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Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 87(2): 109-119, dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1555608


El trastorno obsesivo compulsivo es diagnosticado tardíamente, factor que empeora su pronóstico. Contar con una escala de cribado facilitaría el diagnóstico oportuno. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron seleccionar la escala más adecuada para cribado de trastorno obsesivo compulsivo en adultos y someterla a un proceso de adaptación cultural uruguaya. Se efectuó una revisión narrativa de escalas diseñadas para cribado de este trastorno en Internet, entre febrero y mayo de 2021. Las escalas fueron analizadas según una lista de criterios preestablecidos, que permitió descartar progresivamente aquellas que no reunían las condiciones: extensión menor a 30 ítems, método autoaplicado, adecuadas propiedades psicométricas, punto de corte establecido para la detección, incluir las temáticas y presentaciones características de la patología. Seleccionado el inventario, se efectuó su traducción directa y reversa, y revisión conceptual por comité de expertas. Fue seleccionada la escala Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (FOCI), que presenta buena apariencia lógica, lenguaje accesible y una sensibilidad del 92 % para detección de trastorno obsesivo compulsivo. De su adaptación cultural se obtuvo una versión preliminar en lenguaje regional. La versión preliminar de FOCI deberá ser testeada cualitativamente en estudio piloto, donde será completada por usuarios con trastorno obsesivo compulsivo, para obtener una versión regional equivalente a la original.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is diagnosed late, a factor that worsens its prognosis. Having a screening scale would facilitate timely diagnosis. The objectives are to select the most appropriate scale for obsessive-compulsive disorder screening in adults and submit it to a process of Uruguaiyan cultural adaptation. Between February and May 2021, a narrative review of scales designed for that disorder screening on the Internet was carried out. The scales were analyzed according to a list of pre-established criteria, which made it possible to progressively discard those that did not meet the conditions: an extension less than 30 items, self-applied method, adequate psychometric properties, cut-off point established for the detection, including the topics and characteristic presentations of the pathology. Once the inventory was selected, its direct and reverse translation was carried out, as well as a conceptual review by a committee of experts. The Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (FOCI) scale was selected, which presents good logical appearance, accessible language and a sensitivity of 92 % for obsessive-compulsive disorder screening. From its cultural adaptation, a preliminary version in regional language was obtained. The preliminary version of FOCI must be qualitatively tested in a pilot study, where it will be completed by users with obsessive-compulsive disorder, in order to obtain a regional version equivalent to the original.

Humans , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Mass Screening , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Uruguay , Reproducibility of Results
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56546, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367534


The aim of the study is to determine the psychological well-being of patients who underwent stem cell transplantation. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 patients. Data were collected face-to-face using an introductory information form and the Brief Symptom Inventory.When the results of the patients were examined, the interpersonal sensitivity of the sub-dimensions of the scale was found to be 5.0 ± 4.06, depression 7.60 ± 5.37, and anxiety disorder 7.90 ± 5.34. There was a significant difference between the diagnosistime of the patients and all sub-factors of the scale, except phobic anxiety. It was found that the psychological state of the patients was directly related to the time of first diagnosis. As a result, the importance of following the psychological processof the patients during the treatment process was revealed when planning nursing care.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Patients/psychology , Stem Cell Transplantation/nursing , Emotional Adjustment/ethics , Nursing Care/ethics , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/nursing , Anxiety Disorders/rehabilitation , Paranoid Disorders/diagnosis , Paranoid Disorders/nursing , Paranoid Disorders/therapy , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/nursing , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Somatoform Disorders/diagnosis , Somatoform Disorders/nursing , Somatoform Disorders/therapy , Bone Marrow , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/nursing , Hostility , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/nursing , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 333-338, 26/11/2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362075


Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disabling chronic neuropsychiatric disease, entails high economic costs to society and has high morbidity and mortality rates. The first-line treatments for OCD are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitivebehavioral therapy. However, this disorder has the highest refractory index to noninvasive treatment. Alternatively, ablative thermocoagulation neurosurgical techniques have shown efficacy and few adverse effects. The present systematic review aimed to identify validated protocols to observe the effectiveness of ablative procedures in the treatment of severe and refractory OCD, as well as their possible adverse effects and benefits. This review supports the effectiveness of ablative methods by presenting them as a safe non-experimental therapeutic option for cases of highlyrefractory OCD. Additional relevant findings were the improvement in cognitive function, functional capacity, affective orientation, and quality of life, which contribute to the destigmatization of this surgical technique. Further controlled studies may lead to the individualization of recommendations of targets for ablative thermocoagulation.

