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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1358031

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma es considerado en el mundo industrializado a consecuencia de la exposición ocupacional a fibras de asbesto. A nivel país se considera una enfermedad profesional. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer y describir casos de mesotelioma notificados en Uruguay entre los años 2002 y 2014, con énfasis en los aspectos de la exposición ocupacional. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, a partir de los casos notificados se recrearon historias médicas enlazando con datos de servicios asistenciales. Se identificaron fuentes de exposición al asbesto en diferentes ocupaciones e industrias en el país. Resultados: fueron notificados 122 casos. Se accedió a la historia clínica en un tercio (47/122). El dato ocupación estaba consignado solo en 27/47, en 3/47 se explicitaba la exposición al asbesto/amianto. Los sectores productivos identificados mayoritariamente correspondieron a transporte, metalúrgico, construcción y limpieza. Se evidenció un registro insuficiente del dato ocupación y de los antecedentes laborales. Ésta información laboral es fundamental para establecer el nexo causal de la exposición en estudio y la condición de enfermedad profesional. La gravedad de la enfermedad y el conocimiento del riesgo derivado de la exposición, laboral, justifica el desarrollo de políticas en salud ocupacional. Es necesario fortalecer la formación de los profesionales de la salud sobre la importancia del trabajo como determinante del proceso salud - enfermedad.


Mesothelioma is considered in the industrialized world as a consequence of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers - asbestos. At the country level it is considered an occupational disease. The objective was to know and describe cases of mesothelioma notified in Uruguay between the years 2002 and 2014, with emphasis on aspects of occupational exposure. The present work corresponds to a retrospective descriptive study, from the reported cases medical records were recreated linking with data from healthcare services. Sources of asbestos exposure were identified in different occupations and industries in the country. Results: 122 cases were notified. The medical history was accessed in one third (47/122). The occupation data was only in 27/47, in 3/47 the exposure to asbestos / asbestos was specified. The productive sectors identified mainly corresponded to transportation, metallurgy, construction and cleaning. Insufficient registration of occupation and employment history was evidenced. This work information is essential to establish the causal link between the exposure under study and the occupational disease condition. The severity of the disease and knowledge of the risk derived from exposure occupational, justify the development of occupation health policies. It is necessary to strengthen the training of health professionals on the importance of work as a determinant of the health - disease process.


O mesotelioma é considerado no mundo industrializado como consequência da exposição ocupacional às fibras de amianto - o asbesto. Em nível nacional, é considerada uma doença ocupacional. O objetivo foi conhecer e descrever os casos de mesotelioma notificados no Uruguai entre os anos de 2002 a 2014, com ênfase nos aspectos de exposição ocupacional. O presente trabalho corresponde a um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, a partir dos casos relatados, prontuários médicos foram recriados vinculando-os a dados de serviços de saúde. Fontes de exposição ao amianto foram identificadas em diferentes ocupações e indústrias no país. Resultados: foram notificados 122 casos. O histórico médico foi acessado em um terço (47/122). Os dados de ocupação foram apenas em 27/47, em 3/47 foi especificada a exposição ao amianto / amianto. Os setores produtivos identificados corresponderam principalmente a transportes, metalurgia, construção e limpeza. Foi evidenciado registro insuficiente de ocupação e histórico de empregos. Essas informações de trabalho são essenciais para estabelecer o nexo causal entre a exposição em estudo e a condição de doença ocupacional. A gravidade da doença e o conhecimento do risco decorrente da exposição ocupacional, justificam o desenvolvimento de políticas de saúde ocupacional. É preciso fortalecer a formação dos profissionais de saúde sobre a importância do trabalho como determinante do processo saúde - doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asbestos/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Mesothelioma/mortality , Mesothelioma/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Mesothelioma/chemically induced
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888295

ABSTRACT

Occupational noise is one of the most common occupational hazards in the workplace. Long-term exposure to occupational noise could not only lead to the damage of the hearing system, but also may cause a certain impact on the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that occupational noise exposure was positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. However, the results of studies on occupational noise exposure and stroke are still controversial. This paper reviews the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction by summarizing the epidemiological data of domestic and foreign population in recent years. Our study could provide evidence for the design and implementation of well-designed epidemiological and mechanism studies, and the recognition of the role of occupational noise exposure in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, so as to better protect workers' health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Humans , Hypertension/etiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878360

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the association between occupational radiation exposure and changes in thyroid hormone levels among medical radiation workers.@*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 2,946 radiation workers from 20 Guangzhou hospitals. Data on general characteristics, participant radiation dosimetry, and thyroid function test results [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid hormone (T4)] were extracted from dosimetry and medical records. The generalized estimating equation was used to evaluate the trend of changes in thyroid hormone levels over time and was adjusted for age, gender, and occupation.@*Results@#The average annual effective dose was very low and showed a general downward trend. During the follow-up period, changes in T3 and T4 levels among radiation workers were -0.015 [95% confidence interval ( @*Conclusion@#Thyroid hormone secretion might be affected even in low-dose radiation exposure environments.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormones/radiation effects , Young Adult
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Numerous studies have concentrated on high-dose radiation exposed accidentally or through therapy, and few involve low-dose occupational exposure, to investigate the correlation between low-dose ionizing radiation and changing hematological parameters among medical workers.@*METHODS@#Using a prospective cohort study design, we collected health examination reports and personal dose monitoring data from medical workers and used Poisson regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the correlation between changing hematological parameters and cumulative radiation dose and determine the dose-response relationship.@*RESULTS@#We observed that changing platelet of 1265 medical workers followed up was statistically different among the cumulative dose groups (P = 0.010). Although the linear trend tested was not statistically significant (P@*CONCLUSION@#We concluded that although the exposure dose was below the limit, medical workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation for a short period of time might have increased first and then decreased platelets, and there was a dose-response relationship between the cumulative radiation dose and platelets changing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/radiation effects , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Young Adult
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 294-299, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132593

