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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 341-352, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146253

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of stored grain pests. The toxicity and repellency of the essential oils of four basil cultivars and three basil hybrids and the monoterpenes linalool, citral, and (E)-methyl cinnamate were evaluated in the stored grain pests Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophillus zeamais. The essential oils of the cultivar Genovese and the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to C. maculatus. Conversely, the essential oils of the cultivar Sweet Dani and the hybrid 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to S. zeamais. Among the monoterpenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate was the most toxic to both pests, taking 0.14 and 0.34 µ L.mL-1 to kill 50% of the C. maculatus and S. zeamais populations, respectively. All essential oils from cultivars, hybrids, and monoterpenes were repellent to S. zeamais, except for (E)-methyl cinnamate. For C. maculatus, this effect was lower, being citral the most repellent compound. Results demonstrate the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of O. basilicum and its monoterpenes in the control of stored grain pests.


Os óleos essenciais surgem como alternativa aos inseticidas sintéticos no controle das pragas de grãos armazenados. A toxicidade e a repelência dos óleos essenciais de quatro cultivares e três híbridos de manjericão e dos monoterpenos linalol, citral e (E)-cinamato de metila foram avaliadas nas pragas de grãos armazenados Callosobruchus maculatus e Sitophillus zeamais. Os óleos essenciais da cultivar Genovese e do híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' foram mais tóxicos para C. maculatus. Já para S. zeamais, os óleos essenciais das cultivar Sweet Dani e do híbrido 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram maior toxicidade. Dentre os monoterpenos, o (E)-cinamato de metila foi o mais tóxico para ambas as pragas. Foram necessários 0,14 e 0,34 µ L.mL-1 para matar 50% da população de C. maculatus e S. zeamais. Todos os óleos essenciais das cultivares, dos híbridos e dos monoterpenos foram repelentes a S. zeamais, com exceção do (E)-cinamato de metila. Já para C. maculatus, este efeito foi reduzido, sendo o citral o composto mais repelente. Nos resultados demonstram o potencial inseticida dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e seus monoterpenos para o controle de pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Lamiaceae , Insecticides
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 603-611, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important crops in Brazilian farming. Many insect are related to this crop, compromising the quantity and quality of the fruit, representing a production problem. Vegetable diversification is one of the main elements that can be managed for suppressing undesirable insect populations in organic production, once that supports the presence of natural enemies. The basil Ocimum basilicum L. and the marigold Tagetes erecta L. are attractive and nutritious plants for parasitoids, being important candidates for diversified crops. This study evaluated the parasitoids attracted by the association of basil and marigold to organic sweet pepper crop. The experiment comprised three treatments: a) sweet pepper monoculture; b) sweet pepper and basil intercropping; c) sweet pepper and marigold intercropping. Hymenopteran parasitoids were collected over 14 weeks. 268 individuals from 12 families and 41 taxa were collected. Sweet pepper monoculture, sweet pepper-basil intercropping, and sweet pepper-marigold intercropping hosted 40, 98, and 130 individuals and richness of 24, 24, and 23, respectively. Furthermore, the insects of greater abundance in the basil and marigold were different to those collected in the monoculture. The number of parasitoids increased in the associations of sweet pepper with basil and marigold, providing advantages in the use of vegetable diversification for the organic pepper crops management.


Resumo O pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) é um dos vegetais mais importantes dentre os cultivados no Brasil. Muitos insetos pragas estão relacionados a esta cultura, comprometendo a quantidade e a qualidade do pimentão, tornando-se um grande problema para a produção. A diversificação vegetal é um dos principais componentes a serem manejados para suprimir as populações de pragas na produção orgânica, devido ao apoio a inimigos naturais das pragas. O manjericão ( Ocimum basilicum L.) e cravo amarelo (Tagetes erecta L.) são plantas atrativas e nutritivas para parasitoides, importantes candidatas em cultivos diversificados. Este trabalho avaliou os parasitoides atraídos pela associação de manjericão e cravo amarelo em cultivo de pimentão orgânico. O experimento foi composto por três tratamentos: a) monocultura de pimentão; B) pimentão consorciado com manjericão; C) pimentão consorciado com cravo amarelo. Foram coletadas amostras de parasitoides himenópteros durante 14 semanas. Os espécimes foram identificados até o menor nível de taxonomia possível. Foram coletados 268 indivíduos ao longo de 12 famílias e 41 táxons. Os tratamentos de monocultura, pimentão consorciado com manjericão e pimentão consorciado com cravo amarelo resultaram em 40, 98 e 130 indivíduos e riqueza de espécies de 24, 24 e 23, respectivamente. Além disso, os insetos de maior abundância coletados no manjericão e cravo amarelo, foram diferentes daqueles coletados na monocultura. Houve um aumento na abundância de parasitoides nas associações de pimentão com manjericão e cravo amarelo, proporcionando vantagens no uso da diversificação vegetal, podendo ser usada no manejo do pimentão orgânico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps/physiology , Capsicum/growth & development , Ocimum basilicum/growth & development , Tagetes/growth & development , Biodiversity , Brazil , Host-Parasite Interactions
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 89-100, jan./fev. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048563

