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1.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1075, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352028

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar las uveítis asociadas a la artritis idiopática juvenil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, donde se evaluaron las variables edad, raza, sexo, lateralidad de la uveítis, clasificación anatómica, agudeza visual mejor corregida, presencia de complicaciones y tratamiento. Resultados: Predominaron los mayores de seis años, el sexo femenino y la raza blanca. En cuanto a la lateralidad hubo mayor predominio de las bilaterales, con localización anatómica anterior. En los resultados visuales sobresalieron los que presentaban una agudeza visual mejor corregida ≥ 0,5. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron: la pérdida visual, la hipertensión ocular y la queratopatía en banda. Con respecto al tratamiento, la mayoría de los pacientes tenían asociado metotrexate al tratamiento tópico y oral con esteroides. Conclusión: La uveítis asociada a la artritis idiopática juvenil sigue siendo un problema importante de salud en la infancia a pesar de los avances en los programas de atención a esta enfermedad; por tanto, el diagnóstico precoz, el seguimiento estricto y el tratamiento adecuado son los pilares para una mejor evolución(AU)


Objective: Characterize uveitis associated to juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted based on evaluation of the following variables: age, race, sex, laterality of uveitis, anatomical classification, best corrected visual acuity, presence of complications and treatment. Results: A predominance was observed of patients aged over six years, female sex and white race. Bilateral uveitis prevailed, with anterior anatomical location. Patients with a best corrected visual acuity ≥ 0.5 stood out for their visual results. The most common complications were visual loss, ocular hypertension and band keratopathy. Most patients had methotrexate associated to topical and oral treatment with steroids. Conclusion: Uveitis associated to juvenile idiopathic arthritis continues to be an important health problem in childhood, despite the progress in the care of this condition. Therefore, early diagnosis, strict follow-up and appropriate treatment are the pillars of a better evolution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Arthritis, Juvenile/etiology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Ocular Hypertension/complications , Early Diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
2.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(3): 97-100, jul-set. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291193

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A persistência da vasculatura fetal é uma malformação ocular rara em adultos, habitualmente unilateral, sendo uma condição não hereditária, com poucas manifestações sistêmicas e neurológicas. Descrição do caso: Homem de 45 anos queixando-se de dor no olho esquerdo, com pressão intraocular de 56 mmHg. A ultrassonografia do olho esquerdo demonstra aumento da ecogenicidade do cristalino inferindo catarata e redução da amplitude da câmara anterior, membrana posterior hiperecogênica no interior da câmara vítrea com intensa vascularização com fluxo arterial ao estudo com Doppler, caracterizando a persistência da vasculatura fetal. O paciente recebeu tratamento por três dias. Com a redução da pressão intraocular após esse período, realizou a cirurgia combinada de facoemulsificação com implante de lio e implante de tubo de Ahmed. Após o procedimento cirúrgico, o paciente não voltou a apresentar a sintomatologia. Discussão: Clinicamente, há duas condições de doença, dependendo da porção atingida do vítreo primário ­ as formas anterior e posterior. A persistência da vasculatura fetal não tratada frequentemente progride para phthisis bulbi ou enucleação devido a uma hemorragia intraocular recorrente e secundária ao glaucoma. Os esforços cirúrgicos têm o intuito de preservar a visão. Conclusão: Relatamos um caso de persistência da vasculatura fetal diagnosticado pela ultrassonografia e tratado cirurgicamente com sucesso devido ao alívio dos sintomas em olho esquerdo sem percepção luminosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ocular Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous/diagnostic imaging , Ocular Hypertension/therapy , Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous/therapy
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0040, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347261

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A hipertensão ocular aguda durante a hemodiálise constitui evento raro e pode ser causa relevante de interrupção do tratamento dialítico devido à dor. Relata-se o caso de um paciente de 70 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, que apresentou quadros recorrentes de intensa dor ocular unilateral durante sessões dialíticas devido ao aumento de pressão intraocular. O paciente era portador de grave diminuição da acuidade visual no olho direito devido a glaucoma neovascular, controlado com medicação hipotensora tópica. Uma hora após o início da sessão dialítica, apresentou dor excruciante no olho direito, sendo necessário interromper o tratamento por diversas vezes. A dor somente era amenizada com uso de opioides por via endovenosa ou após cerca de 6 horas do procedimento. Injeção intraocular de drogas antiangiogênicas e acetazolamida por via oral, assim como tratamentos tradicionais para quadros agudos de hipertensão intraocular, como uso de hipotensor tópico e medicamentos hiperosmolares, foram insuficientes para o controle da dor. O problema se resolveu com ciclofotocoagulação transescleral realizada com laser diodo, com redução da pressão intraocular basal e controle da dor, o que permitiu a realização de sessões completas de hemodiálise. A base fisiopatológica desse evento incomum e suas opções terapêuticas são discutidas aqui.


ABSTRACT Acute ocular hypertension during hemodialysis is a rare event and may lead to interruption of dialytic therapy due to pain. A case of a 70-year-old male patient is reported, who presented recurrent intense unilateral ocular pain episodes during dialysis sessions for increased intraocular pressure. The patient presented with severely decreased visual acuity in the right eye due to neovascular glaucoma, which was controlled with topical hypotensive medication. One hour after initiating dialysis, he presented an excruciating pain on the right eye, which required interruption of treatment several times. Pain relief was possible only with intravenous opioids, or approximately 6 hours after dialysis. Intraocular injection of antiangiogenic drugs and per oris acetazolamide, as well as other traditional treatments for acute episodes of intraocular hypertension, such as topical antihypertensive agents and hyperosmotic medications, were not sufficient to control pain. The problem was solved with transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation, which reduced baseline intraocular pressure and controlled pain, enabling complete hemodialysis sessions. The pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic options of this unusual condition are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Glaucoma, Neovascular/complications , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Intraocular Pressure , Osmolar Concentration , Aqueous Humor/physiology , Dialysis Solutions , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Acute Pain
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0011, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The authors report the case of a male adult presenting significant ocular complications and irreversible visual impairment, resulting from the long-term progression and late diagnosis of an iris cyst in the right eye, probably secondary to trauma. The patient was admitted to Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro with a total corneal opacity that blocked direct visualization of the anterior chamber. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was crucial for the anatomic study, and the patient was submitted to enucleation for aesthetic improvement and clarifying diagnosis. We concluded athalamia and deformation of the anterior segment, due to expansion of the cyst, led to gradual elevation of the intraocular pressure and damage of the optic nerve, resulting in visual loss.


