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1.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 50 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007412

ABSTRACT

O uso de óleos essenciais na indústria de fragrância tem crescido a cada ano. A indústria de cosméticos, em geral, tem buscado este tipo de ingrediente com o objetivo de agregar atributos únicos e melhores aos seus produtos e assim entregar, ao consumidor final, diferenciais que poderão valorizar suas formulações, além de simplesmente perfumar. O benefício de usar óleos naturais ou acordes de seus principais componentes em formulações de fragrâncias é que estes se tornam composições mais ricas, e em muitos casos, capazes de proporcionar perfumação prolongada ao produto, quando comparados àqueles sintetizados. A presença de compostos variados nos óleos, como terpenos e resinas, ajudam a promover singularidades à fragrância e até mesmo servem como inspiração às criações de produtos com descrições olfativas de produtos naturais. Croton tricolor (Euphorbiaceae), segundo avaliação inicial de um perfumista, apresentou excelentes características olfativas, o que facilitou seu uso nos estudos. A análise do óleo essencial de C. tricolor por cromatografia à gás com detector de ionização de chamas (CG/DIC) e cromatografia à gás acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) permitiu quantificar e identificar seus principais marcadores, bem como utilizar estas informações para construção de acorde olfativo, reproduzindo o odor do produto natural. O óleo essencial de C. tricolor apresentou como principais componentes o biciclogermacreno (15,4%), espatulenol (10,5%) e o alfa-pineno (6,8%). A partir destes dados foi construído um acorde aromático que reproduziu o odor original, contendo alfa-pineno (7%), álcool fenetílico (5%), óleo de cedro (5%), óleo de laranja (0,5%), limoneno (1%), eucaliptol (0,5%) e nerolidol (0,3%). Os compostos majoritários, biciclogermacreno e espatulenol, não foram adicionados por não serem disponíveis comercialmente, por isso, usaram-se outras matérias-primas semelhantes em perfil olfativo e ofertadas no mercado, como foi o caso do uso de álcool fenetílico, óleo de cedro e óleo de laranja na criação do acorde. Os resultados evidenciaram que a criação de acordes é um método economicamente viável para a reprodução de odores naturais que podem ser utilizados em formulações de fragrâncias, além de ajudar a resolver problemas na produção e comercialização de óleos essenciais como, sazonalidade e reprodutibilidade


The use of essential oils in the fragrance industry has grown every year. The cosmetics industry has generally sought this type of ingredient, with the aim of providing its products with differentiated benefits (unique and better attributes), and thus delivering to the final consumer a differential that can enhance their formulations, besides simply perfuming their products (theirs). The benefit of using natural oils or accords of their major components in fragrance formulations makes them richer, and in many cases capable of providing prolonged perfuming to the final product when compared to synthesized products. The presence of varied compounds in the oils, such as terpenes or (and) resins, helps to promote differentiated fragrance characteristics (singularities/peculiarities to the fragrance), or (and) even to serve as inspiration for product creations with olfactory descriptions of natural products. Croton tricolor (Euphorbiaceae), accordingly to an initial evaluation of a perfumer, presented excellent olfactory characteristics, which facilitated its use in the studies. The analysis of the C. tricolor essential oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) allowed to quantify and identify their main markers, as well as to use this information to construct an olfactory accord that reproduces the odor of natural products. The C. tricolor essential oil had as main components bicyclogermacrene (15.4%), spathulenol (10.5%) and alpha pinene (6.8%). From these data, an aromatic accord was created reproducing the original odor containing alpha pinene (7%), phenethyl alcohol (5%), cedar oil (5%), orange oil (0.5%), limonene (1%), eucalyptol (0.5%) and nerolidol (0.3%). Some of the major compounds, bicyclogermacrene and spatulenol, could not be added because they were not commercially available. In these cases (therefore), other products (raw materials) with similar olfactory characteristics (olfactory profile) and commercially viable (offered on the market) were used, such as the use of phenethyl alcohol, cedar oil and orange oil in the accord creation. The results showed that accord creation is an economically viable method for the reproduction of natural odors that can be used in fragrance formulations and may help to solve problems that exist in the production and commercialization of essential oils such as production seasonality and reproducibility


Subject(s)
Perfume/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Euphorbiaceae/anatomy & histology , Cosmetic Industry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Odorants
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17479, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039040

