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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between occupational class and self-reported low back pain (LBP) in a representative sample of the Japanese general population.@*METHODS@#We used anonymized data from a nationwide survey (31,443 men and 35,870 women aged ≥ 20). Occupational class variables included working status, occupation, employment status, and company size (number of employees). Covariates included age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, and comorbidities. Poisson regression models stratified by gender were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for self-reported LBP.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of self-reported LBP was 11.7% in men and 14.2% in women. After adjustment for covariates and mutual adjustment for all occupational class variables, among both genders, agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and non-workers had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP: APR (95% CI) of agricultural/forestry/fishery was 1.36 (1.08-1.70) in men and 1.59 (1.30-1.93) in women; that of non-workers was 1.42 (1.18-1.70) in men and 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in women. Among men, non-regular employees were more likely to have self-reported LBP than regular employees: APR (95% CI) was 1.25 (1.07-1.46) in part-timers and casual staff and 1.18 (1.03-1.35) in other types of non-regular employees. Moreover, compared to men working at companies with ≥ 100 employees, men working at companies with 30-99 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP (APR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34). Among women, professionals and technicians (1.26; 1.11-1.43) and sales workers (1.22; 1.04-1.43) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP than clerks. Neither employment status nor company size was associated with self-reported LBP in women. After stratified analyses by age group, similar patterns were observed in participants aged 20-64, but not in those aged ≥ 65.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that self-reported LBP is highly prevalent among agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and the unemployed, regardless of gender, and that there are also gender differences in the association of occupational class factors with self-reported LBP. It is necessary, therefore, to take preventive measures against LBP based on gender and occupational class factors in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Self Report , Sex Distribution
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(10): 3321-3332, Out. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890159

ABSTRACT

Resumo O câncer é a segunda causa de morte no mundo com grande impacto na saúde pública e as leucemias são cânceres hematológicos relacionados a diferentes exposições no trabalho. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil ocupacional de indivíduos diagnosticados com leucemia. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de casos cadastrados entre 2007 e 2011 no banco de dados do IntegradorRHC. Foram incluídos indivíduos de 26 estados brasileiros, com 20 anos ou mais. Do total de 7807 casos de leucemia, Minas Gerais registrou a maior ocorrência (1351). Em apenas 52% dos casos havia informações sobre a ocupação. As ocupações com maior número de casos de leucemias foram: trabalhadores agropecuários, florestais e da pesca; de serviços, vendedores do comércio em lojas e mercados e da produção de bens e serviços industriais. Tais ocupações apresentam exposição a substâncias consideradas pela literatura como agentes cancinogênicos para humanos. Observou-se elevado subregistro de dados referentes à ocupação comprometendo a qualidade da informação e, por conseguinte, a efetividade do sistema de vigilância em saúde no Brasil. O RHC também não fornece informações sobre o agente utilizado durante a jornada de trabalho, o tempo de exposição no decorrer de sua vida laboral, bem como dados de ocupações prévias.


Abstract Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world with great impact on public health and leukemia is a hematological cancer directly related to different exposures at work. This study aimed to describe the occupational profile of individuals diagnosed with leukemia. This is a cross-sectional study of cases registered between 2007 and 2011 in the Integrador RHC database. Individuals from 26 Brazilian states, aged 20 years or older, were included. Of the 7,807 cases of leukemia, Minas Gerais recorded the highest occurrence (1,351). Only 52% of the cases had information on occupation. Occupations with the greatest number of cases of leukemia were agricultural, forestry and fishing workers; services, stores and markets vendors; and workers in the production of industrial goods and services. These occupations are exposed to substances considered by literature as carcinogenic agents to humans. There was a high underreporting of occupational data, compromising the quality of information and, therefore, the effectiveness of the Brazilian health surveillance system. The RHC also does not provide information about the agent used during the working day, the exposure time during working life and data from previous occupations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Leukemia/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Databases, Factual , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(9): 3003-3011, Set. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890452

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo busca compreender as relações entre gênero, violências e o processo saúde-doença de mulheres que trabalham na área de segurança pública no litoral do estado do Paraná. A metodologia foi qualitativa, por meio de pesquisa etnográfica com 50 mulheres (policiais civis e militares, e agentes penitenciárias), realizada em três municípios balneários da região entre março de 2014 e março de 2015. A análise dos resultados revelou: 1) dilemas concernentes às sobrecargas de trabalho impostas pela conjuntura local, marcada pela sazonalidade; 2) exposição às violências (principalmente institucional e de gênero) e repercussão na saúde dessas mulheres; 3) relações de poder, assinaladas pelas hierarquias das corporações e assimetrias de gênero entre profissionais homens e mulheres. Esta pesquisa evidenciou: como as profissionais femininas nas instituições de segurança pública sofrem diretamente o impacto das violências e desigualdades de gênero em suas vidas pessoais e profissionais; e as resistências e rearranjos dessas mulheres nas instituições, suas reinvenções em meio a um ambiente de hegemonia tradicionalmente masculina.


