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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(2): e006991, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1380295

ABSTRACT

Los regímenes basados en la restricción intermitente de la ingesta de alimentos, como el ayuno intermitente, pueden parecer novedosos pero constituyen en realidad una práctica milenaria. Muchas veces en nuestras consultas como médicos de familia los pacientes con problemas de sobrepeso u obesidad nos preguntan sobre estas prácticas y sus efectos en la salud. A partir de la viñeta clínica de uno de esos pacientes, revisamos la evidencia disponible sobre el tema y encontramos que la restricción intermitente puede ser una intervención eficaz para la disminución de peso, aunque sin diferencias significativas con respecto a la restricción continua. Para otros desenlaces analizados, como el riesgo cardiovascular, la evidencia no es tan clara. Si bien la restricción alimentaria intermitente puede ser una opción útil en para los pacientes que desean disminuir su peso, se necesitan más estudios para determinar la variante más adecuada, su duración óptima, la mejor frecuencia semanal y sus beneficios a largo plazo. (AU)


Intermittent dietary restriction, like intermittent fasting, may seem like a novel diet, but it's actually an age-old practice. Many times in our practice as family physicians, patients with overweight or obesity problems ask us about this practice and its effects on health. From the clinical vignette of one of our patients, we reviewed the available evidence on the subject and found that intermittent dietary restriction could be an effective intervention for weight loss, but without significant differences with respect to continuous caloric restriction. For other outcomes analyzed, such as cardiovascular risk, the evidence is not as clear. Al though intermittent dietary restriction may be a useful option in our patients, more studies are needed to determine which variant is the most appropriate, its optimal duration, weekly frequency, and long-term benefits. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Fasting , Overweight/diet therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension/metabolism , Obesity/diet therapy , Weight Loss , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Caloric Restriction/methods , Overweight/metabolism , Food Deprivation , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Obesity/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927896

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of continuous exercise training (CT) and high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) on liver lipid metabolism and the correlation of the level of fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21) in serum and liver tissues. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal diet group (N) and obesity model group (H) after 1 week of adaptive feeding. Rats in the obesity model group were fed with 45% high-fat diet for about 8 weeks, and 20% weight increase compared with normal rats was considered as obesity. The rats were divided into normal diet control group (LC), normal diet HIIT group (LHI), normal diet CT group (LCT), High fat diet-induced obese control group (OC), obese HIIT group (OHI), and obese CT group (OCT) (n=10). Exercised rats were given weight-bearing swimming training intervention for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at least 24h after the last exercise intervention to detect the serum levels of inflammatory factors and FGF21. Liver tissue samples were collected to detect the lipid content, lipid metabolic enzyme content and FGF21 expression level. Results: Compared with LC group, the body weight, serum inflammatory factors levels and hepatic triglyceride content were increased significantly (P<0.05). Hepatic triglyceride content was downregulated in LHI group and FGF21 expression level was enhanced in LCT group (P<0.05). Compared with OC group, the body weight and hepatic triglyceride content were decreased significantly (P<0.05), mitochondrial CPT-1β and β-HAD enzyme contents in liver were increased significantly (P<0.05) in OHI group, the contents of LPL and FAT/CD36 enzyme in liver and the levels of FGF21 in serum and liver of OCT group were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Both exercise modes can reduce the body weight in normal and obese rats, and lipid deposition in the liver of obese rats. HIIT has a more significant effect on alleviating liver lipid deposition in obese rats by upregulating mitochondrial lipid oxidation level in normal and obese rats. CT improves the levels of FGF21 in serum and liver tissues of normal and obese rats, enhances enzyme contents that involved in fatty acids uptake to the liver, which has limited effect on alleviating lipid deposition in liver of obese rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Liver , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Male , Obesity/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(4): 1056-1068, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341535

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El manejo de la vía respiratoria es uno de los aspectos más importantes en Anestesia. Entre el 50 y 70 % de los paros cardiacos durante la anestesia general obedecen a dificultades en la intubación. Los pacientes obesos tienen un 30 % más de probabilidades de presentar intubación difícil con respecto a pacientes normopesos. También desarrollan desaturación de oxígeno más rápido, lo que aumenta el riesgo de complicaciones. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se decidió realizar este trabajo, con el objetivo de actualizar sobre el uso de los métodos para el abordaje de la vía respiratoria en dichos pacientes. Se mostraron los criterios y resultados de investigaciones de autores sobre el tema. Se concluye que, a pesar de que el método más utilizado para abordar la vía aérea en obesos es la intubación orotraqueal con visión directa, se debe considerar el uso de máscara laríngea de intubación, fibroscopio flexible y videolaringoscopios, sobre todo en personas superobesas (AU).