Electrocoagulation/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/physiopathology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Psychosurgery/methods , Electrocoagulation/methods , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 160-167, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285523


Objectives: Although the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) includes ancillary symptom dimensions - insight, avoidance, degree of indecisiveness, inflated sense of responsibility, pervasive slowness/disturbance of inertia, and pathological doubting -, we know little about their clinical/scientific utility. We examined these ancillary dimensions in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and tested their associations with clinical characteristics. Methods: Treatment-seeking children and adolescents (n=173) with a DSM-5 OCD diagnosis were recruited from six centers in India and evaluated with a semi-structured proforma for sociodemographic/clinical details, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5, the CY-BOCS, the Children's Depression Rating Scale, and the Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Regression analysis was used to study the associations between ancillary dimensions (independent variables) and clinical variables (dependent variables). Results: 87.9% of the sample reported at least a mild-moderate severity of ancillary dimensions, which were highly intercorrelated. Multiple ancillary dimensions were correlated with illness severity on the CY-BOCS. On regression analysis, only insight and avoidance retained significance. There were few differential associations between OCD symptom and ancillary dimensions. Conclusion: Ancillary dimensions are more a feature of illness severity than differentially associated with individual symptom dimensions in childhood OCD. Insight and avoidance should be considered for inclusion in the assessment of illness severity in childhood OCD.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Avoidance Learning , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(4): 10-12, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095492


For many years, the cerebellum was thought to be only responsible for balance, movement, planning and execution. Nowadays, it is well accepted that most cerebellar connections are involved in non-motor functions. Herein, we provide a case report in which a 27-year-old Brazilian male, diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has demonstrated cerebellar features that could be connected to Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA-1), an autosomal dominant polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder that had been previously ruled out. Since obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) are known to correlate with alterations in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, we propose a possible association between OCS and SCA onset.

Durante muitos anos, o cerebelo foi considerado responsável exclusivamente pelo controle das funções de equilíbrio, movimento, planejamento e execução. Atualmente, já está consagrada a participação das conexões cerebelares em funções não-motoras. Apresentamos um relato de caso de um paciente de 27 anos de idade, diagnosticado com Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo (TOC). O paciente apresentava sintomas cerebelares compatíveis com o diagnóstico de ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 1 (SCA-1), um distúrbio da poliglutamina, autossômico dominante neurodegenerativo, que havia sido previamente descartado. Como os sintomas obsessivos compulsivos (SOC) são conhecidos por correlacionar-se com alterações nos circuitos cortico-estriato-tálamo-cortical, propomos uma possível associação entre o SOC e o início da SCA.

Humans , Male , Adult , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/complications , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Genetic Testing , Gait Ataxia , Dysarthria , Ataxin-1/genetics , Neurologic Examination/methods
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 22(3): 362-371, set.-dez. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1043582


RESUMO: Este artigo aborda a neurose obsessiva a partir dos fundamentos teórico-clínicos de Freud e Lacan. A clínica psicanalítica nos permite formular questões pertinentes ao estudo desenvolvido, possibilitando, assim, a articulação entre teoria e prática clínica. Este estudo convoca o leitor ao debate sobre os impasses da clínica e a direção do tratamento, e desvela que a clínica da neurose obsessiva muito pode ensinar sobre os fundamentos da psicanálise, sobre o complexo de Édipo, sobre como o sujeito se posiciona diante do desejo e suas estratégias de gozo.