ABSTRACT

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an aromatic and medicinal crop that produces metabolites rich in chemical constituents for various purposes. The composition of the essential oil is variable due to external factors during production, such as fertilization and the environment, and the oil concentration may vary even among the genotypes of a species. For sweet basil mores studies are needed to clarify understanding about the biomass and essential oil yield and nutrient management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and essential oil yield of basil varieties with organo-mineral fertilizer under different agricultural systems. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (DBC), with three replications, in a 2X4 factorial scheme, with two varieties (Maria Bonita and Genovese) and four fertilizations (50 and 100% organo-mineral, one mineral source and one organic source). Two areas were carried out simultaneously (greenhouse and field) to evaluate plant height, fresh biomass, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition. Results indicate that Genovese showed superior height and biomass yield when mineral or organic fertilizer was used at the greenhouse. Organo-mineral and organic fertilizers provided significantly better results of biomass yield in both varieties at field cultivation. The oil content was higher in the field, reflecting higher oil yields in field treatments in comparison to greenhouse. We concluded that the environment of cultivation and the way fertilizer sources release the nutrients can be determinan factors in the performance of basil plants; without protected cultivation, the content of essential oil is higher and the organo-mineral fertilizer can provide better nutrient supply to the plants mainly during rainy season.


O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) é uma cultura aromática e medicinal que produzmetabolitos ricos em constituintes químicos para vários fins. A composição do óleo essencial é variável com fatores externos durante a produção, como fertilização e meio ambiente, podendo variar até mesmo entre os genótipos de uma espécie. Para melhor compreensão sobre o rendimento de biomassa e óleo essencial e manejo de nutrientes no cultivo de manjericão são necessários mais estudos. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o rendimento de biomassa e óleo essencial de variedades de manjericão com fertilizante organomineral em diferentes sistemas agrícolas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC), com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 2X4, com duas variedades (Maria Bonita e Genovese) e quatro fertilizações (50 e 100% organomineral, uma fonte mineral e uma fonte orgânica). Duas áreas foram realizadas simultaneamente (estufa e campo) para avaliar a altura da planta, biomassa fresca, teor de óleo essencial, rendimento e composição química. Os resultados indicam que Genovese apresentou altura e rendimento de biomassa superior quando o fertilizante mineral ou orgânico foi utilizado na estufa. Os fertilizantes organominerais e orgânicos proporcionaram resultados significativamente melhores do rendimento de biomassa em ambas as variedades no cultivo de campo. O teor de óleo foi maior no campo, refletindo maiores rendimentos de óleo em tratamentos de campo em comparação com estufa. Concluímos que o ambiente de cultivo e a forma como as fontes de fertilizantes liberam os nutrientes podem ser fatores determinantes no desempenho das plantas de manjericão; sem cultivo protegido, o teor de óleo essencial é maior e o fertilizante organomineral pode fornecer um melhor suprimento de nutrientes para as plantas principalmente durante a estação chuvosa.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Biomass , Ocimum basilicum , Aromatic Extracts
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(1): 58-70, ene. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007470