ABSTRACT The respiratory tract management is one of the most important topics in anesthesia. Between 50 and 70 % of the heart arrests occurring during general anesthesia are due to intubation difficulties. Obese patients are 30 % more likely of presenting difficult intubation with respect to normal weight patients. They also develop oxygen desaturation faster, increasing the complication risk. Taking into consideration the above reasons, the authors decided to write this article, with the aim of updating on the methods to approach the respiratory tract in those patients. The authors' criteria and research outcomes on the theme are showed. It was concluded that even though the most used method to approach the airway in obese patients is the orotracheal intubation with direct vision, the use of a laryngeal intubation mask, flexible fiberscope and video laryngoscopes should be considered, especially in superobese patients (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Airway Management/methods , Obesity/complications , Laryngeal Masks/standards , Intubation/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Obesity/metabolism
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 25-30, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151401

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a composição corporal com utilização do DXA e correlacioná-la com a idade cronológica em adolescentes pós-púberes, de ambos os sexos. Participaram da pesquisa 46 adolescentes em fase pós-puberal, sendo 27 meninas (17,23±0,98) e 19 meninos (17,65±0,74) de ensino médio de uma escola estadual da Zona Sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas uma anamnese, avaliação antropométrica e o DXA para avaliações. O teste U de Mann Whitney e o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foram utilizados, adotando P<0,05 para significância. Verificou-se que as meninas apresentam composição corporal diferentedos meninos (P<0,05) e que com o aumento da idade elas tendem a diminuir o percentual de gordura, embora tenha sido observado um quantitativo alto de meninas com percentual de gordura elevado. Os meninos apresentaram uma tendência de aumento do percentual de gordura e da massa magra com o aumento da idade. As medidas de conteúdo e densidade mineral ósseo dentro da normalidade, com tendência de aumento com o avanço da idade cronológica. Conclui-se que os grupos masculino e feminino apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados quanto à composição corporal e os valores apresentados trazem mais um complemento à literatura a respeito de referências para a composição corporal, obtida com o DXA, em adolescentes pós-púberes.


The purpose of this study was to analyze body composition using DXA and correlate it with chronological age in post-pubertal adolescents of both genders. A total of 46 adolescents participated in the study, of which 27 were girls (17.23±0.98) and 19 boys (17.65±0.74) from a state school in the South District in the city of Rio de Janeiro. An anamnesis, anthropometric evaluation and DXA were performed for evaluations. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used, adopting P <0.05 for significance. Girls were found to have a different body composition than boys (P <0.05) and that, with increasing age, they tended to present a decrease in fat percentage, although in general a high number of girls presented a high fat level. The boys presented a tendency to increase the percentage of fat and lean mass with the increase of the age. Measurements of bone mineral content and density were considered as being within normality, with a tendency to increase with the advancing of the chronological age. Girls and boys present a different behavior regarding body composition and the values presented in this study bring an addition to the literature regarding body composition references through DXA in post-pubertal adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition/physiology , Body Weights and Measures , Puberty/physiology , Weight by Height/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , Nutritional Status , Adolescent/physiology , Fats/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 205-222, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Mediterranean , Nutrigenomics , Inflammation/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Chronic Disease , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 71-81, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088771

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Provide a comprehensive view of the events surrounding the sugar consumption, under conditions of energy equivalence; through the analysis of behavioral aspects of intake, and of biochemical, metabolic and physiological parameters, as well as the effect of this nutrient on the plasticity of adipose tissue. Materials and methods Newly weaned male Wistar rats were classified in two groups and subjected to the following normocaloric diets: standard chow diet or to high-sugar diet (HSD) ad libitum for 18 weeks. Results The animals submitted to the HSD were associated with a lower caloric intake during the 18 weeks of experimentation. However, the HSD induced a significant increase in body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, Lee index, and the levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition, it induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and compensatory increase of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. Also increased heart rate and induced hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue. In the liver, the HSD was associated with increased hepatic lipid content (i.e., triglycerides and cholesterol) and hepatomegaly. Conclusion The post-weaning consumption of HSD induces an adaptive response in metabolism; however, such an event is not enough to reverse the homeostatic imbalance triggered by the chronic consumption of this macronutrient, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, irrespective of caloric intake. These findings corroborate recent evidence indicating that sugar is a direct contributor to metabolic diseases independent of a positive energy balance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):71-81