Abstract: This article approaches obsessional neurosis from the theoretical-clinical foundations of Freud and Lacan. The psychoanalytic clinic allows us to formulate pertinent questions to the developed study, thus allowing the articulation between theory and clinical practice. This study summons the reader to the debate about the impasses of the clinic and the direction of the treatment, and reveals that the clinic of obsessional neurosis can teach much about the foundations of psychoanalysis, about the Oedipus complex, about how the subject stands before the desire and their strategies of "jouissance".

Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Oedipus Complex
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(6): 494-498, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055329


Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale - Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II). Method: A total of 86 adults with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), ranging in age from 15 to 78 years, participated in the study. Participants were administered the Y-BOCS-II by a trained clinician who also rated overall illness severity on two additional measures. Patients completed the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Results: Results indicated high internal consistency and fair 1-week test retest reliability. The Y-BOCS-II scales correlated strongly with clinician-rated obsessive-compulsive severity and modestly with self-reported obsessive-compulsive symptom frequency and distress. The relationship between Y-BOCS-II total score and depressive and anxiety symptoms was strong, which may reflect high rates of comorbid conditions in this sample or the linkage between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and distress. Factor analysis demonstrated a two-factor structure consisting of obsession and compulsion factors, with interference due to obsessions cross-loading. Conclusions: Overall, these results support the use of the Y-BOCS-II among individuals from China. Future study by an independent group is necessary to replicate these findings, as well as investigate interrater reliability and treatment sensitivity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , China , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Language , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(4): 273-278, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023537


Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric condition that leads to significant impairment in everyday life. Advancements in neurobiological investigations contributed to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind OCD, leading to the understanding that current models employed to conceptualize OCD are not adequate and might be a significant factor in precluding further advancements in how OCD is treated. In this paper, we will use OCD as a model to discuss the limitations of the current diagnostic systems in Psychiatry and to present the novel perspectives based on neurobiological findings that might lead to considerable advancements in treatments for OCD.

Neurobiology/trends , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/physiopathology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 257-260, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039096


Objective: Although attentional bias (AB) toward angry faces is well established in patients with anxiety disorders, it is still poorly studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We investigated whether OCD patients present AB toward angry faces, whether AB is related to symptom severity and whether AB scores are associated with specific OCD symptom dimensions. Method: Forty-eight OCD patients were assessed in clinical evaluations, intelligence testing and a dot-probe AB paradigm that used neutral and angry faces as stimuli. Analyses were performed with a one-sample t-test, Pearson correlations and linear regression. Results: No evidence of AB was observed in OCD patients, nor was there any association between AB and symptom severity or dimension. Psychiatric comorbidity did not affect our results. Conclusion: In accordance with previous studies, we were unable to detect AB in OCD patients. To investigate whether OCD patients have different brain activation patterns from anxiety disorder patients, future studies using a transdiagnostic approach should evaluate AB in OCD and anxiety disorder patients as they perform AB tasks under functional neuroimaging protocols.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , Attentional Bias , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/physiopathology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Psychological Tests , Data Accuracy , Facial Recognition , Anger , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 104-109, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990407


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar evidências atuais da relação entre transtorno obsessivo compulsivo e dificuldades alimentares. Métodos: Revisão das bases Science Direct e PubMed no período entre 2007 e 2017 em inglês, português e espanhol, com os termos em associação "transtorno obsessivo compulsivo" e "picky eating/dificuldade alimentar". Foram selecionados apenas estudos de coorte, caso controle ou transversal, realizados em qualquer país, com crianças, adolescentes e/ou adultos e de qualquer tamanho amostral. Foram excluídos os artigos de opinião. Resultados: Cerca de 245 artigos foram selecionados e apenas 4 foram incluídos no estudo, segundo critérios de seleção. Os trabalhos descrevem essencialmente que há diferença no comportamento seletivo entre os sujeitos com e sem transtorno obsessivo compulsivo, com tendência para exacerbação de sintomas como nojo, ansiedade e escore de inflexibilidade de comportamento alimentar nos pacientes com esse transtorno. Conclusões: Existem sintomas compartilhados entre transtorno obsessivo compulsivo e dificuldade alimentar. O estudo alerta aos profissionais que acompanham pacientes com dificuldades alimentares para a importância da investigação de possíveis comorbidades psiquiátricas.