Abstract This study aimed to promote visibility of women working in public security along the Parana coast, articulating issues of gender, violence(s), and the health-disease process. The methodology was qualitative, through an ethnographic research which included 50 women (civilians, military policewomen, and prison officers) from municipalities along the Parana coast, between March 2014 and March 2015. Results revealed: 1) the dilemmas that these women are subjected to, facing the seasonal dynamics in the field of public security in the region; 2) exposure to violence (mainly institutional and gender-based) and its impact on these women's health; 3) power relations, marked by corporations' hierarchies and gender asymmetries between men and women in professional settings. In summary, this research highlighted the need to promote visibility of women working in public security institutions, considering the impact of violence and gender inequalities in their personal and professional lives, including the resistance and rearrangements promoted by these women in the institutions in response to their presence in a hegemonic and traditionally male environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Workplace Violence/statistics & numerical data , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Women's Health , Sexism/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
5.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(1): 291-300, jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839911

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar percepções sobre a saúde dos homens nas óticas masculina e feminina. Amostra aleatória de 1.894 homens e 1.991 mulheres entre 20 e 59 anos de idade, usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde, residentes nas capitais de estados brasileiros e no Distrito Federal, foi submetida a entrevista por telefonia móvel. Foram registradas as variáveis sociodemográficas e as relacionadas à percepção do serviço de saúde, situação e cuidado de saúde. Regressão logística foi executada para avaliar a não busca de atendimento e o autocuidado bom e muito bom. A maioria da população avaliada se considera sem problema de saúde, principalmente os homens. A principal causa do não tratamento é a falta de acesso ao atendimento, embora homens e mulheres avaliem que os serviços os recebam adequadamente. A automedicação atinge mais de 40% dos homens e quase 30% das mulheres. Os homens se percebem cuidando bem da sua saúde, ao contrário de como as mulheres os veem, sendo que as percepções se diferenciam ao se levar em conta idade, escolaridade, etnia e situação ocupacional.


Abstract The goal of this article is to assess the perception of male health from the viewpoint of men and women. The study drew from a random sample of men aged 20 to 59 who were SUS (Unified Healthcare System) users and resided in the capitals of Brazilian states and the Federal District. Participants were interviewed by phone. Sociodemographic variables and variables related to perception of healthcare services, health status and health care were recorded. Logistic regression was used to assess failure to seek service and good and very good self-care. The majority of the study population considers it has no health problem, especially men. The main reason for failure to seek treatment is no access to services, although both men and women claim the healthcare services receive them adequately. Over 40% of men and almost 30% of women self-medicate. Men believe they are taking good care of their health, while women have a different perception of this. Perceptions differ when we take into consideration age, years of schooling, ethnicity and occupation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Men's Health , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Attitude to Health , Brazil , Delivery of Health Care , Educational Status , Health Services Accessibility , Interpersonal Relations , Interviews as Topic , Logistic Models , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 168-172, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781352

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria (CU) can be provoked by a wide variety of causes. Some studies suggest contact sensitization may play a role in the disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and distribution characteristics of allergic contact sensitization in central Chinese subjects with CU, and assess contact allergen avoidance measures in managing CU. METHODS: Patch tests were performed, following the recommended standard procedure, with 20 selected allergens, in line with the European baseline series. All subjects with positive results were prescribed appropriate avoidance measures for the sensitizing substances, while subjects with negative results served as the control group. CU severity was assessed daily from week1 to week4 and for each subject, applying the Urticaria Activity Score. RESULTS: 42.9% (233/543) of subjects with CU showed positive reactions to one or more contact allergen(s). Potassium dichromate, benzene mix and carba mix were more common in male patients, while nickel sulfate was more frequent in females. The positive rates for different allergens varied with age and occupation. The median (interquartile range) severity scores at week 1 were 20 (14-21) and 15 (14-27) for the allergen avoidance group and control group, respectively (P>0.05); and 12 (7-15) and 14 (12-17) at week 4 (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The incidence of allergic contact sensitization in CU patients was high, and appropriate contact allergen avoidance measures benefitted CU management. Contact allergens may play a role in the pathogenic mechanism of CU and patch tests are an option for CU patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urticaria/complications , Urticaria/epidemiology , Allergens/immunology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Patch Tests , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Incidence , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(12): e00129415, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828405