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: South Africa has a high prevalence of co-existing tuberculosis and HIV. As ototoxicity linked to the treatments for these conditions occurs with concomitant exposure to other ear toxins such as hazardous noise exposure, it is important to investigate the combination impact of these toxins. Limited published evidence exists on the co-occurrence of these conditions within this population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the hearing function of gold miners with (treatment group) and without (non-treatment group) the history of tuberculosis treatment, in order to determine which group had increased risk of noise induced hearing loss. Furthermore, possible influence of age and HIV in these two groups was examined. Methods: A retrospective record review of 102 miners' audiological records, divided into two groups, was conducted, with data analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: Findings suggest that gold miners with a history of tuberculosis treatment have worse hearing thresholds in the high frequencies when compared to those without this history; with evidence of a noise induced hearing loss notch at 6000 Hz in both groups. Pearson's correlations showed values between 0 and 0.3 (0 and −0.3) which are indicative of a weak positive (negative) correlation between HIV and hearing loss, as well as between hearing loss and age in this population. Conclusions: Current findings highlight the importance of strategic hearing conservation programs, including ototoxicity monitoring, and the possible use of oto-protective/chemo-protective agents in this population.


Resumo Introdução: A África do Sul apresenta uma alta prevalência de coinfecção de tuberculose e HIV. Como a ototoxicidade associada aos tratamentos para essas condições é observada na exposição concomitante a outros agentes ototóxicos, como a exposição a ruídos perigosos, é importante investigar o impacto da combinação desses agentes. São poucas as evidências publicadas sobre a co-ocorrência dessas condições nessa população. Objetivo: Comparar a função auditiva de garimpeiros com (grupo tratamento) e sem (grupo sem tratamento) história de tratamento de tuberculose, a fim de determinar que grupo apresentava maior risco de perda auditiva induzida por ruído. Além disso, avaliou-se a possível influência da idade e do HIV nesses dois grupos. Método: Os registros audiológicos de 102 garimpeiros, divididos em dois grupos, foram revisados de forma retrospectiva; os dados foram qualitativa e quantitativamente analisados. Resultados: Os achados indicam os garimpeiros com histórico de tratamento de tuberculose apresentam piores limiares auditivos nas altas frequências quando comparados àqueles sem esse histórico; em ambos os grupos, observou-se perda auditiva induzida por ruído com entalhe audiométrico a 6.000 Hz. As correlações de Pearson mostraram valores entre 0 e 0,3 (0 e -0,3), que são indicativos de uma fraca correlação positiva (negativa) entre o HIV e a perda auditiva, bem como entre a perda auditiva e a idade nessa população. Conclusões: Os resultados atuais destacam a importância de programas estratégicos de conservação auditiva, inclusive monitoramento de ototoxicidade, e o possível uso de agentes oto-/quimioprotetores nessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Gold , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/epidemiology , Mining , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/diagnosis , Hearing Tests
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC) for rural workers; to analyze sociodemographic conditions, history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment; and to verify exposure to pesticides by determining bioindicators. METHODS Cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study with a sample of 1,027 rural workers living in municipalities belonging to a regional health department in Southern Minas Gerais, whose PHC is governed by the Family Health Strategy model. We used the adult version of the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool Brazil) and a structured questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data, history of poisoning and hospitalization for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment. Blood samples were collected to measure biomarkers of pesticide exposure and signs of renal and hepatic sequelae. RESULTS Low education was prevalent, as well as the intense contact of workers with pesticides. Frequent use of personal protective equipment was higher among men, as was the history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides. Rates of 20% poisoning, 15% liver disease and 2% nephropathy were detected. Signs of hepatotoxicity were more frequent in men. Gender differences were all statistically significant. Regarding PHC, only the attribute "degree of affiliation" had a high score. None of the poisoning cases detected in the study were previously diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS Despite the high coverage of the Family Health Strategy, occupational risk and its consequences have not been detected by health services, which do not seem oriented to primary care, even lacking their essential attributes. There is a need for immediate and effective adaptation of public policies regarding the health of rural workers, with adequate training of teams and review of the portfolio of PHC services offered.