ABSTRACT Objective: To review current evidence on the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and feeding difficulties. Methods: Review the Science Direct and PubMed databases between 2007 and 2017 in English, Portuguese and Spanish. The search terms, used in association, were "obsessive compulsive disorder" and "picky eating/feeding difficulty". Cohort, case control and cross sectional studies were included that analyzed children, adolescents and/or adults of any sample size from any country in the world. Opinion articles were excluded. Results: Around 245 articles were selected, and only 4 were included in this review, according to previous criteria. Results from the studies essentially described that there is indeed a difference in "picky" behaviors between subjects with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder tend to have exacerbated symptoms of disgust, anxiety and a higher eating behavior inflexibility score. Conclusions: Obsessive-compulsive disorder and feeding difficulties patients share common symptoms. The present study alerts health professionals who follow patients with feeding difficulties as to the importance of investigating possible psychiatric comorbidities.

Humans , Child , Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(4): 388-393, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959254


Objective: A first-degree relative affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in childhood is an important risk factor for developing the disorder in adulthood. The relationship between a family history of OCD and the presence of OCS and its correlates in childhood is not well established. Methods: A total of 66 children whose parents or siblings have been diagnosed with OCD were assessed for the presence of OCS and clinical correlates. Results: Three children (4.5%) were reported to have received an OCD diagnosis and another 26 (39.4%) were identified as having OCS. Children with OCS had higher rates of coercive behavior and came from families with lower socioeconomic status. Contamination/cleaning dimension symptoms in the proband were associated with OCS in the assessed children. Conclusion: OCS are frequent among family members of individuals with OCD and are associated with socioeconomic status, coercive behaviors and proband contamination/cleaning symptoms. Future longitudinal studies should test the risk of developing OCD in association with these characteristics.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Family/psychology , Child of Impaired Parents/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Coercion , Age of Onset , Risk Assessment , Siblings/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 553-559, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974366


Abstract Introduction: Misophonia is a recently described, poorly understood and neglected condition. It is characterized by strong negative reactions of hatred, anger or fear when subjects have to face some selective and low level repetitive sounds. The most common ones that trigger such aversive reactions are those elicited by the mouth (chewing gum or food, popping lips) or the nose (breathing, sniffing, and blowing) or by the fingers (typing, kneading paper, clicking pen, drumming on the table). Previous articles have cited that such individuals usually know at least one close relative with similar symptoms, suggesting a possible hereditary component. Objective: We found and described a family with 15 members having misophonia, detailing their common characteristics and the pattern of sounds that trigger such strong discomfort. Methods: All 15 members agreed to give us their epidemiological data, and 12 agreed to answer a specific questionnaire which investigated the symptoms, specific trigger sounds, main feelings evoked and attitudes adopted by each participant. Results: The 15 members belong to three generations of the family. Their age ranged from 9 to 73 years (mean 38.3 years; median 41 years) and 10 were females. Analysis of the 12 questionnaires showed that 10 subjects (83.3%) developed the first symptoms during childhood or adolescence. The mean annoyance score on the Visual Analog Scale from 0 to 10 was 7.3 (median 7.5). Individuals reported hatred/anger, irritability and anxiety in response to sounds, and faced the situation asking to stop the sound, leaving/avoiding the place and even fighting. The self-reported associated symptoms were anxiety (91.3%), tinnitus (50%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (41.6%), depression (33.3%), and hypersensitivity to sounds (25%). Conclusion: The high incidence of misophonia in this particular familial distribution suggests that it might be more common than expected and raises the possibility of having a hereditary etiology.