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Estima-se o número de trabalhadores expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno no Brasil. Por causa da falta de mensurações locais disponíveis para a pesquisa, empregaram-se dados de uma matriz de exposição ocupacional, a Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contemplam proporções de expostos ao benzeno calculadas com medidas ambientais. No Brasil, o Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificou 86.353.839 trabalhadores ativos e ocupados. Aplicando-se os parâmetros da FINJEM, estimou-se que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenciam a grupos ocupacionais potencialmente expostos, enquanto 770.212 foram considerados expostos ao benzeno, correspondendo a uma prevalência ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, maior em homens (1,1%) que em mulheres (0,6%). Expostos se concentraram no grupo de Operadores e Mecânicos de Máquinas e Motores (62%). O número de expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno são elevados mesmo considerando parâmetros da Finlândia, sugerindo a necessidade de monitoramento e controle desse cancerígeno no Brasil.


Abstract: This study estimates the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of occupational benzene exposure in Brazil. Due to the lack of available local measurements for the study, data were used from an occupational exposure matrix, the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), which covers proportions of individuals exposed to benzene, calculated as environmental measures. In Brazil, the 2010 Demographic Census identified 86,353,839 workers in the workforce and employed. Applying the FINJEM parameters, an estimated 7,376,761 (8.5%) belonged to potentially exposed occupational groups, while 770,212 were considered exposed to benzene, corresponding to an occupational group-weighted prevalence of 0.9%, higher in men (1.1%) than in women (0.6%). Exposed individuals were concentrated in the category of Machine and Motor Operators and Mechanics (62%). The number of exposed and prevalence of occupational exposure to benzene are high, even when compared to Finnish parameters, suggesting the need for monitoring and control of this carcinogen in Brazil.


Resumen: En este trabajo se estima el número de trabajadores expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno en Brasil. Debido a la falta de mediciones locales disponibles para esta investigación, se emplearon datos de una matriz de exposición ocupacional: la Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contempla proporciones de expuestos al benceno, calculadas con medidas ambientales. En Brasil, el Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificó a 86.353.839 trabajadores activos y ocupados. Aplicándose los parámetros de la FINJEM, se estimó que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenecían a grupos ocupacionales potencialmente expuestos, mientras que 770.212 fueron considerados expuestos al benceno, correspondiendo a una prevalencia ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, mayor en hombres (1,1%) que en mujeres (0,6%). Los expuestos se concentraron en el grupo de Operadores y Mecánicos de Máquinas y Motores (62%). El número de expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno son elevados, incluso considerando parámetros de Finlandia, sugiriendo la necesidad de un monitoreo y control de ese cancerígeno en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Benzene/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Occupations , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 37(2): 82-86, Apr. Jun. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753217

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the profile of insured individuals that filed claims for sickness benefits and compare the results of the administrative and legal investigations. Method: This case series included 114 insured persons that filed lawsuits against the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social, INSS). They underwent psychiatric examinations required by the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis from August to December 2010. Results: Mean age was 47 years, and participant age ranged from 24 to 64 years. Most insured individuals were women (79%), and most were employed (67.5%) and self-employed (26.5%) workers. Mean contribution time was 99.9 months, ranging from 8 to 352 months. Mean benefit duration was 20.4 months, ranging from 2 to 97 months. The most prevalent category of workers was service workers, store and supermarket salespeople (54.4%), followed by administrative workers (19.3%). Conclusions: Only 17 participants were found to be unable to work after benefit cessation, a 14.9% mismatch between administrative and legal investigations. The most frequent diagnoses were mood disorders (59.6%) and anxiety disorders (17.5%). .


Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos segurados que requerem benefícios por incapacidade e comparar os resultados das perícias administrativas e judiciais. Método: Esta série de casos incluiu 114 segurados que buscaram a justiça contra o Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS). Os participantes foram submetidos a perícia psiquiátrica exigida pelo Juizado Especial Federal em Florianópolis, entre agosto e dezembro de 2010. Resultados: A idade média dos participantes foi de 47 anos, variando de 24 a 64 anos. A maioria dos segurados era do sexo feminino (79%) e era empregada (67,5%) ou autônoma (26,5%). O tempo médio de contribuição foi de 99,9 meses, variando de 8 até 352 meses. A duração média dos benefícios foi de 20,4 meses, com mínimo de 2 e máximo de 97 meses. A categoria mais prevalente foi de trabalhadores no setor de serviços e vendedores de lojas e supermercados (54,4%), seguida por trabalhadores em atividades administrativas (19,3%). Conclusão: Apenas 17 participantes foram considerados incapazes de trabalhar após o término do benefício, uma diferença de 14,9% entre as perícias administrativa e judicial. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes foram transtornos de humor (59,6%) e transtornos de ansiedade (17,5%). .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Social Security/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/legislation & jurisprudence , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Disability Evaluation , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupations/economics , Occupations/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(10): 2219-2234, 10/2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-727735

