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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 209-213, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the lymphatic vessels in orbital specimens from human cadavers using light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. Methods: A postmortem study included 10 orbital specimens from 10 human cadavers. The orbital specimens were obtained no later than 12 hours after death. The orbital specimens were dissected into lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and oculomotor muscles. The histologic criteria to qualify as a lymphatic vessel were thin-walled channels of endothelium without a well-developed basal membrane and with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen. The immunohistochemical criteria were irregularly shaped, thin-walled vessels with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen and immunopositivity for podoplanin D2-40. Results: The lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and extraocular muscle sections were positively stained with podoplanin D2-40. Conclusions: This study demonstrated lymphatic vessels in the human orbit, more precisely, in the lacrimal gland, dura mater of the optic nerve, adipose tissue, and extrinsic oculomotor muscles via light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivos: Identificar vasos linfáticos em espécimes orbitários de cadáveres humanos através de microscopia óptica e análise imunohistoquímica. Métodos: Um estudo postmortem incluiu dez espécimes orbitários provenientes de dez cadáveres humanos. Todos os espécimes orbitários foram obtidos até 12 horas após a morte com uma técnica cirúrgica de exenteração orbitária e dissecados em glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, gordura órbitária e músculos extraoculares. Para classificar como um vaso linfático, os critérios histológicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única sem membrana basal bem desenvolvida, irregulares e lúmen sem hemácias, e os critérios imunohistoquímicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única, com formato irregular e lúmen sem hemácias e reagentes a podoplanina D2-40. Resultados: As lâminas histológicas de glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, tecido adiposo e músculos extraoculares reagiram positivamente a podoplanina D2-40. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou vasos linfáticos na órbita humana, mais exatamente, na glândula lacrimal, no nervo óptico, na gordura orbitária e nos músculos extrínsecos extraoculares via microscopia óptica e imunohistoquímica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Optic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Lymphatic Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Lacrimal Apparatus/anatomy & histology , Microscopy/instrumentation , Oculomotor Muscles/anatomy & histology
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 21-26, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251319

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico e clínico de pacientes com lagoftalmo associado à hanseníase, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia da Fundação Alfredo da Matta, Manaus, Amazonas. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo realizado por meio da análise dos prontuários clínicos dos pacientes incluídos no estudo. Sexo, idade, forma clínica, grau de incapacidade no diagnóstico e desfecho foram obtidos dos prontuários. Início, tipo de comprometimento (unilateral ou bilateral), grau de intensidade do lagoftalmo e alterações oculares associadas também foram compilados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 65 pacientes; 66,1% eram do sexo masculino e 53,8% tinham idade superior a 60 anos. Em relação à classificação operacional da hanseníase, a maioria dos pacientes (81,5%) era multibacilar: 33,8% na forma de hanseníase borderline e 47% virchowiana. 36,9% casos apresentavam sequelas oculares associadas ao lagoftalmo: opacidade corneana, epífora, ceratopatia em faixa, e neovascularização corneana.41,6% evoluíram para a cegueira. O lagoftalmo foi conduzido de forma clínica em 23 pacientes e a abordagem cirúrgica foi indicada em 42. Em relação ao tratamento cirúrgico consistiu principalmente no implante de peso de ouro e na cantoplastia de Tessier. Discussão: O lagoftalmo nessa casuística acometeu mais homens idosos, esteve relacionado à forma multibacilar, com hanseníase do tipo virchowiano como relatado na literatura. O diagnóstico de lagoftalmo foi tardio na maioria dos casos, explicando o grande número de sequelas incluindo a cegueira. Conclusão: O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de acompanhamento oftalmológico precoce para que as potenciais e graves sequelas associadas a essa condição sejam evitadas.


ABSTRACT Objective: The present study aimed to characterize the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with lagophthalmos associated with leprosy, seen at the ophthalmology outpatient clinic of Fundação Alfredo da Matta, Manaus, Amazonas. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out by analyzing the medical records of the patients included in the study. Sex, age, clinical form, degree of disability in diagnosis and outcome were obtained from medical records. Onset, type of impairment (unilateral or bilateral), degree of intensity of lagophthalmos and associated eye changes were also compiled. Results: 65 patients were included; 66.1% were male and 53.8% were older than 60 years. Regarding the operational classification of leprosy, most patients (81.5%) were multibacillary: 33.8% in the form of borderline leprosy and 47% virchowian. 36.9% of cases had ocular sequelae associated with lagophthalmos: corneal opacity, epiphora, band keratopathy, and corneal neovascularization.41.6% progressed to blindness. Lagophthalmos was performed clinically in 23 patients and the surgical approach was indicated in 42. Regarding surgical treatment, it consisted mainly of gold weight implantation and Tessier's canthoplasty. Discussion: Lagophthalmos in this sample affected more elderly men, was related to the multibacillary form, with leprosy-like leprosy as reported in the literature. The diagnosis of lagophthalmos was delayed in most cases, explaining the large number of sequelae including blindness. Conclusion: The present study reinforces the need for early eye care so that the potential and serious sequelae associated with this condition are avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blindness/complications , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Leprosy/epidemiology , Mycobacterium leprae , Oculomotor Muscles/abnormalities , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341153

