo de camundongos diabéticos nos dias 14 e 28 após a indução do diabetes, concomitantemente com a incidência de resistência à insulina e níveis aumentados de quemerina circulante (p<0,05). O tratamento com LC causou uma diminuição significativa na expressão de ambos os genes nos tecidos estudados e redução dos sintomas de resistência à insulina e dos níveis séricos de quemerina (p<0,05). Conclusão Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com LC pode diminuir a expressão de quemerina e CKLR1 em tecidos cardíacos e adiposos de animais experimentais obesos e diabéticos.


Abstract Background L-carnitine (LC) has many beneficial effects on diabetic animals and humans, but its regulatory effect on chemerin as an inflammatory cytokine, and its receptor in diabetes status is unknown. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of LC on the expression of chemerin and chemokine-like receptor I (CMKLRI) in adipose and cardiac tissues of diabetic mice. Methods Sixty NMARI mice were divided into four groups including control, diabetic, diabetic + LC supplementation and control + LC supplementation. Diabetes was induced by feeding the animals a high-calorie diet for 5 weeks and injection of Streptozotocin. The animals were treated with 300 mg/kg LC for 28 days. On days 7, 14, and 28 after treatment, the mRNA and protein levels of chemerin and CMKLRI in the cardiac and adipose tissues of the animals were determined using qPCR analysis and ELISA. Insulin resistance indices were also measured in all experimental groups. Differences with p <0.05 were considered significant. Results Chemerin and CMKLRI expressions levels were increased in cardiac and adipose tissues of diabetic mice on days 14 and 28 after diabetes induction, concurrent with the incidence of insulin resistance and increased levels of circulating chemerin (p<0.05). The treatment with LC caused a significant decrease in the expression of both genes in studied tissues and the reduction of insulin resistance symptoms and serum chemerin levels (p<0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that LC treatment were able to downregulate the expression of chemerin and CKLR1 in cardiac and adipose tissues of obese, diabetic experimental animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Receptors, Chemokine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Carnitine/pharmacology , Chemokines , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice, Obese , Obesity/drug therapy
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408636

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Spirulina platensis constituye un sustancial reservorio de nutrientes y de alimentos funcionales con un bajo contenido de calorías. Aunque en la literatura se mencionan varias cualidades benéficas, una de ellas es aumentar la sensación de saciedad, lo que abre la posibilidad de ser empleada en la prevención y tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias. Objetivo: Describir el papel de la Spirulina platensis en el tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura relevante sobre el tema en el primer cuatrimestre de 2020. Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica: Pubmed, Scielo, Google y Google Académico. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes términos como palabras clave: Espirulina; Spirulina platensis; Obesidad; Exceso de peso. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués e inglés, y que hicieran referencia específicamente al tema de estudio a través del título. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estas condiciones. Esto permitió el estudio de 75 referencias bibliográficas, de las cuales 51 se citaron en el presente artículo. Conclusiones: La Spirulina platensis representa una opción como suplemento nutraceútico y funcional, con valor preventivo y coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la obesidad y de algunas de sus consecuencias, al menos a corto plazo(AU)