ABSTRACT OBJETIVO Avaliar os atributos da atenção primária à saúde (APS) na assistência à saúde de trabalhadores rurais; analisar condições sociodemográficas, histórico de intoxicação e internações por agrotóxicos e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual; e verificar a exposição aos praguicidas pela determinação de bioindicadores. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, descritivo-analítico, com amostra de 1.027 trabalhadores rurais residentes em municípios pertencentes a uma superintendência regional de saúde do sul de Minas Gerais, cuja APS é regida pelo modelo da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Utilizou-se o Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Primária (PCATool Brasil) versão adulto e um questionário estruturado para coleta de dados socioeconômicos, histórico de intoxicação e internação por agrotóxicos e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para dosagem de biomarcadores de exposição a praguicidas e de sinais de sequelas renais e hepáticas. RESULTADOS A baixa escolaridade foi prevalente, bem como o contato intenso dos trabalhadores com praguicidas. O uso frequente de equipamentos de proteção individual foi maior entre os homens, assim como o histórico de intoxicação e de internações por agrotóxicos. Detectaram-se índices de 20% de intoxicação, 15% de hepatopatia e 2% de nefropatia. Os sinais de hepatotoxicidade foram mais frequentes em homens. As diferenças entre sexos foram todas estatisticamente significantes. Com relação à APS, apenas o atributo "grau de afiliação" apresentou escore elevado. Nenhum dos casos de intoxicação detectados no estudo tinha diagnóstico prévio. CONCLUSÕES A despeito de uma alta cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família, o risco ocupacional e suas consequências não têm sido detectados pelos serviços de saúde, que se apresentam como não orientados à atenção primária, carecendo mesmo de seus atributos essenciais. Percebe-se a necessidade de adequação imediata e efetiva das políticas públicas no que concerne à saúde do trabalhador rural, com adequada capacitação das equipes e revisão da carteira de serviços da APS ofertados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pesticides/toxicity , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/chemically induced , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Rural Health , Family Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Insecticides/poisoning , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 92, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127232

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of self-reported exposure to chemical substances at work and its associated factors in a sample of Brazilian adults that participated in the National Health Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2014. METHODS Our sample consisted of adults aged 18 years or older that answered question E1 of module E: "In the week of July 21-27, 2013 (reference week), did you work as regular employee or intern for at least an hour in any activity paid with cash?" Sociodemographic data, situation and health behaviors were analyzed with single and multivariate binary logistic regression. The model was adjusted by the variables of all groups, adopting a 5% significance level. The values of odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS Women (OR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.66-0.82) had a lower chance of exposure to chemicals. The highest chances were observed in groups with no instruction or that attended up to middle-school (OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.50-2.08), high school (OR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.37-1.91), age between 25 and 54 years (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.07-1.48), current smokers (OR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37), who reported tiredness (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.21-1.50), hearing difficulties (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.04-1.48) and who reported having suffered an accident at work (OR = 2.00; 95%CI 1.57-2.54). CONCLUSIONS The unprecedented results cover the entire workforce. Positive associations with hearing loss, smoking and history of work accidents are consistent, as well as the inverse association with education level and gender differences. The absence of association with asthma was surprising. To fill gaps in investigations on chronic non-communicable diseases, we suggested improving the PNS collection instrument in the occupational dimension.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os fatores associados e a prevalência de exposição autorrelatada a substâncias químicas no trabalho em uma amostra de adultos brasileiros que participaram da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, realizada entre 2013 e 2014. MÉTODOS A amostra para análise da exposição foi constituída por trabalhadores com 18 anos ou mais de idade que responderam à questão E1 do módulo E: "Na semana de 21 a 27 de julho de 2013 (semana de referência), você trabalhou ou estagiou, durante pelo menos uma hora, em alguma atividade remunerada em dinheiro?" Os dados sociodemográficos, situação e comportamentos de saúde foram analisados com regressão logística binária uni e multivariada. O modelo foi ajustado pelas variáveis de todos os blocos, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. Obtiveram-se os valores de odds ratio (OR) e respectivos intervalos de confiança. RESULTADOS Mulheres (OR = 0,74; IC95% 0,66-0,82) tiveram menor chance de exposição a substâncias químicas. As maiores chances foram observadas nos grupos com nível fundamental de instrução ou sem instrução (OR = 1,77; IC95% 1,50-2,08), nível médio de instrução (OR = 1,62; IC95% 1,37-1,91), idade entre 25 e 54 anos (OR = 1,26; IC95% 1,07-1,48), fumantes atuais (OR = 1,21; IC95% 1,07-1,37), com problemas de cansaço (OR = 1,35; IC95% 1,21-1,50), com dificuldade auditiva (OR = 1,24; IC95% 1,04-1,48) e que relataram ter sofrido acidente de trabalho (OR = 2,00; IC95% 1,57-2,54). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados inéditos abrangem o conjunto da força de trabalho. Associações positivas com cansaço, dificuldade auditiva, acidentes de trabalho e tabagismo, assim como a associação inversa com o nível de escolaridade, além das diferenças de gênero, são consistentes. A ausência de associação com asma foi surpreendente. A fim de preencher lacunas nas investigações sobre doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adultos, sugere-se aperfeiçoar o instrumento da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde na dimensão ocupacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Behavior , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Workplace , Brazil , Prevalence , Health Surveys , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Self Report , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the years of life lost due to premature death and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a result of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributable to occupational hazard factors, and to compare their position according to the risk ranking for chronic noncommunicable diseases in 1990 and 2016. METHODS Data for the DALY indicator, estimated from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) study, were analyzed for noncommunicable chronic diseases attributable to occupational, and other risk factors, selected in Brazil. A descriptive analysis was performed comparing the proportion of DALY by sex and age group (15 to 49 and 50 to 69 years old), as well as the ranking of occupational hazard factors in 1990 and 2016. RESULTS In 2016, ergonomic risk factors, carcinogenic agents, and noise in the workplace were among the 25 largest contributors to DALY for chronic noncommunicable diseases affecting the age group between 15 and 49 years. The contribution of all occupational hazard factors increased in 2016, except for occupational aerodispersoids affecting men. Concerning the age group between 50 and 69, occupational carcinogens stand out, with an increase of 26.0% for men, and 17.1% for women in 2016. Risk factors evaluated according to their 1990 and 2016 ranking show that occupational hazards have all scored higher on the second evaluation (2016), especially when compared with other risks. CONCLUSIONS The global burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributed to occupational hazard factors has become increasingly important. We suggest the strengthening of the approach of occupational hazard factors in the agendas for tackling these diseases in Brazil.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura e por incapacidade ( disability-adjusted life years - DALY) em decorrência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis atribuíveis a fatores de risco ocupacionais e comparar a posição desses fatores no ranking dos riscos para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em 1990 e 2016. MÉTODOS Os dados referentes ao indicador DALY, estimado no estudo de Carga Global de Doenças de 2016 (GBD 2016), foram analisados para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis atribuíveis a fatores de risco ocupacionais e outros selecionados no Brasil. Realizou-se análise descritiva comparando a proporção de DALY por sexo e faixa etária (15 a 49 e 50 a 69 anos), além do ranqueamento de atribuição dos fatores de risco ocupacionais em 1990 e 2016. RESULTADOS Em 2016, fatores de risco ergonômicos, agentes carcinogênicos e ruído no ambiente laboral estiveram entre os 25 que mais contribuíram para os DALY por doenças crônicas não transmissíveis na faixa etária de 15 a 49 anos. A contribuição de todos fatores de risco ocupacionais aumentou em 2016, exceto os aerodispersoides ocupacionais para os homens. Para a faixa etária de 50 a 69 anos, sobressaem os agentes carcinogênicos ocupacionais, com aumento de 26.0% para homens e 17.1% para mulheres em 2016. Comparando o ranqueamento de 1990 e 2016 dos fatores de risco avaliados, os ocupacionais ascenderam de posição, com destaque em relação aos demais. CONCLUSÕES A carga global de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis atribuídas aos fatores de risco ocupacionais têm adquirido importância crescente. Sugere-se reforçar a abordagem dos fatores de risco ocupacionais nas agendas para enfrentamento dessas doenças no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Life Expectancy , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Global Burden of Disease , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200024, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101598