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Apresenta-se uma série de 13 casos de pacientes com estrabismo sensorial de grande ângulo submetidos à técnica cirúrgica de autotransplante da musculatura ocular extrínseca. Foi realizada a técnica de recuo-ressecção dos músculos retos horizontais, e o retalho retirado do músculo ressecado foi suturado ao músculo enfraquecido como expansor autólogo. Foram avaliadas seis exotropias e sete esotropias, com desvios médios de 75 (70-90) dioptrias prismáticas (DP). Houve melhora significativa dos desvios no pós-operatório, sendo a média pós-operatória de 10,07 dioptrias prismáticas (ortotropia a 35DP). Somente um dos casos evoluiu com inversão do desvio após procedimento cirúrgico.


ABSTRACT We report 13 cases of large angle sensory strabismus treated with autologous graft of extraocular muscle. Recession-resection procedure of the horizontal rectus muscles was performed, and the flap from the resected muscle was sutured to the weakened muscle as an autologous expander. Six cases of exotropia and seven of esotropia, with mean prism diopter deviation of 75 (range of 70-90). There was significant improvement in the postoperative deviation, and mean prism diopter of 10.07 (range of no deviation to 35). Only one patient progressed with inverted misalignment after the surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/transplantation , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Amblyopia , Free Tissue Flaps
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0023, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288635

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho objetivou relatar um caso de tarsal buckling associado a prolapso conjuntival e à inversão de pálpebra superior como complicação da correção cirúrgica de ptose residual. Paciente do sexo feminino, 15 anos, portadora de ptose palpebral residual unilateral em olho direito, secundária à correção parcial da ptose palpebral congênita operada na infância. A segunda abordagem cirúrgica foi realizada com ressecção da aponeurose do músculo levantador da pálpebra superior, que evoluiu com inversão conjuntival da pálpebra superior. A fragilidade estrutural do tarso é a principal hipótese para justificar o tarsal buckling subsequente à cirurgia. Houve resolução completa do tarsal buckling, porém houve também persistência da ptose palpebral. O tarsal buckling é, portanto, uma complicação cirúrgica incomum, que pode ocorrer na correção da ptose palpebral, em que há rotação posterior da metade superior do tarso, fazendo com que este se curve verticalmente sobre seu eixo, favorecendo o prolapso conjuntival. A suspeição diagnóstica e a reabordagem cirúrgica precoce favorecem a resolução da condição e previnem possíveis complicações visuais.


ABSTRACT This paper aimed to report a case of tarsal buckling associated with conjunctival prolapse and upper eyelid inversion as a complication of surgical correction of residual ptosis. A 15-year-old female patient with unilateral residual eyelid ptosis in the right eye, secondary to partial correction of congenital blepharoptosis operated in childhood. The second surgery was performed with resection of the upper eyelid levator muscle aponeurosis, which progressed to conjunctival inversion of the upper eyelid. The structural fragility of the tarsus is the main hypothesis to justify tarsal buckling after surgery. There was complete resolution of tarsal buckling, but persistence of blepharoptosis. Tarsal buckling is an infrequent surgical complication that can occur in correction of blepharoptosis, when there is posterior rotation of the upper half of the tarsus, causing it to curve vertically on its axis and favoring conjunctival prolapse. Establishing diagnosis and early reoperation favor resolution of the condition and avoid possible visual complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Blepharoptosis/congenital , Eyelid Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 424-426, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131622

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of complex strabismus syndromes that present as congenital and non-progressive ophthalmoplegia. The genetic defects are associated with aberrant axonal targeting onto the motoneurons, development of motoneurons, and axonal targeting onto the extraocular muscles. We describe here the surgical management of a 16-year-old boy who presented with complex strabismus secondary to hypoplasia of the third cranial nerve and aberrant innervation of the upper ipsilateral eyelid.