Resumo Introdução: A misofonia é uma condição recentemente descrita, mal compreendida e negligenciada. É caracterizada por fortes reações negativas de ódio, raiva ou medo quando os indivíduos precisam enfrentar alguns sons repetitivos seletivos e de baixa intensidade. Os mais comuns que desencadeiam tais reações aversivas são aqueles provocados pela boca (mascar goma ou mastigar comida, estalar os lábios) ou nariz (respirando, cheirando e soprando) ou pelos dedos (digitando, amassando papel, clicando a caneta, tamborilando na mesa). Artigos anteriores citam que esses indivíduos geralmente conhecem pelo menos um parente próximo com sintomas semelhantes, sugerindo um possível componente hereditário. Objetivo: Encontramos e descrevemos uma família com 15 membros com misofonia, detalhando suas características comuns e o padrão de sons que desencadeiam um desconforto tão forte. Método: Todos os 15 membros concordaram em nos fornecer seus dados epidemiológicos e 12 concordaram em responder a um questionário específico que investigou os sintomas, sons de gatilho específicos, principais sentimentos evocados e atitudes adotadas por cada participante. Resultados: Os 15 membros pertencem a três gerações da família. A idade variou de 9 a 73 anos (média de 38,3 anos, mediana de 41 anos) e 10 eram mulheres. A análise dos 12 questionários mostrou que 10 indivíduos (83,3%) desenvolveram os primeiros sintomas durante a infância ou a adolescência. A média do escore de irritação na Escala Visual Analógica de 0 a 10 foi de 7,3 (mediana 7,5). Os indivíduos relataram sentimentos de ódio/raiva, irritabilidade e ansiedade em resposta a sons, e enfrentaram a situação pedindo para interromper o som, deixando/evitando o lugar e até mesmo discutindo. Os sintomas associados auto-relatados foram ansiedade (91,3%), zumbido (50%), transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (41,6%), depressão (33,3%) e hipersensibilidade aos sons (25%). Conclusão: A alta incidência de misofonia nessa distribuição familiar em particular sugere que possa ser mais comum do que o esperado e suscita a possibilidade de haver uma etiologia hereditária.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/genetics , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Emotions , Hearing Disorders/genetics , Hearing Disorders/psychology , Anger , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Sound , Syndrome , Family , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/genetics , Depression/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Disorders/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/genetics , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3 (supl)): 353-360, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-964378


O presente ensaio tem como objetivo apresentar reflexões sobre o processo diagnóstico no campo dos transtornos mentais com manifestações clínicas, especificamente, o transtorno do pânico (TP), assim como seu impacto no sistema de saúde e na rotina dos serviços de emergência, além de apontar diretrizes para o acolhimento, manejo e encaminhamento dos usuários que apresentam esse sofrimento psíquico-emocional. A dor torácica é um dos sintomas mais comuns nos serviços de emergência médica de atendimento primário. Por ser um sintoma presente tanto no transtorno do pânico quanto na isquemia miocárdica na doença arterial coronariana (DAC), muitos indivíduos acometidos por TP acreditam estar na iminência de um problema grave de saúde, como por exemplo, o infarto agudo do miocárdio. Temos no caso do TP um exemplo da ausência de fronteiras entre o somático e o psíquico, pois a mistura dos sintomas físicos e emocionais podem confundir o processo diagnóstico. O profissional atua em um contexto desafiador, pois se vê em meio a demandas que, muitas vezes, incluem questões de outra ordem além da orgânica. É fundamental que apure sua escuta para realizar um diagnóstico diferencial e o encaminhamento adequado, devendo ter cuidado ao se comunicar com o paciente que busca atendimento

This essay presents some reflections about the diagnostic process in the field of mental disorders with clinical symptoms, specifically, Panic Disorder (PD), and their impact on the Health System and the routine of the emergency services. It also points out some guidelines to receipt, management and referral of users who present this psychic-emotional suffering. Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in the primary care emergency medical services. As a symptom that is present in both panic disorder and myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease (CAD), many individuals affected by PD believe they are on the verge of a serious health problem, such as acute myocardial infarction. The case of PD is an example of the blurring of borders between the somatic and the psychic, as a mixture of physical and emotional symptoms can lead to confusion in the diagnostic process. Professionals act in a challenging context, with many demands being placed on them, which often include issues other than organic ones. It is essential that these professionals listen carefully, in order to make a differential diagnosis and proper referral, paying close attention when communicating with the patient who is seeking care