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration and chemical composition of the essential oil the leaves of basil cultivars and hybrids cultivated in different cropping seasons: dry season and rainy season. The variables evaluated were the content and composition of essential oils in the two seasons. The essential oil content ranged from 0.66% to 3.21% in the dry season and from 0.80% to 4.20% in the rainy season. The major compounds found among the genotypes were linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, geranial, eugenol, and methyl (E)- cinnamate, defining the formation of five groups in each season, classified in the following chemotypes: methyl chavicol (Group 1), citral (neral+geranial) (Group 2), methyl cinnamate (Group 3), linalool (Group 4), and intermediate linalool (Group 5). All the traits evaluated had heritability (h ) greater than 95% and high CVg/CVe ratio values. The cropping season affected the content and chemical compositions of basil essential oil.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la concentración y composición química del aceite esencial las hojas de cultivares de albahaca e híbridos cultivados en diferentes temporadas de cultivo: estación seca y estación lluviosa. Las variables evaluadas fueron la contenido y la composición de los aceites esenciales en las dos estaciones. La contenido de aceite esencial varió de 0.66% a 3.21% en la estación seca y de 0.80% a 4.20% en la estación lluviosa. Los principales compuestos encontrados entre los genotipos fueron linalool, metilchavicol, neral, geranial, eugenol y metil (E)-cinamato, definiendo la formación de cinco grupos en cada estación, clasificados en los siguientes quimiotipos: metil chavicol (Grupo 1), citral (neral + geranial) (Grupo 2), cinamato de metilo (Grupo 3), linalool (Grupo 4) y linalol intermedio (Grupo 5). Todos los rasgos evaluados mostraron una heredabilidad (h ) mayor que el 95% y altos valores de relación CVg/CVe. La temporada de cultivo afectó la contenido y las composiciones químicas del aceite esencial de albahaca.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ocimum basilicum , Eugenol/analysis , Cinnamates/analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis , Anisoles/analysis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759010

ABSTRACT

Central venous disease (CVD) is difficult to treat and often resistant to treatment. In CVD, hemodialysis vascular access should sometimes be abandoned, or in serious cases, the patient's life may be threatened. Therefore, prevention is ideal. However, as the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased steadily with population aging, CKD patients with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) are encountered frequently. PICCs can cause CVD, and the basilic vein, which is regarded as the important last option for native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, is destroyed frequently after its use as the entry site of PICC. The most well-established risk factors for CVD are a history of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion and its duration of use. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of CVD, catheterization in the central vein (CV) should be minimized, along with its duration of use. In this review, we will first explain the basic territories of the CV and introduce its pathophysiology, clinical features, and advanced treatment options. Finally, we will emphasize prevention of CVD.


Subject(s)
Aging , Arteriovenous Fistula , Catheterization , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Ocimum basilicum , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Veins
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, which cause a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, are common in South Korea. Recent reports have shown a decline in the H. pylori eradication rates. β-caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species, such as cloves, basil, and cinnamon. β-caryophyllene has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene on H. pylori and its potential role as an alternative gastrointestinal drug.METHODS: This 8-week, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial categorized subjects into a β-caryophyllene group (33 patients who received 126 mg/day of β-caryophyllene) and a placebo group (33 patients who received a placebo preparation). The inflammation level of H. pylori infiltration and the eradication rates were evaluated endoscopically and with the urea breath test (UBT) in both groups before and after administering the medication. The serum cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) were compared in both groups before and after administering the medication.RESULTS: Complete eradication was not observed in either group. Moreover, there was no significant change in the UBT and updated Sydney score. On the other hand, the β-caryophyllene group showed significant improvement in nausea (p=0.025) and epigastric pain (p=0.018), as well as a decrease in the serum IL-1β levels (p=0.038).CONCLUSIONS: β-caryophyllene improves dyspepsia symptoms and can be considered a useful supplementary treatment for gastrointestinal disease.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Hand , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukins , Korea , Nausea , Necrosis , Ocimum basilicum , Plants , Syzygium , Urea
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, which cause a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, are common in South Korea. Recent reports have shown a decline in the H. pylori eradication rates. β-caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species, such as cloves, basil, and cinnamon. β-caryophyllene has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of β-caryophyllene on H. pylori and its potential role as an alternative gastrointestinal drug. METHODS: This 8-week, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial categorized subjects into a β-caryophyllene group (33 patients who received 126 mg/day of β-caryophyllene) and a placebo group (33 patients who received a placebo preparation). The inflammation level of H. pylori infiltration and the eradication rates were evaluated endoscopically and with the urea breath test (UBT) in both groups before and after administering the medication. The serum cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) were compared in both groups before and after administering the medication. RESULTS: Complete eradication was not observed in either group. Moreover, there was no significant change in the UBT and updated Sydney score. On the other hand, the β-caryophyllene group showed significant improvement in nausea (p=0.025) and epigastric pain (p=0.018), as well as a decrease in the serum IL-1β levels (p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: β-caryophyllene improves dyspepsia symptoms and can be considered a useful supplementary treatment for gastrointestinal disease.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Hand , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukins , Korea , Nausea , Necrosis , Ocimum basilicum , Plants , Syzygium , Urea
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1167-1177, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967304