RESUMO Os distúrbios de inervação craniana congênita en­globam um grupo de síndromes associadas a estrabismos complexos, que se apresentam como oftalmoplegia congênita e não progressiva e são frequentemente herdadas. Os defeitos dos genes estão associados a erros no desenvolvimento ou direcionamento axonal dos motoneurônios, e erros no direcionamento axonal para os músculos extraoculares. Este caso descreve o caso de um menino que apresenta estrabismo complexo secundário à hipoplasia do terceiro nervo craniano e inervação aberrante da pálpebra superior ipsilateral, bem como o resultado após a correção cirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Ophthalmoplegia , Strabismus , Cranial Nerves , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/etiology , Cranial Nerves/pathology , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Oculomotor Nerve
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 180-184, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To report the outcomes of bupivacaine injection for the treatment of comitant horizontal strabismus and evaluate clinical effectiveness and associated radiological changes. Methods: This prospective observational clinical study was conducted on 10 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus of up to 40 prism diopters. Ophthalmologic examinations and three-dimensional orbital magnetic resonance imaging were performed pre and post-injection (at first, third, and 12th months). A 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected into the extraocular muscle under topical anesthesia using an electromyography in all patients. Results: The mean follow-up time at post bupivacaine injection and mean deviation at primary position were was 17 ± 2 months and 21.3 prism diopters, respectively. The mean changes in ocular alignment, enlargement of the cross-sectional area in the injected muscle, and volumetric enlargement were 7.7 PD, 12%, and 17% at the first year post-injection, respectively. No severe or persistent complication was observed. Ptosis and mydriasis were noted post-injection due to the anesthetic effects of bupivacaine but disappeared within 2 h post-injection. Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in small-angle horizontal comitant strabismus, effectively diagnosed with orbital magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate volumetric changes of the extraocular muscles. Further clinical studies with larger numbers of patients should be performed to define optimal dosages, concentration, and application method and dose-response relationship.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar resultados da injeção de bupivacaína para o tratamento do estrabismo comitante horizontal e avaliar sua eficácia clínica e as alterações radiológicas associadas. Métodos: Este estudo clínico observacional prospectivo foi realizado em 10 pacientes com estrabismo comitante horizontal de até 40 dioptrias de prisma. Exames oftalmológicos e ressonância magnética orbital tridimensional foram realizados pré e pós-injeção (no primeiro, terceiro e 12º mês). A 4,5 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% foi injetado no músculo extraocular sob anestesia tópica usando eletromiografia em todos os pacientes. Resultados: O tempo médio de acompanhamento pós-injeção de bupivacaína e o desvio médio na posição primária foram de 17 ± 2 meses e 21,3 dioptrias de prisma, respectivamente. As alterações médias no alinhamento ocular, aumento da área da secção transversal no músculo injetado e aumento volumátrico foram de 7,7 PD, 12% e 17% no primeiro ano pós-injeção, respectivamente. Nenhuma complicação grave ou persistente foi observada. Ptose e midríase foram observadas após a injeção devido ao efeito anestésico da bupivacaína, mas desapareceram dentro de duas horas após a injeção. Conclusões: A injeção de bupivacaína melhorou o alinhamento dos olhos no estrabismo comitante horizontal de pequeno ângulo, efetivamente diagnosticado com ressonância magnética orbital para avaliar as alterações volumétricas dos músculos extraoculares. Outros estudos clínicos, com maior número de pacientes devem ser realizados para definir dosagens, concentração, método de aplicação e a relação dose-resposta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine , Strabismus , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Radiography , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Oculomotor Muscles
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 39-42, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To review the outcomes of frontalis suspension surgeries with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene in patients with blepharoptosis. Methods: A retrospective observational study analyzed the outcomes of frontalis suspension surgeries performed in a single institution from 2003 to 2018. All procedures were performed with closed incision and single pentagon techniques. Outcomes were classified as satisfactory or unsatisfactory, with satisfactory defined as a margin reflex distance of >3 mm and <1 mm between eyelids and unsatisfactory as hypocorrection, surgical complications, and asymmetry. Results: We included a total of 76 eyelids from 52 patients in our study. Within a mean postoperative follow-up of 16.8 ± 18.5 months (range, 3-95), 59 (77.6%) eyelids had a satisfactory outcome, and 17 (22.4%) were unsatisfactory (8 cases of asymmetry, 3 granulomas, 3 suture extrusions, 2 abscesses, and 1 case of cellulitis). Nine eyelids from the unsatisfactory group required reoperation. Among the patients with a follow-up of ³12 months (38 surgeries), lasting results were observed in most eyelids, except for 2 late-onset suture extrusions. Conclusion: The use of polytetrafluoroethylene in frontalis suspension surgery was shown to be predictable, safe, and lasting. Our findings support previous studies that have shown adequate functional results and low complication rates.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar os resultados de cirurgias de sus pensão ao músculo frontal com o uso de fio de politetrafluoretileno em pacientes com blefaroptose. Métodos: Em um estudo observacional retrospectivo, foram analisados os resultados das cirurgias de músculo frontal de uma instituição, realizadas entre 2003 e 2018. Todos os procedimentos foram realizados com incisão fechada e técnica de pentágono. Os desfechos foram classificados como satisfatórios ou insatisfatórios com definição satisfatória definida como distância margem-reflexo >3mm e <1mm entre as pálpebras e insatisfatória como hipocorreção, complicações cirúrgicas e assimetria. Resultados: Incluímos um total de 76 pálpebras de 52 pacientes em nosso estudo. Com um tempo médio de seguimento pós-operatório de 16,8 ± 18,5 meses (intervalo 3-95), 59 (77,6%) pálpebras apresentaram desfecho satisfatório e 17 (22,4%) insatisfatórios (8 casos de assimetria, 3 granulomas, 3 extrusões de sutura, 2 abscessos e 1 caso de celulite). Nove pálpebras do grupo insatisfatório necessitaram de reoperação. Entre os pacientes com seguimento ³12 meses (38 cirurgias), resultados duradouros foram observados na maioria dos casos, exceto por 2 extrusões de sutura de surgimento tardio. Conclusão: O uso de politetrafluoretileno na cirurgia de músculo frontal mostrou ser previsível, seguro e duradouro, Nossos achados corroboram com estudos prévios que mostraram resultados funcionais adequados e baixos índices de complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelids/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826352