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility patterns of three antifungals, methanolic extracts and N-hexane oil of sesame seeds on C. albicans and C. glabrata, isolated from oral cavity of liver transplant recipients. The results were compared with other reports to develop a mini review as well. Candida species were isolated from liver transplant recipients. To evaluate the antifungal activity of sesame seed oil and methanolic extract, fluconazole, caspofungin and nystatin, the corresponding minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by CLSI M27-A3 standard method. Minimum fungicidal concentration was also evaluated. The most prevalent species was C. albicans, followed by C. glabrata. Findings indicated sensitivity to antifungal agents and resistance to methanolic extract and N-hexane oil for all C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. The rate of Candida colonization in the oral cavity of liver transplant recipients was high. Our results revealed that the methanolic and N-hexan extracts of sesame seeds are not effective on C. albicans and C. glabrata species, isolated from the patients. The sesame seed oil pulling and mouthwash cannot effectively cleanse and remove the Candida species in the mouth. Investigation of other medicinal plants or other parts of sesame like leaves and roots are suggested.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Sesamum/anatomy & histology , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Candida/immunology , Liver Transplantation
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18284, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011642

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to assess the potential uses of the essential oil obtained from Ocotea nutans (Nees) Mez. The hydrodistilled essential oil from O. nutans leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87,29% of the total leaf essential oil components were identified, of which biciclogermacrene(11.41%), germacrene-D (4.89%), bisabolol-11-ol(3.73%) and spathulenol (3.71%) were the major compounds. The essential oil from O. nutans were tested for antibacterial activity using the minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC) method, Artemia salina method, larvicidal activity in Aedes aegypti, and antioxidant capacity.The antioxidant activity measured by the phosphomolybdenum complex and Prussian blue method had positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the microorganisms tested allowed moderate inhibitionfor Enterococcus faecalis (MIC=500 µg/mL). Artemia salina were toxic to the organisms in the study (LC50= 71,70 µg /mL). The essential oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity potencial (LC50= 250 µg/mL). The present results showed thatO. nutans essential oil has potential biological uses


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/classification , Aedes/classification
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17584, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039064

ABSTRACT

In South American folk medicine members of the genus Myrciaria are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea, asthma, inflammation and post-partum uterine cleansing. The aim of this work was to evaluate its antileishmanial properties (in vitro) of essential oil derived from leaves of Myrciaria plinioides D. Legrand, a plant species that is native in South of Brazil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation using fresh leaves of M. plinioides. The chemical composition of this essential oil (MPEO, M. plinioides essential oil) was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MPEO was assayed in vitro for antileishmanial properties against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum, and for cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages. The MPEO comprised 66 components and was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (82.66%) containing spathulenol (21.12%) as its major constituent. The MPEO was effective against L. amazonensis with IC50 value of 14.16 ± 7.40 µg/mL, while against L. infantum the IC50 value was higher with 101.50 ± 5.78 µg/mL. The MPEO showed significant activity against L. amazonensis, and presented a selectivity index (SI) of 6.60. The results suggest that the essential oil from leaves of M. plinioides is a promising source for new antileishmanial agents against L. amazonensis.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Brazil/ethnology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Myrtaceae/anatomy & histology , Leishmania infantum , Plant Leaves/classification , Leishmania
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 355-361, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975757

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro de la oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" y del aceite esencial de Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "orégano" frente a Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) y Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Se desarrollaron pruebas de sensibilidad activando primero las cepas bacterias a enfrentar. La oleorresina de copaiba fue diluida con dimetilsulfósido (DMSO), obteniéndose al final concentraciones a probar de 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, y 12,5 %. En relación al aceite esencial de orégano este se probó solamente al 100 %. Para la prueba de difusión en agar con discos, se tomaron inóculos 100 µL de cada cepa bacteriana a una turbidez de 0,5 de Mc Farlam, para ser sembrados por diseminación en placas de tripticasa soya agar, para luego colocar los discos de forma equidistante cargados con las diferentes concentraciones de los productos naturales, se utilizaron como control positivo a la clorhexidina al 0,12 % y al DMSO como control negativo. Se incubaron las placas por el método de la vela en extinción a 37 °C, por un periodo de 24 horas, pasado el tiempo se realizó la lectura de los halos de inhibición. Los resultados obtenidos por la copaiba, determinaron un efecto antibacteriano en sus cuatro concentraciones, siendo los mayores halos de inhibición a la concentración del 100 %, copaiba genero mayores halos promedios para S, mutans de 30,00 ± 0,00 mm y para E. faecalis de 8,3 ± 0,50 mm. Para el caso del orégano se producen halos a la concentración del 100 % con un promedio de 25,3 ± 0,96 mm para S. mutans y para E. faecalis de 9,5 ± 1,29 mm. Se concluye del estudio que tanto copaiba como el orégano presentan un efecto antibacteriano para ambas bacterias, siendo su mayor efecto antibacteriano para ambos productos naturales sobre S. mutans.


ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of the oleoresin of Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" and of the essential oil of Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "oregano" against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Sensitivity tests were developed by first activating the bacteria strains to be confronted. The oleoresin of copaiba was diluted with dimethylsulphoside (DMSO), obtaining final concentrations to be tested of 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, and 12.5 %. In relation to the essential oil of oregano, it was only 100 % tested. For the disk agar diffusion test, 100 mL of each bacterial strain was taken at a turbidity of 0.5 of Mc Farlam, to be planted by dissecting trypticase soy agar plates, and then placing the disks equidistantly loaded with the different concentrations of natural products; 0.12 % chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and DMSO as negative control. The plates were incubated by the candle method in extinction at 37 °C, for a period of 24 hours, after which time the inhibition halos were read. The results obtained by the copaiba, determined an antibacterial effect in its four concentrations, being the biggest halos of inhibition at the concentration of 100 %, copaiba genus higher average halos for S. mutans of 30.00 ± 0.00 mm and for E. faecalis of 8.3 ± 0.50 mm. In the case of oregano, haloes are produced at a concentration of 100 % with an average of 25.3 ± 0.96 mm for S. mutans and for E. faecalis 9.5 ± 1.29 mm. It is concluded from the study that both copaiba and oregano present an antibacterial effect for both bacteria, being its greater antibacterial effect for both natural products on S. mutans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Origanum/chemistry , Peru , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Epidemiology, Experimental , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 497-504, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-910573

ABSTRACT

The phythotherapy is an alternative to use of chemotherapeutical agents against monogenean infection. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of essential oil Ocimum gratissimum against monogenean Cichlidogyrus tilapiae as well as its acute toxicity in tilapia juveniles. The mean lethal concentration (LC50) and different concentrations of the essential oil, both in vitro and in vivo assays (short and long-term baths) were assessed. The LC50 was 40.70mg.L-1 and in the in vitro assay this concentration showed 80% efficacy at the last two hours and in the in vivo assay 65.87% efficacy in long-term bath. However, it provoked morphological alterations on the gills such as hyperplasia and edema. The parasites exposure at the highest concentration (320mg.L-1) showed 100% mortality after 2h exposure in the in vitro assay, whereas in the in vivo assay, short-term baths of 5min for 3 consecutive days showed an efficacy of 87.71% without gills damage. These results demonstrate the anthelminthic activity of essential oil O. gratissimum and the safety concentration to use in Nile tilapia.(AU)


A fitoterapia é uma alternativa ao uso de agentes químicos contra infecções por parasitos monogenéticos. Este estudo avaliou a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial Ocimum gratissimum contra o monogenea Cichlidogyrus tilapiae , bem como sua toxicidade aguda e histopatologia em juvenis de tilápias. Foram avaliadas a concentração letal média (CL50) e diferentes concentrações de óleo essencial, tanto in vitro como in vivo (banho de curta e longa duração). A CL50 foi de 40,70mg.L-1; no ensaio in vitro, essa concentração apresentou 80% de eficácia, e no ensaio in vivo 65,87% de eficácia em banho de exposição crônica. No entanto, provocou alterações morfológicas nas brânquias, como hiperplasia e edema. A exposição dos parasitas na concentração mais elevada (320mg.L-1) mostrou 100% de mortalidade após duas horas de exposição no ensaio in vitro, enquanto no ensaio in vivo, em banho de curta duração de cinco minutos, durante três dias consecutivos, apresentou uma eficácia de 87,71%, sem danos às brânquias. Esses resultados demonstraram a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de O. gratissimum e a concentração de segurança para uso na tilápia-do-nilo em banhos de curta duração.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/anatomy & histology , Cichlids/parasitology , Ocimum/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis
8.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 20(3): 161-166, jul-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-882942

ABSTRACT

O Brasil é o maior produtor de laranja do mundo. Cultura rica em óleos essenciais de ampla aplicação, como no controle de pragas e patógenos, dentre eles os fitonematoides, causadores de prejuízos relevantes à agricultura. Assim, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a porcentagem de eclosão de juvenis de M. javanica submetidos à diferentes concentrações de óleos essenciais de duas variedades de laranja, Pêra Rio e Folha Murcha, em condições in vitro. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos das variedades de laranja (Citrus sinensis) Pêra Rio e Folha Murcha, pela técnica de hidrodestilação. O experimento foi instalado em arranjo fatorial 2X8, DIC, sendo oito concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 µg mL-1) e dois tipos de OE, avaliados em três períodos (4 e 16 dias). Em cada unidade experimental, tubos de ensaio 10x75 mm, adicionou-se 1 mL de suspensão de nematoides contendo 50 ovos e 1 mL de emulsão para cada concentração, avaliando-se a porcentagem de juvenis eclodidos. As concentrações dos óleos essenciais das variedades influenciaram (p≤0,05) na porcentagem de eclosão de juvenis de M. javanica, em todos os períodos avaliados. Para a maioria das concentrações, aos quatro e 16 dias, o óleo essencial da var. Pêra Rio foi mais eficiente na redução da eclosão, quando comparado a var. Folha Murcha.(AU)


