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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 401-417, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415090

ABSTRACT

A pesquisa busca técnicas alternativas para expansão da vida de prateleira dos alimentos, isto tem impulsionado estudos sobre a utilização de conservantes naturais, tais como as bacteriocinas e óleos essenciais, que são considerados agentes antimicrobianos naturais. No entanto estes antimicrobianos naturais, não são adicionados diretamente em produtos alimentícios, devido a alterações sensoriais e em suas características físico e química. Com avanço tecnológico da microencapsulação, tem sido um potencial em fornecer sistemas que garantem estabilidade para os antimicrobianos naturais desta forma podendo compor a matriz de alimentos. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi microencapsular a enterocina produzida por Enterococcus durans MF5 e óleo de orégano usando leitelho. Para a microencapsulação, foram realizados três tratamentos: T1 controle leitelho, T2 leitelho/enterocina (LE), e T3 leitelho/enterocina/óleo (LEO). O material foi submetido ao processo de spray dryer e foram realizados ensaios para determinar a atividade antimicrobiana do material encapsulado contra as bactérias Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua e Listeria ivanovi. O rendimento da microencapsulação foi de 13,01% e 11,63% para LE e LEO, respectivamente. Os resultados apresentados nos microencapsulados LE e LEO mostraram inibição contra todas as bactérias teste, foi constatado que a microencapsulação de enterocina e óleo de orégano mantiveram seu poder antimicrobiano. A efetividade da microencapsulação foi realizada por (FTIR), onde picos de intensidade entre as amostras na região 1000 a 930 cm-¹ e 1800 a 1500 cm-¹ foram observadas. Os resultados apontam para mudança no perfil químico das amostras encapsuladas, corroborando com a hipótese que o leitelho apresentou papel encapsulante da bactericiona e óleo de orégano.Portanto a microencapsulação aumenta a eficácia antimicrobiana dos antimicrobianos.


The research seeks alternative techniques for expanding the shelf life of foods, this has driven studies on the use of natural preservatives, such as bacteriocins and essential oils, which are considered natural antimicrobial agents. However, these natural antimicrobials are not directly added to food products due to sensory changes and their physical and chemical characteristics. With technological advancement of microencap- sulation, it has been a potential to provide systems that ensure stability for natural anti- microbials in this way can compose the food matrix. Therefore, this study has an objective microencapsulated the interocin and essencial oil, used buttermilk as a encapsulating ma- terial where, T1 Buttermilk Control, T2 buttermilk/enterocin (LE), e T3 Buttermilk/en- terocin/oil (LEO). The product has been submitted to spray drier process, were conducted trials to determine antimicrobial activity. Was observed with mass yield 13,01% e 11,63% para LE e LEO. These results the microencapsulate indicate then LE e LEO there was inihibiton against bacteria tests. Was observed that the microencapsulated between enter- ocin and essential oil oregano maintained antimicrobial power. The effectiveness of the microencapsulated was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, where a sample in the region 1000 to 930 cm-¹ and 1800 to 1500 cm-¹ was observed. Therefore microencapsulation increases antimicrobial efficacy of antimicrobials.