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Energy Intake , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Dietary Sugars/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Sugars/adverse effects , Dietary Sugars/blood , Metabolic Diseases/blood
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5150, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090068

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To verify the association of obesity and infertility related to anovulatory issues. Methods This case-control study was carried out with 52 women, aged 20 to 38 years, divided into two groups (infertile − cases − and fertile − control), seen at outpatient clinics, in the period from April to December, 2017. Results We found significant evidence that obesity negatively affects women's fertility (p=0.017). The group of infertile women was 7.5-fold more likely to be obese than fertile women. Conclusion Strategies that encourage weight control are indicated for women with chronic anovulation, due to hight metabolic activity of adipose tissue.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar em mulheres a associação entre obesidade e infertilidade relacionada a questões anovulatórias. Métodos Estudo de caso-controle com 52 mulheres, de 20 a 38 anos, divididas em dois grupos (mulheres inférteis − casos − e férteis − controles), atendidas em ambulatórios, no período de abril a dezembro de 2017. Resultados Verificou-se evidência significativa de que a obesidade afeta negativamente na fertilidade das mulheres (p=0,017). O grupo de mulheres inférteis teve 7,5 vezes mais chances de serem obesas quando comparadas às mulheres férteis. Conclusão Estratégias que estimulem o controle do peso são indicadas para mulheres com anovulação crônica devido à elevada atividade metabólica do tecido adiposo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Infertility, Female/etiology , Anovulation/etiology , Obesity/complications , Exercise/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Infertility, Female/physiopathology , Infertility, Female/metabolism , Anovulation/physiopathology , Anovulation/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/metabolism
9.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 214-224, Sept-Dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116039

ABSTRACT

En la Argentina, las embarazadas presentan alta prevalencia (80%) de hipovitaminosis D y de sobrepeso u obesidad (27,4%). Ambas condiciones pueden aumentar la morbimortalidad materno-fetal. Bajos niveles de vitamina D se han relacionado con aumento del colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos (Tg) y descenso de HDL. Objetivo: evaluar los niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) y su relación con el perfil lipídico en pacientes embarazadas de alto riesgo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017. Se excluyeron pacientes que recibieron suplementos de vitamina D, con disfunción tiroidea no compensada, malabsorción, insuficiencia cardíaca, renal o hepática y dislipidemia familiar. Niveles circulantes de 25OHD < 30 ng/ml se consideraron hipovitaminosis. Resultados: se evaluaron 86 embarazadas de 29,3 ± 7,1 años durante la semana 28 ± 6,5. El IMC pregestacional fue 28,3 ± 6,5 kg/m2 y la ganancia de peso 7 ± 4,3 kg. Perfil lipídico: colesterol total 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL 66 ± 15 mg/dl; Tg 204 ± 80 mg/dl. La media de 25OHD fue de 23,8 ± 9 ng/ml, con una prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D de 77,9 %. Las pacientes con hipovitaminosis D presentaron mayores valores de colesterol total y LDL (p < 0,05), con tendencia no significativa a presentar mayores valores de Tg. Conclusión: en embarazadas de alto riesgo se observó una alta prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D, asociada con mayores concentraciones de colesterol total y LDL. (AU)


