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1.
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 31: e214905, 17 fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410388

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar a literatura científica acerca da exposição dos trabalhadores rurais aos agrotóxicos e a atuação desses agentes sobre as funções dos sistemas hepático e renal. O estudo em questão se trata de uma revisão sistemática produzida de acordo com a metodologia Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Para esta revisão foram feitas buscas nas bases Medline, PubMed, Scielo e Lilacs, nas quais foram inclusos artigos escritos em português e inglês no período de 2009 a 2018. Os descritores em saúde utilizados para a pesquisa foram: agroquímicos, trabalhadores rurais, saúde do trabalhador e biomarcadores. De 52 artigos selecionados, apenas oito preencheram os critérios de inclusão desta revisão. Após a análise dos oito artigos, pôde-se observar que os marcadores bioquímicos hepáticos citados com maior frequência nos artigos foram as transaminases, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase, presentes em todos os estudos (100%, n=8), seguido da gama-glutamiltransferase encontrada em 75% dos artigos (n=6). Por outro lado, os marcadores renais citados nos artigos foram apenas creatinina e ureia, com uma frequência de 62,5% (n=5) e 50% (n=4), respectivamente. Esses marcadores apresentaram-se dentro da normalidade em todos os estudos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que não houve evidências de alterações nos marcadores renais e hepáticos, porém os artigos relatam a existência de uma diferença entre o grupo exposto, trabalhadores que estavam em contato com agrotóxicos, e o grupo controle.


This study aimed to review the scientific literature about the exposure of rural workers to pesticides and their effects on the functions of the hepatic and renal systems. The study in question is a systematic review produced according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) methodology. For that, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs, and articles written in Portuguese and English from 2009 to 2018 were included. The health descriptors used for the research were: agrochemicals, rural workers, occupational health, and biomarkers. Only eight out of the 52 articles selected initially met the inclusion criteria for this review. Their analysis showed that the most frequently cited liver biochemical markers were transaminases, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, present in all studies (100.0%, n=8). These were followed by the range-glutamyltransferase, found in 75.0% of the articles (n=6). On the other hand, the renal markers used in the articles were only creatinine and urea, with a frequency of 62.5% (n=5) and 50.0% (n=4), respectively. These markers were normal in all studies. Thus, we concluded that there was no evidence of changes in renal and hepatic markers. However, the articles do report differences between the exposed group, workers who were in contact with pesticides, and the control group.


Subject(s)
Rural Health , Pesticide Exposure , Biomarkers , Occupational Exposure , Agrochemicals , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 42-51, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366970

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el benceno es un hidrocarburo aromático obtenido por destilación del alquitrán utilizado en gasolineras y como solvente industrial, clasificado como cancerígeno por exposición ocupacional o ambiental. Está relacionado con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) por su absorción principal por vía inhalatoria, y su metabolismo hepático con producción de benzoquinona de alta liposolubilidad que le permite depositarse en la médula ósea y tejido graso. Objetivo: analizar la asociación de las formas de exposición por actividades económicas, oficios, cargos, exposición ambiental y aditiva con el desarrollo de LMA. Materiales y métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet y OpenGrey, en inglés y español con los términos benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and enviromental exposition. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios muestran una relación causal entre la exposición a benceno y el desarrollo de LMA, con predominio en ambientes laborales, seguidos de factores ambientales y aditivos como el humo del cigarrillo. Conclusiones: se encontró evidencia de asociación entre la exposición a benceno ocupacional y/o ambiental con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda, debido a que altera el estrés oxidativo y la desregulación del aryl hidrocarburo generando efectos citogenéticos, mutación genética y alteraciones epigenéticas que se expresan en hematotoxicidad y desarrollo de leucemia.


Introduction: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of tar used in gas stations and as an industrial solvent, classified as a carcinogen by occupational and environmental exposure. It is related with the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly due to its absorption by inhalation and hepatic metabolism producing highly-lipid soluble benzoquinone allowing it to deposit in bone marrow and fatty tissue. Objective: to analyze the association of forms of exposure including economic activities, type of workplace, environmental and additive exposure with the development of AML. Material and Methods: systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet and OpenGrey databases in English and Spanish, using the terms benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and environmental exposure. Results: most studies show a causal relationship between benzene exposure and AML development, predominantly in work settings, followed by environmental factors including additive sources such as cigarette smoke. Conclusions: we found evidence of an association between occupational and/or environmental exposure to benzene and the development of AML, for it alters oxidative stress and aryl hydrocarbon deregulation inducing cytogenetic aberrations, genetic mutations and epigenetic changes expressed as hematotoxicity and leukemia development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Benzene , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasms , Leukemia , Occupational Exposure , Environmental Exposure
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0055, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394862