Brazil is the largest producer of oranges in the world. This crop is rich in essential oils which are used in a wide range of applications, such as controlling pests and pathogens. Phytonematodes are among such pests, and are responsible for causing harmful damages to agriculture. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of hatching of M. javanica juveniles submitted to different concentrations of orange essential oil under in-vitro conditions. Oils were extracted from two varieties of orange (Citrus sinensis) popularly known in Brazil as Pera Rio and Folha Murcha, using the hydro-distillation technique. The experiment was carried out in a 2X8 factorial arrangement, at eight concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg mL-1) and two types of essential oils, evaluated in two periods (4 and 16 days). In each experimental unit, 10x75-mm test tubes received 1-mL nematode suspension containing 50 eggs and 1-mL of emulsion added for each concentration. Then, the percentage of hatched juveniles was evaluated. The concentration of essential oils from the varieties influenced (p≤0.05) the percentage of hatching of M. javanica juveniles in all evaluated periods. For most concentrations, at 4 and 16 days, the Pera Rio variety was more efficient at reducing hatching when compared to the Folha Murcha variety.(AU)


Brasil es el mayor productor de naranja del mundo. Cultura rica en aceites esenciales de amplia aplicación, como en el control de plagas y patógenos, entre ellos los fitonematodos, causantes de perjuicios relevantes a la agricultura. Así, el objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el porcentaje de eclosión de juveniles de M. javanica sometidos a diferentes concentraciones de aceites esenciales de dos variedades de naranja, Pera Río y Hoja Mustia, en condiciones in vitro. Los aceites esenciales fueron extraídos de las variedades de naranja (Citrus sinensis) Pera Río y Hoja Mustia, por la técnica de hidrodestilación. El experimento fue instalado en un arreglo factorial 2x8, DIC, siendo ocho concentraciones (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 y 500 µg mL-1) y dos tipos de OE, evaluados en tres períodos (4 y 16 días). En cada unidad experimental, tubos de ensayo 10x75 mm, se añadieron 1 mL de suspensión de nematodos conteniendo 50 huevos y 1 mL de emulsión para cada concentración, evaluando el porcentaje de juveniles eclosionados. Las concentraciones de los aceites esenciales de las variedades influenciaron (p≤0,05) en el porcentaje de eclosión de juveniles de M. javanica, en todos los períodos evaluados. Para la mayoría de las concentraciones, a los cuatro y 16 días, el aceite esencial de la var. Pera Río fue más eficiente en la reducción de la eclosión, cuando comparado a var. Hoja Mustia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Citrus sinensis/growth & development , Citrus sinensis/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Tylenchoidea
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00260, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Heracleum/adverse effects , Heracleum/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Components, Aerial/classification , Greenhouses/methods , Oxidation , Sunflower Oil/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17298, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The essential oil composition of the Ocotea bicolor, native plant of Brazil, was studied for the first time. The essential oil of the leaf was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical procedure revealed a predominance of sesquiterpenes, δ-cadinene (7.39%), ß-sesquiphellandrene (6.67%), ß-elemene (5.41%) and α-cadinol (5,23%). The essential oil was submitted to brine shrimp toxicity evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial tests. The antioxidant activity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex method presented positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were higher than 1000 µg/mL for the microorganisms tested. Toxicity activity revealed LC50 results of 40.10 (µg/mL), being toxic to the organisms in this study


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Lauraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/adverse effects
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e00076, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Considering the reported activity of carvone in the literature, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and chemopreventive activities of (+)- and (-)-carvone, (+)- and (-)- hydroxydihydrocarvone and α,ß-epoxycarvone. (+)-Hydroxydihydrocarvone (HC+), (-)-hydroxydihydrocarvone (HC-) and α,ß-epoxycarvone (EP) were obtained by synthesis using (+)-carvone (C+) or (-)-carvone (C-) as precursors. The antifungal activity (MIC and MFC) were evaluated against Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans and the antibacterial activity (MIC and MBC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity assays were performed with human cancer cell lines HepG-2 and SiHa and the normal strain MRC-5 through sulphorrodamine B assay. Chemoprevention was evaluated through quinone reductase assay. Our results showed no cytotoxicity on tumor and normal cell lines and no induction of the quinone reductase enzyme. C- and HC- presented activity against E. coli. All compounds presented weak antifungal activity against C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. EP and C+ showed moderate activity against C. krusei. Results suggest the potential use of carvones and its derivatives as antifungal agents against Candida yeasts. The absence of cytotoxicity in cell lines indicates safety in the use of these compounds


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chemoprevention , Carum/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Chemoprevention , Antifungal Agents
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 229-235, set. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843167