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: As intoxicações por agrotóxicos causam elevada morbimortalidade. A vigilância é necessária da produção até o uso desses produtos. Objetivo: Analisar as intoxicações e os fatores associados à letalidade por agrotóxicos. Método: Trata-se de estudo caso controle baseado nos atendimentos de intoxicação por agrotóxicos realizados em 2017 por centros de informação e assistência toxicológica do Brasil. Pacientes que evoluíram a óbito compuseram o grupo caso, e os sobreviventes, o grupo controle. Calculou-se odds ratio (OR) dos fatores de risco para óbito, com intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%. Com base no modelo de regressão, desenvolveu-se um modelo preditivo de morte, estratificado por faixa etária, sexo e contexto ocupacional, para investigação do risco dos trabalhadores agropecuários intoxicados por agentes extremamente tóxicos. Resultados: Identificaram-se 3.826 pacientes intoxicados por agrotóxicos, dos quais 146 evoluíram para óbito. Idosos (OR = 4,94; IC95% 2,49 - 9,80), homens (OR = 1,68; IC95% 1,15 - 2,46), trabalhadores do setor agropecuário (OR = 2,20; IC95% 1,15 - 4,24), tentativas de suicídio (OR = 13,27; IC95% 6,48 - 27,19) e exposição a produtos extremamente tóxicos (OR = 2,77; IC95% 1,84 - 4,16) apresentaram mais chances de óbito nas intoxicações por agrotóxicos. Conclusão: Em cada 100 intoxicações por agrotóxicos, quatro evoluíram para óbito. Idosos, homens, trabalho no setor agropecuário, tentativas de suicídio e produtos extremamente tóxicos apresentaram mais chances de óbito.


ABSTRACT: Background: Pesticide poisoning causes high morbidity and mortality. Surveillance is required for post-marketing monitoring of these products. Aim: To assess poisonings and associated factors with lethality by pesticides. Method: This is a case-control study based on the cases of pesticide poisoning assisted in 2017 by Brazilian Poison Control Centers. Patients who died were the cases and the survivors, the control. The odds ratio (OR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. From the regression model, a predictive model of death was developed, stratified by age, gender and occupational context to investigate the risk of agricultural workers poisoned by extremely hazardous agents. Results: 3,826 patients poisoned by pesticides were identified, of which 146 died. Older people (OR = 4.94; 95%CI 2.49 - 9.80), males (OR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.15 - 2.46), agricultural workers (OR = 2.20; 95%CI 1.15 - 4.24), suicide attempts (OR = 13.27; 95%CI 6.48 - 27.19) and exposure to extremely hazardous products (OR = 2.77; 95%CI 1.84 - 4.16) odds of death from pesticide poisoning. Conclusion: Out of 100 pesticides poisoning, four died. Elderly, males, working in the agricultural sector, suicide attempts and extremely hazardous products had a higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/poisoning , Poisoning/mortality , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/mortality , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200022, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101570