Introduction: Spirulina platensis is a substantial reservoir of functional foods and nutrients with low calorie content. Although several beneficial qualities are mentioned in the scientific literature, one of them is to increase the feeling of satiety, which opens the possibility of being used for preventing and treating obesity, as well as some of its consequences. Objective: To describe the role of Spirulina platensis for treating obesity and some of its consequences. Methods: A search of relevant literature on the subject was carried out in the first four months of 2020. The following scientific information search engines were used: Pubmed, Scielo, Google and Google Scholar. The search strategy included the following terms as keywords: espirulina [spirulina], Spirulina platensis, obesidad [obesity], exceso de peso [overweight]. Review articles, research articles and Web pages were assessed, which, in general, had been published within less than ten years, in Spanish, Portuguese and English, and which made specific reference to the study topic through their titles. Articles that did not meet these conditions were excluded. This allowed the study of 75 bibliographic references, of which 51 were cited in this article. Conclusions: Spirulina platensis is an option as a nutraceutical and functional supplement, with preventive and coadjutant value for the treatment of obesity and some of its consequences, at least in the short term(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Overweight/drug therapy , Spirulina/drug effects , Obesity/drug therapy
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 421-427, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of beinaglutide on weight loss and plasma protein patterns of inflammation/obesity relevant cytokines and biomarkers. Materials and methods: This study involved 36 adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 24 kg/m2 and T2DM. Beinaglutide was administered for three months. Changes in body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level, 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2h-PG) level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, BMI and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were measured at baseline and after three months of treatment. In addition, relevant inflammation/obesity cytokines and biomarkers were measured. Results: After three months, beinaglutide treatment led to significant changes, including in body weight, BMI, FPG level, HbA1c level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. In addition, serpin E1, leptin, C-reaction protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) also decreased significantly. The plasma protein concentrations of CRP (Log2 transformed) were found to be positively correlated with the percentage of weight loss (R = 0.514 and p-value = 0.021). Conclusion: Beinaglutide treatment resulted in weight loss, plasma glucose control and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with T2DM and overweight/obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Blood Glucose , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , China , Overweight/drug therapy , Obesity/drug therapy
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 79 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396698

ABSTRACT

Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg) is a Brazilian native fruit belonging to the Myrtaceae family. Previously it was demonstrated that phenolicrich extracts from jaboticaba (PEJ) possess health-beneficial properties in dietinduced obesity; however, whether PEJ modulates the obesity-associated intestinal inflammatory status remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PEJ on intestinal inflammation associated with obesity induced by a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet. Thus, forty male C57BL/6J mice were distributed into two groups: negative control (CH, 10 animals), fed standard diet AIN96M and water ad libitum; and positive control (HFS, 30 animals), fed HFS diet and water ad libitum induced to obesity for an initial period of 14 weeks. After this period, the HFS group was redistributed in three groups of 10 animals each, and continuously fed HFS diet for another 14 weeks: HFS group received daily gavages of water, PEJ1 group received PEJ at the dose of 50 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg body weight (BW and PEJ2 group received PEJ at the dose of 100 mg GAE/kg BW. Feed intake and body mass were monitored weekly, and fasting glucose biweekly. The initial period of obesity-induction demonstrated that the HFS diet was efficient to promote a significant body weight gain and fasting hyperglycemia when compared to the negative control group (CH). At the end of the experiment the animals were euthanized under anesthesia and their organs and tissues were collected. The major classes of phenolic compounds found in PEJ were ellagitannins, anthocyanins including cyanidin and delphinidin glycosides, proanthocyanidins, and free ellagic acid. PEJ-treated animals presented a reduced body weight gain, adiposity and demonstrated significant reversion of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, the inflammatory profile of colon demonstrated that PEJ prevented metabolic endotoxemia linked to an attenuation of the HFS diet-induced intestinal inflammation via downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-ß), membrane transporter toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the colon. These anti-inflammatory effects appear to be involved, at least in part, with an inhibition of the colonic inflammasome pathway of obese mice. Collectively, our data reveals that PEJ exerts a direct anti-inflammatory effect in obesity-associated intestinal inflammation and this outcome is linked to an amelioration of metabolic endotoxemia in obese mice


A jabuticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg) é uma fruta nativa brasileira pertencente à família Myrtaceae. Anteriormente, foi demonstrado que extratos ricos em fenólicos de jabuticaba (PEJ) possuem propriedades benéficas à saúde na obesidade induzida por dieta; no entanto, se o PEJ modula o estado inflamatório intestinal associado à obesidade ainda não está claro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do PEJ na inflamação intestinal associada à obesidade induzida por uma dieta rica em sacarose (HFS). Assim, quarenta camundongos C57BL / 6J machos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: controle negativo (CH, 10 animais), alimentados com dieta padrão AIN96M e água ad libitum; e controle positivo (HFS, 30 animais), alimentado com dieta HFS e água ad libitum induzida à obesidade por um período inicial de 14 semanas. Após este período, o grupo HFS foi redistribuído em três grupos de 10 animais cada, e continuamente alimentado com dieta HFS por mais 14 semanas: o grupo HFS recebeu gavagens diárias de água, o grupo PEJ1 recebeu PEJ na dose de 50 mg de ácido gálico equivalente (GAE) / kg de peso corporal (pc) e o grupo PEJ2 recebeu PEJ na dose de 100 mg GAE / kg pc. O consumo de ração e a massa corporal foram monitorados semanalmente e a glicemia de jejum quinzenal. O período inicial de indução da obesidade demonstrou que a dieta HFS foi eficiente em promover significativo ganho de peso corporal e hiperglicemia de jejum quando comparada ao grupo controle negativo (HC). Ao final do experimento os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia sob anestesia e seus órgãos e tecidos coletados. As principais classes de compostos fenólicos encontrados em PEJ foram elagitaninos, antocianinas incluindo cianidina e delfinidina glicosiladas, proantocianidinas e ácido elágico livre. Os animais tratados com PEJ apresentaram redução do ganho de peso corporal, adiposidade e reversão significativa da resistência à insulina e dislipidemia. Além disso, o perfil inflamatório do cólon demonstrou que o PEJ evitou a endotoxemia metabólica ligada a uma atenuação da inflamação intestinal induzida pela dieta de HFS por meio da regulação negativa de mediadores pró-inflamatórios, como o fator de necrose tumoral (TNF-), transportador de membrana toll- como o receptor 4 (TLR-4) e o fator nuclear B (NF-B) no cólon. Esses efeitos anti-inflamatórios parecem estar envolvidos, pelo menos em parte, com uma inibição da via do inflamassoma colônico de camundongos obesos. Coletivamente, nossos dados revelam que o PEJ exerce um efeito anti-inflamatório direto na inflamação intestinal associada à obesidade e esse resultado está relacionado com uma melhora da endotoxemia metabólica em camundongos obesos


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Myrtaceae/classification , Phenolic Compounds , Fruit/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Weight Gain , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/adverse effects , Diet , Eating , Mice, Obese/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Obesity/drug therapy
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2882-2889, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin (MET) increases insulin sensitivity, but it is associated with unsatisfactory weight loss. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide has been shown to reduce weight and IR in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of exenatide once-weekly (QW) combined with MET on body weight, as well as metabolic and endocrinological parameters in overweight/obese women with PCOS.@*METHODS@#Fifty overweight/obese women with PCOS diagnosed via the Rotterdam criteria were randomized to one of two treatment groups: MET (500 mg three times a day [TID]) or combination treatment (COM) (MET 500 mg TID, exenatide 2 mg QW) for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were anthropometric changes associated with obesity, and the secondary outcomes included changes in reproductive hormone levels, glucose and lipid metabolism, and C-reactive protein.@*RESULTS@#Forty (80%) patients completed the study. COM therapy was superior to MET monotherapy in reducing weight (P = 0.045), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.041), and waist circumference (P = 0.023). Patients in the COM group on an average lost 3.8 ± 2.4 kg compared with 2.1 ± 3.0 kg in the MET group. In the COM group, BMI and waist circumference decreased by 1.4 ± 0.87 kg/m2 and 4.63 ± 4.42 cm compared with 0.77 ± 1.17 kg/m2 and 1.72 ± 3.07 cm in the MET group, respectively. Moreover, levels of fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h glucose, and OGTT 2-h insulin were significantly lower with COM therapy than with MET (P < 0.050). Mild and moderate gastrointestinal reactions were the most common adverse events in both groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COM therapy was more effective than MET alone in reducing body weight, BMI, and waist circumference, and improving insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese women with PCOS, with acceptable short-term side effects.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04029272. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04029272.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Exenatide/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Overweight , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 17-28, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131262

