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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

ABSTRACT

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Ecuador , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468828

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Citrus/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Limonene/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/chemistry
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 418-430, jul. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524860

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Comparative study GC - FID /M S of essential oils of fruits, leaves and roots of the endemic plant Angelica pancicii Vandas ex Velen. revealed a significant difference in their chemical composition. The enantiomeric purity of the main component in the fruit oil (+) - ß - phellandrene was a lso confirmed. In addition, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angeloylpangelin and umbelliprenin were isolated from the fruit hexane extract. The content of these coumarins in the hexane extracts from different plant parts was further determined by HPLC. The essential oils and hexane extracts were assessed for their antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect towards  - amylase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. The fruit and leaf essential oils (> 80%) as well as the fruit he xane extract (> 62%) significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Distinguish free radical scavenging properties were detected for the leaf (Inh. 95.0 ± 2.2 %) and the root (Inh. 66.0 ± 2.4 %) extracts.


Resumen: Estudio comparativo GC - FID / MS de aceites esenciales de frutas, hojas y raíces de la planta endémica Angelica pancicii Vandas ex Velen revelaron una dife rencia significativa en su composición química. También se confirmó la pureza enantiomérica del componente principal del aceite de fruta (+) - ß - felandreno. Además, se aislaron imperatorina, isoimperatorina, oxipeucedanina, hidrato de oxipeucedanina, angeloi lpangelina y umbeliprenina del extracto de hexano del fruto. El contenido de estas cumarinas en los extractos de hexano de diferentes partes de la planta se determinó adicionalmente mediante HPLC. Los aceites esenciales y extractos de hexano se evaluaron p or su potencial antioxidante efecto inhibidor de las enzimas -  - amilasa y acetilcolinesterasa. Los aceites esenciales de frutas y hojas (> 80%), así como el extracto de hexano de frutas (> 62%) inhibieron significativamente la enzima acetilcolinesterasa. Se detectaron propiedades de captación de radicales libres diferenciadas para los extractos de hoja (Inh. 95,0 ± 2,2%) y de raíz (Inh. 66,0 ± 2,4%).


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Angelica/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antioxidants
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 431-445, jul. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526319

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aerial part of Aloysia gratissima (Gil lies & Hook. ex Hook.) Tronc., "Usillo", is used as aromatic and medicinal. It is a shrub of up to 3 meters, distributed in North America, from the south of the USA to the north of Mexico, and in South America up to the 37th parallel. As in other native sp ecies, the demand is covered by harvesting in wild populations, which brings about the deterioration of the resource and lack of homogeneity of the harvested product. The variability was characterized in nine populations of A. gratissima var. gratissima fr om the northeast of San Luis, Argentina, based on morphological and phytochemical characters. It was found that the species in the region presents considerable heterogeneity. Diversity was detected in the chemical characteristics of the essential oils anal yzed and the prevalence of mono and sesquiterpenes was related to the olfactory identities identified. The main components were the sesquiterpene spatulenol and the monoterpene 1,8 cineole


Resumen: La parte aérea de Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook. ex Hook.) Tronc., "usillo", es utilizada como aromática y medicinal. Es un arbusto de hasta 3 metros, distribuido en Norteamerica, desde e l sur de EEUU hasta el norte de México, y en Sudamerica hasta el paralelo 37°. Al igual que en otras especies nativas, la demanda es cubierta por recolección en poblaciones silvestres, lo cual trae aparejado el deterioro del recurso y falta de homogeneidad del producto cosechado. Se caracterizó la variabilidad en nueve poblaciones de A. gratissima var. gratissima del noreste de San Luis, Argentina, en base a caracteres morfológicos y fitoquímicos. Se encontró que la especie en la región presenta una conside rable heterogeneidad. Se detectó diversidad en las características químicas de los aceites esenciales analizados y se relacionó la prevalencia de mono y sesquiterpenos con las identidades olfativas identificadas. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron el sesq uiterpeno espatulenol y el monoterpeno 1,8 cineol.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Verbenaceae/metabolism , Argentina
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 455-463, jul. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526702

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition, physical properties and acetylcholinesterase (A ChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity of stem - distilled essential oil (E O ) from Bursera graveolens wood chips, Burseraceae. The plant material was acquired in Quimis (Bosque de Sancán), city of Jipijapa in the province of Manabí, coastal region o f Ecuador. Thirty - six components were identified by CG - MS, which represented 98.54% of the volatile oil. The main components were limonene (68.52%) and mentofuran (20.37%). The hydrocarbon monoterpenes constituted the most abundant fractions. The average y ield of the E O was 1.26%. Regarding the physical properties of E O , the following values were obtained: relative density (1,029 g/mL), refractive index (1,477) and specific rotation (+4,567). The E O presented IC 50 inhibition values of 47.2 and 51.9 µg/mL fo r the enzymes AChE and BuChE, respectively.