Humans , Male , Female , Psychotherapy/methods , Panic Disorder/etiology , Coronary Disease , Diagnosis, Differential , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Patient Care Team , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Health Systems , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(4): 355-364, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899375


Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is considered one of the founders of modern psychiatric nosology. However, his conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive phenomena is relatively understudied. In this article, we compare and contrast excerpts from the eighth edition (1909-1915) of Kraepelin's Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry focusing on what Kraepelin called "obsessive neurosis" and related "original pathological conditions" with the current DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently with DSM-5 OCD, Kraepelin described obsessive neurosis as characterized by obsessive ideas, compulsive acts, or both together. His detailed descriptions of these symptoms are broadly coherent with their characterization in DSM-5, which is also true for the differential diagnoses he provided. He also mentioned cases illustrating decreased insight into symptoms and association with tic disorders. In conclusion, Kraepelin's experience, which reflects decades of consistent clinical work, may help validate current ideas and explain how the current conceptualization has emerged and developed. Even though one can hardly say that the classification laid out in DSM-5 goes back to Kraepelin's views directly, it still is true that Kraepelin played an outstanding role in systematizing psychiatric diagnostic criteria in general, and provided a major contribution to the conceptual history of OCD.

Humans , History, 20th Century , International Classification of Diseases , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Textbooks as Topic/history , Diagnosis, Differential , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/history
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(4): 337-341, Oct.-Dec. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899383


Objective: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia. The survey also explored whether such individuals experienced more fear or disgust, and whether symptoms showed more resemblance to a specific phobia or to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Associations of symptom severity and duration with degree of impairment were investigated. Results: One hundred and ninety-five individuals completed the questionnaire. Symptoms were chronic and persistent. The most common associated comorbidities were major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Trypophobia was associated with significant psychological distress and impairment. The majority of individuals experienced disgust rather than fear when confronted with clusters of holes, but were more likely to meet DSM-5 criteria for specific phobia than for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Symptom severity and duration were associated with functional impairment. Conclusions: Given that individuals with trypophobia suffer clinically significant morbidity and comorbidity, this condition deserves further attention from clinicians and researchers.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Comorbidity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Internet , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
São Paulo med. j ; 134(6): 480-490, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846261


ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001) and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001). Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001). A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001) was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Rinoplastia é uma das operações mais procuradas por indivíduos com o transtorno dismórfico corporal. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar culturalmente e validar a Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo de validação cultural desenvolvido no ambulatório de cirurgia plástica de um hospital universitário público. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pacientes consecutivos de ambos os gêneros que desejavam submeter-se à rinoplastia foram selecionados entre fevereiro de 2014 e março de 2015. Trinta pacientes participaram da fase de adaptação cultural do instrumento. A reprodutibilidade foi testada em 20 pacientes e a validade de construto em 50 pacientes, correlacionando-se a escala com a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale para transtorno dismórfico corporal. RESULTADOS: A versão brasileira do instrumento mostrou alfa de Cronbach de 0,805 e excelente reprodutibilidade interobservador (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, CCI = 0,873; P < 0,001) e intraobservador (CCI = 0,939; P < 0,001). Houve diferença significante entre os escores totais de pacientes com e sem sintomas (P < 0,001). Observou-se forte correlação (r = 0,841; P < 0,001) entre a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale para transtorno dismórfico corporal e a Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. A área sob a curva característica de operação do receptor (ROC) foi de 0,981, revelando boa acurácia para discriminar a presença de sintomas para transtorno dismórfico corporal; 46% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal e 54% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos moderados a graves relacionados com a aparência. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira da Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale é um instrumento reprodutível que apresenta validade de face, conteúdo e construto.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Rhinoplasty/psychology , Translations , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/diagnosis , Self Report/standards , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Observer Variation , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Patient Satisfaction , Cultural Characteristics , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 38(4): 307-313, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798084


