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Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210001, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340235


Mining activities have significantly affected the Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna, the most diverse in the world. However, no study has systematized knowledge on the subject. In this review, we assembled information on the main impacts of mining of crude oil, gold, iron, copper, and bauxite on aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing Neotropical freshwater fishes. The information obtained shows that mining activities generate several different disturbances, mainly via input of crude oil, metals and other pollutants, erosion and siltation, deforestation, and road construction. Mining has resulted in direct and indirect losses of fish diversity in several Neotropical waterbodies. The negative impacts on the ichthyofauna may change the structure of communities, compromise entire food chains, and erode ecosystem services provided by freshwater fishes. Particularly noteworthy is that mining activities (legal and illegal) are widespread in the Neotropics, and often located within or near protected areas. Actions to prevent and mitigate impacts, such as inspection, monitoring, management, and restoration plans, have been cursory or absent. In addition, there is strong political pressure to expand mining; if - or when - this happens, it will increase the potential of the activity to further diminish the diversity of Neotropical freshwater fishes.(AU)

As atividades de mineração têm impactado significativamente a ictiofauna de água doce Neotropical, a mais diversa do mundo. Porém, nenhum estudo sistematizou o conhecimento sobre o assunto. Nesta revisão, reunimos informações sobre os principais impactos da mineração de petróleo, ouro, ferro, cobre, e bauxita sobre os ecossistemas aquáticos, com ênfase nos peixes de água doce Neotropicais. As informações obtidas mostram que as atividades de mineração geram diferentes distúrbios, principalmente por meio de petróleo bruto, metais e outros poluentes, erosão e assoreamento, desmatamento e construção de estradas. A mineração resultou em perda direta e indireta de diversidade de peixes de vários corpos d'água Neotropicais. Os impactos negativos sobre a ictiofauna podem alterar a estrutura das comunidades, comprometer cadeias alimentares inteiras, bem como degradar os serviços ecossistêmicos fornecidos pelos peixes de água doce. Particularmente importante é que as atividades de mineração (legais e ilegais) são generalizadas na região Neotropical, e frequentemente estão localizadas dentro ou perto de áreas protegidas. Ações de prevenção e mitigação de impactos, como planos de fiscalização, monitoramento, manejo e restauração, têm sido precárias ou ausentes. Além disso, há forte pressão política para expandir a mineração; se - ou quando - isso acontecer, aumentará o potencial da atividade em diminuir ainda mais a diversidade de peixes de água doce Neotropicais.(AU)

Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment , Fishes , Mining , Oils , Mercury
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421


In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).

Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).

Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Biological Products , Candida albicans , Oils , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Volatile Organic Compounds
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 60-68, Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087705


Background: Oleaginous yeasts can be grown on different carbon sources, including lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of glucose and xylose. However, not all yeast strains can utilize both the sugars for lipogenesis. Therefore, in this study, efforts were made to isolate dual sugar-utilizing oleaginous yeasts from different sources. Results: A total of eleven isolates were obtained, which were screened for their ability to utilize various carbohydrates for lipogenesis. One promising yeast isolate Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans S2 was selected based on its capability to use a mixture of glucose and xylose and produce 44.86 ± 4.03% lipids, as well as its tolerance to fermentation inhibitors. In order to identify an inexpensive source of sugars, nondetoxified paddy straw hydrolysate (saccharified with cellulase), supplemented with 0.05% yeast extract, 0.18% peptone, and 0.04% MgSO4 was used for growth of the yeast, resulting in a yield of 5.17 g L−1 lipids with conversion productivity of 0.06 g L−1 h−1 . Optimization of the levels of yeast extract, peptone, and MgSO4 for maximizing lipid production using Box­Behnken design led to an increase in lipid yield by 41.59%. FAME analysis of single cell oil revealed oleic acid (30.84%), palmitic acid (18.28%), and stearic acid (17.64%) as the major fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile illustrates the potential of T. mycotoxinivorans S2 to produce single cell oil as a feedstock for biodiesel. Therefore, the present study also indicated the potential of selected yeast to develop a zero-waste process for the complete valorization of paddy straw hydrolysate without detoxification

Trichosporon/metabolism , Oryza , Xylose/isolation & purification , Trichosporon/chemistry , Oils/chemistry , Lipogenesis , Biofuels , Fermentation , Glucose/isolation & purification , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism , Lipids/biosynthesis
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190146, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136698


ABSTRACT Objective The presence of dietary bioactive compounds in the human diet becomes a major factor in combating the etiology of different pathologies. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the fatty acids profile, cardiovascular functionality indices, bioactive compounds and spectroscopic pattern of peach palm oil (pupunha oil) and their impact on human health. Methods The oil was obtained by soxhlet extraction; the oil yield and qualities were determined according to the standards of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. For the fatty acids profile, the practical recommendations of the American Oil Chemists' Society and of the International Organization for Standardization were followed. Total carotenoids and polyphenols were determined by spectrophotometry; the composition of the chemical groups was determined by infrared spectroscopy. The anti-atherogenic, antithrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic indices were obtained using mathematical models. Results The results showed good quality oil based on acid and peroxyde indices (2.45±0.33mg KOH g-1 and 5.47±1.05mEq kg-1). The main fruit bioactive compound was β-carotene (832.4±0.64µg/100g). The chromatographic profile showed a high saturated fatty acid content (53.74%); unsaturated (46.25%); fats were monounsaturated (39.66%) and polyunsaturated (6.59%). The antiatherogenic, antithrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic indices were, on average, 1.10, 2.04 and 0.84, respectively. The spectroscopic profile exhibited bands with variation from 2918.8cm-1 to 714cm-1. Conclusion The results indicate that the consumption of isolated lipid content of the pupunha palm oil provides health protection with emphasis on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