La investigación busca técnicas alternativas para ampliar la vida útil de los alimentos, esto ha impulsado estudios sobre el uso de conservantes naturales, como las bacteriocinas y los aceites esenciales, que se consideran agentes antimicrobianos naturales. Sin embargo, estos antimicrobianos naturales no se añaden directamente a los productos alimentarios debido a los cambios sensoriales y a sus características físicas y químicas. Con el avance tecnológico de la microencapsulación, ha sido un potencial para proporcionar sistemas que garanticen la estabilidad de los antimicrobianos naturales de esta manera puede componer la matriz alimentaria. Por lo tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo microencapsular la interocina y el aceite esencial, utilizando suero de leche como material encapsulante donde, T1 Suero de leche Control, T2 Suero de leche/enterocina (LE), e T3 Suero de leche/enterocina/aceite (LEO). El producto ha sido sometido al proceso de secado por pulverización, se realizaron ensayos para determinar la actividad antimicrobiana. Se observó con rendimiento de masa 13,01% e 11,63% para LE e LEO. Estos resultados indican que el microencapsulado LE e LEO fue inhibido contra las pruebas bacterianas. Se observó que el microencapsulado entre enterocina y aceite esencial de orégano mantuvo el poder antimicrobiano. La eficacia del microencapsulado fue realizada por análisis de infrarrojo transformado de Fourier (FTIR), donde fue observada una muestra en la región de 1000 a 930 cm-¹ y de 1800 a 1500 cm-¹. Por lo tanto, la microencapsulación aumenta la eficacia antimicrobiana de los antimicrobianos. PALABRAS CLAVE: Bacteriocina; Enterococcus durans; Suero de Leche; Origanum vulgare; Spray Dryer.


Subject(s)
Origanum , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Buttermilk , Bacteriocins/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Enterococcus , Food Preservatives/analysis , Spray Drying , Listeria , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20060, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is wide spread in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical sectors. Dill is a member of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family. It has the following biological activities: antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antihypercholesterolemic, antispasmodic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory. Aqueous extract of dill seed has reported effects on sex hormones and infertility potential. Moreover, boiled dill seed has an impact on reducing labor duration in giving birth. Implantation and placentation are necessary for a healthy pregnancy in the early stages. Angiogenesis is responsible for these essential processes. This study aimed to investigate dill seed oil's cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effects on rat adipose tissue endothelial cells (RATECs). Dill seed oil showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity on RATECs. It disrupted endothelial tube formation and depolymerized F-actin stress fibers. According to this study, depolymerization of F-actin stress fiber by dill seed oil could inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation and motility. In other words, dill seed oil can be a new anti-angiogenic agent and a novel contraceptive.


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anethum graveolens/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Contraceptive Agents/classification , Infertility/pathology
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21117, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The phenolic compound content, the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potentials of different extracts of the Plectranthus amboinicus, P. barbatus and P. ornatus were evaluated. We also evaluated the influence of plant growth and harvest time on the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) of P. amboinicus, its antioxidant and anti-Candida activities and the α-amylase and lipoxygenase inhibitions. The turbo-extract of P. barbatus showed the greatest phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. No α-amylase inhibition activity was observed in the analyzed extracts, but the turbo-extraction and refluxing extracts possessed high antioxidant activities. Protected cultivation and morning harvest conditions gave the best antioxidant activities, which was associated to the highest carvacrol content. P. amboinicus EO antioxidant activity could contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. Causal Candida strains of diabetic foot ulcers showed sensitivity to P. amboinicus EO. C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were the most sensitive of the selected Candida strains. Turbo-extracts or refluxing of the three species extracts and the EO of P. amboinicus should be considered as a potential candidate for the management the complications of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Triage/classification , Plectranthus/adverse effects , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Antioxidants/analysis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468952

ABSTRACT

Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Thymus Extracts/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Silver , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Food Preservation
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1194-1202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970590

ABSTRACT

Ionic liquids(ILs) are salts composed entirely of anions and cations in a liquid state at or near room temperature, which have a variety of good physicochemical properties such as low volatility and high stability. This paper mainly reviewed the research overview of ILs in the application of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) volatile oil preparation technology. Firstly, it briefly introduced the application of TCM volatile oil preparation technology and composition classification and physicochemical properties of ILs, and then summarized the application of ILs in the extraction, separation, analysis, and preparation of TCM volatile oil. Finally, the problems and challenges of ILs in the application of TCM volatile oil were explained, and the application of ILs in TCM volatile oil in the future was prospected.