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to study the oregano essential oil (OEO) composition from Northwestern Argentinean regions and to evaluate its effect on the lactic starter cultures. The oregano used, Origanum vulgare var hirtum, was obtained from Andalgalá, Catamarca. The essential oil presented high amounts of α-terpinene (10%), γ-terpinene (15.1%), terpinen-4-ol (15.5%) and thymol (13.0%) as the main components. No negative effect on growth or metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 and CRL 813, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and CRL 468, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 597 up to the maximum concentration (200 μg/g) assayed was observed. No differences in the organoleptic characteristics of semi-hard cheeses flavored with oregano essential oil (200 μg/g) and homemade cheeses flavored with oregano leaves were found. With respect to the microbiological quality of the products, neither enterobacteria nor mold and yeast were detected during ripening in essential-oil flavored cheese compared to control cheese (enterobacteria 2 × 10³ UFC/g) and cheese flavored with oregano leaves (mold/yeast 4 × 10(4) CFU/g). Our results showed that the use of oregano essential oil and lactic starter culture considerably improved cheese quality.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la composición del aceite esencial de orégano recolectado en el noroeste argentino y evaluar su efecto sobre algunos fermentos lácticos. El orégano recolectado correspondió a la especie Origanum vulgare var. hirtum proveniente de Andalgalá, Catamarca. En su aceite esencial (obtenido por arrastre con vapor de agua) se detectó principalmente α-terpineno (10%), γ-terpineno (15,1%), terpinen-4-ol (15,5%) y timol (13,0%). El aceite esencial no tuvo efecto inhibitorio (máxima concentración ensayada 200 μg/g) sobre el crecimiento ni sobre la actividad metabólica de Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 y CRL 813, de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 y CRL 468, y de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 597. No se observaron diferencias en las características organolépticas de quesos semiduros aromatizados con el aceite esencial (200 μg/g) comparados con quesos artesanales aromatizados con hojas de orégano. Respecto de la calidad microbiológica de los productos, no se detectaron enterobacterias ni hongos o levaduras durante la maduración en los quesos aromatizados con el aceite esencial de orégano comparados con los quesos control, que presentaron desarrollo de enterobacterias (2 × 10³ UFC/g), y con los quesos elaborados con hojas de orégano, en los que hubo desarrollo de hongos/levaduras (4 × 10(4) CFU/g). Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el uso del aceite esencial de orégano y del fermento láctico incrementó la calidad general de los quesos artesanales.


Subject(s)
Cheese/analysis , Origanum/adverse effects , Streptococcus thermophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillales/growth & development , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Origanum/chemistry
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 531-538, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787943

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Protium heptaphyllum is found in the Amazon region, and in various Brazilian states and South American countries. Also Known as almecega, it produces an oil resin used in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizant and expectorant, it is rich in pentacyclic triterpenes and essential oil. The main objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllumresin (OEPh) over different extraction times and to evaluate their antifungal activity against Candida species, obtained from gardeners with onychomycosis, using the disk diffusion method. The OEPh was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MDGC / MS). Candida species were obtained from lesions on the nails of horticulturist from a community garden in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The antifungal activity in concentrations of 1000 µg/L, 500 µg/L and 250 µg/L, PROTOCOL M44-A2 (CLSI 2009) OEPh was tested. The main constituents identified were: l-limonene, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cymene and α-phellandrene, however, its composition varies significantly with extraction time. All species, except C. rugosa, were inhibited with halo (≥ 14 mm) at 1000 μg / L. C. krusei is naturally resistant to the drug fluconazole, but when tested with OEPh the clinical species (case 9) demonstrated sensitivity in three dilutions (halo ≤ 10 ≥ 14) and the standard strain was inhibited at concentration of 1000 μg/Lg / L (halo 14mm). A similar situation also occurred with the standard strain of C. parapsilosis (halo ≥ 11mm). OEPh has considerable antifungal activity, which merits further investigation for alternative clinical applications, since this species is widely distributed in our community, and it presents good yields, and also has important therapeutic applications.


RESUMO Protium heptaphyllum é encontrada na região amazônica, em vários estados do Brasil e países da América do Sul. Conhecida como almecega produz uma resina oleosa usada na medicina popular como analgésica, antiinflamatória, cicatrizante e expectorante, é rica em triterpenos pentaciclicos e óleo essencial. O objetivo principal do presente trabalho foi analisar a composição química do óleo essencial da resina P. heptaphyllum (OEPh) em diferentes tempo de extração e avaliarsuaatividade antifúngica contra espécies de Candida, isoladas de horticultores com onicomicoses, por método de disco-difusão. O OEPh foi obtido por hidrodestilação, analisado por Cromatografia Gasosa Multidimensinal Acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (MDGC/MS). As espécies de Candida foram obtidas de lesões nas unhas de horticultores de uma horta comunitária na cidade de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Testou-se a atividade antifúngica do OEPhnas concentrações de 1000 μg/L, 500 μg/L e 250 μg/L, protocolo M44-A2 (CLSI 2009). Os principais constituintes identificados foram l- limoneno, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cimeno e α-felandreno, entretanto, sua composição varia significativamente em decorrência do tempo de extração. Todas as espécies, exceto a C. rugosa, foram inibidas com halo ( Χ ≥ 14 mm) na concentração de 1000 μg/L. C. krusei é naturalmente resistente ao fármaco fluconazol, mas quando testado com OEPh,a espécie clínico (caso 9) demonstrou sensibilidade nas três diluições (halo Χ ≤ 10 ≥ 14) e a cepa padrão foi inibida na concentração de 1000 μg/L (halo Χ 14mm). Fato semelhante também ocorreu com a cepa padrão de C. parapsilosis (halo Χ ≥ 11mm). O OEPh possui atividade antifúngica considerável, merecendo uma investigação mais aprofundada para aplicações clínicas alternativas, uma vez que esta espécie é amplamente distribuída em nossa comunidade, apresenta bom rendimento e, ainda, aplicações terapêuticas importantes.