Objective: To investigate empathic abilities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to control subjects. OCD is characterized by persistent obsessions and compulsions. Previous studies have proposed specific emotion recognition deficits in patients with OCD. The ability to recognize emotion is part of the broad construct of empathy that incorporates mentalizing and experience-sharing dimensions. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with a diagnosis of OCD and 23 control subjects underwent empathic measures. Results: Patients with OCD compared to control subjects showed deficits in all mentalizing measures. They were incapable of understanding the mental and emotional states of other people. On the other hand, in the sharing experience measures, the OCD group was able to empathize with the emotional experience of other people when they expressed emotions with positive valence, but were not able to do when the emotional valence was negative. Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with OCD show a difficulty in mentalizing ability, whereas the deficit in sharing ability is specific for the negative emotional valence.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cognition/physiology , Empathy/physiology , Theory of Mind/physiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 38(1): 17-23, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776495


Objective: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), symmetry-related symptoms may be important. Although clinical correlates of symmetry-related symptoms have been identified in OCD, few data exist on genetic associations. Animal studies indicate involvement of dopamine in symmetry-related behavior, suggesting this may be relevant to analogous symptoms in OCD. Alterations in dopamine may also reflect environmental influences. However, the association of symmetry-related symptomatology, early adversity, and polymorphisms in dopaminergic genes has not been investigated in OCD. Methods: Clinical information and polymorphisms in key dopaminergic genes were compared between OCD patients with primary symmetry symptoms and those without. Results: OCD patients with primary symmetry symptoms comprised 46.6% (n=210) of the sample (n=451), and were older (p < 0.01), had longer illness duration (p < 0.01), higher OCD severity scores (p = 0.01), and greater comorbidity (p < 0.01) than those without. In Caucasians (n=343), genotype frequency differed significantly between groups for ANKK1 rs1800497, with more OCD patients with symmetry symptoms being homozygous for the A2 (CC) genotype (χ2 = 7.296; p = 0.026). Conclusion: Symmetry symptoms have some distinct clinical features and may represent a marker of severity in OCD. However, clinical associations, in combination with the association found with the ANKK1 rs1800497 A2 variant, suggest that primary symmetry symptoms may represent a distinctive clinical and psychobiological profile.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dopamine/genetics , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Perfectionism , Genotype , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/complications
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 721-727, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21841


PURPOSE: Alexithymia, defined as a deficit in the ability to recognize and describe one's own feelings, may be related to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 244 patients with OCD (169 males, 75 females). Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and genotyping of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher total and "difficulty identifying feelings" (DIF) subdimension scores than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes. Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher "difficulty describing feelings" (DDF) subdimension scores than those with the COMT Val/Met genotype. However, there were no differences in the scores for the "externally oriented thinking" (EOT) subdimension among the three genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the high-activity Val allele of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with increased alexithymic traits in patients with OCD. The present finding suggests that alexithymia is an endophenotype of OCD that is mediated by the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Affective Symptoms/diagnosis , Alleles , Catechol O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Genotype , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Republic of Korea
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 37(4): 310-316, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770000


Objective: To translate, culturally adapt, and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS). Methods: Ninety-three patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were consecutively selected at the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2012 and March 2013. The BDD-YBOCS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. Thirty patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the scale. The final version was tested for reliability in 20 patients, and for construct validity in 43 patients (correlation of the BDD-YBOCS with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination [BDDE]). Results: Total Cronbach’s alpha was 0.918. The BDD-YBOCS had excellent inter-rater (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.934; p < 0.001) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.999; p < 0.001). Significant differences in BDD-YBOCS scores were found between patients with and without BDD symptoms (p < 0.001), and among patients with different levels of BDD severity (p < 0.001). A strong correlation (r = 0.781; p < 0.001) was observed between the BDDE and the BDD-YBOCS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.851, suggesting a very good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of BDD symptoms. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the BDD-YBOCS is a reliable instrument, showing face, content and construct validity.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Translations , Analysis of Variance , Body Image , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Observer Variation , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index