Subject(s)
Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Cations , Biological Products , Technology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1815-1823, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981399

ABSTRACT

It is generally believed that high-quality Bupleurum scorzonerifolium roots possess specific morphological characteristics, being red, robust, and long with strong odor. However, the scientific connotation of these characteristics has not been elucidated. According to the theory of "quality evaluation through morphological identification", we studied the correlations between appearance traits(the RGB value of root surface, root length, root diameter, dry weight, and ratio of phloem to xylem) and content of main chemical components(volatile oils, total saponins, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, and seven saikosaponins) of B. scorzonerifolium roots. Epson Scanner and ImageJ were used to scan the root samples and measure the appearance traits. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were employed to determine the content of chemical components. The correlation, regression, and cluster analyses were performed to study the correlations between the appearance traits and the content of chemical components. The results showed that the content of volatile oils and saikosaponins were significantly correlated with RGB value, root length, and root diameter, indicating that within a certain range, the roots being redder, longer, and thicker had higher content of volatile oils and saikosaponins. According to the appearance traits and chemical component content, the 14 samples from different producing areas were classified into four grades, and the differences in morphological traits and chemical component content were consistent among different grades. The findings in this study demonstrate that appearance traits(RGB value, root length, and root diameter) can be used to evaluate the quality of B. scorzonerifolium roots. Meanwhile, this study lays a foundation for establishing an objective quality evaluation method for B. scorzonerifolium roots.


Subject(s)
Bupleurum/chemistry , Saponins/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23068, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bovine infectious mastitis is largely resistant to antibacterial treatment, mainly due to mechanisms of bacterial resistance in the biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Melaleuca (MEO) and citronella essential oils (CEO) are promising agents for reducing or eliminating biofilms. Free melaleuca oil presented a medium Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 0.625% and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 1.250%, while free citronella oil showed medium MIC and MBC of 0.313%. Thus, free CEO and MEO demonstrate bacteriostatic and bactericidal potential. We generated polymeric nanocapsules containing MEO or CEO and evaluated their efficacy at reducing biofilms formed by S. aureus. Glass and polypropylene spheres were used as test surfaces. To compare the responses of free and encapsulated oils, strains were submitted to 10 different procedures, using free and nanoencapsulated essential oils (EOs) in vitro. We observed no biofilm reduction by MEO, free or nanoencapsulated. However, CEO nanocapsules reduced biofilm formation on glass (p=0.03) and showed a tendency to diminish biofilms on polypropylene (p=0.051). Despite nanoencapsulated CEO reducing biofilms in vitro, the formulation could be improved to modify the CEO component polarity and, including MEO, to obtain more interactions with surfaces and the biofilm matrix


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Biofilms/classification , Nanocapsules/adverse effects , Mastitis, Bovine/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Melaleuca/adverse effects , Cymbopogon/adverse effects
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20417, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi green fruits essential oil (EO) was evaluated regarding its phytochemical profile, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and toxicity. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was applied to identify its constituents, thereafter the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations, and its antibiofilm activity were evaluated. The EO cytotoxicity was assessed in tumor and non-tumor human cells, and in vivo toxicity was evaluated in a Galleria mellonella model. The major constituents of S. terebinthifolia EO were alpha-phellandrene and beta-phellandrene. The EO had a weak activity against all strains of Candida albicans (MIC 1000µg/mL) and had no activity against non-albicans strains, bacteria, and C. albicans biofilm. Cytostatic activity against all tumor cell lines was shown. Additionally, cell viability remained at EO concentrations up to 62.5 µg/mL. At 16 mg/mL, 50% hemolysis was observed, and it had low toxicity in vivo. Overall, the S. terebinthifolia EO was characterized by low antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities, with no evidence of toxicity to human tumor and non-tumor cells


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Anacardiaceae/anatomy & histology , Fruit/classification , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Toxicity , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 87 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379165