RESUMO Relatamos o caso de um paciente com evolução e diagnóstico tardios de cisto de íris no olho direito, provavelmente secundário a trauma, com complicações importantes e baixa irreversível da visão, tendo sido admitido no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro já com leucoma total da córnea e câmara anterior indevassável. A biomicroscopia ultrassônica se mostrou imprescindível para o estudo anatômico, sendo o paciente finalmente submetido à enucleação, para melhora estética e elucidação diagnóstica. Concluímos que a atalamia e a desestruturação do segmento anterior, consequentes ao crescimento cístico, levaram a um gradativo aumento da pressão intraocular e lesão do nervo óptico, com consequente perda da visão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cysts/complications , Cysts/diagnosis , Iris Diseases/diagnosis , Ophthalmoscopy , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Eye Enucleation , Visual Acuity , Iris/diagnostic imaging , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Blindness/etiology , Corneal Topography , Cysts/surgery , Cysts/pathology , Corneal Pachymetry , Slit Lamp Microscopy/methods , Iris Diseases/surgery , Iris Diseases/complications , Iris Diseases/pathology
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31103, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291249

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O glaucoma é uma neuropatia óptica progressiva que pode acarretar defeitos progressivos do campo visual e perda da visão. É a principal causa de cegueira irreversível no mundo, sendo o aumento da pressão intraocular (PIO) o principal fator de risco. Objetivos: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do SUS no Estado de Minas Gerais, especificamente do Departamento de Glaucoma do Instituto de Olhos Ciências Médicas (IOCM). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo clínico observacional, transversal e de caráter retrospectivo com 1484 pacientes. Foram incluídos pacientes do sexo feminino e masculino, acima de 18 anos de idade, encaminhados ao setor de glaucoma do IOCM para o primeiro atendimento, com suspeita ou doença confirmada. Os diagnósticos considerados foram: suspeita de glaucoma; hipertenso ocular; glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto; glaucoma primário de ângulo fechado; glaucoma de pressão normal; glaucoma congênito; glaucoma secundário; glaucoma neovascular e glaucoma maligno. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo feminino e o diagnóstico mais frequente foi "glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto". Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram idade avançada e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusões: O perfil clínico demográfico dos pacientes em tratamento de glaucoma em Minas Gerais são semelhantes ao encontrado em alguns trabalhos realizados em outros países do mundo.


Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to progressive visual field defects and loss of vision. It is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world, with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) being the main risk factor. Objectives: Identify the profile of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) users, specifically in the Department of Glaucoma at the Instituto de Olhos Ciencias Medicas (IOCM), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study enrolled 1484 patients. Were inclueded female and male patients, over 18 years of age, referred to the glaucoma sector of the IOCM for the first visit, with suspected or confirmed disease. The diagnoses considered were: suspected glaucoma; ocular hypertension; primary open-angle glaucoma; primary closedangle glaucoma; normal-pressure glaucoma; congenital glaucoma; secondary glaucoma; neovascular glaucoma. Results: There was a predominance of females and the most frequent diagnosis was "Primary Open-angle Glaucoma". The most prevalent risk factors were advanced age and hypertension. Conclusions: The demographics and clinical profile of patients undergoing glaucoma treatment at IOCM are similar to those found in some studies performed in other countries.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Ocular Hypertension , Blindness , Intraocular Pressure
6.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e979, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156576

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la hipertensión ocular asociada al desprendimiento de la retina regmatógeno. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte longitudinal retrospectivo de una serie de casos atendidos en la consulta de Vítreo-Retina del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el período comprendido de mayo del año 2016 a diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron 7 ojos de 7 pacientes. Se utilizaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, antecedentes patológicos oculares, tiempo de evolución de la disminución de la visión, tensión ocular, tipo de rotura retinal, cirugía de retina realizada y tratamiento antihipertensivo ocular. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino, con un promedio de edad de 27,2 años. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvieron rotura retinal en el cuadrante nasal superior y todos en extrema periferia. Todos los pacientes tuvieron la presión intraocular antes de la cirugía por encima de 30 mmHg. A todos se le indicó tratamiento hipotensor tópico y se les realizó cirugía convencional. Con diferentes fluctuaciones de la presión intraocular posterior a la cirugía, todos los pacientes normalizaron la tensión ocular y mantuvieron la retina aplicada. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico correcto de este síndrome puede ofrecer dificultad porque los signos de una condición pueden enmascarar los de otra. El reconocimiento de la entidad puede ser más fácil si el oftalmólogo tiene en mente que estas entidades pueden aparecer juntas. De esta forma, se hace un diagnóstico y un tratamiento certero que evite la discapacidad visual por esta causa(AU)