RESUMO Objetivo A presença de fontes alimentares ricas em compostos bioativos na dieta humana torna-se fator preponderante no combate à etiologia de diversas patologias. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos, índices de funcionalidade cardiovasculares, compostos bioativos e padrão espectroscópico do óleo da pupunha vermelha e suas implicações para a saúde humana. Métodos O óleo foi obtido por extração via soxhlet; seu rendimento e qualidade foram determinados segundo as normas da Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Para o perfil de ácidos graxos, seguiram-se as recomendações práticas da American Oil Chemists' Society e da International Organization for Standardization. Os carotenoides e polifenóis totais foram estipulados por espectrofotometria; a constituição de grupos químicos, por espectroscopia de infravermelho. Os índices antiaterogênico, antitrombogênico e hipocolesterolêmico foram obtidos por modelos matemáticos. Resultados Os resultados evidenciaram um óleo com boa qualidade, com base nos índices de acidez e peróxido (2,45±0,33mg KOH g-1 e 5,47±1,05mEq kg-1). O principal composto bioativo desse fruto foi o β-caroteno (832,4±0,64µg/100g). O perfil cromatográfico revelou um elevado teor de ácidos graxos saturados (53,74%); os insaturados (46,25%) se mostraram distribuídos em monoinsaturados (39,66%) e poli-insaturados (6,59%). Os índices de antiaterogênico, antitrombogênico e hipocolesterolêmico foram, em média, respectivamente 1,10; 2,04 e 0,84. O perfil espectroscópico apresentou destaques com variação de 2918,8cm-1 a 714cm-1. Conclusão Os resultados indicam que o consumo do conteúdo lipídico isolado da pupunha atua na proteção da saúde, em especial para a prevenção de agravos cardiovasculares.

Spectrophotometry , Oils , Carotenoids , Arecaceae , Fatty Acids
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(2): 113-126, 2020. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1148028


INTRODUCCIÓN: en la actualidad se ha producido un incremento sustancial del consumo de alimentos procesados en frituras con aceites vegetales expedidos en establecimientos de comida rápida, que son de elección para muchas personas principalmente por trabajadores y estudiantes por el horario limitado con el que cuentan para su alimentación y muchas veces por temas de economía. OBJETIVO: determinar la rancidez en aceites usados en el proceso de frituras en establecimientos de comida rápida. MÉTODOS: se implementaron la Prueba de Kreiss (método cualitativo) y el Índice de Peróxidos (método cuantitativo) para cuantificar la rancidez en los aceites utilizados para el procesamiento de frituras. RESULTADOS: de un total de 12 muestras de aceite analizadas, se estableció que el 42 % se encuentran fuera del rango establecido según la Norma Boliviana (NB 34008) lo que confirma el uso de aceites rancios.

INTRODUCTION: at present there has been a substantial increase in the consumption of processed foods in fried foods with vegetable oils issued in fast food establishments, which are the choice for many people, mainly by workers and students due to the limited hours they have for their food and often for economic reasons. OBJECTIVE: to determine the rancidity in oils used in the frying process in fast food establishments. METHODS: the Kreiss Test (qualitative method) and the Peroxide Index (quantitative method) were implemented to quantify rancidity in the oils used for frying processing. RESULTS: from a total of 12 oil samples analyzed, it was established that 42% are outside the range established according to the Bolivian Standard (NB 34008), which confirms the use of rancid oils. CONCLUSIONS: with the applied methods, Kreiss (qualitative) and Peroxide Index (quantitative) the same results were obtained, however, the use of the quantitative method is recommended because the Standard defines a limit of up to 6 meq / Kg, and the Qualitative method can be subjective because it is defined by a color change, likewise in the study the use of rancid oils in fast food outlets was confirmed.

Peroxides , Oils , Eating , Fast Foods , Plant Oils , Methods , Persons
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785917


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the food intake behavior of cancer survivors based on main sources of energy intake from different food groups in comparison with healthy individuals.METHODS: Baseline survey data from the Health Examinee cohort, which recruited participants from 2014 to 2013 were applied. A total of 5,269 cancer survivors and 5,219 healthy subjects without comorbidities who were matched by age, sex, and enrollment center were included in the analysis. The proportion of energy intake for 17 food groups was devided into lower median and median or upper. OR and 95% CIs were determined to measure the difference of energy intake proportion in cancer survivors, five major types of cancer survivors versus healthy individuals.RESULTS: Generally, the proportion of calories intake from sugars and sweets, meat and poultry, oils and fats, and beverage was lower in cancer survivors than in healthy individuals (OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.79–0.88], 0.75 [95% CI = 0.71–0.80], 0.84 [95% CI = 0.80–0.89], and 0.93 [95% CI = 0.88–0.99], respectively) with more prominently shown in breast, colon, and thyroid cancer individuals. In contrast, cancer survivors tended to intake calories from potatoes and starches, legume, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, and seasonings more than healthy individuals (OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.03–1.16], 1.13 [95% CI = 1.06–1.19], 1.15 [95% CI = 1.09–1.22], 1.07 [95% CI = 1.01–1.13], 1.07 [95% CI = 1.02–1.14], 1.15 [95% CI = 1.08–1.21], and 1.17 [95% CI = 1.10–1.23], respectively) which were more prominent in gastric and breast cancer survivors.CONCLUSIONS: The dietary behavior measured by main sources of energy intake in cancer survivors was different from healthy individuals in terms of several food groups. Although there are nutrition guidelines for cancer survivors, because of the differences between Western population and Asian people in terms of food culture, the guidelines for balanced nutritious behavior should be established among Asian cancer survivors.