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Atualizar achados de estudos observacionais analíticos sobre a associação entre exposição ocupacional a organofosforados e neoplasias hematológicas. Métodos: Revisão sistemática de literatura, incluindo estudos de coorte e caso controle, sem limitação de tempo de publicação, nos idiomas português e inglês. O rastreamento de artigos foi feito no período de junho de 2017 a julho de 2019 nas bases de dados PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science e Scopus. A avaliação qualitativa de risco de viés foi feita com a Escala Newcastle-Otawa e com o Checklist Downs e Black. Os resultados foram apresentados segundo as recomendações da Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Resultados: Foram elegíveis 17 estudos avaliados como de boa/alta qualidade metodológica. A exposição a diazinon (um coorte), fonofós (um coorte), diclorvós, crotoxifós e fanfur (um caso controle) associou-se à leucemia, enquanto a exposição a organofosforados associou-se aos linfomas (seis caso controle). O risco de linfoma não-Hodgkin foi maior para os indivíduos expostos a diazinon (um caso controle) e malation (três caso controle), em relação aos não expostos. O mieloma múltiplo ocorreu mais comumente em expostos a organofosforados do que entre os não expostos (um caso controle). Conclusão: A exposição ocupacional a organofosforados aumenta o risco de neoplasias hematológicas, sobretudo entre os indivíduos com maior período de exposição. Medidas de monitoramento de trabalhadores e de controle da exposição são recomendadas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To update findings of observational analytical studies on the association between occupational exposure to organophosphates and hematologic malignancies. Methodology: Systematic literature review, including cohort and case-control studies, without limitation of publication time, in Portuguese and English. The articles were traced from June 2017 to July 2019 in PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. The qualitative bias risk assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Downs and Black Checklist. Results were presented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: Seventeen studies evaluated as good/high methodological quality were eligible. Exposure to diazinon (1 cohort), phonophos (1 cohort), dichlorvos, crotoxiphos and famphur (1 case control) was associated with leukemia, while exposure to organophosphate was associated to lymphomas (6 case control); the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was higher in those exposed to diazinon (1 control case) and malathion (3 control case) than non-exposed ones. Multiple myeloma occurred more commonly in organophosphate exposed than in non-exposed individuals (1 case-control). Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organophosphates increases the risk of hematologic malignancies, especially among individuals with longer exposure periods. Worker monitoring and exposure control measures are recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/poisoning , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Hematologic Neoplasms/chemically induced , Organophosphate Poisoning/complications , Time Factors , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(12): e00074520, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142636

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We aimed to investigate the association between occupational exposures and health-related quality of life among both informal and formal workers in the Brazilian Amazon. We conducted a cross-sectional study with working adults in the Manaus Metropolitan Region, Amazonas State, in 2015. Participants were selected through a three-step probabilistic sampling. The primary outcome was the health-related quality of life indicator, measured by the Brazilian validated version of the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) tool. Adjusted multivariate analysis was performed by Tobit regression and considered the complex sampling design. Results were converted to odds ratio (OR). Out of the 1,910 working individuals from the sample, 60.2% were formal workers. Informal workers were significantly more exposed to occupational risks than formal workers (p ≤ 0.05). Mean utility score for informal and formal workers was 0.886 (95%CI: 0.881; 0.890). Quality of life of informal workers was negatively impacted by exposure to noise (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.13; 1.52), occupational stress (OR = 1.95; 95%CI: 1.65; 2.21), and industrial dust (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.28; 1.72), while formal workers were negatively associated with exposure to chemical substances (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.28; 1.87), noise (OR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.23; 1.65), sun (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.09; 1.40), occupational stress (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.46; 1.87), biological material (OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.72; 3.97), and industrial dust (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.28; 1.65). Exposure to occupational risks among workers from the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, affecting both informal and formal workers. Brazilian policies need to be enforced to reduce the impacts on quality of life among workers in this region.


Resumo: O estudo buscou investigar a associação entre exposições ocupacionais e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde entre trabalhadores informais e formais na Amazônia brasileira. Realizamos um estudo transversal com trabalhadores adultos na Região Metropolitana de Manaus, Amazonas, em 2015. Os participantes foram selecionados por amostragem probabilística em três estágios. O desfecho primário foi a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, medida pela versão brasileira validada do instrumento European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L). Foi realizada a análise multivariada ajustada por regressão de Tobit, considerando o desenho complexo da amostra. Os resultados foram convertidos em razão de chances (OR). Entre os 1.910 indivíduos na amostra que estavam trabalhando, 60,2% eram trabalhadores formais. Os trabalhadores informais foram mais expostos aos riscos ocupacionais (p ≤ 0,05). A média de utilidade para trabalhadores informais e formais foi 0,886 (IC95%: 0,881; 0,890). A qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores informais foi impactada negativamente pela exposição ao ruído (OR = 1,28; IC95%: 1,13; 1,52), estresse ocupacional (OR = 1,95; IC95%: 1,65; 2,21) e poeiras industriais (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,28; 1,72), enquanto trabalhadores formais mostraram uma associação negativa com exposição a substâncias químicas (OR = 1,58; IC95%: 1,28; 1,87), ruído (OR = 1,40; IC95%: 1,23; 1,65), luz solar (OR = 1,65; IC95%: 1,09; 1,40), estresse ocupacional (OR = 1,65; IC95%: 1,46; 1,87), material biológico (OR = 2,61; IC95%: 1,72; 3,97) e poeiras industriais (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,28; 1,65). A exposição a riscos ocupacionais entre trabalhadores na Região Metropolitana de Manaus é alta, afetando trabalhadores informais e formais. Políticas brasileiras devem ser implementadas para reduzir os impactos sobre a qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores nessa região do país.