ABSTRACT

Um dos principais grupos de conservantes utilizados na maioria dos cosméticos são os parabenos que em muitos estudos demonstraram que podem provocar reações alérgicas como dermatite de contato, entre outras sensibilizações cutâneas. A fim de minimizar esses problemas, a indústria está produzindo cosméticos livres de conservantes ou de origem natural e em associações aos sintéticos. Dentre os conservantes naturais utilizados, podemos citar os óleos essenciais como uma alternativa viável. Diante deste contexto o presente trabalho visa avaliar experimentalmente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial de Conobea scoparioides Cham. & Schltdl., conhecida popularmente como pataqueira, o efeito de sua associação com parabenos e de sua eficácia como conservante em bases cosméticas. A composição do óleo essencial foi avaliada, indicando que este é composto em sua maior parte por terpenos, tendo éter metílico do timol (39,2%), timol (33,8 %) e α-felandreno (15,9%) como compostos majoritários. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e do timol foi acessada através da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), cujos resultados em µg/mL para o óleo essencial e o timol foram respectivamente: Staphylococcus aureus 650,70 e 284,90, Escherichia coli 721,53 e 271,20, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1748,00 e > 2.000, Burkholderia cepacia 833,03 e 1.077,70, Candida albicans 521,43 e 172,61 e Aspergillus brasiliensis 300 e 400. O efeito sinérgico da associação do óleo essencial com os parabenos foi realizado através de um delineamento experimental centroide simplex para uma mistura de metilparabeno, propilparabeno e óleo essencial frente aos mesmos micro-organismos utilizados na determinação da atividade antimicrobiana. As concentrações ideais obtidas pela análise estatística para cada componente em µg/mL foram: 1120 para o metilparabeno, 350 para o propilparabeno e 675 para o óleo essencial. O teste de eficácia do sistema conservante em formulação cosmética foi efetuado empregando as concentrações ideais e mais duas concentrações superiores e uma abaixo do ideal. Para todas as cepas microbianas desafiadas o resultado do teste foi de redução total da carga microbiana inoculada nos sete dias de ensaio e nenhum aumento até o vigésimo oitavo dia o que demonstra a eficácia da associação do óleo essencial com os conservantes sintéticos. O óleo essencial de C. scoparioides apresentou um potencial antimicrobiano importante tanto sozinho como em associação com conservantes sintéticos. Estes resultados sugerem que esse óleo pode ser usado para compor um sistema conservante para formulações cosméticas contendo uma menor quantidade de sintéticos


One of the main groups of preservatives used in most cosmetics are parabens, that many studies have shown that they can cause allergic reactions such as contact dermatitis, among other skin sensitizations. To minimize these problems, the industry is producing cosmetics preservative free or using natural products instead and their combination with the synthetics. Among the natural preservatives used, we can mention essential oils as a viable alternative. In this context, the present work aims to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the Conobea scoparioides Cham. & Schltdl. essential oil, popularly known as pataqueira, the effect of its association with parabens and its effectiveness as a preservative in cosmetic bases. The essential oil composition was analyzed, indicating that it is composed mostly of terpenes, with thymol methyl ether (39.2%), thymol (33.8%) and -phelandrene (15.9%) as major compounds. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil and thymol was accessed through the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), whose results in µg/mL for essential oil and thymol were respectively: Staphylococcus aureus 650.70 and 284.90, Escherichia coli 721, 53 and 271.20, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1748.00 and > 2,000, Burkholderia cepacia 833.03 and 1,077.70, Candida albicans 521.43 and 172.61 and Aspergillus brasiliensis 300 and 400. The synergistic effect of the association of essential oil with parabens was performed through a centroid simplex experimental design for a mixture of methylparaben, propylparaben and essential oil against the same microorganisms used in the antimicrobial activity evaluation The ideal concentrations obtained by statistical analysis for each component in µg/mL were: 1120 for methylparaben, 350 for propylparaben and 675 for essential oil. The effectiveness test of the preservative system in cosmetic formulation was carried out using the ideal concentrations plus two higher concentrations and one below the ideal. For all challenged microbial strains, the test result was a total reduction of the inoculated microbial load in the seven days of testing and no increase until the twenty-eighth day, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the association of essential oil with synthetic preservatives. C. scoparioides essential oil showed an important antimicrobial potential both alone and in association with parabens. These results demonstrated that it can be used to compose a preservative system for cosmetic formulations containing lower amounts of synthetics