Objective: Describe the behavior of ocular hypertension associated to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: An observational retrospective longitudinal descriptive study was conducted of 7 eyes of 7 patients attending the Vitreous-Retina Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from May 2016 to December 2019. The variables considered were age, sex, ocular pathological antecedents, time of evolution of vision reduction, ocular tension, type of retinal tear, retinal surgery performed and ocular hypertension treatment. Results: A predominance was found of the male sex, with a mean age of 27.2 years. Most of the patients had retinal tear in the upper nasal quadrant, and all in the extreme periphery. In all cases, intraocular pressure was above 30 mmHg before surgery. All patients were indicated topical hypotensive treatment and underwent conventional surgery. With different intraocular pressure fluctuations after surgery, all patients normalized their ocular tension and retained the retina applied. Conclusions: Correct diagnosis of this syndrome may be difficult to achieve, since the signs of one condition may mask those of another. Identification may be easier if the ophthalmologist bears in mind that these diseases may occur together. An accurate diagnosis may thus be made and an effective treatment indicated which will prevent visual disability due to this cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Retinal Perforations , Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e814, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139070

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar los valores de referencia de la dinámica circulatoria arterial ocular de los pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 105 pacientes hipertensos y en un grupo de 33 sujetos no hipertensos, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 60 años, sin antecedentes de padecer diabetes mellitus ni enfermedades oculares como glaucoma, o haber recibido tratamiento quirúrgico por catarata, hipertensión ocular u otras. A todos se les realizó la toma de la presión arterial sistémica, el examen clínico oftalmológico y el ultrasonido Doppler a color de carótida y de los vasos orbitarios. Resultados: Se encontró un predominio de mujeres de piel blanca, entre la cuarta y quinta década de la vida. Existió un incremento del pico de velocidad sistólica, la velocidad final diastólica y el índice de resistencia en la arteria oftálmica, que fue desde un rango normal en el grupo de los no hipertensos a valores promedios elevados en el grupo de hipertensos, los cuales fueron más altos en los casos descontrolados. No se encontraron modificaciones en el análisis de estos parámetros en las arterias centrales de la retina ni en las ciliares posteriores cortas. Conclusiones: En la casuística estudiada, el incremento del pico de la velocidad sistólica en la arteria oftálmica pudiera estar relacionado con áreas de obstrucción vascular localizadas o con vasoespasmo. Se encontró una asociación entre el descontrol de la presión arterial y los valores elevados del índice de resistencia en la arteria oftálmica(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the reference values for ocular arterial circulation dynamics in patients with essential arterial hypertension. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 105 hypertensive patients and a group of 33 non-hypertensive subjects aged 18-60 years with no antecedents of diabetes mellitus or ocular conditions such as glaucoma or having undergone cataract surgery, ocular hypertension or others. All the patients underwent systemic arterial pressure measurement, clinical ophthalmological examination and color Doppler carotid and orbital ultrasonography. Results: A predominance was observed of the female sex, white skin color and age between the fourth and fifth decades of life. There was an increase in peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and the resistive index in the ophthalmic artery, which ranged from normal in the non-hypertensive group to high average levels in the hypertensive group, higher in uncontrolled cases. Analysis of these parameters did not find any change in central retinal or short posterior ciliary arteries. Conclusions: In the cases studied, the peak systolic velocity increase in the ophthalmic artery could be related to localized vascular obstruction areas or vasospasm. An association was found between uncontrolled arterial pressure and high resistive index values in the ophthalmic artery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Arterial Pressure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 132-140, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationships between (i) thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head topography, and visual field parameters and (ii) corneal biomechanical properties in normal controls and patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 68 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, 99 eyes with ocular hypertension and 133 control eyes. Corneal biomechanical properties, optic nerve head topographic features, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual fields were assessed in all cases. Corneal biomechanical properties, retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, and optic nerve head topographic features were compared among the groups. The associations between structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage and corneal biomechanical factors were also evaluated. Results: Significantly lower corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were observed in the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups as compared with the control group, but there were no significant differences between the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups. In the ocular hypertension group, no associations were observed between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with values and the structural and functional parameters. In the primary open-angle glaucoma group, positive correlations were observed between the corneal hysteresis values and the global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.27), mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.33), and mean deviation (p<0.01, r=0.26), and negative correlations were observed between the corneal resistance factor values, and the cup area (p<0.01, r=-0.39), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), and cup shape (p=0.03, r=-0.26). In the control group, weak correlations were detected between the corneal hysteresis and the cup area (p=0.03, r=0.19), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.21), and linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.22). Conclusions: Distinct correlations were identified between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values and the functional and structural parameters in the primary open-angle glaucoma and control groups. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor may have different roles in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as relações entre (i) espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, topografia do nervo óptico e parâmetros do campo visual e (ii) propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, em controles normais e pacientes com hiperten são ocular e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Este estudo observacional, transversal, incluiu 68 olhos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto, 99 olhos com hipertensão ocular e 133 olhos controle. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e os campos visuais foram avaliados em todos os casos. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico foram comparadas entre os grupos. As associações entre medidas estruturais e funcionais de danos glaucomatosos e fatores biomecânicos da córnea também foram avaliadas. Resultados: Valores de histerese corneana e da resistência corneana foram significativamente menores nos grupos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular em com paração ao grupo controle, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular. No grupo com hipertensão ocular, não foram observadas associações entre histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana com os valores e os parâmetros estruturais e funcionais. No grupo com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto foram observadas correlações positivas entre os valores de histerese corneana e a espessura a camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,27), espessura média da camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,33) e desvio médio (p<0,01, r=0,26), e correlações negativas entre o os valores do fator de resistência da córnea e a área de escavação (p<0,01, r=-0,39), a relação escavação/disco (p=0,02, r=-0,28), a relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,02, r=-0,28) e a forma da escavação (p=0,03, r=-0,26). No grupo controle, correlações foram detectadas entre a histerese da córnea e área de escavação (p=0,03, r=0,19), relação escavação/disco (p=0,01, r=0,21) e relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,01, r=0,22). Conclusões: Correlações distintas foram identificadas entre histerese da córnea e os valores de resistência da córnea e os parâmetros funcionais e estruturais nos grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e controle. A histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência da córnea podem ter diferentes papéis na fisiopatologia do glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retina/pathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/pathology , Ocular Hypertension/pathology , Cornea/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Visual Fields/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/physiopathology , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cornea/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure
9.
Clinics ; 75: e1874, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Timolol maleate has been reported to be a safer intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering treatment than latanoprost. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved latanoprostene bunod, a nitric oxide-donating prodrug of latanoprost, for lowering IOP. This study compared the safety and efficacy of latanoprost, latanoprostene bunod, and timolol maleate in patients with open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Patients who received latanoprost eye drops once daily in the evening were included in the latanoprost Ophthalmic Solutions (LP) cohort (n=104). Those who received latanoprostene bunod eye drops once daily in the evening were included in the Latanoprostene Bunod (LB) cohort (n=94). Those who received timolol eye drops twice daily were included in the Timolol Maleate (TM) cohort (n=115). All treatments were administered to the affected eye(s) for 3 months. Informed Consent has been taken from each participant before the trial. RESULTS: At the end of 3 months of treatment, latanoprost, latanoprostene bunod, and timolol were all successful in reducing IOP. The LB cohort had the highest reduction in IOP, compared to the LP and TM cohorts. All treatments had some common adverse ocular effects. CONCLUSION: Latanoprostene bunod was superior to latanoprost and timolol for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/adverse effects , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions , Timolol/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Latanoprost , Intraocular Pressure , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(4): e745, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099099