Resumen: El objetivo era investigar la asociación entre exposiciones ocupacionales y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud entre trabajadores formales e informales en la Amazonia Brasileña. Realizamos un estudio transversal con trabajadores adultos en la región metropolitana de Manaus, estado del Amazonas, en 2015. Los participantes fueron seleccionados a través de una muestra probabilística en tres pasos. El resultado primario fue la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, medida por la versión brasileña validada de la herramienta European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L). Se realizó un análisis ajustado multivariado mediante la regresión Tobit y se consideró el diseño complejo de la muestra. Los resultados se convertieron en odds ratio (OR). De los 1.910 trabajadores procedentes de la muestra, un 60,2% fueron trabajadores formales. Los trabajadores informales estuvieron significativamente más expuestos a los riesgos ocupacionales que los trabajadores formales (p ≤ 0,05). La puntuación media de utilidad para los trabajadores informales y formales fue 0,886 (IC95%: 0,881; 0,890). La calidad de vida de los trabajadores informales estuvo negativamente impactada por la exposición al ruido (OR = 1,28; IC95%: 1,13; 1,52), estrés ocupacional (OR = 1,95; IC95%: 1,65; 2,21), y polvos industriales OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,28; 1,72), mientras que los trabajadores formales estuvieron negativamente asociados con la exposición a sustancias químicas (OR = 1,58; IC95%: 1,28; 1,87), ruido (OR = 1,40; IC95%: 1,23; 1,65), sol (OR = 1,65; IC95%: 1,09; 1,40), estrés ocupacional (OR = 1,65; IC95%: 1,46; 1,87), material biológico (OR = 2,61; IC95%: 1,72; 3,97), y polvos industriales (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,28; 1,65). La exposición a riesgos ocupacionales entre trabajadores en la región metropolitana de Manaus es alta, afectando tanto a trabajadores informales como formales. Se necesitan imponer políticas brasileñas para reducir los impactos en la calidad de vida entre trabajadores en esta región.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Quality of Life , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 133, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145055

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of occupational pesticide exposure with acute and mental health symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out with 78 Brazilian family farmers, who were pesticide applicators and helpers conveniently selected. Symptoms and exposure data were collected by interviews, and mental health outcomes by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed to assess cholinesterase levels. Exposure indicators and symptoms were compared between applicators and helpers, and Poisson regression was performed to estimate prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Farmers reported exposure to multiple pesticides from early ages; they worked without safety training, technical support, and full protective equipment, and they had a high prevalence of acute and mental health symptoms (e.g., headache, mucosal irritation, tachycardia, and depressive signs). Applicators had more cholinesterase changes than helpers, but less symptoms. Helpers used less personal protection and had significantly higher prevalence ratio of headache, dyspnea, wheezing, cough, poor digestion, tiredness, and feeling worthless, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Acute and mental health symptoms were observed, both among farmers and helpers. Thus, surveillance actions must be reinforced in Brazil, technical support and safety training improved, focused on applicators and helpers, who are occupationally and environmentally exposed to pesticides. Agricultural practices of these groups with less pesticide use should receive incentive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/poisoning , Pesticides/toxicity , Poisoning/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Tachycardia/chemically induced , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Depression/chemically induced , Farmers , Headache/chemically induced , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Tachycardia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Family , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Agriculture , Depression/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Middle Aged
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 324-333, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1057396

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leptospirosis is important in Uruguay due to the economic loss caused by the diseases of production animals, mainly bovines, and also due to frequent human infection. We decided to study anti-Leptospira antibodies in the sera of dairy workers, rice laborers, veterinarians, suburban slum dwellers and garbage recyclers. Our aims were to estimate the seroprevalence of infection by Leptospira spp. in these people at risk, the relative importance of the known risk factors associated with infection, and the impact of human infections in each setting. Groups at risk were identified and 35 visits to their locations were made, conducting field surveys and exchange talks for information and education. Simple epidemiological questionnaires were administered and sera samples were taken from 308 persons. The microagglutination Technique (MAT) and the IgM Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) assay were employed to detect antibodies. Environmental water samples, canine and equine sera were also examined. More than 45% of human sera were reactive and the studied groups were confirmed to be widely exposed to infection. Female sera were frequently reactive, though most illnesses occur in men, and the most severe cases in elderly males; the emergence and evolution of the disease may strongly depend on the host condition and functions. Animal contact and unsafe water usage were the main identified risk factors to be considered in prevention. Fifty per cent of the studied horses showed a positive MAT reaction. The underdiagnosis of the illness and its long-term symptoms require further study, as well as greater health and social attention efforts.