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Cosmetics , Plantaginaceae/classification , Parabens/pharmacology , Skin , Burkholderia cepacia/classification , Additives in Cosmetics , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19118, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374566

ABSTRACT

Abstract The chemically complex essential oils of Baccharis species are associated with several biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antiulcerous properties. However, few studies have investigated Baccharis erioclada DC. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to characterize the essential oil of B. erioclada and evaluate its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and hemolytic potential. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phosphomolybdenum complex formation, reducing antioxidant power, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) methods were used to determine antioxidant potential. To evaluate the essential oil's antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were calculated. Hemolytic activity was determined in sheep red blood cells. Thirty-one compounds were identified via GC-MS analysis, representing 81.60% of the total essential oil. These compounds included: turmerone (27.97%), fokienol (13.47%), ledol (9.78%), and santalol (5.35%). The class of compounds identified was the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (62.52%). Antioxidant activity was confirmed via phosphomolybdenum complex formation and TBARS methods. Moderate antimicrobial activity and low hemolysis rates were displayed at concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Baccharis/anatomy & histology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Asteraceae/classification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19233, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374569

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the metabolite profiling of methanolic extract from aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, as an endemic medicinal plant from Iran, was evaluated using HPLC-PDA-ESI. Then, the main compound from the extract was isolated and purified by using extensive chromatographic techniques. In addition, the structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectrometry, upon which 22 compounds were identified. The antibacterial activity of diosmetin 7-rutinoside (6) and linarin (13) in combination with carvacrol as a major compound of the essential oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus through disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results indicated that the linarin, when mixed with carvacrol as the main compounds in the essential oil of the plant, has a satisfactory activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.16 and 0.18 µg/mL, respectively. Further, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index indicated that this compound had synergism with carvacrol.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Satureja/classification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 103 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378523

ABSTRACT

O Brasil é o país que possui a maior diversidade de bambus em todo o continente americano, com mais de 200 espécies catalogadas. Devido à alta resistência e durabilidade, essas espécies são muito utilizadas na construção civil e confecção de móveis e utensílios. No entanto, faltam estudos que investiguem a composição química e as atividades biológicas. Neste projeto foram avaliados extratos etanólicos de folhas e colmos de Guadua chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño & P.M. Peterson e frações em hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e n-butanol. Também se obteve o óleo volátil, mas com um rendimento extremamente baixo (0,00079%). As frações dos extratos apresentaram teores de compostos fenólicos variando entre 1,92 e 15,80 µg EAG/mg. Esses compostos mostraram-se mais abundantes nas amostras de colmos. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides, as folhas apresentaram maior quantidade, variando entre 0,39 e 1,18 µg EQ/mg contra 0,17 a 0,34 µg EQ/mg nos colmos. Investigou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos, frações e óleo volátil frente cinco microrganismos: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans e Aspergillus brasiliensis. As amostras demonstraram potencial inibitório moderado a bom contra S. aureus e C. albicans, porém fraca para as demais espécies. Testou-se a capacidade antioxidante frente o radical DPPH e os resultados indicaram atividade antioxidante significativa, especialmente as frações acetato e butanol de colmos. As folhas apresentaram EC50 variando entre 67,5 e 124,0 µg/mL e os colmos entre 40,2 e 124 µg/mL. A inibição da enzima tirosinase, que está associada à produção de melanina, também se mostrou boa a uma concentração de 1 mg/mL, com o extrato bruto de colmos apresentando 43% de inibição, seguido pelas frações acetato (36%) e n-butanol (38%) de folhas. As análises por CG-MS detectaram pelo menos 44 compostos diferentes no óleo volátil, com vários terpenos e sesquiterpenos, e com ß-ionona sendo o componente majoritário (8,75%). As amostras de colmos e folhas apontaram grande diversidade de compostos, cerca de 20 para cada fração, onde os ácidos graxos como ácido palmítico e linoleico e seus ésteres derivados foram os mais abundantes. A análise dos perfis cromatográficos por CCD e CLAE revelaram a presença de ácido p-cumárico nos colmos de G. chacoensis. Esse composto tem relevante atividade antioxidante e de inibição da tirosinase. Também foi possível identificar a quercetagetina-7-O-glicosídeo, uma flavona glicosilada, com propriedades anti-inflamatorias e antidiabéticas. Desta forma, constatou-se que G. chacoensis apresenta grande diversidade de metabólitos secundários com atividades biológicas relevantes, como atividade antioxidante e clareadora, abrindo caminho para investigações mais profundas de suas aplicações, especialmente no segmento de cosméticos e produtos naturais


