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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 497-504, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910573

ABSTRACT

The phythotherapy is an alternative to use of chemotherapeutical agents against monogenean infection. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of essential oil Ocimum gratissimum against monogenean Cichlidogyrus tilapiae as well as its acute toxicity in tilapia juveniles. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) and different concentrations of the essential oil, both in vitro and in vivo assays (short and long-term baths) were assessed. The LC50 was 40.70mg.L-1 and in the in vitro assay this concentration showed 80% efficacy at the last two hours and in the in vivo assay 65.87% efficacy in long-term bath. However, it provoked morphological alterations on the gills such as hyperplasia and edema. The parasites exposure at the highest concentration (320mg.L-1) showed 100% mortality after 2h exposure in the in vitro assay, whereas in the in vivo assay, short-term baths of 5min for 3 consecutive days showed an efficacy of 87.71% without gills damage. These results demonstrate the anthelminthic activity of essential oil O. gratissimum and the safety concentration to use in Nile tilapia.(AU)


A fitoterapia é uma alternativa ao uso de agentes químicos contra infecções por parasitos monogenéticos. Este estudo avaliou a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial Ocimum gratissimum contra o monogenea Cichlidogyrus tilapiae , bem como sua toxicidade aguda e histopatologia em juvenis de tilápias. Foram avaliadas a concentração letal média (CL50) e diferentes concentrações de óleo essencial, tanto in vitro como in vivo (banho de curta e longa duração). A CL50 foi de 40,70mg.L-1; no ensaio in vitro, essa concentração apresentou 80% de eficácia, e no ensaio in vivo 65,87% de eficácia em banho de exposição crônica. No entanto, provocou alterações morfológicas nas brânquias, como hiperplasia e edema. A exposição dos parasitas na concentração mais elevada (320mg.L-1) mostrou 100% de mortalidade após duas horas de exposição no ensaio in vitro, enquanto no ensaio in vivo, em banho de curta duração de cinco minutos, durante três dias consecutivos, apresentou uma eficácia de 87,71%, sem danos às brânquias. Esses resultados demonstraram a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de O. gratissimum e a concentração de segurança para uso na tilápia-do-nilo em banhos de curta duração.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/anatomy & histology , Cichlids/parasitology , Ocimum/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(4): 715-722, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769844

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic activity of the essential oil (EO) of Ocimum americanum L. in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen ). In the first experiment, the depressor effects and chemical composition of the leaf EO (LEO) and inflorescence EO (IEO) were compared. Juveniles (n = 10) were placed in aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (25 - 500 mg L-1) to determine the point at which anesthesia was induced and the length of the recovery period. In the following experiment, the effects of 300 and 500 mg L-1 LEO exposure on stress parameters (plasma cortisol, glucose and sodium levels) after air exposure for 1 min were assayed. Fish (n = 10 per sampling time) were sampled immediately or transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria until sampling (15, 30, 60 or 240 min). LEO was composed mainly of β-linalool and 1,8-cineole in similar proportions, whereas IEO showed β-linalool as major compound. Anesthesia was obtained in silver catfish with 200-500 mg L-1 between 4-8 min for LEO and 6-16 min for IEO. Lower EO concentrations did not reach anesthetic stage up to 30 min. LEO used as anesthetic prevented the cortisol increase and sodium loss induced by aerial exposure. Glucose levels were raised in catfish exposed to LEO compared to basal group (not air exposed) in almost all observation times. EO of O. americanum obtained from leaves was considered suitable to anesthetic procedures due to its fast induction and handling-induced stress prevention.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade anestésica do óleo essencial (EO) de Ocimum americanum L. em jundiás (Rhamdia quelen ). No primeiro experimento, os efeitos depressores e a composição química dos óleos obtidos a partir das folhas (LEO) e das inflorescências (IEO) desta espécie vegetal foram comparados. Para isto, juvenis de jundiás (n = 10) foram transferidos para aquários contendo diferentes concentrações de EO (25 - 500 mg L-1) a fim de determinar os tempos de indução aos estágios de anestesia e de recuperação. No experimento seguinte foram determinados os efeitos da exposição a 300 e 500 mg L-1 de LEO em parâmetros de estresse (cortisol, glicose e níveis de sódio plasmáticos) após os animais serem expostos durante 1 min ao ar. Os peixes (n = 10 por tempo de amostragem) foram coletados imediatamente ou transferidos para aquários livres de anestésico até amostragem (15, 30, 60 ou 240 min). LEO demonstrou ser composto majoritariamente por β-linalol e 1,8-cineol em proporções similares, enquanto que IEO apresentou β-linalol como constituinte majoritário. O estágio de anestesia foi verificado em jundiás com 200-500 mg L-1 entre 4-8 min para LEO e 6-16 min para IEO. Menores concentrações de ambos os EO não promoveram anesthesia até 30 min. O uso de LEO como anestésico preveniu o aumento de cortisol e a perda de sódio induzida pela exposição aérea. Já a glicemia encontrava-se aumentada em peixes expostos ao LEO em comparação ao grupo basal (não exposto ao ar) na maioria dos tempos de observação. Assim, EO de O. americanum obtido a partir das folhas foi considerado adequado para procedimentos anestésicos devido a sua rápida indução e capacidade de prevenir o estresse decorrente do manuseio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ocimum/adverse effects , Ocimum/chemistry , Fishes/physiology , Anesthesia/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 110-115, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741223