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis(MG)is a B cell-mediated,T cell-dependent,complements-involved autoimmune disease.Ocular myasthenia gravis(OMG)is a typical MG,with its symptoms limited to the extraocular muscles.The occurrence and development of a variety of autoimmune diseases including OMG are closely associated with the imbalanced expression of follicular regulatory T cells(Tfr cells).Therefore,Tfr cells may be a new research topic for OMG.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis , Oculomotor Muscles , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
9.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 567-576, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877353

ABSTRACT

@#Objectives. Refractive changes have been studied after muscle surgery in literature but most results are inconsistent. It has been postulated that changes in corneal tension after muscle surgery may cause a change in corneal curvature resulting in the change in refraction postoperatively. This study investigated changes in corneal topography and clinical refraction after horizontal rectus muscle surgery. Methods. Twenty-one eyes of 13 patients underwent horizontal rectus muscle surgery via limbal approach. Manifest refraction, cycloplegic refraction, and corneal topography were measured preoperatively, and postoperatively at day 1 and weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. The proportion of subjects with at least 0.5 D change from preoperative measurements and the proportion of subjects that needed new prescription postoperative were also computed. Analysis of the results were done using the Friedman test to identify significant differences among measurements at different time periods with post-hoc analysis utilized to identify specific time periods with significant changes from preoperative measurements. Results. Mean corneal keratometry, horizontal, vertical, and oblique astigmatism, obtained topographically showed no significant difference from preoperative measurements. The statistically significant difference in corneal astigmatism in the recession group at day 1, week 4 and week 8 postoperatively was not confirmed when converted to power vectors in both vertical/horizontal (J0) and oblique (J45) astigmatism. Clinical refraction showed a transient myopic shift in spherical equivalent, statistically significant only on postoperative day 1 in the recession group. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical astigmatism. There was ≥ 0.5 D change in spherical equivalent in 60% in both study groups by the end of follow-up. The shift in J0 was more than 10% in the recession group. More than fifty percent (52.4%) needed new prescription for glasses. Conclusion. No statistically significant change in corneal topography and clinical refraction following horizontal rectus muscle surgery were found. Patients should still be refracted at least 2 weeks postoperatively to check if there is a need for change in prescription glasses to improve alignment and/or improve vision.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Oculomotor Muscles , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Vision Tests , Strabismus
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(4): e766, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099104

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La ubicación anatómica de los párpados los predispone a ser dañados frecuentemente por causas traumáticas. Se informa la evolución de un paciente masculino, de 22 años de edad, remitido a la Consulta de Urgencia del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" por presentar trauma palpebral grave en su ojo izquierdo producido por un alambre. Al examen oftalmológico se constató colgajo extenso del párpado superior, que colgaba fijado de la porción temporal. Se comprobó herida horizontal de la aponeurosis del elevador del párpado superior, de bordes anfractuosos, que se extendía a todo el párpado, así como sección del canalículo superior. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de herida avulsiva grave, con afectación del borde libre palpebral y sección del canalículo superior. Se decidió la conducta quirúrgica: reconstrucción palpebral, que incluyó aponeurosis del músculo elevador del párpado superior, canalículo superior con sonda bicanalicular y borde libre palpebral. Durante el seguimiento se constataron buenos resultados estéticos y funcionales. El conocimiento de la anatomía palpebral y una reconstrucción minuciosa de los tejidos palpebrales permiten resultados posquirúrgicos excelentes en un trauma palpebral grave(AU)