Brazil is the country with the greatest diversity of bamboo in the entire American continent, with more than 200 species catalogued. Due to their high resistance and durability, they are widely used in home construction and manufacture of furniture and utensils. However, studies investigating chemical composition and biological activities are absent. In this project, ethanol extracts from leaves and stems of Guadua chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño & P.M. Peterson and fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were evaluated. Volatile oil was also obtained, but with an extremely low yield (0.00079%). The fractions of the extracts presented contents of phenolic compounds varying between 1.92 and 15.80 µg GAE/mg. These compounds were more abundant in culm samples. In relation to the flavonoid content, leaves showed a greater amount, varying between 0.39 and 1.18 µg QE/mg against 0.17 to 0.34 µg QE/mg in culms. The antimicrobial activity of extracts, fractions and volatile oil were investigated against five microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The samples showed moderate to good inhibitory potential against S. aureus and C. albicans, but weak for the other species. The antioxidant capacity was tested against the DPPH radical and the results indicated significant antioxidant activity, especially acetate and butanol culm fractions. The leaves presented EC50 varying between 67.5 and 124.0 µg/mL and culms between 40.2 and 124 µg/mL. The inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is associated with the production of melanin, was also shown to be good at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, with the raw culm extract showing 43% inhibition, followed by acetate (36%) and n-butanol (38%) fractions of leaves. CG-MS analysis detected at least 44 different compounds in volatile oil, with several terpenes and sesquiterpenes, and with ß-ionone being the major component (8.75%). Culm and leaf samples showed great diversity of compounds, about 20 for each fraction, where fatty acids such as palmitic and linoleic acid and their derivative esters were the most abundant. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles by TLC and HPLC revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid in culms of G. chacoensis. This compound has relevant antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibiting activity. It was also possible to identify quercetagetine-7-O-glucoside, a glycosylated flavone, with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Thus, it was found that G. chacoensis presents a great diversity of secondary metabolites with relevant biological activities, such as antioxidant and whitening activity, opening ways for deeper investigations of its applications, especially in the segment of cosmetics and natural products


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/metabolism , Plant Extracts/agonists , Bambusa/adverse effects , Poaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Monophenol Monooxygenase/classification , 1-Butanol , Bambusa/chemistry
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19331, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383985