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue examinar la relación entre clase social, riesgo psicosocial laboral y la salud autopercibida y mental en Chile. Se trata de un estudio transversal con los datos de la Primera Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Empleo, Trabajo, Calidad de Vida y Salud de los Trabajadores y Trabajadoras en Chile (N = 9.503). Las variables dependientes son: salud mental y salud autopercibida. Las variables explicativas son: clase social neo-marxista, factores de riesgo psicosocial y privación material. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y de regresión logística. Existen desigualdades en la distribución de los factores exposición laboral a riesgos psicosociales, según clase social y sexo. Además, la clase social y los factores de riesgo psicosocial en el trabajo están asociados a una distribución desigual de la salud autopercibida y salud mental entre la población trabajadora en Chile. Las intervenciones en el área de la salud de los trabajadores deben considerar la clase social y los factores de riesgo psicosocial a que están expuestos los trabajadores.


The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers’ exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.


O objetivo foi analisar a associação entre classe social, fatores psicossociais de risco laboral e saúde autopercebida e saúde mental entre a população trabalhadora chilena. Estudo transversal com os dados da Primera Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Empleo, Trabajo, Calidad de Vida y Salud de los trabajadores y trabajadoras en Chile (N = 9.503). As variáveis dependentes são: saúde autopercebida e saúde mental. As variáveis explicativas são a classe social (neo-marxista), os fatores psicossociais de risco laboral e privação material. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e de regressão logística. Existem desigualdades na distribuição dos fatores psicossociais de risco laboral segundo classe social e sexo. Além disso, a classe social e os fatores de risco psicossociais no trabalho estão associados a uma distribuição desigual da saúde autopercebida e saúde mental. As intervenções na área da saúde dos trabalhadores devem considerar a classe social e fatores de risco psicossociais a que os trabalhadores estão expostos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Employment/psychology , Mental Health , Occupational Health , Occupations/classification , Social Class , Workplace/psychology , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Employment/classification , Health Surveys , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Self Concept , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 34(3): 38-45, set. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-695254

ABSTRACT

Pesquisa descritivo-exploratória que objetivou conhecer as repercussões da cirurgia bariátrica na vida laboral do obeso grau III, com pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia em Y de Roux. A coleta de dados foi realizada de junho a julho de 2011, por meio de entrevista individual, originando três Discursos do Sujeito Coletivo: "Mais disposição para o trabalho", "A vida sem comorbidades" e "Outras repercussões da cirurgia bariátrica". Foram incluídos 30 pacientes com média de idade 44±12 anos, sendo 24 (80%) do sexo feminino, 19 (63%) que trabalhavam, 10 (34%) que não trabalhavam, um (3,3%) estudante, 23 (96%) hipertensos e oito (33%) com diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus. Constatou-se, também, que 13 (43%) tinham dificuldades no aspecto físico e que 21 (70%) as tinham no aspecto emocional. A cirurgia bariátrica repercutiu favoravelmente na vida laboral do obeso, uma vez que houve redução das comorbidades e das dificuldades físicas e emocionais, favorecendo a reinserção social e profissional do indivíduo.


Investigación descriptiva exploratoria con objeto de comprender los efectos de la cirugía bariátrica en obesidad clase III en la vida laboral, mediante entrevistas individuales con pacientes sometidos a bypass gástrico en Y-Roux. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo entre junio y julio de 2011, por medio de entrevistas individuales, produciendo tres Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo: "Más disposición a trabajar", "La vida sin comorbidades" y "Otros efectos de la cirugía bariátrica". Se incluyeron 30 pacientes con edad promedio de 44 ± 12 años, y 24 (80%) mujeres, 19 (63%) estaban trabajando y 10 (34%) no trabajaban y un (3%) estudiante, 23(96%) hipertensos y ocho (33%) con un diagnóstico de la diabetes mellitus. Dificultades en la apariencia física: 13 (43%) y el aspecto emocional: 21 (70%). La cirugía bariátrica repercutió favorablemente en la vida laboral de los obesos ya que hubo una reducción de comorbidades y las dificultades físicas y emocionales, lo que favorece la reinserción social y profesional de la persona.