In Argentina, pregnant women have a high prevalence (80 %) of hypovitaminosis D and verweight/obesity (27.4%), conditions that can increase maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) have been linked to an increase in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL cholesterol. Objective: to evaluate the levels of vitamin D and its relationship with the lipid profile in high risk pregnant patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study between September 2016 and April 2017. Patients who received vitamin D supplements or had non-compensated thyroid dysfunction, malabsorption, heart failure, renal or hepatic failure, or familial dyslipidemia were excluded. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as a circulating level of 25OHD < 30 ng/ml. Results: We assessed 86 women of 29.3 ± 7.1 years during pregnancy week 28 ± 6.5. Pre-gestational BMI was 28.3 ± 6.5 kg/m2. Their weight gain was 7 ± 4.3 kg. Lipid profile: total cholesterol 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL cholesterol 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol 66 ± 15 mg/dL; TG 204 ± 80 mg/dl. The mean 25OHD level was 23.8 ± 9 ng/ml, with a 77.9 % prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher values of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (p<0.05), and a non-significant trend toward higher triglyceridemia. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, associated with high total and LDL cholesterol was found in high risk pregnant women. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Avitaminosis/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/metabolism , Argentina/epidemiology , Avitaminosis/blood , Avitaminosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analysis , Vitamin D/blood , Epidemiologic Studies , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/blood , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Obstetric Labor, Premature/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Obesity/metabolism
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 414-422, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obese adolescents are at higher risk of development of cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in later life. Dietary intake of antioxidants, particularly curcumin, as an active ingredient of turmeric extract, may have noticeable effects on obesity and its important complications such as cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of curcumin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial; Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: 60 adolescent girls (aged 13-18 years) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or intervention. The adolescents were asked to consume one 500 mg tablet per day, containing either standardized 95% turmeric extract or placebo, and to undergo a weight maintenance or a mild weight loss diet for 10 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical indices were assessed at the baseline and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Curcumin supplementation had beneficial effects on body mass index (P = 0.019), waist circumference (P = 0.008), hip circumference (P = 0.030), high-density lipoprotein levels (P = 0.042) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio (P = 0.021). However, in univariate analysis of covariance, no significant differences were found between the intervention and placebo groups after 10 weeks of supplementation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of curcumin supplementation along with use of a slight weight loss diet might have beneficial effects on some cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adolescents. Larger clinical trials with higher curcumin doses and longer duration are needed to confirm the results from the current study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20171107037302N1


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Overweight/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Exercise/physiology , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet, Reducing , Waist Circumference , Lipids/blood , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038708

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non diabetic teetotallers who constitute a definite group are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To identify the metabolic risk factors of NAFLD if any in non diabetic subjects who do not consume alcohol. METHODS: In a cross sectional study the effect of metabolic parameters (BMI, individual lipid levels, hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), HOMA IR and the metabolic syndrome components) of 150 consecutive non diabetic teetotallers (90 with normal glucose tolerance and 60 prediabetics) on their NFS (quantifiable severity parameter of NAFLD) was studied by linear regression analysis. Similar study was done in the normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes groups separately. These parameters were then compared with those of 75 matched diabetic teetotallers with NAFLD. To analyse further the difference between normal glucose tolerance, prediabetic and overt diabetic groups, binary logistic regression of the factors was carried out taking prediabetes and diabetes as outcome variable. RESULTS: All the metabolic parameters were significantly higher in diabetics compared to non diabetics and in prediabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and BMI significantly predicted NFS in the overall (adjusted R2 68.7%, P=0.000) and normal glucose tolerance groups (adjusted R2 73.2%, P=0.000) whereas BMI, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c did in prediabetics (adjusted R2 89%, P=0.000). The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with NFS in the overall and prediabetic groups. High triglyceride (odds ratio1.08), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio1.03) and HbA1c (odds ratio 11.54) were positively associated with prediabetes compared to normal glucose tolerance group. CONCLUSION: In nondiabetic teetotallers dyslipidemias are the prime contributors to the development of NAFLD.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os fatores de risco metabólicos da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em abstêmios não diabéticos, que constituem um grupo distinto, não são bem definidos. OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco metabólicos da DHGNA em indivíduos não diabéticos e que não consumam álcool. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal, o efeito dos parâmetros metabólicos (IMC, níveis de lipídios individuais, HbA1c, Homa IR e os componentes da síndrome metabólica) de 150 abstêmios não diabéticos consecutivos (90 com tolerância à glicose normal e 60 pré-diabéticos) em sua NFS (parâmetro de gravidade quantificável da DHGNA) foram estudados por análise de regressão linear. Um estudo similar em separado foi feito nos grupos normais da tolerância da glicose e do pré-diabetes. Esses parâmetros foram comparados com os de 75 abstêmios diabéticos pareados com DHGNA. Para analisar ainda mais a diferença entre a tolerância à glicose normal foi realizada a regressão logística binária dos fatores tomando pré-diabetes e diabetes como variável de desfecho, nos grupos diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. RESULTADOS: Todos os parâmetros metabólicos foram significativamente maiores nos diabéticos comparados aos não diabéticos e em pré-diabéticos comparados àqueles com tolerância normal à glicose, exceto HDL. Os índices TG, HDL e IMC previram significativamente o NFS no geral nos grupos de tolerância normal (R2 ajustado 68,7%, P=0,000) e de glicose normal (R2 ajustado 73,2%, P=0,000), enquanto o IMC, TG, LDL e HbA1c predisseram em pré-diabéticos (R2 ajustado 89%, P=0,000). A síndrome metabólica foi associada significativamente com o NFS nos grupos totais e pré-diabéticos. O TG elevado (odds ratio 1,08), o LDL (odds ratio 1,03) e a HbA1c (odds ratio 11,54) foram positivamente associados ao pré-diabetes em comparação com o grupo normal de tolerância à glicose. CONCLUSÃO: Em abstêmios não diabéticos as dislipidemias são os principais contribuintes para o desenvolvimento da DHGNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 294-299, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038710