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar o perfil clínico de pacientes portadores de neoplasias escamosas da superfície ocular. Métodos Foram avaliados os principais fatores de risco envolvidos na gênese das neoplasias escamosas da superfície ocular, as características clínicas dos pacientes e os hábitos comportamentais associados. Foram incluídos neste trabalho de coorte histórica 80 pacientes com diagnóstico anatomopatológico de neoplasia escamosa da superfície ocular atendidos entre os anos de 2010 e 2020 em um hospital referência em oculoplástica e segmento anterior de Santa Catarina. Os dados clínicos e desfechos foram avaliados por meio da análise de prontuário e entrevista, sendo posteriormente tabulados no Excel e submetidos à analise estatística por meio do software Statistical Pakage for the Social Sciences, versão 16. Resultados Foi observado que 73,8% (n=59) eram do sexo masculino. A média de idade da amostra foi de 62 anos. Quanto ao fototipo de pele, de acordo com a escala de Fitzpatrick, constatou-se que a maioria apresentou os fototipos 1 e 2 (22; 27,5% e 44; 55%, respectivamente). Em relação à exposição ocupacional ao sol/radiação, 48% (n=60) apresentaram história de exposição ocupacional, sendo que, destes, 28 pacientes trabalhavam no setor de agricultura. Dos pacientes da amostra, 33 (41,2%) apresentavam histórico pessoal de neoplasias de pele, sendo que, destes, três apresentavam diagnóstico de xeroderma pigmentoso. Quanto ao hábito de uso de fatores de proteção solar, 61% (n=49) da amostra negou o hábito. Foi evidenciada associação estatisticamente significativa entre o hábito de usar fatores de proteção solar e histórico pessoal de neoplasias de pele. Em relação ao tipo de neoplasia escamosa, a maioria dos pacientes (72; 90%) apresentou diagnóstico anatomopatológico de carcinoma espinocelular ocular. Conclusão O perfil clínico epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de neoplasias escamosas da superfície ocular neste estudo, predominantemente de carcinoma espinoceular ocular, foi de homens, idosos, de pele clara (fototipo 2) e com histórico importante de exposição aos raios solares ultravioleta A e B. Comorbidades imunodepressoras (HIV e transplante de órgão sólido) e doenças dermatológicas (albinismo e xeroderma pigmentoso) associaram-se ao aparecimento das neoplasias escamosas da superfície ocular em idade mais precoce. Em pacientes com histórico pessoal prévio de neoplasias de pele, foi evidenciado o hábito de uso de fatores de protetor solar mais presente em relação aos demais.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the clinical profile of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasms (OSSN). Methods The main risk factors involved in the genesis of the ocular surface squamous neoplasms, the clinical features, and the behavioral habits associated were evaluated. This historical cohort study included 80 patients with anatomopathological diagnosis of OSSN who were treated between 2010-2020 at a reference hospital in oculoplastic and anterior segment in Santa Catarina. The clinical data and outcomes were evalated through the analysis of medical records and interviews, being later tabulated in Excel and analyzed using the SPSS 16 software. Results Regarding the clinical profile of the patients in the sample, 73.8% (n = 59) were male. The mean age of the sample was 62 years old. As for the skin phototype, according to the Fitzpatrick scale, most of the sample presented the phototype 1 and 2 (27.5% n = 22; and 55% n = 44 respectively). Regarding occupational exposure to the sun / radiation, 48% (n = 60) had history of occupational exposure, and of these, 28 patients worked in the agricultural area. Of the patients of the sample, 33 (41.2%) had a personal history of skin neoplasms, and of these, 3 had diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum. As for the habit of using sun protection factors, 61% (n = 49) of the sample denied the habit. A statistically significant association was evidenced between the habit of using sun protection factors and people's history of skin cancer. Regarding the type of squamous neoplasia, most patients in the 90% sample (n = 72) had an anatomopathological diagnosis of ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The clinical epidemiological profile of patients with OSSN in this study, predominantly ocular squamous cell carcinoma, was men, elderly, fair-skinned (phototype 2) and with an important history of exposure to UVA and UVB rays. Immunosuppressive comorbidities (HIV, solid organ transplant) and dermatological diseases (albinism, xeroderma pigmentosum) are associated with the appearance of OSSN at an early age. In patients with a previous personal history of skin neoplasms, the habit of using sunscreen factors was more present than in the other patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Conjunctival Neoplasms/epidemiology , Eye Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Sunlight/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Comorbidity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Occupational Exposure , Conjunctival Neoplasms/pathology , Solar Radiation , Environmental Exposure , Eye Neoplasms/pathology , Sun Protection Factor/statistics & numerical data
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 544-549, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397155