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A obesidade tem sido associada com ativação crônica do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona e importantes alterações no desempenho cardíaco. Objetivo Avaliar a influência do bloqueio de receptores de angiotensina-II do tipo 1 (AT1) sobre a morfologia e desempenho cardíaco de ratos obesos por dieta Métodos Ratos Wistar (n=48) foram submetidos a dieta controle (2,9 kcal/g) ou hiperlipídica (3,6 kcal/g) durante 20 semanas. Após a 16ª semana, foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Controle (CO), Obeso (OB), Controle Losartan (CL) e Obeso Losartan (OL). CL e OL receberam losartan (30 mg/kg/dia) na água durante quatro semanas. Posteriormente, foram analisadas composição corporal, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e ecocardiograma. A função de músculos papilares foi avaliada em situação basal com concentração de cálcio ([Ca2+]o) de 2,50 mM e após manobras inotrópicas: potencial pós-pausa (PPP), elevação da [Ca2+]o e durante estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol. A análise dos resultados foi feita por meio de Two-Way ANOVA e teste de comparações apropriado. O nível de significância considerado foi de 5%. Resultados Embora a alteração da PAS não tenha se mantido ao final do experimento, a obesidade se associou com hipertrofia cardíaca e maior velocidade de encurtamento da parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo.No estudo de músculos papilares em condição basal, CL mostrou menor velocidade máxima de variação negativa da tensão desenvolvida (-dT/dt) do que CO. O PPP de 60s promoveu menor -dT/dt e pico de tensão desenvolvida (TD) em OB e CL, comparados ao CO, e maior variação relativa de TD e velocidade máxima de variação positiva (+dT/dt) no OL em relação a CL e OB. Sob 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5mM de [Ca2+]o, o grupo OL exibiu maior -dT/dt do que CL. Conclusão Losartan melhora a função miocárdica de ratos com obesidade induzida por dieta. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):17-28)


Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and with significant changes in cardiac performance. Objective To assess the impact of a blockade of angiotensin-II receptor type 1 (AT1receptor) on morphology and on myocardial functional performance in rats with high-fat diet- induced obesity. Methods Wistar rats (n=48) were submitted to control (2.9 kcal/g) or high-fat (3.6 kcal/g) diet for 20 weeks. After the 16thweek they were divided into four groups: Control (CO), Obese (OB), Control Losartan (CL) and Obese Losartan (OL). CL and OL received losartan (30 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for four weeks. Subsequently, body composition, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. Papillary muscle function was assessed at baseline with 2.50 mM calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o) and after inotropic maneuvers: post-pause potentiation (PPP), [Ca2+]oelevation, and during beta-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol. Analysis of the results was performed by the Two-Way ANOVA and by the appropriate comparison test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results Although SBP change had been not maintained at the end of the experiment, obesity was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and with increased left ventricle posterior wall shortening velocity. In the study of papillary muscles in basal condition, CL showed lower developed tension maximum negative variation velocity (-dT/dt) than CO. The 60s PPP promoted lower -dT/dt and maximum developed tension (DT) in OB and CL compared with CO, and higher relative DT variation and maximum positive variation velocity (+dT/dt) in OL compared with CL and OB. Under 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5mM [Ca2+]o, the OL group showed higher -dT/dt than CL. Conclusion Losartan improves myocardial function in high-fat diet-induced obesity. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020;115(1):17-28)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Obesity/drug therapy , Papillary Muscles , Rats, Wistar , Physical Functional Performance , Myocardial Contraction
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 290-297, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131087