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El fondo de ojo es considerado por muchas especialidades médicas un proceder complementario. ¿Existe una correcta indicación del fondo de ojo de urgencia? Objetivo: Identificar los principales motivos de indicación del fondo de ojo urgente y su pertinencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en el periodo comprendido desde el 29 de mayo hasta el 1ro. de diciembre del año 2018, en una muestra de 59 pacientes de un universo de 67 casos con indicación de fondo de ojo urgentes, a realizarse en la consulta del Cuerpo de Guardia de Oftalmología en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Especiales y en salas intrahospitalarias del Hospital General Docente Provincial "Antonio Luaces Iraola", de la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Resultados: El 28,8 por ciento de los fondos de ojos fueron ordenados por Medicina Interna, seguido por Pediatría y Ginecobstetricia con 20,3 por ciento cada uno. El antecedente patológico personal ocular más frecuente fue la ametropía y el familar el glaucoma. El antecedente patológico personal sistémico más frecuente fue la hipertensión arterial. Las razones que motivaron su indicación urgente, en orden de frecuencia, fueron: el síndrome de hipertensión arterial en gestantes, el síndrome de cefalalgia, el traumatismo craneoencefálico en puérperas, el síndrome febril y el síndrome vertiginoso. Solo en 2 pacientes se visualizaron signos de sospecha de glaucoma, sin otras alteraciones a nivel de la papila óptica, y retina del polo posterior en los casos restantes. Conclusiones: Todos los fondos de ojos realizados fueron negativos para papiledema, signo que presumiblemente debe descartarse, en dependencia del motivo y la especialidad que lo indique con urgencia(AU)


ABSTRACT The fundus of the eye is considered, by many medical specialties, a complementary procedure. Is there a correct indication of the fundus of the eye as an emergency? Objective: To identify the main reasons for the indication of the fundus of the eye as an emergency and its relevance. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the period from May 29 to December 1, 2018, with a sample of 59 patients from a study group of 67 cases with indication of urgent fundus of the eye to be carried out in the service of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room belonging to the Special Intensive Care Unit and in hospital wards of Professor Antonio Luaces Iraola General Hospital of Ciego de Ávila Province, Cuba. Results: 28.8 percent of the fundus of the eye were ordered by internal medicine, followed by pediatrics and gynecobstetrics, each accounting for 20.3 percent. The most frequent personal pathological ocular history was ametropia and the glaucoma family. The most frequent systemic personal pathological history was arterial hypertension. The reasons that motivated its urgent indication, in order of frequency, were the syndrome of hypertension in pregnant women, the headache syndrome, the traumatic brain injury in postpartum women, the febrile syndrome, and the vertiginous syndrome. Only two patients showed signs of suspected glaucoma, without other alterations at the level of the optic papilla, and retinal posterior pole in the remaining cases. Conclusions: All the fundus of eyes carried out were negative for papiledema, a sign that presumably must be discarded, depending on the reason and the specialty that indicates it with urgency(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e770, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099085

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se realiza una actualización sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento del glaucoma infantil primario, considerando la importancia que tiene un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento oportuno para obtener los mejores resultados posibles. Actualmente, a pesar del surgimiento de nuevos fármacos y de técnicas quirúrgicas para tratar esta afección, aún existen discrepancias sobre cómo debemos realizar el diagnóstico positivo; qué tratamiento o técnica quirúrgica emplear; cuándo y cuál sería la mejor. Cuando se trata de glaucoma pediátrico (primario o secundario), presente en etapas tan tempranas de la vida -incluso al nacimiento, donde la cirugía está indicada lo más precozmente posible, con la disyuntiva de cuáles medicamentos podemos emplear o no, por desconocimiento de qué efectos indeseables pudieran presentarse en estas edades y además, teniendo en cuenta que estos niños serán nuestros pacientes para toda la vida- es necesario conocer y repasar una vez más este tema. Se recomienda instruir a pediatras y oftalmólogos generales para lograr la remisión adecuada y precoz del niño a un centro especializado para su tratamiento quirúrgico, y mejorar así su pronóstico visual(AU)