ABSTRACT

La exposición a peligros biológicos para la salud y las medidas preventivas implementadas para evitar o minimizar esta exposición, es parcialmente desconocida en Ecuador; particularmente, por los estudiantes de enfermería, los cuales, durante sus prácticas pre-profesionales, están expuestos a factores que pueden afectar negativamente el bienestar en su lugar de trabajo. El riesgo puede ser de origen diversos, físicos, ergonómicos, químicos, psicosociales y biológicos. Entre los biológicos se incluyen pinchazos con agujas, salpicaduras de sangre y otros fluidos corporales, cortes de ampollas de medicamentos, cortes de bisturí, perforación de guantes durante la cirugía, contacto con la sangre de los pacientes con las manos sin guantes y contaminación de heridas abiertas con la sangre de los pacientes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre el cumplimiento de los protocolos y técnicas de enfermería con la exposición accidental a riesgos biológicos en estudiantes. Los resultados demostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las variables en estudios, evidenciándose que, a menor cumplimiento de los protocolos e inexperiencias en las maniobras técnicas de enfermería, mayor era la probabilidad a accidentes por riesgo biológico. Se concluye que el conocimiento de los protocolos de enfermería, la vigilancia sobre la prevención de infecciones, la adherencia a las normas de bioseguridad son algunas de las medidas a seguir para reducir la exposición de los estudiantes de enfermería a los riesgos laborales biológicos. Se recomienda, establecer sistemática para el reporte y abordaje de accidentes por riesgo biológicos que ocurran a los estudiantes de enfermería, durante su proceso formativo(AU)


Exposure to biological health hazards and the preventive measures implemented to avoid or minimize this exposure are partially unknown in Ecuador; particularly by nursing students, who, during their pre-professional practices, are exposed to factors that can negatively affect well-being in their workplace. The risk can be of various physical, ergonomic, chemical, psychosocial and biological origins. Biological include needle sticks, splashes of blood and other body fluids, cuts from medication blisters, scalpel cuts, perforation of gloves during surgery, contact with blood from patients on bare hands, and contamination of wounds opened with the blood of patients. This study aimed to establish the relationship between compliance with nursing protocols techniques and accidental exposure to biological risks in students. The results showed a statistically significant association between the variables in the studies, showing that, the less compliance with the protocols and inexperience in nursing technical maneuvers, the greater the probability of accidents due to biological risk. It is concluded that knowledge of nursing protocols, surveillance of infection prevention, adherence to biosafety standards are some of the measures to be followed to reduce the exposure of nursing students to biological occupational hazards. It is concluded that knowledge of nursing protocols, surveillance of infection prevention, adherence to biosafety standards are some of the measures to be followed to reduce the exposure of nursing students to biological occupational hazards. It is recommended to establish a system for reporting and addressing biological risk accidents that occur to nursing students during their training process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Nursing , Biological Products , Occupational Risks , Security Measures , Wounds and Injuries , Body Fluids , Occupational Exposure , Containment of Biohazards , Infections
6.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 30: e3638, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1389125

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade das intervenções direcionadas à prevenção e redução da violência no trabalho sofrida por profissionais de saúde e apoio. Método: revisão sistemática com metanálise realizada em oito bases de dados e na literatura cinzenta. O risco de viés foi realizado por meio das ferramentas da Cochrane e a certeza da evidência pelo Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. A análise foi realizada de forma descritiva e pela metanálise, incluindo avaliação da heterogeneidade. Resultados: 11 estudos aleatorizados e quasi-aleatorizados foram elegíveis, dos quais seis estudos (54,5%) implementaram habilidades individuais, quatro multiabordagem (36,4%) e um (9,1%) ações governamentais. Quatro estudos (36,4%) tiveram efeito positivo e significativo na redução da violência. O risco de viés foi classificado como alto ou incerto. A metanálise foi realizada com dois estudos que testaram habilidade individual (grupo intervenção) versus habilidade individual (grupo comparador), porém não houve evidência científica (IC 95%: -0,41 a 0,25, p=0,64) para o desfecho prevenção/redução da violência. Conclusão: esta revisão não obteve alta evidência na prevenção ou redução da violência no trabalho. O número reduzido de ensaios aleatorizados, a falta de estudos com baixo risco de viés e a alta consistência podem ter sido fatores dificultadores para recomendar intervenções efetivas.


Abstract Objective: to assess the effectiveness of the interventions targeted at preventing and reducing the workplace violence suffered by health and support professionals. Method: a systematic review with meta-analysis conducted in eight databases and in the gray literature. Risk of bias was assessed by means of the Cochrane tools and certainty of the evidence, through Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. The analysis was performed in a descriptive manner and through the meta-analysis, including a heterogeneity assessment. Results: a total of 11 randomized and quasi-randomized studies were eligible, of which six (54.5%) implemented individual skills, four used a multiple approach (36.4%) and one (9.1%) resorted to governmental actions. Four studies (36.4%) exerted a positive and significant effect on reducing violence. Risk of bias was classified as high or uncertain. The meta-analysis was performed with two studies that tested individual skill (intervention group) versus individual skill (comparator group), although there was no scientific evidence (95% CI: -0.41 - 0.25, p=0.64) for the violence prevention/reduction outcome. Conclusion: this review did not obtain a high level of evidence in the prevention or reduction of workplace violence. The reduced number of randomized trials, the lack of studies with low risk of bias and the high consistency may have been factors that hindered recommending effective interventions.


Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones dirigidas a prevenir y reducir la violencia laboral que sufren los profesionales de la salud y de apoyo. Método: revisión sistemática con metanálisis realizada en ocho bases de datos y en la literatura gris. El riesgo de sesgo se evaluó mediante herramientas Cochrane y la certeza de la evidencia mediante el Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. El análisis se realizó de forma descriptiva y por metanálisis, e incluyó la evaluación de la heterogeneidad. Resultados: fueron elegibles 11 estudios aleatorios y cuasialeatorios, de los cuales seis estudios (54,5%) implementaron habilidades individuales, cuatro multienfoque (36,4%) y uno (9,1%) acciones gubernamentales. Cuatro estudios (36,4%) tuvieron un efecto positivo y significativo en la reducción de la violencia. El riesgo de sesgo se clasificó como alto o incierto. El metanálisis se realizó con dos estudios que evaluaron la capacidad individual (grupo de intervención) versus la capacidad individual (grupo de comparación), pero no se encontró evidencia científica (IC del 95 %: -0,41 a 0,25, p = 0,64) para el resultado prevención/reducción de la violencia. Conclusión: esta revisión no obtuvo alta evidencia sobre la prevención o reducción de la violencia laboral. El número reducido de ensayos aleatorios, la falta de estudios con bajo riesgo de sesgo y la alta consistencia pueden haber sido factores que dificultaron la recomendación de intervenciones efectivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Health Personnel , Workplace Violence/prevention & control
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 481 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378441

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O câncer é doença crônica não transmissível multifatorial e no rol dos seus fatores de risco estão aqueles relacionados ao trabalho. A radiação ionizante é considerada carcinogênica e está presente em alguns ambientes de trabalho. Vários estudos foram feitos no mundo no intuito de estudar a relação sobre a mortalidade e a incidência por câncer em trabalhadores com risco de exposição ocupacional à radiação ionizante. Objetivo - Este estudo visa estimar as taxas de mortalidade e de incidência por câncer em uma unidade de trabalho com radiação ionizante sediada no município de São Paulo e identificar a associação potencial entre câncer e exposição à radiação ionizante no ambiente de trabalho. Métodos - Foi feito estudo de coorte retrospectiva aberta com trabalhadores que tiveram vínculo empregatício desde 31/08/1956 até 31/12/2016 a partir de dados coletados na empresa e em registros oficiais de óbitos e casos novos. Foram calculadas as razões de mortalidade padronizadas (RMP) e as razões de incidência padronizadas (RIP) por sexo de cânceres agrupados segundo o tipo (sólido, indeterminado e hematopoiético), o fator de risco (etilismo, tabagismo, ocupacional e radiação gama e X) e o sistema orgânico (tratos digestório, respiratório, ossos e tecidos moles, pele, geniturinário, olhos e sistema nervoso central, endócrino, indeterminado e hematopoiético) na análise externa comparando a população de estudo com a população geral do município de São Paulo e na análise interna, comparando o subgrupo monitorado para radiação gama e X com o subgrupo não monitorado. Foram feitas análises de regressão de Poisson univariada e múltipla dos fatores associados à incidência de câncer. Resultados - Foi encontrado o efeito do trabalhador sadio na análise externa de mortalidade (RMP = 0,224 IC95%: 0,208; 0,240) e interna de mortalidade (RMP = 0,685 IC95%: 0,618; 0,758). Na análise externa de incidência houve associação com os cânceres de pele (RIP = 19,703 IC95%: 7,303; 43,533) (p<0,001) e na análise interna de incidência houve associação com os cânceres hematopoiéticos (RIP = 1,593 IC95% 1,03; 2,351) (p<0,026), osteomusculares (RIP = 4,559 IC95% 1,821; 9,366) (p<0,001), de pele (RIP = 2,58 IC95%1,538; 2,748) (p<0,001) e de tireoide (RIP = 2,346 IC95% 1,452; 3,587) (p<0,001). Houve aumento da incidência de câncer entre as mulheres, os trabalhadores de nível socioeconômico elevado, entre aqueles que trabalharam por mais de cinco anos na empresa, entre aqueles que encerraram o acompanhamento na coorte até 49 anos de idade e entre aqueles que tiveram dose acumulada igual ou maior do que 20 mSv. Conclusão - este trabalho apresentou resultados semelhantes ao de outros estudos e ratificou os parâmetros de proteção radiológica.