Agaricales , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Beverages , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carbohydrates , Cohort Studies , Colon , Comorbidity , Eating , Energy Intake , Fabaceae , Fats , Fruit , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Meat , Nutrition Policy , Nutritional Status , Nuts , Oils , Poultry , Seasons , Solanum tuberosum , Starch , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Thyroid Neoplasms , Vegetables
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760606


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the dietary patterns (DPs) of women during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify the DPs of pregnant Malaysian women and their associations with socio-demographic, obstetric, and anthropometric characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 737 participants enrolled in Seremban Cohort Study between 2013 and 2015. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 126-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) at four time-points, namely, pre-pregnancy and at each trimester (first, second, and third). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify DPs. RESULTS: Three DPs were identified at each time point and designated DP 1–3 (pre-pregnancy), DP 4–6 (first trimester), DP 7–9 (second trimester) and DP 10–12 (third trimester). DP 1, 4, and 7 appeared to be more prudent diets, characterized by higher intakes of nuts, seeds & legumes, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, eggs, fruits, and milk & dairy products. DP 2, 5, 8, and 11 had greater loadings of condiments & spices, sugar, spreads & creamer, though DP 2 had additional sweet foods, DP 5 and 8 had additional oils & fats, and DP 11 had additional tea & coffee, respectively. DP 3 and 6 were characterized by high protein (poultry, meat, processed, dairy, eggs, and fish), sugars (mainly as beverages and sweet foods), and energy (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta) intakes. DP 9 had additional fruits. However, DP 12 had greater loadings of energy foods (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta), sugars (mainly as beverages, and sweet foods), and good protein sources (eggs, nuts, seeds & legumes). Malays were more likely to have lower adherence (LA) for DP 1 and 10 than non-Malays. DP 2, 8, and 11 were more prevalent among Malays than non-Malays. Women with a higher education were more likely to have LA for DP 10, and women with a greater waist circumference at first prenatal visit were more likely to show LA for DP 11. CONCLUSIONS: DPs observed in the present study were substantially different from those reported in Western populations. Information concerning associations between ethnicity, waist circumference and education with specific DPs before and throughout pregnancy could facilitate efforts to promote healthy dietary behavior and the overall health and well-being of pregnant women.

Beverages , Carbohydrates , Coffee , Cohort Studies , Condiments , Dairy Products , Diet , Edible Grain , Education , Eggs , Fabaceae , Fats , Female , Fruit , Humans , Meat , Milk , Nuts , Oils , Ovum , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Principal Component Analysis , Prospective Studies , Spices , Tea , Vegetables , Waist Circumference
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760559


Marrubium vulgare, plant species belonging to Marrubium genus, is widespread in the Mediterranean areas, introduced elsewhere and also cultivated in many countries. Its oil is recognized to possess a considerable biological activities with varied chemical composition. This paper aims to overview the chemical composition and biological activities of M. vulgare essential oil's considered as a medicinal plant, widely used in folk medicine overall the world. In essential oils of M. vulgare, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene, β-bisabolene, bicyclogermacrene and carvacrol are generally considered as either mains or minor constituents and each species presents its own composition. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant fraction while monoterpenoids were present in appreciable or in trace amount. Oxygenated fractions dominated in monoterpenes however, hydrocarbon fraction overpowered in sesquiterpenes. These oils are biologically active, they exhibit an antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and other activities. Due to the variability of composition of essential oil, further studies are necessary, particularly regarding their chemical's which may cause an important change in the biological activities of oils and probably defined different chemotype.

Marrubium , Medicine, Traditional , Monoterpenes , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Oxygen , Plants , Plants, Medicinal , Sesquiterpenes
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759637


OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to compare dietary life of the elderly living alone and in a family, and to compare differences based on gender, for the 2013-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: The subjects included 2,612 elderly people aged over 65 years who participated in the health survey, health examination and nutrition survey. Subjects on a diet therapy were excluded. This study analyzed the general characteristics, dietary habits, daily energy and nutrient intakes, CPF ratio, estimated average requirement (EAR), nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR), index of nutrient quality (INQ), and food consumption of the elderly living alone and in a family. We also compared the differences based on gender. RESULTS: Daily intake of food, water, dietary fiber, potassium, retinol, and riboflavin were low in the male elderly subjects living alone. The elderly living with family revealed higher NAR and MAR as compared to the elderly living alone. Although all MAR values were <1, the elderly living alone had lower values. Considering the intake of food, the consumption of seaweed, fish and shellfish, and oils (animal) was higher in elderly men living with families, whereas women living with families consumed more vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and seafood, as compared to their counterparts living alone. Furthermore, analyzing the foods consumed by the elderly people living alone, female subjects consumed more seaweed, milk and animal oil as compared to male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the elderly living alone have poor nutrient intake as compared to the elderly living with families. Based on this research data, we recommend that it is necessary to improve the health and nutritional status of the elderly living alone.

Aged , Animals , Diet Therapy , Dietary Fiber , Female , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Health Surveys , Humans , Korea , Male , Milk , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Oils , Potassium , Riboflavin , Seafood , Seaweed , Shellfish , Vegetables , Vitamin A , Water
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765995


PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis. METHODS: The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w). RESULTS: The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-(OH)₂-vitamin D₃, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.