ABSTRACT Updated information is provided about the diagnosis and treatment of primary childhood glaucoma, given the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment to obtain the best possible results. Despite the emergence of new drugs and surgical techniques to treat this disorder, there is still controversy about how we should perform the positive diagnosis, what treatment or surgical technique should be used and when, and which would be the best. When childhood glaucoma (whether primary or secondary) presents at early stages of life - even at birth -, in which case surgery should be indicated as soon as possible, we are faced with the dilemma of what drugs we may or may not use, due to lack of knowledge about undesirable effects which could appear at these ages, and bearing in mind that these children will be our patients for a lifetime. It is thus necessary to be informed about this topic and go over it once again. It is recommended to instruct pediatricians and ophthalmologists to ensure timely, appropriate referral of the child patient to a specialized center where they will receive surgical treatment, thus improving their visual prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Trabeculectomy/methods , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Gonioscopy/methods
12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 162-165, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013675

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o resultado entre dois tipos de tonômetros, tendo como padrão ouro a tonometria de aplanação, relacionando com a espessura corneana e suas validações como instrumentos de rastreio populacional. Métodos: Estudo transversal comparativo, realizado com 400 olhos do ambulatório de oftalmologia da Adachi Oftalmologia, em Macapá (Amapá), entre os valores médios da pressão ocular medidos pelo tonômetro Icare®, o Tonômetro Pneumático e o Tonômetro de Aplanação de Goldmann em função da espessura corneana. Foram divididos conforme a ECC em 3 grupos. Grupo 1: 260 olhos com ECC< 530µ; grupo 2: 217 olhos com ECC entre 530µ e 590µ; e, grupo 3: 157 olhos com ECC>590µ. Resultados: A ECC média obtida na paquimetria foi de 557µ, variando de 651µ a 477µ (desvio padrão de 32.9). A PIO média obtida pela TP foi de 19,4 mmHg (com desvio padrão de 2,32); pelo Icare® foi de 16,7mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,12); e, na TAG foi de 15.5 mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,02). Para paquimetrias inferiores a 530µ e superiores a 590µ a PIOm não diferiu significativamente entre a TAG e Icare® (p = 0,232), sendo estatisticamente significativa diferença obtida para córneas com ECC entre 530 e 590 µ. A PIOm obtida pelo TP foi significativamente maior do que a pressão ocular média dos TAG e Icare® (p < 0,001 para ambos) em todos os grupos. Conclusões: Os três métodos podem ser utilizados em campanhas de rastreamento, porém o Icare® se mostrou mais confiável que a TP, com valores obtidos estatisticamente mais confiáveis quando comparados à TP. Existe suficiente concordância entre o Icare e a TAG para recomendar o seu uso.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the result between two types of tonometres, using as gold standard the aplanation tonometry, relating to the corneal thickness and its validations as instruments of population screening. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 eyes from the ophthalmology clinic of Adachi Ophthalmology, in Macapá (Amapá), between the mean values of ocular pressure measured by the Icare® tonometro, the Pneumatic Tonometer and the Goldmann Flattening Tonometro as a function of corneal thickness. They were divided according to ECC in 3 groups. Group 1: 260 eyes with ECC <530µ; group 2: 217 eyes with ECC between 530µ and 590µ; and, group 3: 157 eyes with ECC> 590µ. Results: The mean ECC obtained in pachymetry was 557µ, ranging from 651µ to 477µ (standard deviation of 32.9). The mean IOP obtained by PT was 19.4 mmHg (with a standard deviation of 2.32); by Icare® was 16.7mmHg (standard deviation of 2.12); and in the TAG it was 15.5 mmHg (standard deviation of 2.02). For pachymetry less than 530µ and greater than 590µ, PIOm did not differ significantly between TAG and Icare® (p = 0.232), and a statistically significant difference was obtained for corneas with ECC between 530 and 590 µ. The IOP obtained by the PT was significantly higher than the mean ocular pressure of the TAG and Icare® (p <0.001 for both) in all groups. Conclusions: All three methods can be used in screening campaigns, but Icare® proved to be more reliable than TP, with values obtained statistically more reliable when compared to TP. There is sufficient agreement between Icare and TAG to recommend its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air , Equipment Design , Corneal Pachymetry
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 200-206, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Obesity is accepted as a risk factor for postoperative visual loss due to possible perioperative elevations in intraocular pressure. This study investigated whether intraocular pressure changes differed according to the body mass index of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Thirty obese and 30 non-obese patients (body mass index cutoff point, 30 kg/m2) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled. Intraocular pressure was measured at baseline (T1), after induction of anesthesia (T2), 5 min after initiation of mechanical ventilation (T3), 5 min after pneumoperitoneum inflation (T4), 5 min after the patient was placed in the head-up position (T5), 5 min after deflation with the patient in the supine position (T6), and 5 min after extubation with the patient in the 30 degrees upright position (T7). Results: The mean intraocular pressure values of the obese and non-obese groups were similar at T1 (16.60 ± 2.93 and 16.87 ± 2.85 mmHg respectively). In both groups, intraocular pressure decreased following initiation of anesthesia (T2) (p<0.001, T2 vs T1). Intraocular pressure values at T7 were significantly higher than those at T1 in the obese (20.38 ± 4.11 mmHg, p<0.001) and non-obese (20.93 ± 4.37 mmHg, p<0.01) groups. There were no significant differences between intraocular pressure values of obese and non-obese patients at any time point. Conclusions: Obesity is not correlated with intraocular pressure during short laparoscopic surgeries with the patient in the head-up position.