Subject(s)
Burseraceae/chemistry , Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chemical Phenomena/analysis , Disease Susceptibility/classification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 502-510, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787951

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Campomanesia adamantium é muito utilizada na medicina popular no tratamento de hipertensão, reumatismo e diabetes. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o rendimento, a composição química, e as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de folhas de C. adamantium submetidas a diferentes métodos e tempos de secagem. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e três repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas e analisado por CG-EM. O tipo de secagem das folhas de C. adamantium influenciou no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial. Os constituintes espatulenol, óxido cariofileno e germacreno-B apresentaram maior concentração na maioria das procedências avaliadas. O óleo essencial das folhas de C. adamantium apresentou moderada atividade antibacteriana em relação a todos os micro-organismos testados. A atividade antioxidante se deu empregando-se o método de redução do radical estável DPPH, sendo observada fraca atividade antioxidante por meio do ensaio utilizado.


ABSTRACT C. adamantiumis widely used in popular medicine for thetreatment of hypertension, rheumatism and diabetes. This study looked to evaluate the essential oil yield, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from leaves of C. adamantium. A completely randomized design was used with eight treatments and three replications. The essential oil obtained by hydrodestillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the drying type and the processing of the leaf influence the content and chemical composition of the essential oil. The compounds spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and germacrene-B have higher concentrationsin mostorigins. The essentialoil from theleaves of C.adamantiumshowed moderate bacterial activityagainst all tested microorganisms. The antioxidant activity was determined by the methods of reduction of the DPPH stable radical. The antioxidant activity was weak in the test used.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 558-562, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787954

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o potencial do uso do óleo essencial de Aloysia citriodora no controle in vitro de Fusarium sp., isolado de plântulas de beterraba infectadas com o mesmo. O trabalho foi realizado por meio de dois experimentos: um sobre o efeito do óleo essencial no crescimento micelial, e outro sobre o efeito na germinação de conídios do fungo. No primeiro trabalho, avaliou-se em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, o efeito das concentrações 0,0155%; 0,0315%; 0,0625%; 0,125%; 0,250% e 0,500% do óleo essencial de A. citriodora em placas de Petri® com meio de cultivo BDA, mais a testemunha, com meio BDA puro. Cada placa foi considerada uma repetição, as quais foram incubadas a 24ºC±1ºC e submetidas a fotoperíodo de doze horas. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial do patógeno em função do crescimento micelial do patógeno quando este atingia as bordas da primeira placa. No segundo experimento, as mesmas concentrações foram testadas, nas mesmas condições de incubação, no entanto, em lâminas de microscopia com meio BD. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, sendo considerada como unidade experimental cada lâmina utilizada. Avaliou-se 24 horas após a incubação, em microscópio óptico, a germinação dos primeiros vinte conídios visualizados a partir do canto esquerdo superior para o direito. Os resultados do segundo experimento foram expressos em porcentagem de germinação de conídios. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que este óleo essencial possui efeito fungistático e fungicida sobre o crescimento micelial e na germinação de conídios de Fusarium sp.. Além disso este efeito é maior em função do aumento da concentração do óleo essencial.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of Aloysia citriodora essential oilisolated from beet seedlings infected with it. The study was performed by conducting two experiments evaluating the effect of the essential oil on mycelial growth and fungus conidia germination. In the first study, in a completely randomized design, the effect concentrations (0.0155%; 0.0315%; 0.0625%; 0.125%; 0.250% and 0.500%) of essential oil of A. citriodorawas evaluated on Petri® dish with a PDA cultivation medium, plus the control, with half pure PDA. Each plate was taken as a repeat, and incubated at 24°C±1°C and a photoperiod of twelve hours. The radial growth of the pathogen, when the first plate was hit by the mycelial growth of the pathogen on its edges was evaluated. In the second experiment, the same concentrations were tested under the same incubationconditions, however, on microscope slides with half PD medium. The design was used completely randomized, each microscope slide used was considered as one experimental unit. Germination of the first 2 conidia strains, viewed from the upper left to the right was evaluated24 hours after incubation, using an optical microscope. The results of the second experiment were expressed as a percentage of conidia germination. The results obtained showed that this essential oil has fungistatic and fungicidal effect on the mycelial growth and at the conidia germination of Fusarium sp., which has a greater effect with increasing concentrations.