Animals , Bone Density , Bone Resorption , Calcium , Chromatography, Gas , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femur , Fish Oils , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Inflammation , Linseed Oil , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Oils , Osteoporosis , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Prednisolone , Rats , Soybean Oil , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741703


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Over the past few decades, Malaysia has been experiencing an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity that threatens the health of Malaysians. Poor dietary intake is one of the major contributors to the development of obesity and many non-communicable diseases. The dietary intakes of adults in Malaysia were assessed to determine the association between the dietary intake variables and the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements. This study examined whether the dietary intake achieved the recommended nutritional guidelines and compared the intakes between both sexes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The height, weight, and WC of four-hundred-and-ninety adults (n = 490) in Malaysia were measured using standard procedures. The three-day 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted on 422 out of the 490 adults and their dietary intakes were evaluated in detail. The selected dietary intake variables were used to determine the associations with the obesity indicators. RESULTS: Among the participants, 52.8% were overweight or obese. After data analysis, the mean energy intake was 1,550 kcal/day, in which male participants had a significantly higher energy and macronutrients intake than females. Protein consumption and its percentage of energy contribution exceeded the recommended range. The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk and milk products were lower than the recommended number of servings for a healthy diet. The male participants consumed significantly more servings of carbohydrate-based foods, meat, and fats, oils, and sweets than females. Among the selected dietary intake variables, only the carbohydrate intake was negatively associated with the BMI (Estimate b = −0.008) and WC measurements (Estimate b = −0.019) after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the dietary intakes of a sample of Malaysian adults and its association with the obesity indicators. The results highlight the need for improvements and modifications of the dietary intake of Malaysians to reduce the overweight and obesity rates.

Adult , Body Mass Index , Diet , Energy Intake , Fats , Female , Fruit , Humans , Malaysia , Male , Meat , Micronutrients , Milk , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Oils , Overweight , Prevalence , Statistics as Topic , Vegetables , Waist Circumference
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740549


PURPOSE: This study examined the food and nutrient intake of Korean elderly according to the anxiety and depressive condition using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: The participants were 3,504 elderly people over 65 years of age (1,523 in men and, 1,981 in women). The dietary information was analyzed using the 24-hour recall data. The anxiety and depressive state was assessed using the self-reported scale EQ-5D in the quality of life dimension. The subjects were divided into the anxiety · depression group (AD) and non-anxiety · depression group (NAD) according to their anxiety and depressive conditions. RESULTS: In the male elderly, the AD group had a significantly lower education and economic level and higher proportion in living alone than the NAD group. The percentage of eating lunch and dinner alone in the male AD group was higher than that of the NAD group. The female AD group showed less a lower frequency of dinner than the NAD group. The male AD group had a lower consumption of total foods, fish and shellfishes, seaweeds, mushrooms, oils and fats, and seasonings than the NAD group. With regard to the nutrient intake, the male elderly NAD group had more sufficient nutrient intakes than the AD group. In particular, the daily intakes of dietary fiber, riboflavin, niacin, potassium and iron were significantly lower in the AD group. To compare with the nutrient density of the two groups, the vitamin C and niacin intakes were lower in the AD group than in the NAD group. Overall, the nutritional status of the male AD group was significantly lower than that of the NAD group. Meanwhile, the female elderly had showed a smaller difference in nutrient intake according to their anxiety and depressive condition. CONCLUSION: These results of this study show that more nutritional education and emotional support are needed to improve the nutritional status and health of the male elderly with anxiety or depression.

Agaricales , Aged , Anxiety , Ascorbic Acid , Depression , Dietary Fiber , Eating , Education , Fats , Female , Humans , Iron , Korea , Lunch , Male , Meals , NAD , Niacin , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Oils , Potassium , Quality of Life , Riboflavin , Seasons , Shellfish
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761690


BACKGROUND: The use of aroma oils dates back to at least 3000 B.C., where it was applied to mummify corpses and treat the wounds of soldiers. Since the 1920s, the term “aromatherapy” has been used for fragrance therapy with essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the essential oil of Eucalyptus (EOE) affects pain pathways in various pain conditions and motor coordination. METHODS: Mice were subjected to inhalation or intraperitoneal injection of EOE, and its analgesic effects were assessed by conducting formalin, thermal plantar, and acetic acid tests; the effects of EOE on motor coordination were evaluated using a rotarod test. To determine the analgesic mechanism, 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (κ-opioid antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist, 5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (δ-opioid antagonist, 2 mg/kg), and naloxone (μ-opioid antagonist, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. RESULTS: EOE showed an analgesic effect against visceral pain caused by acetic acid (EOE, 45 mg/kg); however, no analgesic effect was observed against thermal nociceptive pain. Moreover, it was demonstrated that EOE did not have an effect on motor coordination. In addition, an anti-inflammatory effect was observed during the formalin test. CONCLUSIONS: EOE, which is associated with the μ-opioid pain pathway, showed potential effects against somatic, inflammatory, and visceral pain and could be a potential therapeutic agent for pain.