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: During weight gain, most of the excess adipose tissue accumulates in the trunk. This alters the body shape and makes collection of anthropometric measurements, especially waist circumference (WC), difficult. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity and applicability of additional abdominal measurements in order to assess body composition of obese women. METHODS: A total of 30 women between 20 and 50 years of age and BMI above 30 kg/m² were assessed. Three WC measurements, were performed: at the umbilical scar designated as WC1 and at 8 and 16 cm above the umbilical scar, designated as WC2, and WC3 respectively. The correlation (r) between these anthropometric measurements and their sum was assessed against the parameters fat mass (FM), free fat mass (FFM), body fat percentage (%BF), and trunk fat percentage (%TF), obtained by total and trunk segmental bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) as well as by the golden standard total and trunk dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: The measurements WC1, WC2, WC3, and their sum correlated strongly and moderately with the parameters FM, FFM, and %BF in total BIA and in both total DXA and trunk DXA. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a robust correlation between the sum of the three WC measurements and total and trunk DXA in obese women suggesting that such measurements may be a good indicator of body and trunk fat in women, actually superior to BIA results. The use of these three measurements may be an alternative for the assessment of body and trunk fat, in those cases in which the body shape due to adipose tissue trunk accumulation makes accurate classical measurement (WC1) difficult.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O acúmulo de tecido adiposo excessivo no ganho de peso se dá em maior proporção no segmento do tronco, leva à alteração dos formatos corporais dificultando a tomada de medidas antropométricas, em especial a circunferência abdominal (CA). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade de medidas adicionais na região abdominal, considerando cada medida individualmente e sua somatória, e a aplicabilidade dessas medidas na avaliação da composição corporal de mulheres obesas. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 30 mulheres com idade entre 20 e 50 anos e IMC acima de 30 kg/m² com a realização de três medidas de CA denominadas: CA1 padronizada na cicatriz umbilical, CA2 a 8 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical e CA3 a 16 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical. Foi avaliada a correlação (r) destas medidas antropométricas e de sua somatória com os parâmetros massa gorda (MG), massa livre de gordura (MLG), porcentagem de gordura corporal (%GC) e do tronco (%GT) obtidos por impedância bioelétrica (BIA) total e segmentar do tronco e por absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia (DXA) total e do tronco, como padrão ouro. RESULTADOS: As medidas CA1, CA2, CA3 e a somatória das três tiveram correlação forte e moderada com os parâmetros MG, MLG e %GC tanto para BIA total como para DXA total e DXA do tronco. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo mostram forte correlação entre a soma das medidas de três pontos no abdome com DXA de tronco e total, em mulheres obesas, sugerindo serem estas medidas, um bom indicador de gordura corporal e de gordura da região do tronco, superior aos resultados obtidos por BIA. O uso dessas três medidas pode ser um indicador alternativo de avaliação da gordura corporal e de tronco, nos casos em que o formato corporal de acúmulo de gordura na região do tronco, dificultar a acurácia da medida clássica (CA1).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition/physiology , Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Waist Circumference/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Electric Impedance , Middle Aged
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 601-608, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.