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic performance of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) hybrids and cultivars, grown in four crop years, in the municipality of São Cristóvão, state of Sergipe. The following variables were evaluated: dry weight of aerial part; essential oil content and yield; and the contents of linalool, 1,8-cineol, neral, geranial, and methyl cinnamate. Five hybrids ('Sweet Dani' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Cinnamon' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani' x 'Cinnamon', and 'Sweet Dani' x 'Genovese') and four parent cultivars ('Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani', 'Genovese', and 'Cinnamon') of basil were evaluated. The essential oils were obtained from dried leaves by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS-FID. Means were clustered, and the genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated. Linalool was the main compound of most genotypes. Hybrids 'Cinnamon' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani' x 'Cinnamon', and 'Sweet Dani' x 'Maria Bonita' had methyl cinnamate (41.93 %), methyl cinnamate (60.15 %), geranial (15.20 %), and neral (11.46 %), respectively, as major compounds. The sources of variation were significant at the 1 % probability level, according to the F tests for all variables, confirming the differences in the performance of genotypes in the different years. Most of the variation among the studied variables resulted from the genetic variation.


Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a performance fenotípica e genotípica de híbridos e cultivares de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.), cultivados em quatro anos agrícolas no município de São Cristóvão, Estado de Sergipe. Foram avaliados os caracteres: massa seca de parte aérea; teor de óleo essencial; rendimento de óleo essencial; linalol; 1,8-cineol; neral; geranial e (E)-cinamato de metila para cinco híbridos de manjericão ('Sweet Dani' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Cinnamon' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani' x 'Cinnamon' and 'Sweet Dani' x 'Genovese') e quatro cultivares ('Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani', 'Genovese' e 'Cinnamon'). Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos de folhas secas por hidrodestilação. A composição química dos óleos essenciais foi determinada por CG/EM-DIC. Foi realizado o agrupamento das médias e foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos. Linalol foi o composto majoritário do óleo essencial da maioria dos genótipos. Os híbridos 'Cinnamon' x 'Maria Bonita', 'Sweet Dani' x 'Cinnamon' e 'Sweet Dani' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram também outros compostos majoritários, (E)-cinamato de metila (41,93 %); (E)-cinamato de metila (60,15 %); geranial (15,20 %) e neral (11,46 %); respectivamente. As fontes de variação foram significativas no nível de probabilidade de 1% de acordo com os testes F para todas as variáveis, o que confirma as diferenças do desempenho dos genótipos nos diferentes anos. A maior parte da variação encontrada para os caracteres estudados é determinada pela variação genética dos genótipos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Plant Leaves , Ocimum basilicum
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 640-647, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966925