Acetic Acid , Analgesics , Animals , Aromatherapy , Cadaver , Eucalyptus , Formaldehyde , Glyburide , Humans , Inhalation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice , Military Personnel , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociceptive Pain , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Pain Measurement , Rotarod Performance Test , Visceral Pain , Wounds and Injuries
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 214 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995689


Cloropropanóis são um grupo conhecido de contaminantes relacionados ao processamento de alimentos. Eles são formados na reação entre lipídeos e cloretos quando submetidos ao tratamento térmico, e podem ser encontrados na forma livre ou ligada. O 3-monocloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), é classificado pela IARC como possível carcinógeno humano (grupo 2B). O glicidol (e seus ésteres), é classificado também pela IARC como uma substância provavelmente carcinogênica para seres humanos (grupo 2A), e, recentemente, vem sendo encontrado em alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença do 3-MCPD e do glicidol em óleos vegetais comestíveis utilizando a cromatografia gasosa com detector de massa triplo quadrupolo MS/MS. A técnica utilizada foi a preconizada pela AOCS Cd 29c-13, sendo uma análise indireta, e foi possível adaptá-la visando as determinações do 3-MCPD e glicidol através da construção de curvas de calibração e análises de amostras de referência. O método foi validado e os resultados indicaram o limite de detecção do composto 3-MCPD, de 42,4 µg/kg e o limite de quantificação de 50 µg/kg, e para o Glicidol indicaram o limite de detecção de 43,5 µg/kg e limite de quantificação de 50 µg/kg. Os resultados para 3-MCPD obtidos nos ensaios da curva de calibração e linearidade demonstraram que o método foi capaz de expressar resultados com boa linearidade (0 - 10 mg/kg , r2, = 0.9991). Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios de exatidão obedeceram aos critérios de 70 a 120% de recuperação, e ±20% de variação entre os resultados de acordo com SANTE (2017). O método em questão demonstrou ser seletivo, uma vez que não foram observados picos interferentes nos tempos de retenção dos compostos estudados. Os ensaios de precisão nos níveis baixos, médio e alto e robustez demonstraram que o método é robusto e preciso, portanto a validação foi considerada adequada ao uso pretendido. Foram analisadas 368 amostras de óleos vegetais (76 amostras de óleo de canola, 48 amostras de óleo de milho, 69 amostras de óleo de algodão, 33 amostras de óleo de palma, 10 amostras de óleo de palmiste, 50 amostras de oleína de palma, 30 amostras de óleo de soja e 51 amostras de óleo de girassol). As concentrações das amostras analisadas apresentaram resultados para 3-MCPD com valores médios entre 203 a 1205 µg/kg. Para o Glicidol os valores foram de 2 a 1198 µg/kg, com elevado o desvio padrão entre os resultados analíticos, onde o óleo de palma apresentou a maior variação de 1600 a 5260 µg/kg. Através da avaliação do risco realizada para o composto 3-MCPD foi possível detectar, utilizando o critério do pior cenário de exposição e resultados analíticos, os valores diários de consumo de óleo de algodão de 0,044 µg/kg p.c., de óleo de girassol 0,045 µg/kg p.c., óleo de canola 0,18 µg/kg p.c., óleo de palma de 0,28 µg/p.c, óleo de milho de 0,0462 µg/kg p.c., e o óleo de soja, de maior consumo no Brasil (72%) apresentou o valor de 0,27 µg/kg p.c. O consumo de todos estes óleos, pela a população brasileira, pode ser considerado seguro ao comparar com o valor de TDI Ingestão Diária Tolerável - de 2µg/kg p.c.. Através da avaliação do risco realizada também utilizando o critério de pior cenário de exposição e e resultados analíticos para o composto glicidol foi possível verificar que os valores diários de consumo de óleo de algodão de 0,061 µg/kg p.c., de óleo de girassol 0,03 µg/kg p.c., óleo de canola 0,13 µg/kg p.c. e de óleo de palma de 0,57 µg/p.c, de óleo de milho de 0,11 µg/kg p.c, e o óleo de soja de maior consumo no Brasil (72%) não ultrapassam o valor de 0,288 µg/kg p.c indicando consumo seguro destes óleos para a população brasileira baseado na TDI de 1000µg/kg p.c

Chloropropanols are a known group of contaminants related to food processing. They are formed during the reaction process between lipids and chlorides when submitted to heat treatment and can be found in free or bound form. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), is classified by IARC as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B). Glycidol (and its esters), also classified by IARC as a substance likely to be carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), has recently been found in food. The present study aims to evaluate the presence of 3-MCPD and glycidol in edible vegetable oils using gas chromatography with triple quadrupole MS/MS mass detector. The technique applied is recommended by AOCS, guide Cd 29c-13, an indirect analysis, and allows quantification of 3-MCPD and glycidol by building the calibration curves and analysis of reference samples. The method was validated and the detection limit of the contaminant 3-MCPD of 42,4 µg/kg and the quantification limit of 50 µg/kg was established. For Glycidol the detection limit of was 43,5 µg/kg and quantification limit was 50 µg/kg. The results obtained in the calibration and linearity curves demonstrated that the method could express results with good linearity (0 10 mg/kg, r2, = 0.9991). The results obtained in the trueness trials agreed to the criteria of 70 to 120% of recovery, and ± 20% of variation between the results according to what is preconized by SANTE (2017). The method showed to be selective, since no interfering peaks were observed in the retention times of the studied compounds. The tests performed on low, medium and high values demonstrated the robustness and precision of the method, so the validation was considered completed and suitable for the purpose. A total of 368 vegetable oil samples were analyzed (76 samples of canola oil, 48 samples of corn oil, 69 samples of cottonseed oil, 33 samples of palm oil, 10 samples of kern palm oil, 50 samples of palm olein, 30 samples of soybean oil and 51 samples of sunflower oil). The results found in samples for 3-MCPD were within mean values between 203 and 1205 µg/kg. The results found in samples for glycidol were within mean values between 2 to 1198 µg/kg where palm oil presented the highest variation for glycidol from 1600 to 5260 µg/kg. Through the risk assessment for the contaminant 3-MCPD it was possible to detect the values based on exposed worst case scenario and analytical results. The results for cottom oil were 0,044 µg/kg bw, sunflower 0,045 µg/kg bw, canola 0,18 µg/kg bw and palm oil 0,28 µg/kg bw, corn oil 0,0462 µg/kg bw, and for soybean, which is the most consumed oil in Brazil (72%) the value of 0,27 µg/kg bw. These results indicates safe consumption for these oils based in the Theoretical Daily Ingestion - TDI of 2µg/kg bw. The risk assessment for the glycidol based on exposure worst case scenario and analytical results presented for cottom oil the value of 0,061 µg/kg bw, sunflower 0,03 µg/kg bw, canola oil 0,13 µg/kg bw , palm oil 0,57 µg/kg bw, corn oil 0,11 µg/kg bw and for soybean, which is the most consumed in Brazil - 72% the value of 0,27 µg/kg bw. These results indicates safe consumption for these oils based in the TDI of 1000µg/kg bw