Resumen: Este artículo describe la composición química, propiedades físicas y actividad acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) y butirilcolinesterasa (BuChE) del aceite esencial (AE) destilado a vapor de astillas de madera de Bursera graveolens , Burseraceae. La materia vegetal fue adquirida en Quimis (Bosque de Sancán), ciudad de Jipijapa en la provincia de Manabí, región costera d e Ecuador. Treinta y seis componentes fueron identificados por CG - MS, que representaron al 98.54 % del aceite volátil. Los componentes principales fueron limoneno (68.52%) y mentofurano (20.37%). Los monoterpenos hidrocarburos constituyeron las fracciones m ás abundantes. El rendimiento medio del AE fue de 1.26%. Con respecto a las propiedades físicas del AE se obtuvo los siguientes valores, densidad relativa (1.029 g/mL), índice de refracción (1.477) y rotación específica (+4.567). El AE presentó valores de inhibición IC 50 de 47.2 y 51.9 µg/mL para las enzimas AChE y BuChE, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Bursera/metabolism , Bursera/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Butyrylcholinesterase/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ecuador
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881

ABSTRACT

Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.


El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 156-175, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393371

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordia were reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.


El propósito de esta revisión sistemática fue identificar la literatura disponible sobre el aceite esencial de especies del género Cordia. Este estudio siguió los elementos de informe preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas. La búsqueda se realizó en cuatro bases de datos: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct y Scopus hasta el 5 de junio de 2020, sin restricciones de tiempo ni de idioma. Sesenta de los 1.333 estudios reunidos inicialmente cumplieron los criterios de inclusión después del proceso de selección. Se informaron nueve especies de Cordia en los estudios seleccionados, de los cuales el 79% de los estudios evaluados informaron aceite esencial de Cordia curassavica. Los métodos de extracción de aceite esencial identificados fueron la hidrodestilación y la destilación al vapor. En cuanto a la aplicación biológica, las actividades antimicrobianas, antiinflamatorias, larvicidas y antioxidantes fueron las más reportadas. Los principales compuestos reportados para el aceite esencial fueron ß-cariofileno, α-humuleno, α-pineno, biciclogermacreno y sabineno. La información reportada en esta revisión sistemática puede contribuir científicamente al reconocimiento de la importancia del género Cordia.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cordia/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Monoterpenes/analysis
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 207-214, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395229

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the main constituent, the predominant class and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pimenta dioica and the pattern of the major constituent against larvae in the third stage of Aedes aegypti. For this reason, we extracted the oil by hydrodistillation, identified its components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and calculated the lethal concentration (LC50) of the larvicidal activity using the Reed-Muench method. The results show that the oil consists mainly of eugenol, in which the phenylpropanoid class predominated and the lethal concentration, LC50, was 38.86 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.25 µg mL-1, while the eugenol standard presented LC5079.75 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.10 µg mL-1. Given the facts, we conclude that the oil is more active than the standard and that it has the potential to replace chemical larvicides.