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of basil cultivars and hybrids in two cropping seasons. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications. Twenty-four basil genotypes were tested (20 commercial cultivars and four hybrids), in the dry season (oct.-dec./2015) and in the rainy season (apr.-jun./2016). The evaluated variables were: plant height (cm plant-1), canopy width (cm plant-1), leaf dry weight (g plant-1), and essential oil yield (mL plant-1). The data of each period were subject to analysis of variance and the means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test (p0.05). The individual and joint analyses of variance were performed for the experiments in both seasons. The estimated parameters were: coefficient of genetic variation (CVg), coefficient of environmental variation (CVe), CVg/CVe ratio, and heritability (h2). Leaf dry weight values per plant ranged from 6.23 to 75.00 g plant-1 (dry season) and from 9.17 to 31.34 g plant-1 (rainy season). The hybrid Cinnamon x Maria Bonita (1.50 mL plant-1) and the cultivar Mrs. Burns (1.44 mL plant-1) presented higher essential oil yield in the dry season. All the evaluated variables showed high heritability (h2) (> 50%) and CVg/CVe ratio (> 1.0), in both cropping seasons, indicating a favorable condition for selection. The cropping season influences the biomass and essential oil yield of basil.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cultivares e híbridos de manjericão em duas épocas de plantio. Para o ensaio, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram avaliados 24 genótipos de manjericão, sendo 20 cultivares comerciais e quatro híbridos cultivados na época seca (out.-dez./2015) e chuvosa (abr.-jun./2016). As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura de planta (cm planta-1), largura da copa (cm planta-1), massa seca de folhas (g planta-1) e rendimento (mL planta-1) de óleo essencial. Os dados de cada época foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias foram agrupadas pelo teste Scott-Knott (p0,05). Realizou-se a análise de variância individual e conjunta para os experimentos das duas épocas. Foram estimados os seguintes parâmetros: coeficiente de variação genética (CVg), coeficiente de variação ambiental (CVe), razão CVg/CVe e a herdabilidade (h2). As médias deferiram significativamente em relação à época de plantio para a maioria das cultivares. Os valores de massa seca de folha variaram de 6,23 a 75,00 g planta-1 (época seca) e 9,17 a 31,34 g planta-1 (época chuvosa). O híbrido Cinnamon x Maria Bonita (1,50 mL planta-1) e a cultivar Mrs. Burns (1,44 mL planta-1) apresentaram maior rendimento de óleo essencial na época seca. Na época chuvosa foi de 1,29 mL planta-1 (Mrs. Burns). Todos os caracteres avaliados apresentaram alta herdabilidade (h2) (>50%) e razão CVg/CVe (>1,0), nas duas épocas, indicando condição favorável para seleção em um programa de melhoramento. A época de plantio influencia a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Biomass , Ocimum basilicum , Oils , Agricultural Cultivation
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 727-743, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966987

ABSTRACT

Spices are natural plant products, have been used not only as flavoring and coloring agents, but also as food preservatives and folk medicines throughout the world for thousands of years. Many spices also have been recognized by having both digestive stimulant and carminative actions and also antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic potential. Antioxidant and genotoxic potential of species commonly used in Brazil was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methods, including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP), iron ion chelating power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), NO radical scavenging, and oxidative hemolysis inhibition. Furthermore, the antigenotoxic activity was evaluated through mitotic index and chromosome aberration in Allium cepa roots. Quantification of total phenols and flavonoids carried out. The results with the Ocimum basilicum spices in the DPPH test showed activity (82.01%), FRAP (321.12 uM ET and iron chelating activity (94.18) and for the Cinnamomum zeylanicum spice in the TBARS test (18.52%) evaluated by different methods and mechanisms of inactivation of free radicals and according to the evaluation of genotoxicity by the Allium cepa test the spices do not present genotoxic effects.


As especiarias são produtos vegetais naturais, que foram utilizados não só como agentes aromatizantes e colorantes, mas também como conservantes de alimentos e medicamentos populares em todo o mundo há milhares de anos. Muitas especiarias também foram reconhecidas por ter estimulantes digestivos e ações carminativas e também potencial antimicrobiano, anti-inflamatório, antimutagênico e anticarcinogênico. O potencial antioxidante e genotóxico das espécies comumente utilizadas no Brasil foi avaliado. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando diferentes métodos, incluindo a atividade de eliminação de radicais DPPH, poder de redução férrica (FRAP), poder quelante de íons de ferro, inibição da peroxidação lipídica (TBARS), eliminação de radicais NO e inibição da hemólise oxidativa. Além disso, a atividade antigenotóxica foi avaliada através do índice mitótico e aberração cromossômica nas raízes do Allium cepa. Quantificação de fenóis totais e flavonoides realizados. Os resultados mostraram que as especiarias (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgare, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale e Ocimum basilicum) apresentaram atividade antioxidante avaliada por diferentes métodos e mecanismos de inativação de radicais livres e de acordo com a avaliação de genotoxicidade pelo teste Allium cepa as especiarias não apresentam efeitos genotóxicos.


Subject(s)
Spices , Cooking , Genotoxicity , Antioxidants , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ocimum basilicum , Ginger , Piper nigrum , Origanum
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(2): 296-301, mar./apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966639

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to conduct an inheritance study for the agronomic and chemical characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita'. F1 seeds were obtained from a cross of P1 (Genovese) x P2 (Maria Bonita). F2 seeds were obtained from selfing five F1 plants. In this experiment, a randomized block design with three replications was used. Each replication consisted of four treatments (generations). Seven plants from each P1, P2 and F1 generation and 21 plants from the F2 generation were grown for each replication. The following characteristics were evaluated at full bloom: plant height, leaf dry weight, essential oil content and yield in the leaves and the main essential oil chemical constituent concentrations in each plant. The characteristics plant height, essential oil yield and linalool content are controlled by more than one major gene, and these genes present additive and dominant effects. High heritability was observed for the characteristics plant height, leaf dry weight and content of linalool and 1,8-cineole. The hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' presented a plant height and dry leaf weight heterosis of 32.31% and 131.54%, respectively.