Oils/analysis , alpha-Chlorohydrin/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 128-132, out. 30, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964418


Diversos alimentos são sistemas emulsionados, como a maionese, uma emulsão óleo em água que apresenta 70 a 80% de óleo. Devido à busca crescente do mercado consumidor por produtos mais saudáveis e nutritivos, diversos estudos têm sido realizados com o intuito de substituir e/ou reduzir o teor de alguns ingredientes na formulação de alimentos, em especial a gordura. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade de emulsões tipo maionese contendo óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), fruto nativo do Cerrado rico em carotenóides, com diferentes concentrações de óleo (65, 45 e 25% m/m). Para as duas formulações com menor teor de óleo foram adicionados, separadamente, agentes espessantes (gomas guar ou xantana). As emulsões obtidas foram avaliadas em termos de sua microestrutura, pH, cor e estabilidade após 5 dias de armazenamento sob refrigeração ou à temperatura ambiente. Verificou-se que as emulsões obtidas apresentaram gotículas de óleo esféricas. Maior número de gotas foi observado na formulação com maior teor de óleo e maior polidispersidade foi percebida nas formulações com menor o teor de óleo. As emulsões apresentaram pH levemente ácido (4,14 a 4,22), sem diferença significativa entre as formulações. As formulações com goma e teor reduzido de óleo apresentaram maior luminosidade (L*) do que a formulação com 65% de óleo de pequi e sem goma. Resultado contrário foi observado para o parâmetro de cor a* (tonalidade de vermelho), o qual foi maior quanto maior o teor de óleo de pequi na formulação. Nenhuma diferença foi observada quanto o parâmetro b*. Não foram observadas alterações visuais nas formulações armazenadas à temperatura ambiente ou sob refrigeração por 5 dias, indicando a estabilidade das emulsões no período e condições avaliadas, exceto para emulsão com menor teor de óleo e presença de goma guar, que apresentou separação de fases após armazenamento à temperatura ambiente.

Several foods are emulsified systems, such as mayonnaise, an oil-inwater emulsion that has 70-80% oil. Due to the growing consumer market for healthier and more nutritious products, several studies have been carried out to replace and/or reduce the content of some ingredients in the formulation in food formulation, especially oil. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate the stability of emulsions like mayonnaise containing pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense), a native fruit of the Cerrado rich in carotenoids, with different oil concentrations (65, 45 and 25%). For the two formulations with lower oil content, thickening agents (guar or xanthan gums) were added separately. The obtained emulsions were evaluated in terms of their microstructure, pH, color and stability after 5 days of storage under refrigeration or at room temperature. The emulsions were found to have spherical oil droplets. Higher number of drops was observed in the formulation with higher oil content, and higher polydispersity was observed in formulations with lower oil content. The emulsions showed slightly acid pH (4.14 to 4.22), with no significant difference between the formulations. The formulations with gum and reduced oil content showed higher brightness (L*) than the formulation with 65% pequi oil and without gum. The opposite result was observed for the color parameter a*, which was higher the higher the pequi oil content in the formulation. No difference was observed for the b* parameter. No visual changes were observed in the formulations stored at room temperature or under refrigeration after 5 days, indicating the stability of the emulsions in the period and conditions evaluated, except for emulsion with lower oil content and presence of guar gum, which presented phase separation after storage at room temperature.

Oils , Analysis of Variance , Emulsions , Industrialized Foods , Food Analysis , Dietary Fats , Statistical Analysis , Excipients , Food Technology
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 42(2): 269-282, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000102


The genus Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) comprises plants with reported antioxidant and antidiarrheal capability among other therapeutic potentials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil; diuretic and hypotensive activities of aqueous extracts from leaves of Eugenia uniflora. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated . The diuretic and hypotensive activities were evaluated in normotensive Wistar rats by measuring blood pressure and urine flow after received four different concentrations of aqueous extracts (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). Essential oil inhibited the growth of Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans with MIC values lower than 14.41 mg/mL, equal to 57.75 mg/mL for Candida krusei. Among antibacterial effect, essential oil inhibited growth with a MIC equals to 153.93 mg/mL for all strains tested, except for Escherichia coli (MIC equals to 307.96 mg/mL. Aqueous extracts showed powerful reductions of the arterial pressure (34% and 31% lower than the control), after administration of 10% and 25% of aqueous extract, respectively. However, the animals that received the aqueous extract at the 15% and 20% concentrations presented a discrete hypotensive effect (20% and 21% lower than control group, respectively) concomitantly to powerful diuretic effect (280% and 91% higher than control group, respectively). These data confirmed the potential biological effect of this species, and represents an important step toward a depth study on the therapeutic properties of this species