ABSTRACT The anatomical location of the eyelids predisposes them to be frequently damaged by traumatic causes. The evolution of a patient aged 22 years is reported, who was referred at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology for presenting severe eyelid trauma in his left eye caused by a wire. The ophthalmological examination showed a large flap of the upper eyelid, which hung fixed from the temporal portion. Horizontal wound of the aponeurosis of the upper eyelid elevator, with an abnormal fracture, which extended to the entire eyelid, as well as section of the upper canaliculus, was found. The diagnosis of severe avulsive wound was confirmed, with involvement of the palpebral free edge and section of the upper canaliculus. Surgical behavior was decided: eyelid reconstruction, which included aponeurosis of the upper eyelid lift muscle, upper canaliculus with bicanalicular probe and palpebral free edge. During the follow-up, good aesthetic and functional results were observed. The knowledge of the eyelid anatomy and a thorough reconstruction of the eyelid tissues allow excellent post-surgical results in severe eyelid trauma(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Eyelids/injuries , Aponeurosis/injuries , Oculomotor Muscles/injuries
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 422-424, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019438

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bilateral orbital metastases restricted to the extraocular muscles (EOMs) are exceedingly rare. We report a case of bilateral extraocular muscle metastases from a small cell lung carcinoma and provide a review of the relevant literature. A 56-year-old smoker presented with proptosis, motility changes, and a relative afferent pupillary defect of the left eye, with a previous history of a small cell lung carcinoma. An orbital computerized tomography scan revealed a mass restricted to the left medial rectus. An incisional biopsy confirmed metastasis. Visual acuity of the left eye decreased rapidly, and right globe proptosis became evident. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging at two months follow-up showed marked left orbital mass enlargement and a new right lateral rectus mass. The patient was maintained on palliative care and died from metastatic disease-related complications.


RESUMO As metástases orbitárias bilaterais restritas aos mús­culos extraoculares são extremamente raras. Os autores apresentam um caso de metástases bilaterais, localizadas aos musculares extraoculares com base num carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão e revisão da literatura relevante. Um homem, fumador, de 56 anos recorreu ao serviço de urgência por proptose, alterações de motilidade ocular extrínseca e um defeito pupilar aferente relativo do olho esquerdo, com história pessoal de carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão. A tomografia computadorizada orbitária revelou uma massa restrita ao reto medial esquerdo. Uma biópsia incisional confirmou o diagnóstico de metástase. A acuidade visual do olho esquerdo diminuiu rapidamente e surgiu uma proptose do globo ocular direito. A ressonância magnética orbitária aos dois meses de seguimento revelou um aumento da massa orbitária esquerda e uma nova massa no reto lateral direito. O paciente foi mantido em cuidados paliativos e faleceu devido a complicações relacionadas com doença metastática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orbital Neoplasms/secondary , Exophthalmos/etiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Oculomotor Muscles/pathology , Biopsy , Orbital Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Exophthalmos/pathology , Fatal Outcome
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 417-421, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019425