Resumen La leptospirosis es importante en Uruguay por las pérdidas económicas que ocasionan las enfermedades en los animales de producción, principalmente en los bovinos, y a causa de la frecuente infección humana. Decidimos estudiar anticuerpos anti -Leptospira en trabajadores de tambo y de plantaciones de arroz, así como en veterinarios, habitantes de asentamientos y recicladores de residuos. Buscamos evaluar la importancia de distintos factores de riesgo conocidos asociados con la infección por Leptospira spp., y estimar la frecuencia y el impacto de las infecciones humanas en la población expuesta. Se efectuaron 35 visitas a colectivos de riesgo, realizando relevamientos de campo e intercambios educativos, llenando formularios epidemiológicos sencillos y tomando muestras de sangre a 308 personas. Se investigaron anticuerpos séricos con técnicas de microaglutinación (MAT) e inmunofluorescencia indirecta para IgM. Se examinaron también, muestras de agua ambiental, y sueros caninos y equinos. Más del 45% de los sueros humanos fueron reactivos y se confirmó que los grupos estudiados estaban ampliamente expuestos a la infección. Los sueros de mujeres fueron frecuentemente reactivos, aunque la mayoría de las enfermedades ocurren en varones, y los casos más graves en varones añosos. La emergencia y la evolución de la afección pueden depender fuertemente del estado del huésped y su respuesta. El contacto con animales y el uso de agua insegura fueron los principales factores de riesgo identificados para considerar en la prevención. El 50% de los sueros equinos fueron reactivos por MAT. Es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de atención social y sanitaria en estos sectores, superar el subdiagnóstico y estudiar la evolución y la sintomatología a largo plazo de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Social Conditions , Uruguay/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Leptospirosis/etiology
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1670-1676, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the presence of socio-environmental risk factors for the development of Green Tobacco Sickness in workers who grow Burley tobacco. Method: matched case-control study. The data collection took place in two moments: from December 2016 to January 2017 and December 2017, when the Burley tobacco was collected, through a household survey with interview application and urine collection for urinary cotinine. Results: the socio-environmental risk factors that remained associated with the disease were: bundling tobacco (p=0.047) and wearing socks (p=0.011); with protective effect were found sticking tobacco seeding of the day (p=0.006) and number of tobacco harvested per day (p=0.021). Conclusion: the steps in the Burley tobacco work process increase the exposure and risk of developing the disease. By identifying these factors, it is possible to address interdisciplinary control and prevention measures.


RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar la presencia de factores de riesgo socioambientales para el desarrollo de la Enfermedad del Tabaco Verde en trabajadores que cultivan el tabaco Burley. Método: estudio del tipo caso-control pareado. La recolección de datos ocurrió en dos momentos: de diciembre de 2016 a enero de 2017 y diciembre de 2017, período en que ocurrió la recolección del tabaco Burley, por medio de encuesta domiciliaria con aplicación de entrevista y recolección de orina para el examen de cotinina urinaria. Resultados: los factores de riesgo socioambientales que permanecieron asociados a la enfermedad fueron aferrar tabaco (p=0,047) y usar medias (p=0,011); con efecto protector fueron encontrados espetar los pies de tabaco del día (p=0,006) y el número de pies de tabaco cosechados por día (p=0,021). Conclusión: las etapas del proceso de trabajo con tabaco Burley aumentan la exposición y el riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad. Al identificar estos factores, es posible dirigir, de forma interdisciplinaria, medidas de control y prevención.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar a presença de fatores de riscos socioambientais para o desenvolvimento da Doença da Folha Verde do Tabaco em trabalhadores que cultivam o tabaco Burley. Método: estudo do tipo caso-controle pareado. A coleta de dados ocorreu em dois momentos: de dezembro de 2016 a janeiro de 2017 e dezembro de 2017, período em que ocorreu a colheita do tabaco Burley, por meio de inquérito domiciliar com aplicação de entrevista e coleta de urina para exame de cotinina urinária. Resultados: os fatores de riscos socioambientais que permaneceram associados à doença foram enfeixar tabaco (p=0,047) e usar meias (p=0,011); com efeito protetor foram encontrados espetar pés de tabaco do dia (p=0,006) e número de pés de tabaco colhido por dia (p=0,021). Conclusão: as etapas do processo de trabalho com tabaco Burley aumentam a exposição e o risco de desenvolver a doença. Ao identificar esses fatores, é possível direcionar, de forma interdisciplinar, medidas de controle e prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tobacco/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/etiology , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Tobacco Industry/methods , Tobacco Industry/standards , Tobacco Industry/statistics & numerical data , Cotinine/analysis , Cotinine/adverse effects , Cotinine/urine , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1022203

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects


Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos


Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Abortion , Mutagenicity Tests/methods , Acetylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(10): 1314-1320, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041031