O gênero Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) compreende plantas com capacidade antimicrobiana e antioxidante entre outros potenciais terapêuticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial; atividade diurética e hipotensora de extrato aquoso de folhas de Eugenia uniflora. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) e concentração mínima bactericida (MBC) de cepas bacterianas e concentração fungicida mínima (MFC) para fungos. A atividade diurética e hipotensora foi avaliada em ratos Wistar normotensos pela mensuração da pressão sanguínea e fluxo urinário após administração de quatro diferentes concentrações de extrato aquoso (10%, 15%, 20% e 25%). Óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de Candida parapsilosis e Candida albicans com valores de MIC menores que 14,41 mg/mL, igual a 57,75 mg/mL para Candida krusei. A respeito do efeito antimicrobiano, o óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todas as cepas testadas, com MIC igual a 153,93 mg/mL, exceto para Escherichia coli (MIC igual a 307.96 mg/mL). O extrato aquoso mostrou redução importante da pressão arterial (34% e 31% quando comparado ao controle), após administração de 10% e 25% do extrato aquoso, respectivamente. Contudo, os animais que receberam o extrato aquoso na concentração de 15% e 20% apresentaram discreto efeito hipotensor (20% e 21% menor que o grupo controle, respectivamente) concomitantemente ao importante efeito diurético (280% e 91% maior quando comparado ao grupo controle, respectivamente). Esses achados confirmam o potencial efeito biológico dessa espécie, e representa um importante embasamento para estudos relacionados as propriedades terapêuticas da Eugenia uniflora

Humans , Oils , Diuretics , Eugenia , Hyperglycemia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Antihypertensive Agents , Brazil , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Antioxidants
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 623-628, mai/jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966915


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the leaves drying time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of M. lundiana. Treatments consisted of drying times of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 days, at 40o C, in a forced-air-circulation oven. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus, and chemical composition analysis was performed by GC-MS/FID. The drying process of M. lundiana leaves did not cause significant variations in the oil content, ranging from 1.18 to 1.51%. Nerolic acid was the major compound, ranging from 27.8% (at six days of drying) to 35.64% (at ten days of drying). The compound 1,8-cineole was identified as the second major compound of the essential oil, ranging from 9.04% to 14.01%. Other major compounds found in the essential oils were -terpineol (7.12-8.41%), -pinene (5.08- 9.03%), Z--trans-bergamotol (5.40-7.57%), and caryophyllene oxide (4.12-7.11%). One day of leaves drying at 40°C was sufficient to reach the recommended foliar moisture level without significantly altering the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of M. lundiana or the contents of the major compounds of the essential oil.

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tempo de secagem das folhas no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial de M. lundiana. Testaram-se os tempos 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 e 10 dias de secagem das folhas a 40o C em estufa com circulação forçada de ar. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho Clevenger, e a análise da composição química foi realizada através de CG-MS/FID. A secagem das folhas de M. lundiana não provocou variações significativas no teor de óleo, variando de 1,18 a 1,51%. O ácido nerólico foi o composto majoritário, variando de 27,8% no sexto dia de secagem a 35,64% no décimo dia de secagem. O composto 1,8-cineol foi identificado como o segundo componente principal do óleo, variando de 9,04% a 14,01%. Outros componentes observados no óleo essencial foram -terpineol (7,12-8,41%), -pineno (5,08-9,03%), Z--trans-bergamotol (5,40-7,57%) e óxido de cariofileno (4,12-7,11%). Um dia de secagem das folhas a 40 oC foi o suficiente para atingir o nível de umidade foliar recomendado, não alterando significativamente o teor e a composição química do óleo essencial de M. lundiana e nem os teores dos componentes majoritários do óleo essencial.

Oils , Myrtaceae , Odorants , Plants
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 640-647, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966925


The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of basil cultivars and hybrids in two cropping seasons. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design, with three replications. Twenty-four basil genotypes were tested (20 commercial cultivars and four hybrids), in the dry season (oct.-dec./2015) and in the rainy season (apr.-jun./2016). The evaluated variables were: plant height (cm plant-1), canopy width (cm plant-1), leaf dry weight (g plant-1), and essential oil yield (mL plant-1). The data of each period were subject to analysis of variance and the means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test (p0.05). The individual and joint analyses of variance were performed for the experiments in both seasons. The estimated parameters were: coefficient of genetic variation (CVg), coefficient of environmental variation (CVe), CVg/CVe ratio, and heritability (h2). Leaf dry weight values per plant ranged from 6.23 to 75.00 g plant-1 (dry season) and from 9.17 to 31.34 g plant-1 (rainy season). The hybrid Cinnamon x Maria Bonita (1.50 mL plant-1) and the cultivar Mrs. Burns (1.44 mL plant-1) presented higher essential oil yield in the dry season. All the evaluated variables showed high heritability (h2) (> 50%) and CVg/CVe ratio (> 1.0), in both cropping seasons, indicating a favorable condition for selection. The cropping season influences the biomass and essential oil yield of basil.

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cultivares e híbridos de manjericão em duas épocas de plantio. Para o ensaio, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram avaliados 24 genótipos de manjericão, sendo 20 cultivares comerciais e quatro híbridos cultivados na época seca (out.-dez./2015) e chuvosa (abr.-jun./2016). As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura de planta (cm planta-1), largura da copa (cm planta-1), massa seca de folhas (g planta-1) e rendimento (mL planta-1) de óleo essencial. Os dados de cada época foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias foram agrupadas pelo teste Scott-Knott (p0,05). Realizou-se a análise de variância individual e conjunta para os experimentos das duas épocas. Foram estimados os seguintes parâmetros: coeficiente de variação genética (CVg), coeficiente de variação ambiental (CVe), razão CVg/CVe e a herdabilidade (h2). As médias deferiram significativamente em relação à época de plantio para a maioria das cultivares. Os valores de massa seca de folha variaram de 6,23 a 75,00 g planta-1 (época seca) e 9,17 a 31,34 g planta-1 (época chuvosa). O híbrido Cinnamon x Maria Bonita (1,50 mL planta-1) e a cultivar Mrs. Burns (1,44 mL planta-1) apresentaram maior rendimento de óleo essencial na época seca. Na época chuvosa foi de 1,29 mL planta-1 (Mrs. Burns). Todos os caracteres avaliados apresentaram alta herdabilidade (h2) (>50%) e razão CVg/CVe (>1,0), nas duas épocas, indicando condição favorável para seleção em um programa de melhoramento. A época de plantio influencia a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão.