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of six Indian plant extracts and 0.2% chlorhexidine against clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, which were isolated from the plaque samples of 45 pediatric patients. Six plant extracts were prepared in three different forms, namely aqueous extracts, organic solvent-based extracts and crude (raw) extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the mean zones of inhibition (mm) produced against the bacterial isolates. Results showed that crude garlic extract exhibited greater antibacterial activity than chlorhexidine. Aqueous extract of amla and organic solvent-based extract of ginger showed the maximum antibacterial activity against S. mutans, whereas aqueous extract of tulsi and organic solvent based extract of amla showed the minimum antibacterial activity. This study suggests that plant extracts like garlic in crude form, amla as aqueous infusion and ginger as alcoholic tincture have potential for the control of S. mutans. These extracts can be used as an alternative remedy for dental caries prevention or in the form of mouthwash, which is safe and economical.


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a atividade antibacteriana de seis plantas indianas contra linhagens clínicas de Streptococcus mutans, que foram isoladas das amostras de biofilme dental de 45 pacientes pediátricos, com 0,2% de clorexidina. Seis extratos vegetais foram preparados em três formas diferentes, a saber, extratos aquosos, extratos à base de solventes orgânicos e extratos brutos. Os testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foram realizados por método de difusão em agar. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada através da medição da zona de inibição, em milímetros, produzida contra os isolados bacterianos. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de alho cru apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana do que a clorexidina. O extrato aquoso de amla e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de gengibre mostraram a máxima atividade antibacteriana contra S. mutans, enquanto o extrato aquoso de tulsi (manjericão) e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de amla mostraram mínima atividades antibacteriana. Este estudo sugere que extratos de plantas como o alho em forma bruta, amla como infusão aquosa e gengibre como tintura alcoólica tem um potencial para o controle de S. mutans. Estes extratos podem ser utilizados como uma via alternativa para a prevenção de cáries dentárias ou sob a forma de bochechos, que são seguros e econômicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Plaque/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Aloe/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Ginger/chemistry , Glycerides/chemistry , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ocimum/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 515-521
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147622

ABSTRACT

Since aging is the most important risk factor for variety of diseases, the discovery of a wide range of chemical modulators of aging in model organisms encourages new strategies for targeting age associated diseases. Simple genetic manipulation leads to long-lived and healthy animals, so any compound which could have similar effect would prove a boon to mankind. In the present study, effect of different pharmacological doses (1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/mL) of O. sanctum crude extract were used to determine their impact on life span, thermotolerance and ROS scavenging activities in C. elegans. The results revealed that 1 mg/mL of O. sanctum extract significantly extended the life span of C. elegans. The extract also proved to be a strong free radical scavenger and increased resistance against thermal stress. It is also suggested that the protective and life span extending action of the crude extract is not only due to its antioxidant capacity but may also be mediated by modulation of some signaling pathways. Thus, in addition to all the known medicinal property of Ocimum, it is capable of increasing stress tolerance and life span in C. elegans.


Subject(s)
Aging/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/growth & development , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Chemotaxis/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Environment , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Ocimum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sirtuins/genetics , Sirtuins/metabolism
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 787-800, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595536

ABSTRACT

This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.


Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e linalol foram identificadas como os seus principais componentes. Todos os óleos extraídos das partes aéreas apresentaram atividade biológica contra cocos gram-positivo - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - mas apenas aquele de O. canum apresentou atividade contra bacilo gram-negativo - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Ocimum/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Seasons
8.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Nov; 29(6): 845-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113302

ABSTRACT

Chlormadinone acetate (CMA) is a synthetic progesterone analogue. It has its usage in oral contraceptives formulations and also for estrous synchronization of animals. The aim of the present study is to study the anti- genotoxic activity of the plant infusion against the CMA induced genotoxic damage on cultured human lymphocytes, using chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCFs) as parameters. For chromosomal aberration analysis, the treatment of 40 microM of CMA was associated with 4.33% abnormal metaphases. The treatment of 40 microM of CMA, separately with 1.075 x 10(-4), 2.125 x 10(-4) and 3.15 x 10(-4) gm l(-1) of plant infusion results in the reduction of the number of abnormal metaphases i.e. 2.67%, 2.00% and 1.67% respectively. For sister chromatid exchange analysis, the frequency of sister chromatid exchange per cell (SCE(S)/Cell) for the treatment of 40 microM of CMA was 6.43. The treatment of 40 microM of CMA, separately with 1.075 x 10(-4), 2.125 x 10(-4) and 3.15 x 10(-4) gm l(-1) of plant infusion results in the significant reduction of the frequency of SCE(S)/Cell i.e. 3.76, 3.01 and 2.94, respectively, as compared to the CMA (40 microM) treatment alone (6.43). The used dosages of plant infusion did not increase chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges at significant level as compared to the untreated. The results of the present study suggest that the plant infusion per se does not have genotoxic potential, but can modulate the genotoxicity of chlormadinone acetate in human lymphocytes in vitro.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Chlormadinone Acetate/pharmacology , Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced , Humans , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Mutagens/pharmacology , Ocimum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Sister Chromatid Exchange/drug effects
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Use of typical antipsychotics like haloperidol in treatment of schizophrenia is associated with a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. In rodents, administration of haloperidol leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. METHODS: Five groups (n = 6) of male albino mice were used in the study. Catalepsy was induced by ip administration of haloperidol (1mg/kg). The degree of catalepsy (cataleptic score) was measured as the time the animal maintained an imposed posture. We compared the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) with scopolamine (1 mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in brain tissue was also estimated to correlate the levels of oxidative stress and degree of catalepsy in the animal. RESULTS: Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In our study, maximum reduction in cataleptic score was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. The maximum reduction in SOD activity was also observed in the same group. These findings suggest a possible involvement of the antioxidant potential of NRANX- C in alleviating haloperidol induced catalepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Catalepsy/chemically induced , Cholinergic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Haloperidol/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Ocimum/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Scopolamine/therapeutic use , Withania/chemistry
10.
Bulletin of the National Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt. 2007; 30: 46-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145818

ABSTRACT

This work aims to study the bioactivity of five plant extracts against the 3 fungal species of Aspergillus flavus, Asp. parasiticus and Asp. ochraceus, as well as 3 bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. Both the fungal and bacterial isolates were identified as undesirable and toxin producing microorganisms. The five plants of clove [Syzygiurn aromaticum], sage [Salvia officinalis], rosmary [Rosmariinus officinalis], basil [Ocimum basilicurn] and lemon grass [Cymbopogon citrates] were collected from local markets then extracted to obtain the oil fraction. The crude oil extracts were used to determine its inhibitory effects on the previous strains of fungi and bacteria. Also, the minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] of each extract and its content of the phytochemicals of plenols, flavonoids and terpenoids were determined. Data exhibited wide range of the bioactivity of the 5 plants, reached its maximum using clove and its minimum using sage extracts against the tested microorganisms. No antimicrobial activity was observed in the treatment[s] of sage extract against the mold Asp. ochraceus. The other 3 extracts of rosmary, basil and lemon grass showed roughly the same bioactivity. Also, data obtained from MIC and semi-quantitative determinations confirmed the results obtained from the antimicrobial bioactivity study. Except sage extract, the MIC of the other 4 extracts ranged between 0.2-1.5 mg/me, reached, its maximum using clove and its minimum using lemon grass extracts. As well, the semi-quantitative determination of the phytochemicals of phenols, flavonides and terpenoids proved that clove extract had the highest concentration of terpenoids, while sage extract showed traces from the 3 phytochemicals. The other 3 extracts of basil, rosmary and lemon grass showed roughly the same content of the sum of the 3 phytochemicals


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Eugenia/chemistry , Salvia officinalis/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Ocimum/chemistry
11.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2006 Oct-Dec; 50(4): 391-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107322