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the use of metformin for preventing cesarean deliveries and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborn (NB) outcomes in non-diabetic obese pregnant women. Subjects and methods This is a randomized clinical trial with obese pregnant women, divided into 2 groups: metformin group and control group, with followed-up prenatal routine. The gestational age of participants was less than or equal to 20 weeks and were monitored throughout entire prenatal period. For outcomes of delivery and LGA newborns, absolute risk reduction (ARR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results 357 pregnant women were evaluated. From the metformin group (n = 171), 68 (39.8%) subjects underwent cesarean delivery, and 117 (62.9%) subjects from the control group (n = 186) had intercurrence (p < 0.01). As for the mothers' general characteristics, there was significance for marital status (p < 0.01). Maternal-fetal results presented reduced preeclampsia (p < 0,01). Primary prophylactic results presented an ARR of 23.1 times (95% CI: 13.0-33.4) with NNT of 4 (95% CI: 3.0-7.7) and no significant values for LGA NB (p > 0.01). Secondary prophylactic outcomes presented decreased odds ratio for preeclampsia (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Conclusion The use of metformin reduced cesarean section rates, resulted in a small number of patients to be treated, but it did not reduce LGA NB. Administering a lower dosage of metformin from the early stages to the end of treatment may yield significant results with fewer side effects. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):290-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Obesity/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
18.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(4): 681-686, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058779

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto del consumo de harina de cáscara o harina de pulpa de dos variedades de Solanum tuberosum (papa Yungay y papa Canchán) sobre la acumulación de tejido adiposo, peso de órganos y estrés oxidativo en hígado de ratas realizamos un estudio experimental en 24 ratas Holtzman obesas, divididos en cuatro grupos y, sometidas a dietas que contenían 10% de harina de las dos variedades de papa. Los grupos fueron T1: cáscara Yungay, T2: pulpa Yungay; T3: cáscara Canchán; y T4: pulpa Canchán. Al finalizar, se sacrificaron todos los animales para registrar los pesos de órganos y tejido adiposo, y extraer muestras para determinar la actividad enzimática de superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en el hígado. El grupo de ratas obesas que consumió pulpa de variedad Yungay tuvo menor estrés oxidativo en el hígado; además, independientemente de la parte de tubérculo consumido, esta variedad redujo el peso de los riñones.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effect of the consumption of peel flour or pulp flour from two varieties of Solanum tuberosum (Yungay potato and Canchán potato) on the accumulation of adipose tissue, organ weight, and oxidative stress in the liver of rats. We carried out an experimental study in 24 obese Holtzman rats, divided into four groups and subjected to diets containing 10% flour from both varieties of potato. The groups were T1: Yungay peel; T2: Yungay pulp; T3: Canchán peel; and T4: Canchán pulp. When the study was completed, all the animals were slaughtered to record the weights of organs and adipose tissue and to extract samples to determine the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver. The group of obese rats that consumed the pulp of the Yungay variety had less oxidative stress in the liver. Also, regardless of the tuber part consumed, this variety reduced the weight of the kidneys.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Solanum tuberosum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Obesity/drug therapy , Organ Size/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180563, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039120

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in association with physical exercise, on the metabolic and biochemical parameters of rats induced to obesity with a cafeteria diet. Male Wistar rats, aged 21 days, were randomly divided into: Controls (CON) receiving standard feed and water ad libitum; and obese (OBESE) receiving cafeteria diet ad libitum, added to the standard diet. Groups were then subdivided into: Liraglutide animals that received subcutaneous injections of liraglutide from 80 to 90 days of life; exercised (EXE) animals submitted to swimming sessions, three days a week (15 min); and liraglutide + EXE animals that received liraglutide in association with physical exercise. Treatment with liraglutide reduced deposits of mesenteric and periepididymal fat, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, glucose and insulin in obese group. It is important to note that the association of the two treatments reduced the body weight in animals, deposits of mesenteric and periepididymal fat, HOMA-IR, blood triglyceride levels, glucose and insulin in obese rats. As such, the association of liraglutide with exercise potentiated the effects of the drug and ameliorated obesity pathology more effectively. retirar


Subject(s)
Animals , Metabolic Syndrome , Liraglutide/therapeutic use , Motor Activity , Obesity/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar
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