Seasons , Biomass , Ocimum basilicum , Oils , Agricultural Cultivation
Rev. méd. panacea ; 7(1): 4-8, ene.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021828


Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto protector del aceite de Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi) en la depresión inducida a ratones albinos. Materiales y métodos: Los ratones fueron divididos en 4 grupos y recibieron durante 10 días las siguientes sustancias: Grupo N°01(n=6) Vehículo 5 ml/Kg/12h, Grupo Nº 02 (n=6): Fluoxetina 10 mg/Kg/24horas, Grupo Nº 03 (n=6): Aceite de sacha inchi 1g/kg/12 horas, Grupo Nº 04 (n=6): Aceite de sacha inchi 3g/kg/12 horas. Luego, fueron sometidos a la prueba de Nado Forzado, sumergiéndolos en una piscina cilíndrica durante 6 minutos y registrando el tiempo de inmovilidad. Los ratones sometidos a la prueba de Sujeción de cola fueron distribuidos de la misma manera y administrados con las mismas sustancias para después de 10 días ser suspendidos por el tercio distal de la cola registrándose el tiempo de inmovilidad. Resultados: Los ratones que recibieron el aceite de Plukenetia volubilis a dosis de 1g/kg y 3 g/kg presentaron menor tiempo de inmovilidad respecto al control para ambas pruebas, sólo teniendo el grupo con dosis 3 g/kg significancia estadística. En el nado forzado el tiempo de inmovilidad con dosis de aceite de 1g/kg y 3 g/kg fue 184,7 s y 108,0 s, respectivamente. Para la prueba de Sujeción de cola el tiempo de inmovilidad fue 118,33 s y 63,33 s para dosis de 1g/kg y 3g/kg respectivamente. Conclusiones: El aceite de Sacha Inchi administrado por vía oral a dosis de 3g/kg demostró efecto protector similar a fluoxetina, frente a la depresión inducida en los modelos animales empleados. (AU)

Objective: Evaluate protective effect of Plukenetia volubilis oil (Sacha Inchi) on induced depression in albino mice. Materials and methods: Mice were divided into 4 groups and received the following substances during 10 days: Group N°1 (n = 6) Vehicle 5 ml/Kg/12h, Group N°2 (n = 6): Fluoxetine 10 mg/Kg/24h, Group N°3 (n = 6): Sacha inchi oil 1 g/kg /12h, Group N°4 (n = 6): Sacha inchi oil 3 g/ kg/12 h. Then, they were subject to Forced Swimming test, submerging them in a cylindrical pool for 6 minutes and the immobility time was recorded. The mice subjected to the tail suspension test were distributed in the same way and administered with the same substances, after 10 days being suspended by the distal third of the tail, recording the immobility time. Results: The mice that received the Plukenetia volubilis oil at a dose of 1 g/kg and 3 g/kg had a shorter immobility time regarding control for both tests, and only the group with a dose of 3 g/kg had statistical significance. In forced swimming the immobility time with oil doses of 1 g/kg and 3 g/kg was 184.7 s and 108.0 s, respectively. For Tail suspension test, the immobility time was 118.33 s and 63.33 s for doses of 1g/kg and 3g/kg, respectively. Conclusions: Sacha Inchi oil administered orally at a dose of 3g/kg showed a protective effect similar to fluoxetine, against induced depression in the animal model used. (AU)

Animals , Oils/pharmacology , Depression/drug therapy , Mice
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018021-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786852


OBJECTIVES: We analyzed dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR), and assessed how well the scores extracted by RRR predicted stroke in comparison to the scores produced by partial least squares and principal component regression models.METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were used to extract dietary patterns using the 3 methods, along with 4 response variables: body mass index, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The analyses were based on 5,468 males and females aged 45–84 years who had no clinical cardiovascular disease, using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.RESULTS: The primary factor derived by RRR was positively associated with stroke incidence in both models. The first model was adjusted for sex and race and the second model was adjusted for the variables in model 1 as well as smoking, physical activity, family and sibling history of stroke, the use of any lipid-lowering medication, the use of any anti-hypertensive medication, hypertension, and history of myocardial infarction (model 1: hazard ratio [HR], 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 33.69; p for trend=0.01; model 2: HR, 6.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 30.87 for quintile 5 compared with the reference category; p for trend=0.02).CONCLUSIONS: Based primarily on RRR, we identified that a dietary pattern high in fats and oils, poultry, non-diet soda, processed meat, tomatoes, legumes, chicken, tuna and egg salad, and fried potatoes and low in dark-yellow and cruciferous vegetables may increase the incidence of ischemic stroke.

Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chickens , Cholesterol , Continental Population Groups , Diet , Fabaceae , Fats , Female , Fibrinogen , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Interleukin-6 , Least-Squares Analysis , Lipoproteins , Lycopersicon esculentum , Male , Meat , Methods , Motor Activity , Myocardial Infarction , Oils , Ovum , Poultry , Risk Factors , Siblings , Smoke , Smoking , Solanum tuberosum , Stroke , Tuna , Vegetables