This descriptive exploratory research aims to analyze the effects of bariatric surgery in the lifestyle of people with class III obesity in the workplace, through individual interviews with patients undergoing gastric bypass in Y-Roux. Data collection was conducted in June and July, 2011, by means of individual interviews, yielding three Collective Subject Discourse: "More willingness to work," "Life without comorbidities" and "Other effects of bariatric surgery." 30 patients with mean age 44± 12 years old, 24 (80%) female, 19 (63%) performed paid professional activities, 10 (34%) did not work and one (3.3%) students, 23 (96%) hypertension and eight (33%) with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were included in the study. Difficulty handling with physical appearance: 13 (43%) and the emotional aspect: 21 (70%). Bariatric surgery positively affected the lifestyle of obese at work, with reduction in comorbidities and physical and emotional problems, favoring social and professional reintegration of the individuals.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastric Bypass , Obesity/surgery , Work , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Emotions , Gastric Bypass/psychology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Physical Endurance , Qualitative Research , Self Concept , Social Adjustment
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 78(4): 108-114, jul.-ago. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-646780

ABSTRACT

O grau de nocividade do ruído pode ser quantificado e qualificado com base em algumas características do som como sua intensidade, o tipo de espectro, duração e a distribuição da exposição ao ruído durante a jornada de trabalho. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o espectro de ruído e a configuração audiométrica em trabalhadores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal, realizado no Distrito Federal. Realizou-se avaliação ambiental (análise espectral) do ruído em empresas de diferentes ramos de atividade econômica e avaliação audiológica em 347 trabalhadores. RESULTADOS: A análise espectral revelou picos em diferentes frequências em cada ramo de atividade (8 kHz-metalúrgico, 4 kHz-marmoraria e 2 kHz-madeireira). Verificou-se que as frequências de 14 kHz e 16 kHz apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os ramos de atividade, com maior prevalência no metalúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de medidor de nível de pressão sonora, acoplado a analisador de frequência e a avaliação audiométrica de altas frequências possibilitam a detecção precoce de danos auditivos que, por sua vez, viabiliza melhor direcionamento das ações preventivas.


Noise level can be quantified and qualified based on sound characteristics such as intensity, type of spectrum, duration and distribution of the noise exposure during one's working hours. OBJECTIVE: To assess noise spectrum and the audiometric configuration of workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort carried out in the Federal District - Brazil. We did an environmental analysis (spectral analysis) of the noise in companies from different industries, with audiological assessment of 347 workers. RESULTS: The spectral analysis revealed peaks at different frequencies for each industry investigated (8 kHz-metallurgical, 4 kHz-stone Works and 2 kHz-wood works). We noticed that the frequencies of 14 kHz and 16 kHz had significant differences between the various industries, with a greater prevalence of the metallurgical. CONCLUSION: The use of noise pressure measuring device, coupled to a frequency analyzer and high frequency audiometric assessment yielded an early detection of hearing damage, helping better organize preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/diagnosis , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupations/classification , Audiometry , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Noise, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. salud pública ; 14(supl.1): 32-42, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659928

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Determinar las condiciones de trabajo y salud de las mujeres que laboran en la informalidad en Bogotá y recomendar líneas de acción prioritarias para prevenir las enfermedades y accidentes relacionados con el trabajo y sus secuelas. Metodología Estudio de tipo observacional descriptivo, utilizó como base la información recolectada por los equipos locales del ámbito laboral durante el 2007 en las intervenciones que en el marco del Plan de Atención Básica. En total se incluyeron en el estudio 3 936 mujeres trabajadoras en la economía informal. Resultados El estudio reveló condiciones de precariedad de las mujeres en este sector de la economía. Se reflejan de manera precisa bajo nivel educativo, ingresos por debajo del salario mínimo legal, exposición a condiciones de trabajo deteriorantes para la salud, con largas jornadas laborales que generaron una baja disponibilidad de tiempo para el goce de actividades de ocio y tiempo libre. Adicionalmente, el 75 % de las mujeres incluidas en el estudio son cabeza de familia, lo cual las predispone a una mayor carga familiar y social.Conclusiones Se sugiere una mayor atención al fenómeno de la informalidad para evitar la condición de desprotección de las trabajadoras. Como una estrategia puntual se propone una mayor articulación entre la academia y las instituciones responsables del desarrollo de políticas públicas que permitan conocer a fondo fenómenos recurrentes en la población estudiada y así implementar programas que promuevan mejores condiciones de calidad de vida.