Introduction - Cancer is a multifactorial non-communicable chronic disease and its risk factors include those related to work. Ionizing radiation is considered carcinogenic and is present in some work environments. Several studies have been carried out around the world in order to study the relationship between cancer incidence and mortality in workers at risk of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Objective - This study aims to estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in a work unit with ionizing radiation based in the city of São Paulo and to identify the potential association between cancer and exposure to ionizing radiation in the work environment. Methods - A retrospective open cohort study was carried out with workers who had an employment relationship from 08/31/1956 to 12/31/2016 based on data collected in the company and in official records of deaths and new cases of cancer. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for sex of cancers grouped according to type (solid, indeterminate and hematopoietic), risk factor (alcoholism, smoking, occupational and gamma and X radiation) and the organic system (digestive, respiratory tracts, bones and soft tissues, skin, genitourinary tract, eyes and central nervous system, endocrine, indeterminate and hematopoietic system) in the external analysis comparing the study population with the general population of the city of São Paulo and in the internal analysis, comparing the monitored subgroup for gamma and X radiation with the unmonitored subgroup. Univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyzes of factors associated with cancer incidence were performed. Results - The healthy worker effect was found in the external analysis of mortality (SMR = 0.224 95%CI: 0.208; 0.240) and internal (SMR = 0.685 95% CI: 0.618; 0.758). In the external analysis of incidence there was an association with skin cancers (SIR = 19.703 CI95%: 7.303; 43.533) (p<0.001) and in the internal analysis of incidence there was an association with hematopoietic cancers (SIR = 1.593 CI95% 1.03; 2.351) (p<0.026), musculoskeletal (SIR = 4.559 95% CI 1.821; 9.366) (p<0.001), skin (SIR = 2.58 95%CI1.538; 2.748) (p<0.001), and thyroid (SIR = 2.346 95%CI 1.452; 3.587) (p<0.001). There was an increase in the incidence of cancer among women, workers of high socioeconomic status, among those who worked for more than five years at the company, among those who ended follow-up in the cohort up to 49 years of age and among those who had an equal accumulated dose or greater than 20 mSv. Conclusion - this study presented results similar to those of other studies and ratified the parameters of radiological protection.


Subject(s)
Radiation, Ionizing , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Groups , Neoplasms
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935818

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the occupational hazard factors and exposure levels of workers during the construction of power transmission and transformation projects. Methods: Analysis and identification of occupational hazard factors were carried out for typical construction process of 6 power transmission projects and 3 substation projects in September 2018. The on-site occupational health investigation was carried out to detect and analyze the exposure levels of workers to occupational hazard factors. Results: The time weighted average concentration (C(TWA)) of crushing workers exposed to silica dust and welders exposed to welding fume in substation projects were 2.72 and 14.03 mg/m(3), respectively. The 8 h equivalent sound level results of exposure noise of carpenters in power transmission projects and crushing workers, reinforcement workers, carpenters, scaffolders, road builders in substation projects were 87.9, 92.5, 87.1, 92.5, 93.0 and 90.2 dB (A) , respectively. The 4-hour time equal energy frequency weighted vibration acceleration of hand-transmitted vibration of bricklayer in power transmission projects, bricklayer, general worker 3, road builder 1 and road builder 2 of substation projects were 5.36, 5.21, 5.28, 10.71 and 5.22 m/s(2), respectively. The effective irradiance of electric welding arc light of welders' limbs in power transmission projects and substation projects were 401.19, 319.68 μW/cm(2), respectively. All of the above exceeded the requirements of occupational exposure limits. The occupational radiation levels and exposure limits of hazardous chemical factors met the requirements of each post. Conclusion: During the construction of power transmission and transformation projects, the exposure levels of occupational hazard factors in multiple posts exceed the standard. The main responsibility of employers for occupational disease prevention and control should be implemented, and targeted comprehensive measures should be taken to reduce the exposure levels of occupational hazard factors of workers.


Subject(s)
Dust , Humans , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health , Welding
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935817

ABSTRACT

Objective: To learn about the noise exposure and health status of workers and analyze factors that may affect the health outcomes of workers in an auto manufacturing enterprise in Tianjin City. Methods: In September 2020, occupational hygiene survey, noise exposure level detection and occupational health examination data collection were carried out in an auto parts manufacturing enterprise. Chi square test and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the health effects of noise exposure and hearing loss of 361 noise exposure workers. Results: The rates of over-standard noise exposure, hearing loss and hypertension were 69.39% (34/49) , 33.24% (120/361) and 11.36% (41/361) , respectively. There were upward trends on age and noise-working years for hearing loss and hypertension rates (χ(2)=-5.95, -6.16, -2.81, -2.74, P<0.05) . Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that age>35 years old, noise exposure length of service >10 years and noise L(EX, 8 h)>85 dB (A) were risk factors for hearing loss (OR=3.57, 95%CI: 1.09, 11.75; OR=4.05, 95%CI: 1.97, 8.25; OR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.00, 3.05; P=0.036, 0.001, 0.047) . Conclusion: This company has a high rate of job noise exceeding the standard, and noise-exposed workers have more serious hearing loss. Age, noise exposure and high noise exposure are risk factors for hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Adult , Automobiles , Deafness , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/complications , Occupational Exposure/analysis
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935810