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate three superior oblique surgical weakening procedures for correcting A-pattern strabismus: tenectomy, superior oblique hang-back recession, and that involving the use of superior oblique suture spacers. Methods: The inclusion criteria were A-pattern strabismus ≥10Δ and horizontal deviation ≥10Δ, with no other ocular abnormality and a follow-up period of ≥6 months. The 24 patients (mean age, 16.3 ± 8.1 years; mean postoperative follow-up, 9.63 ± 3.11 months) were randomly divided into three groups of 8 patients each. Sigmascan® Pro 5.0 software was used to measure the degree of torsion pre- and postoperatively. Results: Preoperatively, the mean angles of A-pattern deviation were 19.33Δ° ± 3.53Δ° (tenectomy group), 15.71Δ° ± 1.11Δ° (hang-back recession group), and 14.62Δ° ± 1.18Δ° (suture spacers group); these values did not differ significantly. At the final follow-up examination, the mean angles of A-pattern deviation were 4.67Δ° ± 0.67Δ° (tenectomy group), 6.29Δ° ± 1.48Δ° (hang-back recession group), and 4.38Δ° ± 1.03Δ° (suture spacers group), with no statistically significant difference in the correction in A-pattern strabismus among the three groups. Preoperatively, the mean torsional angles were +5.4° ± 3.9° (tenectomy group), +5.6° ± 4.9° (hang-back recession group), and +6.0° ± 3.3° (suture spacers group); these values did not differ significantly. At the final follow-up examination, the mean torsional angles were + 0.3° ± 5.6° (tenectomy group), +0.5° ± 4.6° (hang-back recession group), and +0.2° ± 5.2° (suture spacers group), with no statistically significant difference in the intorsion correction among the three groups. Conclusion: All three superior oblique weakening procedures were effective for correcting A-pattern strabismus and fundus intorsion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar três procedimentos de debilitamento dos músculos oblíquos superiores para a correção de estrabismo com padrão em A: tenectomia, sutura em rédea (hang-back recession) e o uso de espaçadores de sutura oblíqua superior. Métodos: Os critérios de inclusão foram estrabismo padrão em A ≥10Δ e desvio horizontal ≥10Δ, sem outras anormalidades oculares e tempo de acompanhamento ≥6 meses. Os 24 pacientes (média de idade de 16,3 ± 8,1 anos; média de seguimento pós-operatório de 9,63 ± 3,11 meses) foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 8 pacientes cada. O programa Sigmascan® Pro 5.0 foi utilizado para medir o grau de torção no pré e pós-operatório. Resultados: No pré-operatório, a média e o desvio padrão dos ângulos de padrão em A foram de 19,33Δ° ± 3,53Δ° (grupo da tenectomia), 15,71Δ° ± 1,11Δ° (grupo da sutura em rédea), 14,62Δ° ± 1,18Δ° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura); esses valores não diferiram significativamente. No exame pós-operatório, a média e o desvio padrão dos ângulos de desvio do padrão em A foram de 4,67Δ° ± 0,67Δ° (grupo da tenectomia), 6,29Δ° ± 1,48Δ° (grupo da sutura em rédea), 4,38Δ° ± 1,03Δ° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa na correção do estrabismo padrão em A entre os três grupos. No pré-operatório, os ângulos médios de torção foram de +5,4o ± 3,9° (grupo de tenectomia), +5,6° ± 4,9° (grupo da su­tura em rédea), e +6,0° ± 3,3° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), esses valores não diferiram significativamente. No pós-operatório, os ângulos médios de torção foram de +0,3° ± 5,6° (grupo da tenectomia), +0,5° ± 4,6° (grupo da sutura em rédea), e +0,2° ± 5,2° (grupo de espaçadores de sutura), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa na correção da intorção entre os três grupos. Conclusão: Os três procedimentos de debili­tamento dos músculos oblíquos superiores foram efetivos para a correção do estrabismo com padrão em A e da intorção ocular observada na fundoscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Tendons/surgery , Visual Acuity , Strabismus/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Fundus Oculi , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology
13.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e769, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099086

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La caracterización de las poleas de los músculos extraoculares ha sido de gran trascendencia en la fisiopatología del equilibrio óculo-motor. El efecto mecánico de la polea funcional es cambiar el eje de acción del músculo de acuerdo con la orientación que el globo ocular presente. Los trastornos en la localización o estabilidad de las poleas pueden crear patrones de estrabismo incomitante. Es importante el conocimiento de estas anomalías porque los procedimientos quirúrgicos estándar no corrigen los desplazamientos de las poleas. Se realizó una búsqueda del tema de los últimos 10 años utilizando la plataforma de infomed(AU)


ABSTRACT Characterization of extraocular muscle pulleys has had great relevance in the physiopathology of ocular motor balance. The mechanical effect of the functional pulley is to change the axis of action of the muscle in keeping with the orientation of the eyeball. Pulley location or stability disorders may create incomitant strabismus patterns. It is important to be aware of these anomalies because standard surgical procedures do not correct pulley displacement. A search was conducted on the Infomed platform of papers published about the topic in the past ten years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Exotropia/diagnostic imaging , Strabismus/etiology , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 159-161, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013677