Objective: To determine work and health conditions of women working in informal economy in Bogotá, as well as to recommend priority action plans for preventing illnesses and accidents related to work and their consequences. Methodology: Descriptive observational study. This study analyzed information collected by local groups in work-related contexts during 2007 as part of a set of forms of intervention established according to the Plan de AtenciónBásica (Primary Care Plan). This plan included 3 715 units of informal work from every point of the city. 3 936 women registers in all were analyzed. Results: This study reveals evident precariousness conditions of women in this economic sector. Specifically, there are certain evident conditions that had shown in this study such as low education levels, incomes below the minimum legal standards, high exposure to damaging health work conditions, long work hours, and few hours for leisure and free time. Furthermore, 75 % of women included in this study are female head of household. This condition makes them more vulnerable to a heavier family and social burden. Conclusions: Closer attention to informal economy phenomenon is suggested in order to avoid vulnerable conditions of working women. Besides, it is necessary to improve the articulation between Academy and forms of intervention through public policies for knowing deeply repeated phenomena regarding the population of study. This articulation can be thought for implementing programs designed for improving women's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Employment , Women, Working , Work , Colombia , Data Collection , Educational Status , Employment/economics , Health Status , Income , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Unemployment/psychology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Women, Working/statistics & numerical data , Work/psychology , Work/statistics & numerical data , Workload/psychology , Workload/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(2): 207-213, feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627628

ABSTRACT

Background: In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. Aim: To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Material and Methods: Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. Results: A total of546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Conclusions: Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Chile/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/classification , Mental Disorders/complications , Occupations/classification , Regression Analysis , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Sick Leave/classification , Time Factors
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140177

ABSTRACT

Background: Tobacco use is reported to be rampant in urban slums in developing countries. Demographical variations in tobacco use between males living in urban slums vs those living in non-slum areas in India has not been reported, and this study was undertaken to address this issue. Materials and Methods: Secondary data analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) was undertaken to study demographical variations in tobacco use between urban slum dwellers and non-slum dwellers in eight Indian cities. Demographic determinants for use of smoking and chewing forms of tobacco in the two groups were analyzed. SPSS® version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Result: The study population comprised 6887 (41.8%) males from slum areas and 9588 (58.2%) from non-slum areas of eight urban cities. Cigarette/beedi smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use among the study population. Pan masala use was the least common form of smokeless tobacco use, next only to snuff. There was a high statistical significance observed within the various demographic parameter studied in both the slum and non-slum dwelling males in study population. However, on studying the differences between the two groups, it was observed that statistical significance of P≤.001 was observed with age (15-49), secondary education, religion, household structure and marital status. The difference between the two groups in the mean number of cigarettes/beedis smoked was not statistically significant (P=.598). Discussion and Conclusion: Male slum dwellers are a distinct urban population, whose health needs assessment requires a different approach than that for non-slum dwellers who often can afford the services that an urban Indian city can offer.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Family Characteristics , Hinduism , Humans , India/epidemiology , Islam , Male , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Nuclear Family , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco, Smokeless/statistics & numerical data , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(6): 753-757, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662438

ABSTRACT

South American blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis (Pb mycosis) or Lutz disease is an endemically fungal infection in Latin America. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and may cause oral mucosal lesions. The incidence of Pb mycosis oral lesions was evaluated in patients assisted at a Brazilian Dental School's Specialized Oral Diagnosis Service with special focus on the different clinical forms of these lesions, its location, patients' occupation, deleterious habits, and diagnosis methodology. Students' and professionals' initial diagnoses were compared with the definitive diagnosis. Lesions were detected 31 cases (18 patients). The results show that 88.8% of the patients were male with a mean age of 50 years and 39% work(ed) with activities related to agriculture. As much as 88.9% were smokers and 72.2% were alcohol users. Exfoliative cytology was performed in 66.6% of the patients. Oral mucosa (30%), gingiva (16.6%) and lips 16.6% were the most common sites of Pb mycosis oral lesions. Comparing the initial with the definitive diagnosis made by the professionals their accuracy was 33% (6 out of 18 patients). Students' diagnosis was more accurate demonstrating 72.5% of initial correct diagnosis (13 out of 18). Statistical analysis by ANOVA (α=0.05, SPSS WIN) demonstrated a significant difference between the diagnosis of Pb mycosis made by students and professionals when considering initial diagnosis and final diagnosis (after histopathological analysis) (p=0.25). Incisional biopsy and exfoliate cytology are efficient for an early diagnosis of this disease in mouth. Students' training in diagnosis of oral pathologies to recognize lesions is urgent to improve public health.