RESUMO Objetivo: A inflamação hipotalâmica e a superexpressão da proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) em astrócitos são bem descritas em animais obesos, assim como déficits cognitivos e de memória. Como o hipocampo desempenha importante papel na consolidação de informações, esta investigação teve como objetivo observar a função da memória e a expressão astrocitária da GFAP no hipocampo de ratos que receberam dieta hipercalórica ou normocalórica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos adultos receberam dieta rica em gordura (cafeteria) ou dieta padrão por 60 dias. No 61º dia, os ratos foram submetidos ao teste de reconhecimento de objetos (NOR) 3 e 24 horas após o primeiro contato com os objetos, para avaliação da memória de curto e de longo prazo, respectivamente. Após, os ratos foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos coletados para pesquisa imuno-histoquímica da expressão astrocitária de GFAP no hipocampo (áreas CA1, CA2 e CA3) e no hipotálamo (núcleos periventricular e arqueado). A reatividade astrocitária foi avaliada por morfometria. Diferentes depósitos de tecido adiposo branco e marrom foram pesados para calcular o índice de adiposidade. Resultados: A dieta hipercalórica aumentou o ganho de peso corporal, o índice de adiposidade, o peso do tecido adiposo branco (epididimal, subcutâneo e retroperitoneal) e marrom. Ratos alimentados com dieta hipercalórica apresentaram prejuízos na memória de curto e longo prazo no teste NOR e aumento da expressão de GFAP em astrócitos de todas as áreas hipotalâmicas e hipocampais analisadas. Conclusão: Esta astrogliose sugere que a resposta neuroinflamatória também ocorre no hipocampo, podendo estar envolvida nas perdas de memória observadas em animais obesos/com sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Astrocytes/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/cytology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 575-583, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Evaluate the association between inflammatory process, adiposity, and vitamins A, D, and E in adolescents, according to gender. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 12-19 years old of both genders attending public schools in Recife. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socioeconomic level, lifestyle, and food intake of adolescents. Then, an anthropometric evaluation and a blood sampling were performed to analyze serum concentrations of α-1-acid glycoprotein, retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. Results: The levels of α-1-acid glycoprotein were higher for abdominal obesity in both genders. Male adolescents with insufficient serum α-tocopherol levels had low levels of α-1-acid glycoprotein (p = 0.03) and an increased risk of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and β-carotene deficiency in relation to total and abdominal fat; female adolescents had an increased risk of insufficient β-carotene with abdominal obesity (PR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). Conclusion: Abdominal adiposity implies a higher risk of inflammation and causes different changes to the levels of fat-soluble vitamins according to gender.


Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre processo inflamatório, adiposidade e as vitaminas A, D e E em adolescentes, segundo o sexo. Métodos: Estudo transversal com adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos de ambos os sexos de escolas públicas de Recife. Foi utilizado um questionário para coleta de dados socioeconômicos, de estilo de vida e de consumo alimentar dos adolescentes. Em seguida, realizou-se a avalição antropométrica e coleta de sangue para análise das concentrações séricas de α-1-glicoproteína ácida, retinol, β-caroteno, α-tocoferol e 25-hidroxivitamina D. Resultados: Os níveis de α-1-glicoproteína ácida foram maiores na obesidade abdominal de ambos os sexos. Os meninos com níveis séricos insuficientes de α-tocoferol expressaram níveis reduzidos de α-1-glicoproteína ácida (p = 0,03) e apresentaram um maior risco de deficiência de 25-hidroxivitamina D e β-caroteno na adiposidade total e abdominal, enquanto as meninas mostraram maior risco de insuficiência de β-caroteno com a obesidade abdominal (RP 1,33; IC 95% 1,2-1,5). Conclusão: A adiposidade abdominal reflete maior risco de inflamação e causa alterações distintas nas concentrações das vitaminas lipossolúveis, de acordo com o sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamins/metabolism , Adiposity/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reference Values , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Orosomucoid/analysis , Carotenoids/blood , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 241-249, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the relationship of flavonoid intake during pregnancy with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 785 adult women in singleton pregnancies, and data were collected at the time of the oral glucose tolerance test. For the body mass index (BMI) classification according to the gestational age, the criteria of Atalah was used, and the diagnosis of GDM was based on the World Health Organization of 2014. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained, and the usual intake was determined by the Multiple Source Method. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship of the flavonoids with overweight and obesity, and adjusted non-conditional logistic regression for the relationship of the flavonoids with GDM. Results: The mean (SD) age of the women was 28 (5) years, 32.1% were overweight, 24.6% were obese and 17.7% were diagnosed with GDM. The median (P25, P75) of total flavonoid intake was 50 (31,75) mg/day. Considering the eutrophic women as the reference, the pregnant women with a higher total flavonoid intake [OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.38; 0.96)] and anthocyanidin intake [OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.40; 0.99)] were less likely to be obese when compared to the women with lower intakes. No association of the flavonoids intake with overweight or GDM was found. Conclusion: A very low intake of flavonoids was observed. The data suggest that the intake of foods naturally rich in total flavonoids and anthocyanidin has a beneficial role regarding obesity among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Diet Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucose Tolerance Test
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(3): 314-321, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004352