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of the surgical technique described by Crouch in the correction of lateral rectal paralysis (LR) esotropia. Methods: A study conducted of six patients with VI cranial nerve palsy, with more than three months, and associated contracture of the medial rectus muscle. The causes of paralysis varied in traumatic, congenital and neuropathic. The patients underwent surgical correction, performed with a technique consisting of the instillation of the superior rectus muscle (SR) and its suture above the insertion of the LR muscle, completed with Foster´s suture (suture joining, 8mm of the muscle insertion, the body of the SR and LR). The patients were followed for six months. Results: Five patients presented preoperative deviation between 30 and 50 prismatic diopter (PD), and one patient presented a deviation greater than 100 PD, and therefore, the patient required surgical reintervention due to residual deviation. The other five patients presented postoperative orthoppy, with better visual acuity and no vertical deviations. Conclusion: The surgery proposed by Crouch has been shown to be a good alternative to conventional techniques, such as Carlson-Jampolsky surgery, being a technically simpler procedure with good results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar resultados da técnica cirúrgica descrita por Crouch na correção de esotropia por paralisia do reto lateral (RL). Métodos: Estudo realizado com seis pacientes diagnosticados com paralisia de IV par craniano, com mais de três meses, e com contratura associada do musculo reto medial. As causas da paralisia variaram em traumática, congênita e neuropática. Os pacientes foram submetidos à correção cirúrgica, realizada com técnica que consiste na desinserção do músculo reto superior (RS) e sua sutura acima da inserção do músculo RL, completada com ponto de Foster (sutura unindo, a 8mm da inserção muscular, o corpo do RS e RL). Os pacientes foram seguidos por seis meses. Resultados: Cinco pacientes apresentaram, no pré-operatório, desvio entre 30 e 50 dioptrias prismáticas (DP), e um paciente apresentava desvio maior que 100DP, sendo, portanto o paciente que necessitou de reintervenção cirúrgica, por desvio residual. Os outros cinco pacientes apresentaram ortotropia no pós-operatório, com melhor da acuidade visual e sem desvios verticais. Conclusão: A cirurgia proposta por Crouch demostrou-se uma boa alternativa às técnicas convencionais, como cirurgia de Carlson-Jampolsky, sendo um procedimento tecnicamente mais simples e com bons resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Esotropia/surgery , Abducens Nerve Diseases/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Esotropia/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Suture Techniques
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 141-143, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003573

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente de 69 anos evoluiu com entrópio palpebral severo após cirurgia de correção de ptose palpebral pela técnica de reinserção da aponeurose do músculo levantador da pálpebra superior. Realizada reintervenção onde foi diagnosticado uma fixação da aponeurose em uma posição muito inferior e feita uma refixacação no 1/3 superior do tarso, com melhora do quadro funcional e estético com boa satisfação da paciente. Devido às suturas em topografia mais inferior, o tarso adquire forma de U em decorrência do dobramento no centro da placa tarsal e da rotação inferior da sua metade superior resultando no entrópio. Este caso ressalta a importância do cuidado quanto a localização da inserção da aponeurose do MLPS, principalmente nos paciente idosos, como forma de evitar o encurvamento vertical do tarso.


Abstract Sixty-nine (69) year old patient with severe upper eyelid entropion following surgical correction of ptosis through levator muscle aponeurosis advancement and reinsertion. The aponeurosis advancement appeared to be much lower than typically intended, and surgical repair was performed via aponeurosis re-fixation into the superior 1/3 of the tarsal plate, with subsequent improvement in the aesthetic and functional outcome, and a satisfied patient. Due to the inferiorly located tarsal sutures, the tarsal plate acquires a U-shape due to a central fold and an inferior rotation of its upper half, resulting in entropion formation. This case highlights the importance of taking great care when advancing the levator muscle in ptosis due to levator aponeurosis dehiscence, particularly in elderly patients, so as to avoid vertically folding the superior tarsal plate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blepharoplasty/adverse effects , Entropion/etiology , Reoperation , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Blepharoplasty/methods , Entropion/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 56-58, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990794

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente trabalho relata o caso de um paciente, masculino, 38 anos, com estrabismo incomitante e consequente diplopia, submetido à cirurgia debilitadora com recuo e fortalecimento com ressecção do músculo reto inferior direito. O objetivo desta técnica cirúrgica é a correção do desvio em sua posição de maior incomitância, sem prejudicar o alinhamento ocular na posição primária do olhar (PPO). O resultado satisfatório, em concordância com os dados da literatura atual, contribui para fazer desta técnica uma opção no tratamento de estrabismos incomitantes de difícil manejo.


Abstract The present study reports a case of a patient, 38-year-old man, with incomitant strabismus and consequent diplopia, submitted to debilitating surgery with recession and strengthening resection of the right inferior rectus muscle. This surgical technique aims to correct the deviation in its greater incomitence position, without impairing the ocular alignment in the primary position of the eye (PPO). The satisfactory result, in agreement with data of current literature, contributes to make this technique an option in the treatment of challenging incomitant strabismus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Esotropia/surgery , Diplopia/diagnosis , Eye Movements , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 11-14, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990792

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Muscular transposition procedures are used when there is no ocular rotation in a particular direction due to alterations of the extraocular muscles such as paralysis, agenesis or congenital anomalies. The objective of this study is to characterize the patients treated with this procedure and determine the percentage of correction of the deviation angle obtained after surgery in the Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus and Neuro-ophthalmology Unit. "Dra. Ana María Illescas Putzeys", Hospital de ojos y oídos "Dr. Rodolfo Robles V. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted with review of records of patients operated on muscle transposition during the years 1999 to 2016. Results: Twenty-three rectus muscle transposition procedures were performed. Thirteen were male (56.5%). The mean age was 42 years. In our series, an average correction of 42 PD (82%) was obtained regardless of the type of paralysis or the surgical procedure performed. Conclusion: In selected cases of paralytic strabismus, the main approach may be only muscle transposition with augmentation (posterior intermuscular fixation suture), with good results, similar to those obtained with muscle transposition using adjuvants such as botulinum toxin treatment.