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um estudo de herança para as características agronômicas e químicas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita'. Sementes F1 foram obtidos a partir de um cruzamento de P1 (Genovese) x P2 (Maria Bonita). Sementes F2 foram obtidas a partir de autopolinização cinco plantas F1. Neste experimento, foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída por quatro tratamentos (gerações). Sete plantas de cada P1, P2 e geração F1 e 21 plantas da F2 foram cultivadas para cada repetição. As seguintes características foram avaliadas em plena floração: altura da planta, folha seca, teor de óleo essencial e de rendimento nas folhas e as principais concentrações essenciais constituintes químicos do óleo em cada planta. A altura características da planta, o teor de óleo essencial e rendimento de linalol são controlados por mais do que um gene principal, e estes genes presentes efeitos aditivos e dominantes. Foi observada alta herdabilidade para as características altura da planta, folha de peso seco e conteúdo de linalol e 1,8-cineol. O híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentou altura de planta e peso da heterose seca de 32,31% e 131,54%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Heredity/genetics , Biological Variation, Population
13.
Ambato; s.n; 2018. 1-62 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-998019

ABSTRACT

El empleo de plantas medicinales por su gran disponibilidad y variedad de principios activos con importancia farmacológica, ha sido fuente de investigación para avances científicos. El presente estudio se centró en la obtención de un ingrediente activo antiinflamatorio a partir de los extractos etanólicos de 8 plantas medicinales: Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha sativa L, Cynara scolymus L, Zingiber officinale L, Ocimum basilicum L, Cinnamomum verum J y Camellia sinensis. Las mejores condiciones para el proceso de extracción de los metabolitos vegetales de las plantas empleadas se establecieron a partir de un diseño factorial 22, utilizando dos variables de estudio, concentración del disolvente etanol (ETOH) y tiempo de extracción, empleando la tecnología de spray drying se microencapsularon los extractos etanólicos. Para la determinación de la actividad antiinflamatoria, se sometió a pruebas in vitro mediante el método de estabilización de membrana de los eritrocitos humanos en comparación con el antiinflamatorio testigo utilizado la aspirina. Identificando que el mayor porcentaje de actividad antiinflamatoria lo posee el microencapsulado de la mezcla de las 8 plantas medicinales con un valor de 76,96 %. A partir de espectrofotometría ultravioleta-visible, se cuantificaron dos de los componentes fitoquímicos que le dan la capacidad antiinflamatoria al microencapsulado, polifenoles totales 93,50 ± 1,78 mg AG/g microencapsulado y flavonoides totales 54,80 ± 8,61 mg quercetina/g microencapsulado. Esta investigación mostró un efecto sinérgico de la mezcla de las 8 plantas debido a que se potenció la actividad de los principios activos que les dan la capacidad antiinflamatoria (polifenoles y flavonoides). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ocimum basilicum , Ginger , Mentha , Camellia sinensis , Cynara , Cymbopogon , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plant Extracts , Ecuador , Medicine, Traditional
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2971-2974, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886837

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively) and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both), 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Cichlids , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification , Anesthesia , Anesthetics/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
15.
Acta méd. costarric ; 59(2): 60-66, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837725