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the incidence of pneumoconiosis in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province, and provide reference for the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis in the non-coal mining industry. Methods: The data of 7019 newly diagnosed pneumoconiosis patients in non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province from January 1956 to December 2019 were collected through the Jiangsu Province Pneumoconiosis Follow-up Network Report System, including the gender of the pneumoconiosis patients, the name of the employer and the location, the industry classification of the employer, the duration of dust exposure in dust exposure, the name of occupational pneumoconiosis disease, the date of diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, etc. The collected case data of patients with pneumoconiosis were entered into the statistical software, and the characteristics of the patients' diagnosis time, region and industry were analyzed. Results: The number of confirmed pneumoconiosis patients in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province was mostly in 2007 (395 cases) , concentrated in Wuxi City (40.96%, 2875/7019) and Suzhou City (27.72%, 1946/7019) . The industries to which the patients belonged were mainly non-metallic mining and dressing (60.95%, 4278/7019) , and the most common type of pneumoconiosis was silicosis (96.40%, 6766/7019) . The patients were mainly stageⅠpneumoconiosis (61.33%, 4305/7019) . There were statistically significant differences in the mean age of diagnosis and the average duration of dust exposure among patients with different pneumoconiosis stages (P<0.01) . The differences in the average diagnosis age and the average duration of dust exposure of patients with different types of pneumoconiosis were statistically significant (P<0.05) , the mean age of diagnosis and the average duration of dust exposure of electric welders were the smallest, which were (44.92±7.74) years old and (17.38±10.15) years, respectively. Conclusion: The regional and industry distribution characteristics of new pneumoconiosis patients in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province are obvious, and attention should be paid to the treatment of pneumoconiosis patients with young diagnosed age and short duration of dust exposure, as well as the personal protection and health protection of front-line workers such as electric welders who are exposed to productive dust in a short period of time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Coal Mining , Dust , Humans , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935808

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the content differences of trace elements in workers with occupational exposure to lead. Methods: In January 2021, relevant literatures on the contents of trace elements in workers with occupational exposure to lead published from 1990 to 2020 were searched through CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, web of science and Embase. Screened and extracted the literatures, and evaluated the quality of the included literatures with Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Meta analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3 software, and standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval were used as effect indicators. Results: A total of 20 literatures were included, and the quality scores were 5-7. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the contents of blood zinc (SMD=-1.01, 95%CI: -1.53, -0.49) , hair zinc (SMD=-0.17, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.01) , hair copper (SMD=-0.50, 95%CI: -1.01, 0) , hair iron (SMD=-3.91, 95%CI: -5.80, -2.03) and hair manganese (SMD=-1.09, 95%CI: -2.02, -0.15) in occupational lead exposure group were significantly lower (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the content of cobalt in hair of occupational lead exposure group (SMD=1.41, 95%CI: 0.72, 2.10) was higher, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . There was no significant difference in the contents of blood chromium, blood copper, blood iron, blood manganese, blood selenium and hair nickel between the two groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Workers with occupational exposure to lead have abnormal trace elements.


Subject(s)
Copper , Humans , Iron , Lead , Manganese , Occupational Exposure , Trace Elements , Zinc
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935800

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and monitor the occupational hazards in the Teaching and Research Laboratory (hereinafter referred to as the place) of a university, so as to provide basis for the occupational health work in the university. Methods: November 2014, 46 places in a university were selected by stratified random sampling, and the occupational health risk factors were investigated. Results: Indoor temperature, humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were detected in 21 sites, xylene and hydrofluoric acid were detected in 6 sites, and colony count was detected in 18 sites, the power frequency electric field intensity was measured in 23 places, and the x-ray radiation dose was measured in 4 places. Noise was measured at 21 sites, with 7 sites exceeding the standards accounting for 33.3% (7/21) ; 21 sites were detected for illumination and 10 sites for nonconformity accounting for 47.6% (10/21) ; 10 sites for Microwave Radiation and 3 sites exceeding the standards accounting for 30% (3/10) ; and 25 sites were detected for outdoor air volume and air velocity, the percentage of unqualified was 72% (18/25) in 18 sites, among which the wind velocity was statistically significant in teaching, research and experimental sites (P=0.010) . Conclusion: The occupational hazards in the teaching and research places of a university should be paid attention to, and the engineering protection and personal protection should be strengthened in the experiment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Humans , Humidity , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Universities
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935794