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the current study was to determine the chemical constituents of essential oil and to study the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and the extracts obtained from the raw material of Ziziphora wild growing in the floras of Armenia and Artsakh cultivated in the hydroponic conditions. The essential oils were obtained by the method of hydro-distillation. The determination of the essential oil constituents were performed by the GC-MS method. Agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. The antioxidant activity determination was carried out DPPH test by the spectrophotometric method, at the same time IC50 was determined. The highest values of the essential oils yield (1.25 ± 0.01%) and IC50 13.83±0.218(x10-5)g/l) were received for the plant cultivated in hydroponic conditions. For the first time in the above studied samples, by the method of GC-MS more than 70 components were revealed. The results of the study showed that essential oils of Ziziphora exhibit antimicrobial activity and the extracts revealed relatively expressed antioxidant activity. The study results show the future prospects of the use of Ziziphora not only as the source of flavonoids and essential oils, but also antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lamiaceae/classification , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 360-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the volatile constituents and their contents in the roots of 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica and analyze the chemical relationship among the plants of A. dahurica.@*METHODS@#The essential oil was extracted from the roots of 5 cultivated plants of Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica by water steam distillation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to separate and identify all the volatile oil components in the extracts, and their relative contents were calculated with area normalization method. We also conducted clustering analysis and principal component analysis of the volatile oil components.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 81 compounds from the roots of the 6 plants of Angelica dahurica, including 27 in Chuanbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 34 in Hangbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 24 in Qibaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Qibaizhi'), 32 in Yubaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), 28 in Bobahizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), and 34 in Xinganbaizhi (Angelica dahuirca). These compounds included, in the order of their relative contents (from high to low), alkanes, olefins, esters, organic acids and alcohols. Among the common components found in the roots of all the plants of A. dahurica, nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid were identified as the volatile oil components that showed the highest relative contents. Clustering analysis of the volatile oil components showed that wild Angelica dahurica (Xing'anbaizhi) and the 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica (Chuanbaizhi, Hangbaizhi, Qibaizhi, Yubaizhi, Bobaizhi) could be divided into two groups, and the cultivated Angelica dahurica could be divided into two subgroups: Chuanbaizhi, Yubaizhi and Hangbahizhi were clustered in one subgroup, and Qibaizhi and Bobaizhi in another. The results of principal component analysis was consistent with those of clustering analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The main volatile oil components and their contents vary among the 6 plants of A. dahurica. Nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid are the most abundant volatile oil components in all the plants of A. dahurica, which can be divided into two clusters.


Subject(s)
Angelica/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20575, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420470

ABSTRACT

Abstract The composition and pharmacological properties of Lippia alba (Mill.) (L. alba) (Verbenaceae) flower and leaf essential oils (EO) were determined in this study. The major constituents in the flower EO were geranial (49.83%) and neral (32.75%), and in the leaf EO were geranial (38.06%), neral (31.02%), and limonene (18.03%). Flower EO inhibited thrombolysis induced by Bothrops moojeni (B. moojeni) and Lachesis muta muta (L. muta muta) venoms (0.05-1.2 µL mL-1). When tested against L. muta muta venom, the protective effect was smaller in both EO. The EOs prolonged the clotting time induced by L. muta muta venom and a procoagulant effect was observed on B. moojeni. In the comet assay, the flower EO presented anti-genotoxic action (damage frequency of only 11.6 - 34.9%) against the L. muta muta venom. The positive control (Doxorubicin) and the venom alone presented a damage frequency of 80.3% and 70.7%, respectively. The flower EO protected DNA from damage induced by L. muta muta venom. L. alba leaf and flower EOs presented anti-genotoxic action


Subject(s)
Biological Products/analysis , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lippia/adverse effects , Plant Leaves/classification , Comet Assay/instrumentation , Flowers/classification , Elapid Venoms/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemostasis
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21609, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420501

ABSTRACT

Abstract The potential of the biome caatinga (exclusive from northeastern Brazil) has been evaluated in recent research for application in the pharmaceutical industry. Among the species of medicinal plants from caatinga, one can highlight the Commiphora leptophloeos (umburana), which has been used as infusions and syrups by the regional population for inflammatory and infectious diseases. Essential oils from umburana leaves and barks were obtained in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. It was observed that a large part of the major compounds present in the essential oil is described as having antitumor activity, enabling research in investigational oncology with umburana (C. leptophloeos). In addition, some little explored components have been identified, such as cadinene, alpha-selinene, and elemenone. Despite being easily found in several plants, there are no clinical trials involving their biological activity in a well-defined isolated form, which could make exploring new studies possible. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids allows future studies about the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Bursera/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Drug Industry/classification
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201209, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420457