ABSTRACT

Background: Weight-based stigmatization is frequent among overweight and obese people. Aim: To determine the association between weight-based stigmatization, psychological stress, cortisol, negative emotions, and eating behavior in a sample of middle-aged women. Material and Methods: Eighty-two women aged 45 ± 8 years, 55% with overweight or obesity, were randomly allocated to watch a video called "Stigma: the human cost of obesity" or a control video about planet earth. The effect of watching either video on calorie consumption, psychological stress and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cortisol was measured on four salivary samples. Psychological stress and negative emotions were self-reported. Results: Among women who watched the stigmatizing video, there was a direct association between psychological stress and calorie intake, but negative emotions did not mediate this association. Moreover, psychological stress moderated the association between watching the stigmatizing video and the cortisol output (β = 0.32; p = 0.005). Conclusions: Women with high psychological stress have a greater intake of calories. After watching the stigmatizing video, a greater psychological stress is associated with greater cortisol output.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Energy Intake , Overweight/psychology , Social Stigma , Obesity/psychology , Body Weight , Overweight/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Obesity/metabolism
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 87-97, Jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985008

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality in the contemporary world. The critical role of the endothelial cells (EC) in vascular homeostasis, the metabolic changes that take place when the cell is activated, and the elements involved in these processes have been widely explored over the past years. Obesity and its impact, promoting a rise in blood levels of free fatty acids (FAs) are often associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality. However, the mechanisms that promote cardiovascular structural changes and adaptive changes in the ECs, particularly in the context of obesity, are little known. Here, we reviewed studies that assessed the metabolic adaptations of healthy and dysfunctional ECs during exposure to FAs, as well as the epidemiological perspectives of cardiovascular structural changes in obesity. Finally, we explored the role of new agents - sphingolipids, dietary unsaturated fatty acids and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (iSGLT2) - in atherosclerosis and their relationship with obesity.


RESUMO A aterosclerose é a causa líder de mortalidade no mundo contemporâneo. O papel central da célula endotelial (EC) na homeostase vascular, as alterações metabólicas que ocorrem quando a célula se torna ativada e os elementos envolvidos nesses processos vêm sendo bastante explorados nos últimos anos. A obesidade e o seu impacto, promovendo uma elevação dos níveis sanguíneos de ácidos graxos (FAs) livres, é bastante associada à aterosclerose e à mortalidade cardiovascular. Entretanto, os mecanismos que promovem alterações estruturais cardiovasculares e alterações adaptativas nas ECs, particularmente no contexto da obesidade, são pouco conhecidos. Aqui, nós revisamos estudos que avaliaram as adaptações metabólicas das ECs normais e disfuncionais durante exposição a FAs, bem como as perspectivas epidemiológicas das alterações cardiovasculares estruturais na obesidade. Finalmente, exploramos o papel de novos atores — esfingolípides, ácidos graxos insaturados da dieta e inibidores do cotransportador de sódio-glucose 2 (iSGLT2) — na aterosclerose e sua relação com a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endothelial Cells , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180365, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Visfatin is an adipokine that plays an important role in immune functions as a growth factor, enzyme, and pro-inflammatory mediator. We aimed to determine the levels of visfatin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in both obese/non-obese patients, with/without generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP). Methodology Patients were categorized as obese (O) (n=31) or non-obese (nO) (n=19). Groups were divided into four subgroups according to periodontal conditions: (1) periodontally healthy without obesity (nO-Ctrl); (2) GCP without obesity (nO-CP); (3) periodontally healthy with obesity (O-Ctrl); and (4) GCP with obesity (O-CP). Demographic variables, anthropometric and laboratory data were recorded. Periodontal parameters were measured at baseline and 3rd months after either non-surgical periodontal treatment or calorie -restricted diet therapy. At the same time, GCF samples were taken from patients to analyze TNF-alpha, IL-6,and visfatin levels. Results Periodontal parameters were significantly higher in the O group than in the nO group (P<0.05). IL-6 levels were higher in the O group than in the nO group (P<0.001). The visfatin levels of the obese patients were reduceddecreased following the treatments (P<0.05). Cholesterol levels were higher in the O group than in the nO groups (P<0.05). IL-6 levels were higher in O-CP and O-Ctrl groups than in the nO-Ctrl group (P<0.05). Compared to the other groups, visfatin levels were significantly higher in the O-CP group but decreased following treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that visfatin and IL-6 levels in GCF are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity and periodontitis. Within the limits of this study, we considered that there might be an association between the lipid profile and periodontitis on systemically healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/analysis , Obesity/metabolism , Periodontitis/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Radiography, Panoramic , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Periodontal Index , Cytokines/physiology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/physiology , Middle Aged
19.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(1): e1422, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Systemic bone loss may lead to more severe periodontal destruction, decreasing local bone mineral density. Aim: A cross-sectional designed was performed to study associations among alveolar bone pattern, salivary leptin concentrations, and clinical periodontal status in premenopausal obese and eutrophic women. Methods: Thirty morbid obese (G1) and 30 normal-weight (G2) women were included. Anthropometric and periodontal measurements (probing depth - PD, clinical attachment levels - CAL, presence of calculus, bleeding on probing -BOP, and plaque accumulation) were assessed. OHIP-14 was used for assessment of oral health impact on quality of life. Panoramic radiography was used to obtain the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and mental index (MI). Intraoral periapical (PA) radiography was taken to measure the total trabecular bone volume. Leptin was measured in saliva of fasted overnight women. Results: Groups 1 and 2 differed in all anthropometric aspects, but height. Pocket depth, calculus, BOP, and plaque index were worse in G1. No differences between groups were found considering OHIP. Normal-weight subjects showed higher proportion of dense bone trabeculae than obese subjects for pre-molars, but not for molars. Mental and panoramic mandibular indexes did not differ and were in normal level. Leptin concentration was dependent only on BMI. Conclusion: Obesity affected the periodontal conditions, the alveolar bone pattern, and the salivary leptin concentration.