A blastomicose sul americana, paracoccidiodomicose (Pb micose) ou doença de Lutz é uma infecção fúngica endêmica na América Latina. É causada pelo fungo dimórfico Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, e pode causar lesões na mucosa oral. Nós avaliamos a incidência de lesões orais de Pb micose nos pacientes atendidos em um Centro Especializado em Diagnóstico Oral com foco principal nas diferentes formas clinicas das lesões, suas localidades, ocupação dos pacientes, hábitos deletérios e diagnóstico e metodologia, e foram detectados 31 casos (18 pacientes). Os resultados mostraram que 88,8% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino com idade média de 50 anos de idade, e 39% trabalham, ou trabalhavam, com atividades relacionadas à agricultura. Observou-se que 88,9% eram fumantes e 72,2% ingeriam álcool. Citologia esfoliativa foi feita em 66,6%. Mucosa jugal foi acometida em 30%, gengiva, e lábios 16% (cada um) foram os locais mais comuns de lesões orais da Pb micose. Comparando o diagnóstico inicial com o definitivo feito pelos profissionais, a acurácia foi de 33%; o diagnóstico dos estudantes foi mais preciso demonstrando 72,5% do diagnóstico inicial correto com diferença estatística significante (p=0,25) através do teste ANOVA do SPSS WIN com nível de significância de 5%. Biópsia incisonal e citologia esfoliativa são eficientes para um diagnóstico precoce desta doença na boca; o treinamento dos estudantes em diagnóstico para reconhecer as patologias orais é urgente para melhorar a saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cytodiagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Gingival Diseases/microbiology , Health Behavior , Incidence , Lip Diseases/microbiology , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178285

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop a disability rating scale according to job classification using the Korean Academy of Medical Society (KAMS) guidelines. All jobs were categorized based on their level of physical activity and professional skills. The KAMS guidelines were used for the impairment rating. We modified the California Schedule for rating permanent disabilities. The differences were plotted to compare between the impairment rate and the job-adjusted disability rate. The KAMS job-adjusted disability rates were then compared to the McBride and workers' compensation rates. A total of 1,206 occupations were classified into 44 groups. The occupational disability indexes were rated on a scale of 1 to 7. The differences in the McBride disability rates varied inconsistently from 0% to 35%, while the differences in the KAMS disability rates were between 0% and 18%. The KAMS disability rates were slightly higher than the McBride disability rates for the upper extremities, but were lower for the lower extremities and internal organs. This is the first Korean job-adjusted disability rating method. There are several limitations, but its impairment rating is more scientific and reflects the current Korean occupational environment.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Asians , Disability Evaluation , Humans , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Program Development , Republic of Korea , Severity of Illness Index , Workers' Compensation/statistics & numerical data
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140140

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-medication practices among dental out patients presenting at a tertiary health care center in Ibadan, and to determine factors that are associated with these practices. Materials and Methods: All patients presenting over a 4-month period, who consented to participate in the study, had a semi-structured questionnaire, highlighting age, sex, income and educational qualification, history of past practice of self-medication, substances used and reasons for resorting to self-medication administered to them. Data obtained were analyzed with the SPSS 12.0.1 software. Frequency tables were generated and statistical relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at P>0.05. Results: There were 108 (38.03%) males and 176 (61.97%) females. A total of 139 (48.9%) of the respondents claimed that they have been involved in self-medication. 54.7% of the people involved in self-medication were female, while 41.7% were male. There was a statistically significant difference in self-medication between males and females (P=0.001). 71.2% of the respondents had post-secondary education and only 28.8% had secondary education or less. Conclusion: Self-medication practices were quite high in this study, and these practices were also prevalent among the educated people. Drug control enforcement needs to be intensified and dental public health education needs to be given greater priority in the overall public health campaigns.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Dental Anxiety/psychology , Dental Clinics/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Middle Aged , Motivation , Nigeria , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Medication/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140023

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the prevalence of permanent tooth loss among children and adults in a suburban area of Chennai. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Study setting: The study was conducted in Tiruverkadu, a suburban area of Chennai. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was done in Tiruverkadu. The study population consisted of 6, 12, 15 years children, 35-44 years, and 65-74 years adults. Type III dental examination was carried out. Cross tabulations and Chi-square statistics were computed. The level of significance was chosen as P<0.05. Results: Out of the total 679 subjects, 309 subjects had tooth loss. Females (47.9%) had greater tooth loss compared to males (42.9%). Tooth loss increased as age progressed. Subjects in the lower socio-economic status had greatest tooth loss. The mean tooth loss among the subjects was 2.7. Conclusion: This study indicates that tooth loss increases with age and differs for gender and socio-economic status. The prevalence of tooth loss among the subjects was found to be high in children as well as in adults. Therefore, dental professionals should utilize various measures available in preventive dentistry to minimize tooth loss.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , India/epidemiology , Jaw, Edentulous/epidemiology , Male , Mouth, Edentulous/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Social Class , Suburban Health/statistics & numerical data , Tooth Loss/epidemiology
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 85(6): 797-803, nov.-dez. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-573617