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the occupational hazards caused by three kinds of welding operations, and to provide data support for individual protection. Methods: In October 2020, the welding fumes, metal elements and welding arc generated by three welding operations of argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , manual welding (ZS60A welding rod) and carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux cored wire) were collected and measured in the welding laboratory. The samples were analyze and compare in the laboratory, and the differences of the occupational hazard factors of the three welding operations were judged. Results: The concentration of welding fume produced by carbon dioxide shielded welding, manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , and argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wires) were 6.80 mg/m(3), 6.17 mg/m(3), and 3.13 mg/m(3), respectively. The effective irradiance of the welding arc outside the welding mask from high to low is manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux-cored welding wire) , and argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , respectively 1 010.7, 740.9, 589.5 μW/cm(2). The long-wave ultraviolet UVA intensity generated by argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) is the largest, which is 1 500 μW/cm(2). The content of Mn in the three welding operations is the highest, and JS80 welding wire has the highest Mn content of 128493.2 mg/kg. 907A flux cored wire has the highest Ti content, which is 24355.5mg/kg. The electrode ZS60A has the highest Cu content, which is 24422.12 mg/kg. Conclusion: The intensity of occupational hazards is different in the three kinds of welding operations, so the methods of personal protective equipment, field exposure assessment and health monitoring should be more targeted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Argon/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Gases/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Welding/methods
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935793

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the detection of suspected occupational diseases and occupational contraindications for benzene workers in Tianjin. Methods: In June 2020, the occupational health inspection data of 16113 benzene workers in 514 enterprises with benzene hazards in 16 municipal districts in Tianjin from January to December 2019 were included in the analysis. Enterprise information included the employer's region, economic type, industry classification and enterprise scale. Occupational health inspection data for benzene workers during their on-the-job period included routine inspection indicators and benzene special inspection indicators. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between personal general information, occupational history, enterprise information and suspected benzene poisoning and occupational contraindications of benzene workers. Results: There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 24 in the suspected benzene poisoning group. The detection rate of suspected benzene poisoning in females was higher than that in males (χ(2)=8.26, P=0.004) . There was no significant difference in the detection rates of suspected benzene poisoning among different dimensions such as age, length of service, occupational health inspection institution location, employer location, industry classification, economic type, and enterprise scale (P>0.05) . There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 16 in the benzene contraindication group. The detection rate of benzene contraindications for workers in suburban areas where occupational health inspection institutions were located was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=9.71, P=0.002) , and there was no significant difference in the detection rates of contraindications for benzene in other dimensions (P>0.05) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female benzene workers were more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.57-7.94, P=0.002) ; benzene workers who received physical examination in suburban occupational health inspection institutions (OR=5.81, 95%CI: 1.94-17.42, P=0.002) , the employer's area was in the suburbs (OR=9.68, 95%CI: 1.23-76.07, P=0.031) , and female workers (OR=3.07, 95%CI: 1.13-8.37, P=0.028) , it was easier to detect occupational contraindications. Conclusion: Female benzene workers with employers located in the suburbs have a higher risk of detecting occupational contraindications, and women are more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning. The management of benzene operations in the production environment of enterprises in the suburbs of Tianjin and the occupational health monitoring of female workers should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Benzene/analysis , Female , Humans , Industry , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935790

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the applicability of three different kinds of noise occupational health risk assessment methods to the occupational health risk assessment of noise exposed positions in an automobile foundry enterprise. Methods: In July 2020, the occupational-health risk assessment of noise-exposed positions was conducted by using the Guidelines for risk management of occupational noise hazard (guideline method) , the International Commission on Mining and Metals Guidelines for Occupational Health Risk Assessment (ICMM) method and the Occupational-health risk index method (index method) respectively, and the results were analyzed and compared. Results: Through the occupational health field investigation, the noise exposure level of the enterprise's main workstations was between 80.3 and 94.8 dB (A) , among which the noise of the posts of shaking-sand, cleaning and modeling was greater than 85 dB (A) ; The noise risk of each position was evaluated by the three methods, and the adjustment risk level was between 2 and 5 assessed using the guideline method, between 2 and 3 assessed using the index method, and 5 evaluated using the ICMM model. Conclusion: Each of the three risk assessment methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. The ICMM model has a large difference in value assignment, and values in the results are larger than expected. The evaluation results of the guideline method and the index method are consistent in some positions, there is certain subjectivity in the evaluation using the index method, and the guideline method is more objective.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment/methods
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935771

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the association between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a large Chinese population. Methods: In December 2019, the study included 21412 retired participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, occupational noise exposure was evaluated through workplace noise level and/or the job titles. In a subsample of 8931 subjects, bilateral hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone mean of 25 dB or higher at 0.5, 1 , 2, and 4 kHz in both ears. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association of occupational noise exposure, bilateral hearing loss with 10-year CVD risk. Results: Compared with participants without occupational noise exposure, the 10-year CVD risk was significantly higher for noise exposure duration ≥20 years (OR=1.20, 95%CI:1.01-1.41 , P=0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the sex-specific analysis, the association was only statistically significant in males (OR=2.34, 95%CI: 1.18-4.66, P<0.001) , but not in females (OR=1.15, 95%CI:0.97-1.37, P=0.153). In the subsample analyses, bilateral hearing loss, which was an indicator for exposure to loud noise, was also associated with a higher risk of 10-year CVD (OR= 1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.44, P <0.001) , especially for participants who were males (OR =1.24, 95% CI:1.07-2.30, P<0.001) , aged equal and over 60 years old (OR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.84-2.88, P<0.001) , and exposed to occupational noise (OR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.02-2.70, P=0.001). Conclusion: Occupational noise exposure may be a risk factor for CVD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hearing Loss, Bilateral/complications , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935766