Resumo Introdução: Os procedimentos de transposição muscular são utilizados quando não há rotação ocular em nenhuma direção determinada devido a alterações dos músculos extraoculares, como paralisia, agenesia ou anomalias congênitas. O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar os pacientes tratados com este procedimento e determinar a porcentagem de correção do ângulo de desvio obtida após a cirurgia na Unidade Pediátrica de Oftalmologia, Estrabismo e Neuro-Oftalmologia. "Dra. Ana María Illescas Putzeys", Hospital de ojos y oídos "Dr. Rodolfo Robles V. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, observacional, com revisão dos registros de pacientes operados para transposição muscular nos anos de 1999 a 2016. Resultados: Foram realizados vinte e três procedimentos de transposição do músculo reto. Treze pacientes eram homens (56,5%). A idade média foi de 42 anos. Em nossa série, foi obtida uma correção média de 42 PD (82%), independente do tipo de paralisia ou do procedimento cirúrgico realizado. Conclusão: Em casos selecionados de estrabismo paralítico, a principal abordagem pode ser apenas a transposição muscular com aumento (sutura de fixação intermuscular posterior), com bons resultados semelhantes aos obtidos com a transposição muscular com a utilização de adjuvantes como o tratamento com toxina botulínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Strabismus/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 65-67, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report documents an unusual phenomenon. A 6-year-old girl with trochlear-oculomotor synkinesis presented with superior oblique and palpebral levator co-contraction. The literature was reviewed and the possibility of classifying this entity as a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder was speculated.


RESUMO Este relato descreve um fenômeno incomum. Uma menina de 6 anos com sincinesia troclear-oculomotora apresentou co-contração do oblíquo superior e do levantador da pálpebra. A literatura foi revisada e especulou-se a possibilidade de classificar essa desordem como um distúrbio da congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ocular Motility Disorders/congenital , Cranial Nerves/abnormalities , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/congenital , Synkinesis/congenital , Oculomotor Muscles/innervation , Ocular Motility Disorders/classification , Ocular Motility Disorders/pathology , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/classification , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/pathology , Rare Diseases , Synkinesis/classification , Synkinesis/pathology , Eyelids/abnormalities
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of adjusted Kestenbaum surgery in patients with idiopathic infantile nystagmus who were affected by both strabismus and face turn. METHODS: This retrospective consecutive case series included 12 patients with infantile nystagmus who had face turn and strabismus. All patients underwent adjusted Kestenbaum surgery between 1996 and 2014, and primary outcome measures were the postoperative degree of face turn and strabismus. RESULTS: All patients had jerky nystagmus with compensatory face turn and strabismus. Of the 12 patients, eight patients were exotropes and four patients were esotropes. The mean age at surgery was 12.5 ± 10.7 years (range, 2–36 years). The mean postoperative follow-up was 17.8 ± 12.0 months (range, 7–43 months). Surgery was successful in eight (66.7%) out of 12 patients. Improvement of anomalous head posture was satisfactory in all patients, but an angle of deviation within 10 prism diopters was not achieved in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted Kestenbaum surgery simultaneously improved both ocular misalignment and face turn with one-stage surgery. Two or three rectus muscles surgery can be considered in these patients because it is not only simpler than four muscles surgery but also can preserve one or two rectus muscles.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Muscles , Oculomotor Muscles , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Posture , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776019

ABSTRACT

Ocular myasthenia gravis(OMG)is an autoimmune disease caused by neuromuscular junction transmission disorders and manifested mainly as fluctuating blepharoptosis and diplopia,with the extraocular muscles as the main involveed sites.While the pathogenesis of OMG remains unclear,some antibodies,complements,and cytokines may be the contributing factors.The diagnosis and treatment of OMG have been defined in recent years.This article reviews the pathogenesis,diagnosis,and treatment of OMG.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Complement System Proteins , Cytokines , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis , Diagnosis , Pathology , Therapeutics , Oculomotor Muscles , Pathology
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