ABSTRACT

ResumenAntecedentes:la albahaca (Ocium basilicum) es una hierba perteneciente a la familia laminaceae, caracterizada por sus bondades medicinales. Se ha referido su uso en la terapéutica del cáncer, vitíiigo, hipercolesterolemia y la diabetes mellitus.Objetivo:evaluar el efecto hipoglicemiante del extracto metanólico de la albahaca, su aislamiento y purificación de sus principales compuestos.Métodos:las hojas y tallos fueron colectadas en el sector la Hechicera, estado Mérida, Venezuela.Las muestras se maceraron en 20L de metanol al 70% v/v, dosificándose a dosis crecientes entre 1,0 y 2,0 g/kg, usando como modelo experimental, ratas macho de la cepa C57BL/6, con hiperglicemia inducida con aloxano monohidratado. Se incluyó un control positivo usando como agente hipoglucemiante la sitagliptina (400μg/kg). El extracto se sometió a fraccionamiento mediante cromatografía de columna abierta, cuyas fracciones (175 ml cada una) se asociaron por similitud estructural y fueron dosificadas a la población en estudio. Se obtuvieron muestras sanguíneas seriadas de la vena de la base de la cola y se procesaron siguiendo el método de la glucosa oxidasa-peroxidasa.Resultados:se demostró una disminución de la concentración de glucosa sanguínea a la dosis de 2,0 g/kg (<120 mg/dL). Los análisis estructurales se realizaron mediante pruebas cromatográficas, espectroscópicas, espectrométricas y químicas. Del estudio se aislaron e identificaron los siguientes compuestos: nandecilato de metilo (C20O2H40); behenato de metilo (C23O2H46) hexacosanoato de metilo(C27O2H54), así como 18-metoxicarbonil-3,4-didehidroibogamina, el flavonoides 5,7,3´-trihydroxi-3,6,4´-trimetoxiflavona, los cuales son reportados por primera vez en los análisis fitoquímicos para O. basilicum.Conclusión:estos hallazgos sustentan el potencial uso de la albahaca como alternativa considerable en el tratamiento hipoglucemiante.


AbstractBackground:Basil (Ocium basilicum) is an herb belonging to the family laminaceae, characterized by its medicinal benefits. Its use has been referred for the treatment of cancer, vitiligo, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus.Objective:to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the methanol extract of basil, isolation and purification of its main compounds.Methods:The leaves and stems were collected in the sector La Hechicera, Mérida, Venezuela State. Samples were macerated in 20L of methanol to 70% v/v, dosing to increaseddoses between 1.0 and2.0 g/kg, using as experimental model, male rats of the C57BL/6 strain with hyperglycemia induced with alloxan monohydrate. A positivecontrol was included using as a hypoglycemic agent sitagliptin (400μg/kg). The extract was submitted to fractionation by open column chromatography,, whose fractions (175 ml each) were partnered by structural similarity and were dosed to the population under study. Serial blood samples from the base of the tail vein were obtained and were processed using the method of the glucose oxidase-peroxidase.Results:they showed a decrease of the concentration of blood glucose at a dose of 2.0 g/kg (< 120 mg/dL). Structural analyses were conducted using chromatographic, spectroscopic, spectrometric and chemical tests. They were isolated from the study and the following compounds were identified: nandecilato of methyl (C20O2H40); methyl behenate (C23O2H46), methyl hexacosanoate (C27O2H54) as well as 18-methoxycarbonyl-3, 4-didehidroibogamina, 5,7,3´-trihydroxi-3,6,4´- trimetoxiflavona flavonoid, which are reported for the first time in the phytochemical analysis for O. basilicum.Conclusion:These findings support the potential use of Basil as a weed of traditional medicine in the hypoglycemic treatment.


Subject(s)
Rats , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mice, Obese/blood , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15098, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839454

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ocimum is one of the most important genera of the Lamiaceae family. Several studies about basil and its popular use reveal many characteristics of the herb, including its use as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and cardiovascular agents, among others. In this paper, we evaluated genotoxic, oxidative, and anti-inflammatory parameters from the extract of Ocimum basilicum in different concentrations, using human leukocytes cultures exposed to challenging agents. Our results confirm that the O. basilicum extract acts as an antioxidant and effectively reverts or subjugates the effects of high oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. These actions are attributed to its composition, which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids as well as compounds such as rosmarinic acid, all of which have well-known antioxidant activity. We also show that our basil extract presents anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanism of which is a composed interaction between the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator and the stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although pharmacodynamics studies are necessary to evaluate the activities in vivo, our results demonstrated that basil could act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and a possible alternative for medicinal treatment.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Ocimum basilicum/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/adverse effects , Leukocytes/classification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
17.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 35(158): 23-32, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868856