ABSTRACT

Objective: Using CFD technology to grasp the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen fluoride in an electrolytic fluorine plant, provide guidance and scientific basis for enterprises to carry out occupational health management in enterprises, install hazardous substance alarm devices, and protect workers' occupational health. Methods: In July 2019, the diffusion law of hydrogen fluoride gas produced in an electrolytic fluorine plant is selected as the research object. Through the establishment of models and grids, the Fluent numerical simulation method is finally used to simulate the diffusion and distribution of hydrogen fluoride gas under ventilation conditions. Results: The results showed that the average concentration of hydrogen fluoride was 0.045 mg/m(3) in the workplace, and the absorbed zone height (1.5 m) was 0.02 mg/m(3) in the inspection channel, which was in accordance with the national standard. However, there is eddy current above the electrolyzer near the inlet, may lead to the accumulation of hydrogen fluoride gas. Conclusion: The research of CFD numerical simulation method on the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen fluoride concentration in electrolytic fluorine plant can be applied to the prevention, control and management of occupational hazards in electrolytic fluorine plant.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Fluorides , Humans , Hydrofluoric Acid , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the harm degree of underground noise and provide basis for noise control. Methods: In November 2019, 13 typical coal mines in Sichuan Province were selected as the research objects, and a total of 1203 sites and 609 jobs of noise exposure were investigated. Results: The noise intensity P75 >80 dB (A) was measured. The noise intensity of the inspection place of the air compressor is >86 dB (A) , the noise intensity of the inspection place of the gas drainage and the operation place of the main fan is between 80-85 dB (A) . Conclusion: Besides the harm of dust, noise exposure should also be paid attention to, and the measures of sound absorption and sound insulation should be taken or personal protection should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Coal , Coal Mining , Dust/analysis , Noise , Occupational Exposure
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935756

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the thyroid condition and influencing factors of radiation workers, and to provide scientific basis for radiation protection management. Methods: In April 2020, 4308 radiation workers from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2019 were collected for occupational health examination in Hangzhou Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment Hospital, the data included basic information, Thyroid hormone level and thyroid color doppler ultrasound results. The thyroid status of radiation workers in different subgroups was compared. The influencing factors of Thyroid nodule were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Results: 616 radiation workers had abnormal thyroid gland (14.3%, 616/4308) . The main manifestations of thyroid gland abnormality were abnormal Thyroid nodule (5.1%, 220/4308) and abnormal TSH level (7.1%, 308/4308) . Compared with the male radiation workers, the abnormal rate of Thyroid nodule, T3 and Tsh in female radiation workers was higher (P<0.05) , and the abnormal rate of Thyroid nodule, T3 and T4 increased with the increase of working age (P<0.05) . Radiation Workers in non-rated medical institutions and private medical institutions had the highest detection rate of Thyroid nodule (P<0.05) , and there was no significant difference in thyroid abnormalities among Workers (P<0.05) . By multiple logistic regression analysis, Sex (female) , age and institution type (private) were all independent risk factors for Thyroid nodule (95% CI: 1.548~2.763、1.002~1.030, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Ionizing radiation can cause thyroid damage in radiation workers, so we should pay more attention to the radiation protection management of female, high age, private and district medical organizations, so as to protect the health of radiation workers.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Radiation, Ionizing , Thyroid Nodule/epidemiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935747

ABSTRACT

This article investigated an occupational chronic benzene poisoning incident that occurred in a sealing material factory in Hebei Province in September 2019, analyzed the clinical data of workers, to explore the causes of occupational chronic benzene poisoning, and summarize the diagnosis and treatment characteristics and treatment outcome. According to GBZ 68-2013 "Diagnosis of Occupational Benzene Poisoning", a total of 12 cases of occupational chronic benzene poisoning were diagnosed among the 20 workers, including 2 cases of occupational chronic mild benzene poisoning, 7 cases of moderate benzene poisoning, and 3 cases of severe benzene poisoning. Both mild and moderate poisoning patients had recovered after treatment. Severely poisoned patients had recovered more slowly, and the white blood cell count was still 2.0×10(9)-3.0×10(9)/L during the 1-year follow-up. This benzene poisoning incident was caused by illegal operations. The responsibility of the employer, the supervision of the administrative agency, and the awareness of personal protection of employees should be strengthened to avoid or reduce the occurrence of poisoning incidents and ensure the health of workers.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational , Benzene/analysis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Poisoning
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