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study describes chemical composition, phytochemicals, antifungal activities, antioxidant assays and total phenolic content of essential oil and varied polarity solvent extract from flowers of Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.). Total 27 components were identified in essential oil by GC-MS with terpinen-4-ol (28.6%) and α- terpineol (12.8%) as the main constituent. The essential oil was found to have maximal levels of phenolic content (64.60 µg/mL) as compared to the other extracts. The antioxidant assay evaluated in extracts and essential oil by different methods revealed good-to-moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (188.02 -250.25 µg/mL) in Fe3+ reducing power, (153.15-201.59 µg/mL) in Fe2+ metal-chelating ability, (130.39-181.12 µg/mL) in DPPH, (88.29-187.32 µg/mL) in OH radical, (79.04-156.79 µg/mL), in NO radical and (138.72-233.00 µg/mL) in superoxide anion scavenging activities, respectively. The methanolic extract display remarkable fungicidal activity against the tested pathogens followed by dichloromethane extract, essential oil, hexane extract and petroleum ether extract respectively, with MIC values ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/mL. Based on results, it can be inferred that the flower of A. malaccensis if explored further for its medicinal properties, might be a good source to develop a safe and sustainable natural food preservative


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Flowers/classification , Alpinia/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20780, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The monoterpene 4-carvomenthenol (Carvo) is found in essential oils of plant. Here, we evaluate the Carvo oral pretreatment in acute inflammatory experimental models and in silico molecular docking. Mice pretreated with Carvo were challenged and submitted to the protocols: paw edema, peritonitis, scratching behavior and anaphylactic shock reaction. Besides, we used histamine H1 receptor, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and phospholipase A2, as targets for molecular docking analysis. Carvo inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreased the peritoneal influx of polymorphonuclear cells on carrageenan-challenged mice without interfering with the mononuclear cell influx. Moreover, Carvo diminished the histamine, PGE2 and compound 48/80 induced paw edematogenic effect. The monoterpene also diminished the mice scratching behavior and, surprisingly, avoided the animal death caused by compound 48/80 in 30 min. Through the docking analysis, Carvo showed favorable binding energy to the histamine H1 receptor. This study demonstrates that Carvo attenuated the allergic inflammatory process, decreasing edema, cell migration, activation of mast cells and the histamine release, probably due to interaction of Carvo with the histamine H1 receptor, ameliorating the itching and the anaphylactic shock reaction. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that Carvo has anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the histamine effects.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Monoterpenes/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Herbal Medicine/instrumentation , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/diagnosis
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21131, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420447

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study is aimed to develop a monolithic controlled matrix transdermal patches containing Metoclopramide as a model drug by solvent casting method. Eudragit L100, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, and Methylcellulose were used in different ratios and Polyethylene glycol 400 added as a plasticizer. Resulting patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characters like organoleptic characters, weight variation, folding endurance, thickness, swelling index, flatness, drug content, swelling index, percentage erosion, moisture content, water vapor transmission rate and moisture uptake. Formed patches were also evaluated through Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results of SEM unveiled smooth surface of drug-loaded patches. In-vitro dissolution studies were conducted by using dissolution medium phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. Effect of natural permeation enhancers was elucidated on two optimized formulations (Z4 and Z9). Different concentrations (5%-10 %) of permeation enhancers i.e. Olive oil, Castor oil and Eucalyptus oil were evaluated on Franz diffusion cell using excised abdominal rat skin. Z4-O2 (Olive oil 10%) had enhanced sustain effect and flux value (310.72) close to the desired flux value. Z4-O2 followed Higuchi release model (R2= 0.9833) with non-fickian diffusion release mechanism (n=0.612)


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Metoclopramide/agonists , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
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