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor (tinha versicolor) é uma micose superficial crônica, causada por leveduras do gênero Malassezia spp. comensais das camadas queratinizadas da pele e que, sob determinadas condições ainda não esclarecidas, se torna patogênica, determinando as manifestações clínicas da doença. É uma dermatose recidivante e, mesmo após tratamento, pode deixar hipopigmentação persistente, causando problemas sociais aos indivíduos acometidos. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor atendidos em uma unidade de referência em Dermatologia (Fundação Alfredo da Matta). MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos em que foram detalhadas as manifestações cutâneas e as características epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos na Fundação Alfredo da Matta com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor. RESULTADOS: Cento e dezesseis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo no período de janeiro a agosto de 2008. A maioria dos indivíduos é do sexo masculino, de cor parda, da faixa etária jovem e formada por estudantes, que apresentavam fatores predisponentes ao surgimento das manchas. Também a maioria apresentava lesões extensas e história passada da doença. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou alta proporção de indivíduos com quadros extensos e de longa duração da doença.


BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor) is a chronic superficial mycosis caused by yeasts of the Malassezia spp. genus commensal of the keratinized layers of the skin. Under conditions not yet understood, it becomes pathogenic determining the clinical manifestations of the disease. It is a recurrent skin condition and persistent hypopigmentation may remain after treatment, causing social problems to those affected. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at a referral center for dermatology (Alfredo da Matta Foundation). METHODS: Case-studies in which cutaneous manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at Alfredo da Matta Foundation were detailed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were included in the study from January to August 2008. Most subjects were male, of mixed ethnicity and young age. Most were students who were predisposed to the development of macules. The majority had extensive injuries and past history of the disease. CONCLUSION: The results revealed a high proportion of individuals with extensive clinical manifestations and duration of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Life Style , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Tinea Versicolor/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Recurrence
20.
Rev. salud pública ; 12(4): 635-646, ago. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-574943

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Verificar a prevalência da síndrome metabólica (SM) em funcionários de uma empresa metalúrgica do Distrito Federal, por faixa etária e classificação étnico-racial; comparar indicadores bioquímicos, antropométricos e hemodinâmicos, de acordo com ausência e presença da SM. Métodos Participaram do estudo 125 homens (20-69 anos). As seguintes variáveis foram coletadas: idade, etnia, massa corporal, estatura, índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência do abdômen (CA), glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total (CT), lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-c) e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD). Resultados A prevalência de SM foi de 28 por cento. Os indivíduos com presença da SM apresentaram valores superiores de triglicerídeos, IMC, CA, PAS, PAD e inferiores de HDL-c. Observou-se aumento na presença de SM com o avanço da idade, em maior proporção (45,9 por cento) naqueles com idade superior a 40 anos. Conclusões A SM foi elevada em homens trabalhadores de uma empresa metalúrgica e esta se associou com a idade.


Objective Determining metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence amongst employees from a steel company in Distrito Federal according to age and ethnic-racial classification, comparing biochemical, anthropometric and hemodynamic indicators according to MS presence or absence. Methods A total of 125 men (aged 20-69) participated in the study. Data was collected regarding age, ethnic origin, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results MS prevalence was 28 percent. Subjects suffering from MS presented higher triglyceride levels, had greater BMI, waist circumference, SBP and DBP and lower HDL-c. Increased MS frequency was observed with age, having higher frequency (45.9 percent) amongst subjects aged more than 40. Conclusions MS prevalence was high amongst steel company workers; the condition was associated with age.


Objetivos Investigar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico (SM) en los empleados de una empresa metalúrgica en el Distrito Federal, por edad y clasificación etno-racial; comparar los indicadores bioquímicos, antropométricos y hemodinámicos, según la presencia o ausencia de SM. Métodos El estudio incluyó a 125 hombres (20-69 años). Se incluyeron las siguientes variables: edad, etnia, masa corporal, talla (estatura), índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia abdominal (CA), glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol total (CT), lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-c) y la presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y diastólica (PAD). Resultados La prevalencia del SM fue de 28 por ciento. Los individuos con presencia del síndrome metabólico mostraron valores altos de triglicéridos, IMC, CA, PAS, PAD y bajos valores de HDL-C. Se observó también, un aumento en la presencia del SM con el avanzo de la edad y una mayor proporción (45,9 por ciento) en los mayores de 40 años de edad. Conclusiones El SM presentó una alta prevalencia en los trabajadores de una empresa metalúrgica, lo cual se asoció con la edad.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Waist Circumference
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