RESUMO Objetivo: A obesidade é aceita como um fator de risco para a perda visual pós-operatória devido a possíveis elevações perioperatórias da pressão intraocular. Este estudo investigou se as alterações na pressão intraocular diferem de acordo com o índice de massa corporal dos pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica. Métodos: Trinta pacientes obesos e 30 não-obesos (limiar de índice de massa corporal de 30 kg/m2), submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica foram incluídos. A pressão intraocular foi medida no início do estudo (T1), após a indução anestésica (T2), 5 min após o início da ventilação mecânica (T3), 5 min após a insuflação do pneumoperitôneo (T4), 5 min após o posicionamento vertical da cabeça (T5), 5 min após a deflação na posição em decúbito dorsal (T6) e 5 min após a extubação com o paciente na posição vertical de 30 graus (T7). Resultados: Os valores médios da pressão intraocular dos grupos obeso e não obeso foram semelhantes no T1 (16,60 ± 2,93 e 16,87 ± 2,85 mmHg, respectivamente). Em ambos os grupos, a pressão intraocular diminuiu após o início da anestesia (T2) (p<0,001, T2 vs T1). Os valores da pressão intraocular em T7 foram significativamente maiores do que aqueles em T1 nos grupos obesos (20,38 ± 4,11 mmHg, p<0,001) e não obesos (20,93 ± 4,37 mmHg, p<0,01). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os valores de pressão intraocular de pacientes obesos e não obesos em qualquer momento. Conclusões: A obesidade não está correlacionada com a pressão intraocular durante cirurgias laparoscópicas curtas com o paciente em posição de cabeça erguida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Body Mass Index , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Analysis of Variance , Supine Position/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Patient Positioning
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(1): e686, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093672

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la cirugía de catarata para el control de la presión intraocular en pacientes vitrectomizados con aceite de silicona remitidos de la consulta de Retina al Servicio de Catarata del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer, en el período comprendido de enero de 2016 a enero de 2017. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo de series de casos en 20 pacientes. El universo quedó conformado por todos los pacientes vitrectomizados, a quienes se les colocó aceite de silicona como sustituto del vítreo con diagnóstico de catarata e hipertensión ocular. Resultados: Los pacientes vitrectomizados con aceite de silicona, a quienes se les realizó cirugía de catarata, se caracterizaron por un predominio del sexo masculino y la edad menor de 60 años, asociado a enfermedad vitreorretiniana de base. La cirugía de catarata se relacionó con una importante disminución de la presión intraocular en el posoperatorio. Todos los pacientes alcanzaron un ángulo camerular abierto posterior a la cirugía, que favoreció la disminución del uso de tratamiento tópico. No fue necesaria la cirugía filtrante posterior a esta. Conclusiones: En los pacientes vitrectomizados, la cirugía de catarata muestra una mejoría sostenida de las presiones intraoculares hasta el sexto mes del posoperatorio(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of cataract surgery to control intraocular pressure in patients undergoing vitrectomy with silicone injection referred by retina specialists to the Cataract Service of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from January 2016 to January 2017. Methods: A descriptive prospective case-series study was conducted of 20 patients. The universe was all the patients undergoing vitrectomy with administration of silicone oil as a vitreal substitute who were diagnosed with cataract and ocular hypertension. Results: Patients undergoing vitrectomy with silicone oil injection and cataract surgery were mostly male, mean age was under 60 years, and a relationship was found to underlying vitreoretinal disease. Cataract surgery was associated to a considerable reduction in intraocular pressure in the postoperative period. All patients achieved an open chamber angle after surgery, leading to a reduction in the use of topical medication. Eventual filtration surgery was not required. Conclusions: In patients undergoing vitrectomy, cataract surgery leads to sustained intraocular pressure improvement until the sixth month of the postoperative period(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Silicone Oils/adverse effects , Ocular Hypertension/epidemiology , Phacoemulsification/methods , Vitreoretinal Surgery/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 27-29, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990798

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia do colírio TRAVAMED® (travoprosta 0,004%) (Ofta, Brasil) na redução da pressão intraocular (PIO), em pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA) ou hipertensão ocular (HO), bem como avaliar os efeitos colaterais decorrentes do uso da droga. Métodos: estudo randomizado, controlado, com 70 olhos de 38 pacientes acima de 18 anos de idade, com diagnóstico de GPAA ou HO. Todos os pacientes receberam o colírio TRAVAMED® como primeira droga a ser introduzida no tratamento, tendo sido utilizada uma gota uma vez ao dia (à noite), e 30 dias após foram submetidos à tonometria de aplanação (Goldmann) para mensuração da PIO, com o mesmo examinador, no mesmo tonômetro e nos mesmos horários. Resultados: A média de redução da PIO após 30 dias de uso do TRAVAMED® foi de 7,46 mmHg. Em relação aos efeitos colaterais, 15,71% (11) dos olhos apresentaram hiperemia conjuntival, 8,57% (6) apresentaram dor, 8,57% (6) apresentaram ardência, 2,86% (2) apresentaram embaçamento visual e em 1,56% (1) dos olhos não houve queda significativa da PIO. Conclusão: A medicação TRAVAMED® foi eficiente na redução da PIO após 30 dias de uso contínuo, na dose de 1x/dia. Acerca dos efeitos colaterais, os mais observados foram hiperemia ocular (15,71%), dor (8,57%) e ardência (8,57%), porém estudos com maior tempo de seguimento se fazem necessários.


Abstract Objective: to evaluate how much decreases intraocular pressure (IOP) with TRAVAMED® (travoprost 0,004%) (Germed, Brazil) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OH) and possible side effects. Methods: controlled and randomized study, it was evaluated 70 eyes of 38 patients with age of 18 years old or more diagnosed with POAG and OH. All the patients had TRAVAMED® as first drop for treatment used once daily (at night) and 30 days later they had IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry, with the same examiner in the same tonometer at the same times. Results: the mean decrease in IOP was 7,46 mmHg after 30 days using the drops. 15.71% (11) of eyes had conjunctival redness, 8.57% (6) had pain, 8.57% (6) had burning, 2.86% (2) had blurring vision and 1.56% (1) of the eyes there wasn't a significant reduction in IOP. Conclusion: TRAVAMED® was efficient when evaluating IOP decrease. The most correlated side effects were conjunctival redness (15.71%), pain (8.57%) and burning (8.57%), but studies with longer follow-up are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Travoprost/adverse effects , Travoprost/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trial
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766613