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad la investigación y el desarrollo de nuevos productos se orientan a la producción de alimentos saludables destinados a la prevención de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles El objetivo del trabajo fue formular y caracterizar sensorialmente dos muestras de bizcochos artesanales saludables. Se elaboraron con una mezcla de harina integral, salvado de avena 70:30, levadura y aceite de girasol alto oleico como ingredientes básicos, a una muestra (BS) se le incorporó mezcla de semillas (chía, sésamo y lino) y a la otra (BH) albahaca deshidratada. Se estimó la composición química comparándose con la de los bizcochos convencionales. La aceptabilidad global se evaluó en 128 consumidores, con una escala hedónica de 9 puntos y la preferencia con la prueba de comparación pareada simple. Se midió la calidad sensorial con un panel de 8 evaluadores entrenados utilizando la prueba de puntaje compuesto, estableciéndose para cada atributo un valor máximo y además se empleó la metodología de pregunta CATA para ampliar la descripción de las características sensoriales. Los resultados de aceptabilidad se analizaron estadísticamente a través de t de Student y los de CATA con la Q de Cochran, empleando el programa Infostat v. 2010. Se obtuvo una reducción del valor calórico de 9 y 11%; y de 36 y 39% en grasas totales, en las muestras BH y BS respectivamente en relación al convencional. Además, un aumento considerable del contenido de fibra alimentaria y elevada reducción del porcentaje de sodio. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) entre los promedios de aceptabilidad, ubicándose en la categoría ôMe gusta levementeõ y no se estableció preferencia significativa entre las muestras. Las características sensoriales: fracturable, aromático, olor y sabor a hierbas presentaron diferencias estadísticas entre ambas muestras...


Subject(s)
Humans , Food, Formulated , Ocimum basilicum , Seeds , Sensation , Whole Foods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model. METHODS: Eight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED) and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured. RESULTS: The EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm), ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm), common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm), cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm), brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm), ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm), and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm), and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia) and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media), respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness.


Subject(s)
Adventitia , Anastomosis, Surgical , Arteries , Brachial Artery , Chickens , Foot , Metatarsal Bones , Models, Educational , Ocimum basilicum , Radial Artery , Skin , Tibial Arteries , Ulnar Artery , Veins
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Literature has shown that micro-organisms contaminate gutta percha (GP) during storage and manipulation. Till date herbal extracts are not explored as an alternative medicament for pre-operative chairside disinfection of GP cones. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and efficacy of lemon grass oil (LG), basil oil (BO), and obicure tea extract (OT) in disinfecting GP cones before obturation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LG, BO, OT, and sodium hypochlorite (control) against common contaminants, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. One hundred and twenty GP cones were contaminated and cut into 2. First half was placed in the broth and incubated; whereas the second was treated with herbal extracts for 1 minute and then incubated for 24 hours in the broth. Any inhibition in bacterial growth was noted with presence/absence of turbidity. Two-way analysis of variance and χ² test were used to assess the effectiveness of herbal extracts to decontaminate GP. RESULTS: LG showed the highest inhibition zones (29.9 ± 6.9 mm) for all tested organisms, followed by OT extract (16.3 ± 1.8 mm), sodium hypochlorite (16.0 ± 1.6 mm), and BO (14.5 ± 5.3 mm). Statistically significant difference was observed between LG and other herbal extracts (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All extracts proved to be potential rapid chairside disinfectants of GP cones with LG showing the highest antimicrobial activity.


Subject(s)
Agar , Candida albicans , Cymbopogon , Diffusion , Disinfectants , Disinfection , Enterococcus faecalis , Gutta-Percha , Methods , Ocimum basilicum , Oils , Sodium Hypochlorite , Staphylococcus aureus , Tea
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(5): 315-322, Sept. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907548

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile profile as a result of hybridization. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis. Hybridization provided the appearance of compounds in hybrids, and these compounds are absent in the parental volatile profile. The new compounds were: camphor, neral, geranial, beta-selinene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-caryophyllene and methyl chavicol, for the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita'; and camphor, for the hybrid 'Sweet Dani' x 'Genovese'.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el perfil de volátiles como resultado de la hibridación. Los datos fueron analizados por ANOVA, prueba de Tukey y Análisis de Componentes Principales. La hibridación proporcionó la aparición de nuevos compuestos híbridos que no están presentes en el perfil de volátiles de los parentales, como por ejemplo el alcanfor, el neral, el geranial A, el beta-selineno, el biciclogermacrene, el (E)-cariofileno y el metil chavicol para el híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita', y el alcanfor para el híbrido 'Sweet Dani' x 'Genovese'.


Subject(s)
Hybridization, Genetic , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Principal Component Analysis
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