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a hydroalcoholic extract of ocimum sanctum leaves has been investigated for its antioxidant activity in animal models of peptic ulcer with the aim of exploring a possible correlation between its antioxidant and antiulcer activities. Gastric ulcers were produced in rats by ethanol treatment and pyloric ligation whereas duodenal ulcers were produced in guinea pigs by histamine treatment. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each in all these three models of peptic ulcer. Group I served as diseased control in which distilled water (10 ml/kg) orally was administered as placebo. Group II, III and IV received the test drug (ocimum sanctum leaf extract) in doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/ kg respectively orally once daily for 7 days. Group V was administered ranitidine (10 mg/kg orally) once daily for 7 days and served as standard for comparison. Group VI consisted of healthy control for baseline malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. The antioxidant activity was by evaluated estimating plasma MDA in ethanol treated rats and histamine treated guinea pigs and estimating SOD in pyloric ligated rats and histamine treated guinea pigs. In ethanol treated rats, ocimum sanctum leaf extract (100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of MDA to 2.45 +/- 0.29 nmole/ml and 2.40 +/- 0.14 nmole/ml respectively in comparison to 4.87 +/- 0.06 in the diseased control. Similarly, in the histamine treated guinea pig group, the same doses of the extract significantly lowered the levels of MDA to 2.45 +/- 0.12 nmole/ml and 2.37 +/- 0.16 nmole/ml respectively when compared to 4.66 +/- 0.11 in the diseased control. The extract (100 mg/kg & 200 mg/ kg) also increased the levels of SOD in pyloric ligated rats to 1.78 +/- 0.12 U/ml and 1.89 +/- 0.08 U/ml respectively when compared to 1.29 +/- 0.06 U/ml in the diseased control. In the histamine treated guinea pig group also, the same doses of the extract produced a rise in the SOD levels to 2.10 +/- 0.11 U/ml and 2.20 +/- 0.14 U/ml respectively when compared to 1.32 +/- 0.07 in the diseased control. Since lowered levels of MDA and increased levels of SOD signify antioxidant activity, the antiulcer activity of ocimum sanctum might be due to this mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Duodenal Ulcer/drug therapy , Ethanol , Female , Guinea Pigs , Histamine/pharmacology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Ocimum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peptic Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pylorus/physiology , Ranitidine/therapeutic use , Rats , Solvents , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Water
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Aug; 44(8): 647-52
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62623

ABSTRACT

Radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (40 mg/kg body weight, for 15 days) in mice exposed to high-doses (3.7 MBq) of oral 131iodine was investigated by studying the organ weights, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense enzymes in various target organs like liver, kidneys, salivary glands and stomach at 24 hr after exposure in adult Swiss mice. The mean weight of the salivary glands showed significant increase after 131iodine administration. 131iodine exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation in kidneys and salivary glands in comparison to control animals. Pretreatment with O. sanctum in radioiodine exposed group showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation in both kidneys and salivary glands. In liver, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed significant reduction after radioiodine exposure while pretreatment with O. sanctum exhibited less depletion in GSH level even after 131iodine exposure. However, no such changes were observed in stomach. The results indicate the possibility of using aqueous extract of O. sanctum for ameliorating 131Iodine induced damage to the salivary glands.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Iodine Radioisotopes , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Ocimum/chemistry , Organ Size/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Salivary Glands/drug effects
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Apr; 44(4): 300-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56178

ABSTRACT

Antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. seed oil (OSSO) was investigated in rabbits. Administration of OSSO (0.8 g/kg body weight/day) for four weeks, in cholesterol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) fed rabbits significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-+VLDL-cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol fed group. There was significant fall in atherogenic index in OSSO treated group. In addition, treatment with OSSO decreased lipid peroxidation and increased reduced glutathione content in blood. Antidiabetic effect of O. sanctum seed oil was evaluated in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Two weeks treatment of diabetic rabbits with OSSO (0.8 gm/kg/day) showed no significant hypoglycaemic effect. Results of the present study show that OSSO has hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects but it does not have antidiabetic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/diet therapy , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glutathione/blood , Hypercholesterolemia/diet therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Ocimum/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Rabbits , Seeds/chemistry , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(2): 201-205, Mar. 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-430897