ABSTRACT

Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different novel pharmacologic agents for its treatment, as well as their mechanisms. Most glaucoma patients require lifelong care and individualized treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is regulated by aqueous humor production, outflow via the trabecular meshwork (parasympathomimetics only) and uveoscleral outflow pathways, is currently the only treatable target for glaucoma treatment. Conventional glaucoma medications are categorized as β blockers, α agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, and prostaglandin analogues. The development of basic research-derived novel classes of pharmacologic agents features novel action mechanisms, which are different from those of conventional medications. New classes of recently approved or clinical trial-tested medications include Rho-kinase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, adenosine agonists, and prostaglandin analogs targeting E-type prostanoid receptors, etc. Their integration and future development will facilitate the expansion and customization of therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Aqueous Humor , Axons , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors , Glaucoma , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Nitric Oxide Donors , Ocular Hypertension , Optic Disk , Parasympathomimetics , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , rho-Associated Kinases , Trabecular Meshwork , Visual Fields
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(5): 235-239, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977872

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Relatar perfil clínico epidemiológico de pacientes que apresentaram o pico hipertensivo após o IVA e apontar possíveis fatores de risco associados. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, observacional e descritivo (revisão de prontuário de pacientes assistidos no IBOPC) de 2014 a 2016. Resultados: Foram analisados 40 pacientes com glaucoma submetidos à implante de válvula de Ahmed. O diagnóstico pré-operatório mais comum foi glaucoma secundário, sendo a indicação pós-transplante penetrante de córnea a mais frequente. 95% das cirurgias foi de implante de tubo isolado. 56% dos pacientes tinham cirurgia anti- glaucomatosa prévia. 46% necessitaram de procedimento cirúrgico posterior para manejo de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a mais frequente foi atalamia (9,7%). PIO média no pré-operatório = 28,6 ± 12.20mmHg, com uso de 3,41 medicações. Com 3 semanas a PIO média aumentou para 16mmHg, com uso de 0,42 medicações. Após 3 meses de cirurgia a PIO média estava em 16.5mmHg, com uso de 1,86 de medicações. Após 6 meses de seguimento a PIO média reduziu (16,4 ± 6.74mmHg), com 2,23 ± 1.45 medicações. A média da AV (Snellen) foi de 20/100p no pré-operatório e de 20/200 após 6° mês de cirurgia. Catorze pacientes preencheram os critérios para a FH, destes 6 obtiveram resolução da FH. Dos pacientes que desenvolveram a FH, 78,4% iniciaram a elevação da PIO entre a 2ª e 4ª semana de pós-operatório. Seis (14,6%) pacientes obtiveram sucesso cirúrgico completo, parcial em 36,6% e falência 31%. Conclusão: A fase hipertensiva pode ocorrer em parte dos pacientes após as semanas iniciais do procedimento cirúrgico. O conhecimento deste fenômeno, o preparo prévio do cirurgião, o acompanhamento regular do paciente e o controle da PIO com o uso de medicações são determinantes na resolução desta complicação.


Abstract Objective: To report the clinical epidemiological profile of patients who presented the hypertensive peak after VAT and to indicate possible associated risk factors. Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study (review of medical records of patients assisted in the IBOPC) from 2014 to 2016. Results: We analyzed 40 patients with glaucoma submitted to Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant. The most common preoperative diagnosis was secondary glaucoma, with the most frequent corneal penetrating post-transplant indication. 95% of the surgeries were of isolated tube implantation. 56% of patients had previous anti-glaucomatous surgery. 46% needed a posterior surgical procedure to manage postoperative complications, and the most frequent was atalamia (9.7%). IOP preoperatively = 28.6 ± 12.20mmHg, with use of 3.41 medications. At 3 weeks the mean IOP increased to 16mmHg, with use of 0.42 medications. After 3 months of surgery the mean IOP was 16.5mmHg, with use of 1.86 of medications. After 6 months of follow-up the mean IOP decreased (16.4 ± 6.74 mmHg), with 2.23 ± 1.45 medications. The mean of the AV (Snellen) was 20 / 100p in the preoperative period and 20/200 after the 6th month of surgery. Fourteen patients fulfilled the criteria for HP, of which 6 obtained HP resolution. Of the patients who developed HP, 78.4% started to elevate IOP between the 2nd and 4th postoperative week. Six (14.6%) patients had complete surgical success, partial in 36.6% and bankruptcy in 31%. Conclusion: The hypertensive phase may occur in part of the patients after the initial weeks of the surgical procedure. The knowledge of this phenomenon, the previous preparation of the surgeon, the regular monitoring of the patient and the control of IOP with the use of medications are determinant in the resolution of this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma/surgery , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Glaucoma Drainage Implants , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Postoperative Complications , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Observational Study
18.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 31(3): 1-9, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985572

ABSTRACT

La incidencia y la prevalencia de las uveítis varía alrededor del mundo, así como los agentes causales y el grupo de edad más afectado. De forma general, pueden asociarse a gran número de complicaciones oculares que originan marcada disminución de la visión, a veces de modo irreversible, e incluso pueden llevar a la ceguera de uno o de ambos ojos. Existe una asociación frecuente entre uveítis y glaucoma. La incidencia de glaucoma secundario a uveítis oscila sobre el 10 por ciento, con fluctuaciones relacionadas con su origen y la edad de presentación. Una parte de las uveítis cursa con hipertensión ocular más o menos marcada durante o después del proceso inflamatorio, lo que constituye un reto para el oftalmólogo, quien debe tratar simultáneamente dos entidades con terapéuticas prácticamente antagónicas. El tratamiento de la inflamación ocular está bien establecido; la hipertensión ocular debe ser tratada sobre la base de las características y el origen de cada entidad. Realizamos una revisión del tema por su importancia, así como de los elementos a tener en cuenta para un mejor resultado del tratamiento en estos pacientes. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