RESUMO Racional: A perda óssea sistêmica pode levar à destruição periodontal mais severa, diminuindo a densidade mineral óssea local. Objetivo: Investigar as associações entre padrão ósseo alveolar, concentrações de leptina salivar e estado periodontal em mulheres obesas na pré-menopausa e eutróficas. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 30 mulheres com obesidade mórbida (G1) e 30 com peso normal (G2). Foram analisadas as medidas antropométricas e periodontais (profundidade de sondagem - PS, nível clínico de inserção - NCI, presença de cálculo, sangramento à sondagem - SS e acúmulo de placa). O impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida foi mensurado por meio do questionário OHIP-14. Radiografia panorâmica foi utilizada para obter o índice mandibular panorâmico (PMI), índice cortical mandibular (MCI) e índice mental (MI); já a radiografia periapical intraoral (AF) para medir o volume ósseo trabecular total. A leptina salivar foi coletada no período da manhã com a paciente em jejum. Resultados: Os grupos 1 e 2 diferiram em todos os aspectos antropométricos, exceto em estatura. Profundidade de bolsa, cálculo, SS e índice de placa foram piores no G1. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos considerando o OHIP. Indivíduos com peso normal apresentaram maior proporção de trabéculas ósseas densas do que os obesos para pré-molares, mas não para molares. Índices radiomorfométricos não diferiram entre os grupos e estavam dentro de valores normais. A concentração de leptina esteve associada ao IMC. Conclusão: A obesidade afetou as condições periodontais, o padrão ósseo alveolar e a concentração de leptina salivar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Saliva/chemistry , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Leptin/analysis , Quality of Life , Bone Density , Case-Control Studies , Dental Plaque Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180371, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990443

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The levels of the full-length form of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may be reduced in the membranes of kidneys in renal diseases. This study aimed to investigate the RAS components in the kidneys of mice submitted to a combination of a high-fat diet and Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were maintained on a control or high-fat diet from 3 weeks of age. After 10 weeks on the designated diets, half the mice in each group were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The blood and kidneys were harvested 8 weeks after infection. RESULTS: The high-fat diet increased the number of eggs in the feces and the number of adult worms in the mesenteric bed. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol in the control and high-fat diet groups. In mice on the control diet, S. mansoni infection resulted in increased expression of IL-6 in the kidneys; however, in mice on the high-fat diet, the levels of IL-6 were reduced and those of superoxide anions were increased. The RAS components evaluated were ACE2, renin, PRR, AT1R, and AT2R, and the levels of PRR were found to be reduced in the kidneys of infected mice on the high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: The finding regarding PRR is not yet clear. However, combining a high-fat diet and S. mansoni infection resulted in increased oxidative stress in the kidney that can aggravate hypertension as well as its associated complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Kidney/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Actins/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Obesity/physiopathology
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