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To review articles that evaluated the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. METHODS The search for articles was carried out in the Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) databases. RESULTS 64 articles were obtained from the electronic search; 18 articles met the eligibility criteria. All studies discussed the exposure to vibrations in the upper limbs. In 6 of them, the thermal issue was directly or indirectly addressed. No studies have addressed exposure to vinyl chloride. CONCLUSIO In general, a higher prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was found among vibratory tool operators compared to non-exposed workers, with an increase in the number of cases the higher the level of vibration and the time of exposure. Cold is a triggering and aggravating factor of the Raynaud phenomenon and seems to play an important role in the emergence of vascular manifestations of the hand-arm vibration syndrome.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Realizar um estudo de revisão dos artigos que avaliaram a prevalência do fenômeno de Raynaud de origem ocupacional. MÉTODOS A busca pelos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs). RESULTADOS Sessenta e quatro artigos foram obtidos a partir da busca eletrônica, dos quais 18 cumpriram os critérios de elegibilidade. Todos os estudos discutiram sobre a exposição a vibrações localizadas em membros superiores. Em seis deles, a questão térmica foi direta ou indiretamente abordada. Nenhum estudo abordou a exposição ao cloreto de vinila. CONCLUSÃO De maneira geral, constatou-se maior prevalência do fenômeno de Raynaud entre operadores de ferramentas vibratórias em comparação aos não expostos, com aumento do número de casos quanto maior o nível de vibração e tempo de exposição. O frio é fator desencadeante e agravante do fenômeno de Raynaud e parece exercer papel importante para o surgimento das manifestações vasculares da síndrome de vibração de mãos e braços.


Subject(s)
Humans , Raynaud Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Raynaud Disease/epidemiology , Vinyl Chloride/adverse effects , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome/complications , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3923-3932, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039474

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os agrotóxicos podem causar inúmeros problemas de saúde e são considerados agentes otoagressores. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as características auditivas nas altas frequências em trabalhadores com e sem exposição aos agrotóxicos, que apresentaram resultados normais na audiometria convencional. Estudo transversal com 87 trabalhadores, de ambos os gêneros, entre 19 e 59 anos, com vínculo de trabalho formal, informal e/ou que atuavam na agricultura familiar e realizaram Audiometria de Altas Frequências. O uso de glifosato foi relatado por 73% dos trabalhadores e as misturas de agrotóxicos diversos ocorreram em 78% deles. Não foi identificado uso adequado dos equipamentos de proteção individual recomendados para a atividade agrícola. Os trabalhadores expostos a agrotóxicos apresentaram piores resultados na Audiometria de Altas Frequências quando comparados aos que não tiveram contato com agrotóxicos (p < 0,0001). A Audiometria de Altas Frequências pode ser considerada um instrumento sensível para detectar, precocemente, alterações auditivas em trabalhadores expostos a agrotóxicos, e, seu uso em serviços de saúde poderá contribuir para as ações de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador.


Abstract Pesticides may cause a number of health problems and are considered oto-agressive agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the high frequency hearing characteristics of workers both with and without exposure to pesticides, that presented normal conventional audiometry. It involved a cross-sectional study with 87 workers, of both genders, between 19 and 59 years, with formal or informal jobs and some of whom worked with family agriculture, either using pesticides or not, who had taken High-Frequency Audiometry tests. The use of glyphosate was reported by 73% of workers and several pesticide mixtures occurred in 78% of them. There were no cases of proper use of personal protective equipment recommended for the activity. The workers exposed to pesticides had worse results in High-Frequency Audiometry tests in comparison with those who had no contact with pesticides (p < 0.0001). High-Frequency Audiometry has proved to be a useful and effective tool in the early detection of hearing loss caused by pesticides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Rural Population , Audiometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Personal Protective Equipment , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hearing Tests , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 670-677, sep.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127330

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To assess neuropsychological performance among workers at a paint factory in Mexico City. Materials and methods: During 2004 and 2005 we assessed the neuropsychological performance of 208 workers who were exposed to organic solvents at a paint factory, mainly toluene and xylene. We categorized workers into low and high exposure groups using a cumulative index for toluene, based on times spent in different tasks. We evaluated cognitive and motor functions with 13 neuropsychological tests. Results: We found lower attention, longer time to complete the test β=5.5 (R2=12.3%), and a lower score in the motor-cognitive test β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) in the high exposure group through multiple linear regression model analysis, with adjustment for age and education. Conclusion: Our results are similar to the ones reported in the literature, but the effects are less severe, probably due to lower exposure to organic solvents.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño neuropsicológico de los trabajadores de una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: Se evaluó el desempeño neuropsicológico de 208 trabajadores expuestos a disolventes orgánicos, principalmente tolueno y xileno, en una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México durante 2004 y 2005. Se categorizaron en grupos de baja y alta exposición con un índice acumulado de tolueno con base en el tiempo empleado por actividad. Se evaluaron funciones motoras y cognitivas con 13 pruebas neuropsicológicas. Resultados: Se registró un tiempo más largo para completar la prueba β=5.5 (R2=12.3%) y una puntuación baja en la prueba motor-cognitiva de β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) en el grupo de alta exposición en los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, ajustados por confusores. Conclusión: Los presentes resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura, aunque los efectos son menos graves, probablemente debido a la baja exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Paint/toxicity , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Attention/drug effects , Solvents/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Time Factors , Toluene/toxicity , Xylenes/toxicity , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Educational Status , Mexico , Neuropsychological Tests
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