ABSTRACT

To determine the repellent activity of Ocimum gratissimum volatile oil against Simulium damnosum (blackflies), a 12 month (January-December 2003) field study was conducted in three onchocerciasis endemic communities (Idomido, Obio camp, and Ikot Adaha) in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The result revealed that topical application of 20 percent (v/v) concentration of the oil with liquid paraffin as a base, reduced the biting rate of S. damnosum by 90.2, 81.6, and 79.7 percent, in Idomido, Obiocamp, and Ikot Adaha respectively. The oil gave protection against the bite of S. damnosum for at least 3 h. A total of 710 adults S. damnosum were caught by individuals treated with Ocimum oil, as against 4296 caught by the control group. When the flies caught by the treated individuals were dissected none of them was infected with microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Human-vector contact and onchocerciasis transmission could be reduced by the topical application of the volatile oil during the peak biting periods of the vector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Insect Repellents , Insect Vectors , Insect Bites and Stings/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile , Ocimum/chemistry , Simuliidae , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Nigeria , Onchocerciasis , Seasons
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Feb; 44(2): 133-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61916

ABSTRACT

Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amnesia/chemically induced , Animals , Dementia/drug therapy , Diazepam , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Mice , Nootropic Agents/administration & dosage , Ocimum/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Piracetam/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Scopolamine/pharmacology
16.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 Jan; 27(1): 93-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113861

ABSTRACT

In vivo cytogenetic assay in Allium cepa root tip cells has been carried out to detect the modifying effect of Ocimum sanctum aqueous leaf extract against chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) induced genotoxicity. It was observed that the roots post-treated with the leaf extract showed highly significant (p < 0.001) recovery in mitotic index (MI) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) when compared to pre-treated (Cr/Hg) samples and the lower doses of the leaf extract were found to be more effective than higher doses. The present study reveals that the Ocimum sanctum leaf extract possesses the protective effect against Cr/Hg induced genetic damage.


Subject(s)
Allium/drug effects , Chromium/toxicity , Chromosome Aberrations/drug effects , Mercury/toxicity , Meristem/drug effects , Mitotic Index , Ocimum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Roots/drug effects
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Aug; 43(8): 715-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55814

ABSTRACT

The standardized methanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum (OSE; eugenol content 5%) given in doses of 50-200 mg/kg, orally, twice daily for five days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effect against cold restraint stress induced gastric ulcers. Optimal effective dose (100 mg/kg) of OSE showed significant ulcer protection against ethanol and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers, but was ineffective against aspirin-induced ulcers. OSE significantly healed ulcers induced by 50% acetic acid after 5 and 10 days treatment OSE (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the offensive acid-pepsin secretion and lipid peroxidation and increased the gastric defensive factors like mucin secretion, cellular mucus, and life span of mucosal cells and had antioxidant effect, but did not induce mucosal cell proliferation. The results indicate that the ulcer protective and healing effects of OSE may be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Catalase/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , DNA/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Free Radicals/metabolism , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Ocimum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ulcer/drug therapy
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Nov; 41(11): 1329-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58222

ABSTRACT

Callus cultures from stem of O. sanctum were induced on slightly modified Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium and supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1-2 ppm) and kinetin (kn, 1 ppm). Different extractives of stem, leaf and stem callus of O. sanctum were tested for anticonvulsant activity against standard drug phenytoin using maximal electroshock (MES) model. Ethanol and chloroform extractives of stem, leaf and stem calli were effective in preventing tonic convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electroshock , Mice , Ocimum/chemistry , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Stems/chemistry , Seizures/chemically induced
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Sep; 40(9): 1079-82
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57935

ABSTRACT

HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg body weight) induced toxicity led to significant elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level but decline in the glutathione content in liver of Swiss albino mice. In serum of HgCl2 treated mice there was significant elevation in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activities but significant decline in the alkaline phosphatase activity. Animals treated with O. sanctum extract (10 mg/kg body weight, po) before and after mercury intoxication showed a significant decrease in LPO level, SGOT and SGPT activities and increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Ocimum treatment alone did not alter SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly enhanced reduced glutathione. The results suggest that oral administration of Ocimum extract provides protection against HgCl2 induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/chemically induced , Male , Mercuric Chloride/toxicity , Mice , Necrosis , Ocimum/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry
20.
Guatemala; s.n; 2001. 56 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-879117

ABSTRACT

El trabajo de investigación se realizó con el propósito de contribuir al estudio fitoquímico y biológico de las plantas medicinales de uso popular en Guatemala, por lo que resultó de interés seleccionar la planta Ocimun micranthum Willd. (albaca de monte). Dicha especie ha sido conocida desde la antigüedad como nativa de Guatemala, y entre sus pincipales componentes contiene un aceite esencial de Guatemala, y entre sus principales componentes contiene un aceite esencial fuertemente aromático, al que popularmente se le atribuyen propiedades medicinales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytotoxins , Ocimum/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Saponins , Chromatography , In Vitro Techniques
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