Subject(s)
Fusarium/classification , Lippia/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Beta vulgaris/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Verbenaceae/classification
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 424-430, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780849

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25 mg mL-1 for thyme, 5.0 mg mL-1 for basil and marjoram, and 10 mg mL-1 for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plant Oils/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Clostridium perfringens/growth & development , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 113-124, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780037

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize components of the EOAz and its hexane (HFEOAz), chloroform (CFEOAz) and methanol (MFEOAz) fractions, and its antihypertensive effect. EOAz was extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation. Aliquot was subjected to selective desorption with silica gel column and eluted with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The components of the EOAz and fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen. Experiments of vascular reactivity were performed with isolated aortic rings of male Wistar rats. Antihypertensive effect was evaluated in hypertensive rats submitted to the inhibition of synthesis of nitric oxide. Blood pressure was measured indirectly by tail plethysmography. MFEOAz showed the lowest EC50 (150.45 µg/mL), 1,8-cineole (27.81%) and terpinen-4-ol (57.35%) as main components. Single administration by nasogastric tube of EOAz, fractions and captopril significantly reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive rats, when compared to animals of the negative control group with distilled water. In conclusion, the potency of the MFEOAz was higher than that of EOAz and other fractions. The antihypertensive effect of EOAz and fractions was similar, higher than the negative control and lower than that of captopril.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os componentes do óleo essencial das folhas de Alpinia zerumbet (OEAz) e suas frações hexânica (FHOEAz), clorofórmica (FCOEAz) e metanólica (FMOEAz), e seu efeito anti-hipertensivo. OEAz foi extraído das folhas por hidrodestilação. Uma alíquota foi submetida à desadsorção seletiva com coluna de gel de sílica e eluída com hexano, clorofórmio e metanol. Os componentes do OEAz e fracções foram analisadas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à detector de massa e por espectros de ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio. Experimentos de reatividade vascular foram realizados com anéis aórticos isolados de ratos Wistar machos. Efeito anti-hipertensivo foi avaliado em ratos hipertensos submetidos à inibição da síntese de óxido nítrico. A pressão arterial foi medida indiretamente por pletismografia de cauda. FMOEAz mostrou a menor CE50 (150,45 μg/mL), 1,8-cineol (27,81%) e terpinen-4-ol (57,35%) como componentes principais. A administração em dose única por sonda nasogástrica de OEAz, frações e captopril reduziu significativamente a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos, quando comparados aos animais do grupo controle negativo com água destilada. Em conclusão, a potência da FMOEAz foi maior que a do OEAz e outras frações. O efeito anti-hipertensivo de OEAz e frações foi semelhante, maior do que o controle negativo e menor do que o captopril.


Subject(s)
Rats , Comparative Study , Elettaria/anatomy & histology , Hypertension/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Rats, Wistar/classification , Phytotherapy/instrumentation , Vasodilation
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 191-200, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780040

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Lippia alba é uma planta amplamente distribuída nas zonas tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas das Américas, África e Ásia. O óleo essencial de L. alba tem sido amplamente estudado, entretanto apresenta variações de produção. Portanto este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão dos principais quimiotipos, métodos de extração, composição e aplicação do óleo essencial de L. alba. Neste estudo são discutidos os principais quimiotipos e sua relação com fatores genéticos e características morfológicas. Também são discutidos os fatores que afetam o rendimento de produção, composição química, métodos de extração e do uso e da atividade biológica do óleo essencial de L. alba. Apesar da vasta literatura sobre os óleos essenciais de L. alba, ainda desenvolvimento de aplicações para a produção de cosméticos, fármacos e alimentos, bem como faltam definições agronomicas sobre o cultivo e melhoramento desta planta.


ABSTRACT Lippia alba is a plant widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of the Americas, Africa and Asia. The essential oil of L. alba has been widely studied and there are many variations in the production process. Therefore, this study is aimed at conducting a review of the main chemotypes, extraction methods, composition and application of the essential oil of L. alba. In this study, the main chemotypes and its relation to genetic and morphological characteristics are discussed. It also discusses the factors that affect the yield, chemical composition, extraction methods and the use and the biological activity of the essential oil of L. alba. Despite the vast literature on the essential oils of L. alba, there is still a lack of development in its application for the production of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food, as well as a lack of agronomic definitions for its cultivation and genetic improvement.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Lippia/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Genetic Structures
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 105-112, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780044