The incidence and prevalence of uveitis vary around the world, and so do its causative agents and most affected age group. In general terms, these may be associated to a large number of ocular complications which cause marked, at times irreversible vision reduction, and may even lead to vision loss in one or both eyes. An association is often found between uveitis and glaucoma. The incidence of glaucoma secondary to uveitis ranges around 10 percent, with fluctuations related to its origin and presentation age. A form of uveitis develops with more or less marked ocular hypertension during or after the inflammation process. This is a challenge for ophthalmologists, who should treat two conditions simultaneously with practically opposite therapies. The treatment for ocular inflammation is well established, whereas ocular hypertension should be treated according to the characteristics and origin of each condition. Due to its importance, we conducted a review of the topic, as well as of the elements to be borne in mind to obtain better treatment results. Use was made of the platform Infomed, specifically the Virtual Health Library(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Uveitis/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/complications , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Libraries, Digital/statistics & numerical data , Ocular Hypertension/therapy
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 189-193, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959102

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: O glaucoma e a principal causa de cegueira irreversivel no Brasil. Ate o momento nao se dispoe de uma droga ideal para o controle da pressao intraocular (PIO), geralmente necessitando associar dois ou mais medicamentos hipotensores, com frequentes instilacoes diarias e ma aderencia ao tratamento. Objetivos: Descrever quantitativa e qualitativamente as drogas usadas para controle da PIO e a eficacia do tratamento na prevencao da cegueira. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo, atraves de revisao de 420 prontuarios de portadores de Glaucoma severo acompanhados no ambulatorio do Hospital Emilio Carlos, de Catanduva-SP, de janeiro/2014 a dezembro/2016. As variaveis analisadas foram: idade, acuidade visual e medicamentos antiglaucomatosos utilizados: topicos (colirios) e sistemicos. Resultados: A media de idade dos participantes foi 62,99±16,29 anos. Foram detectados 68 casos de cegueira, sendo que 3 pacientes (0,7%)perderam a visao no tempo investigado, com referencias a periodos sem tratamento/subdose/instilacao indevida/uso de 3 ou 4 colirios. Em 73,3% dos casos conseguiu-se estabilizacao da PIO com o uso de um (38,1%) ou no maximo 02 (35,2%) colirios associados. Houve correlacao significativa entre o no de combinacoes de hipotensores topicos e o no de pacientes em uso de Acetazolamida. O medicamentomais usado foi o Maleato de Timolol (67,1%). Conclusões: Na maioria dos pacientes a PIO foi controlada com 1 ou 2 colirios associados; pequena porcentagem dos casos evoluiu para cegueira; muito provavelmente a evolucao para perda de visao foi decorrente da complexidade e ma aderencia ao tratamento.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness in Brazil. To date, there is no ideal drug for the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), usually requiring the combination of two or more hypotensive drugs, with frequent daily instillations and poor adherence to treatment. Objectives: To describe quantitatively and qualitatively the drugs used to control IOP and the efficacy of treatment in the prevention of blindness. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out through a review of 420 medical records of patients with severe Glaucoma who were followed up at the Emílio Carlos Hospital outpatient clinic in Catanduva, SP, from January 2014 to December 2016. The analyzed variables were: age, visual acuity and antiglaucomatous drugs used: topical (eye drops) and systemic. Results:The mean age of participants was 62.99 ± 16.29 years. Sixty-eight cases of blindness were detected, and three patients (0.7%) lost vision at the time investigated, with references to periods without treatment / subdose / improper instillation / use of 3 or 4 eye drops. In 73.3% of the cases, IOP stabilization was achieved with one (38.1%) or at most 02 (35.2%) associated drops. There was a significant correlation between the number of combinations of topical hypotensive agents and the number of patients taking acetazolamide. The drugmostused was Timolol (67.1%). Conclusions: In the majority of patients IOP was controlled with 1 or 2 associated eye drops; small percentage of cases evolved into blindness; most likely the evolution to loss of vision was due to the complexity and poor adherence to the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Ocular Hypertension/prevention & control , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Ocular Hypertension/drug therapy , Medical Records , Blindness/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Intraocular Pressure
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739524

ABSTRACT

The retinal degeneration resulting from elevated intraocular pressure was evaluated through functional and morphological analyses, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Ocular hypertension was induced via unilateral episcleral venous cauterization in rats. Experimental time was set at 1 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operation. Retinal function was analyzed using electroretinography. For morphological analysis, retinal tissues were processed for immunochemistry by using antibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and calcium-binding proteins. Apoptosis was analyzed using the TUNEL method and electron microscopy. Amplitudes of a- and b-wave in scotopic and photopic responses were found to be reduced in all glaucomatous retinas. Photopic negative response for ganglion cell function significantly reduced from 1-day and more significantly reduced in 2-week glaucoma. Calcium-sensing receptor immunoreactivity in ganglion cells remarkably reduced at 8 weeks; conversely, protein amounts increased significantly. Calcium-binding proteins immunoreactivity in amacrine cells clearly reduced at 8 weeks, despite of uneven changes in protein amounts. Apoptosis appeared in both photoreceptors and ganglion cells in 8-week glaucomatous retina. Apoptotic feature of photoreceptors was typical, whereas that of ganglion cells was necrotic in nature. These findings suggest that elevated intraocular pressure affects the sensitivity of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, and leads to apoptotic death. The calcium-sensing receptor may be a useful detector for alteration of extracellular calcium levels surrounding the ganglion cells.


Subject(s)
Amacrine Cells , Animals , Antibodies , Apoptosis , Calcium , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Cautery , Electroretinography , Ganglion Cysts , Glaucoma , Immunochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Intraocular Pressure , Methods , Microscopy, Electron , Ocular Hypertension , Rats , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing , Retina , Retinal Degeneration , Retinal Ganglion Cells , Retinaldehyde
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