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito bactericida in vitro de dezesseis óleos essenciais sobre Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC). Dentre os óleos essenciais estudados, três foram extraídos in situ por arraste a vapor e treze foram adquiridos comercialmente. Todos os óleos foram analisados por CG-EM e CG-DIC. A atividade bactericida foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição utilizando-se caldo triptona de soja e microplacas de poliestireno de 96 poços, com posterior plaqueamento das culturas em ágar triptona de soja. Os óleos essenciais de Cinnamomum cassia e de Thymus vulgaris apresentaram concentração mínima bactericida (CMB) de 0,12% e 0,25%, respectivamente. Já os óleos comerciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Origanum vulgare apresentaram ambos CMB de 0,50% e os óleos extraídos in situ de Cymbopogon citratus e Origanum vulgare apresentaram ambos CMB de 1,00%. Os dezesseis óleos essenciais apresentaram composição química qualitativa e quantitativa distintas. As análises químicas dos óleos essenciais de Cinnamomum cassia e de Thymus vulgaris tiveram a presença majoritária de E-cinamaldeído (84,52%) e timol (50,89%). Conclui-se que os óleos de C. cassia e T. vulgaris foram os mais eficazes na inibição do crescimento in vitro dessa bactéria, a qual possui diferentes níveis de sensibilidade dependendo da composição química do óleo.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the bactericidal effect in vitro of sixteen essential oils on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Among the essential oils, three were extracted in situ by steam distillation and thirteen were purchased commercially. All oils were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The bactericidal activity was evaluated by the microdilution method using tryptone soy broth, and 96-well polystyrene microplates with subsequent plating of the cultures in tryptone soy agar. Cinnamomum cassia and Thymus vulgaris essential oils showed minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) 0.12% and 0.25%, respectively. Both commercial oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Origanum vulgare showed MBC of 0.50% and the oils extracted in situ Origanum vulgare and Cymbopogon citratus showed both MBC of 1.00%. The sixteen essential oils pointed out distinct qualitative and quantitative chemical composition. Chemical analysis of Cinnamomum cassia and Thymus vulgaris oils had the predominant presence of E-cinnamaldehyde (84.52% ± 0.07%) and thymol (50.89% ± 0.31%). In conclusion, T. vulgaris and C. cassia oils were the most effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of this bacterium, which has different sensitivity levels depending on the chemical composition of the oil.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Thymus Plant/classification
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 367-372, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782972

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As doenças pós-colheita do mamão são as principais responsáveis pelas perdas que ocorrem durante esse processo. A antracnose é uma doença causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Esse patógeno tem a capacidade de se estabelecer no fruto imaturo, permanecendo em estado latente até que as condições se tornem favoráveis ao seu desenvolvimento. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito fungistático dos óleos essenciais sobre o fungo C.gloeosporioides. Os experimentos foram realizados no laboratório de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Cassilândia, foram três etapas, quais sejam: I efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre a germinação de conídios, II- ação in vitro dos óleos sobre micélios fúngicos e III- efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre o fungo em frutos do mamoeiro. Para as três fases o delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 X 5, (óleos essenciais de alecrim, menta, capim-limão, anis, árvore-chá e canela) e cinco concentrações (0 μL, 10 μL, 30 μL, 50 μL, 100 μL), com 5 repetições. A germinação de conídios foi afetada drasticamente pelos óleos de menta e árvore-chá. O efeito fungitóxico do óleo de menta foi confirmado nos experimentos subsequentes, nos quais essa substância na concentração de 100 µL inibiu completamente o crescimento micelial invivo e in vitro do fungo C. gloeosporioides. Os óleos de alecrim e árvore-chá também afetam o crescimento micelial in vivo e in vitro desse fungo, embora em menor intensidade.


ABSTRACT Post-harvest papaya diseases are primarily responsible for the losses suffered during this process. Anthracnose is a disease caused by the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungus. This pathogen has the ability to settle in the immature fruit, remaining dormant until conditions become favorable for its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the fungicidal effect of essential oils on the C. gloeosporioides fungus. The experiments were undertaken in the Plant Health laboratory of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, at the University Unit of Cassilandia, where an evaluation was performed in three stages, namely: I) the effect of essential oils on spore germination, II) the in vitro action of oils on mycelium fungi, and III) the effect of essential oils on the fungus in papaya fruit. For the three phases, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 x 5 factorial arrangement (essential oils of rosemary, mint, lemongrass, anise, tea tree, and cinnamon) and five concentrations (0 uL, 10 uL, 30 uL, 50 uL, 100 uL) with five replications. The spore germination was drastically affected by the mint and tea tree oils. The fungitoxic effect of peppermint oil was confirmed in subsequent experiments in which this substance at a concentration of 100 uL completely inhibited the mycelial in vivo and in vitro growth of the C. gloeosporioides fungus. The rosemary and tea tree oils also affect the mycelial in vivo and in vitro growth of this fungus, albeit to a lesser degree.


Subject(s)
Carica/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification
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