En este estudio, investigamos el constituyente principal, la clase predominante y la actividad biológica del aceite esencial extraído de las hojas de Pimenta dioica y el patrón del constituyente principal contra las larvas en la tercera etapa de Aedes aegypti. Por este motivo, extrajimos el aceite por hidrodestilación, identificamos sus componentes mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) y calculamos la concentración letal (CL50) de la actividad larvicida mediante el método Reed-Muench. Los resultados muestran que el aceite está constituido principalmente por eugenol, en el que predominó la clase fenilpropanoide y la concentración letal, CL50, fue de 38,86 µg.mL-1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,25 µg.mL-1, mientras que el estándar de eugenol presentó CL50 79,75 µg.mL -1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,10 µg.mL-1. Dados los hechos, concluimos que el aceite es más activo que el estándar y que tiene el potencial de reemplazar los larvicidas químicos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Pimenta/chemistry , Larvicides , Biological Assay , Biological Products , Eugenol/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e181097, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Essential oils from four Ocotea species collected in southern Brazil were evaluated for chemical composition using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The primary compound identified in O. acutifolia essential oil was an unsaturated tetracyclic diterpene, phyllocladene (67.7%), followed by a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, ß-selinene (18.0%). The sesquiterpene fraction was predominant in oils from two collections of O. puberula; ß-caryophyllene (25.2%) and globulol (22.6%) were the major compounds identified in collections 1 and 2, respectively. O. silvestris essential oil contained predominantly germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. These compounds were also predominant in essential oil from O. indecora leaves collected from shady habitats. By contrast, essential oil extracted from O. indecora grown under direct sunlight contained mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes, such as guaiol (30.2%), α-eudesmol (27.6%), and ß-eudesmol (12.7%). Chemotaxis assays showed that Ocotea essential oils had no significant inhibitory activity on leukocyte migration compared with a chemotactic stimulant (lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli). However, the oils exhibited antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 500 µg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the in vitro antifungal and antichemotactic activities of essential oils from Ocotea species native to southern Brazil


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Biological Products , Ecosystem , Lauraceae/classification , Candida parapsilosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
11.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 83(2): 19-23, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1381646

ABSTRACT

A alta viabilidade de sementes de espécies forrageiras é fundamental para um bom desempenho e estabelecimento das culturas a campo. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do preparado homeopático Silicea terra 12 CH e a homeopatização de óleos essenciais de aroeira e alecrim-do-campo na 6CH na superação de dormência e germinação de sementes de Avena strigosa (Aveia preta), Lolium multiflorum (Azevém anual) e Paspalum notatum (Pensacola). Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Homeopatia e Saúde Vegetal da EPAGRI e no Laboratório de Sementes da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Lages/SC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 50 sementes e 4 repetições para cada espécie. As sementes foram dispostas em papel germitest e condicionadas em câmaras de germinação. As espécies foram avaliadas quanto a viabilidade (1ª contagem) e com teste padrão de germinação indicado nas Regras de Análises de Sementes. Os dados foram analisados com auxílio do ambiente R, considerando o nível de 5% de significância. Os resultados encontrados indicaram que o preparado homeopático Silicea terra 12CH atuou na velocidade de germinação, promovendo maiores taxas germinativas para todas as sementes testadas durante a primeira contagem. O índice de germinação da espécie Pensacola foi superior com o uso de Silicea terra 12CH ao final do experimento, diferindo significativamente do controle. O uso de óleo essencial homeopatizado de alecrim-do- -campo e aroeira atuaram sobre a viabilidade de azevém-anual na primeira contagem. Preparados homeopáticos e óleo essencial homeopatizado podem auxiliar na quebra de dormência de sementes de espécies forrageiras.


The high viability of forage species seeds is fundamental for a good performance and establishment of crops in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the homeopathic preparation Silicea terra 12 CH and the homeopathization of essential oils of mastic and rosemary-of-the-field in 6CH in overcoming dormancy and germination of Avena strigosa (black oat) seeds, Lolium multiflorum (anual Ryegrass) and Paspalum notatum (Pensacola). The experiments were conducted at the EPAGRI Homeopathy and Plant Health Laboratory and at the Seed Laboratory at the State University of Santa Catarina, Lages / SC. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 50 seeds and 4 replicates for each species. The seeds were placed on germitest paper and conditioned in germination chambers. The species were evaluated for viability (1st count) and with a standard germination test indicated in the Seed Analysis Rules. The data were analyzed with the aid of the R environment, considering the level of 5% of significance. The findings indicated that the homeopathic preparation Silicea terra 12CH acted at the germination speed promoting higher germination rates for all seeds tested during the first count. The germination index of the Pensacola species was higher with the use of Silicea terra 12CH at the end of the experiment, differing significantly from the control. The use of homeopathized essential oil of rosemary- -of-the-field and mastic influenced the viability of ryegrass in the first count. Homeopathic preparations and homeopathized essential oils can assist in breaking dormancy of seeds of forage species.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Dynamization , Poaceae
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 649-659, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369974

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the production and composition of lavender essential oil, simultaneously at open field and greenhouse, in spring-summer season, under different types of fertilization. Each cultivation system was considered an experiment (field and greenhouse), and in both, the experimental design used was randomized blocks, with five treatments, being fertilization with nutrient source -100% mineral (100%M), 100% organic (100%O), 100% organomineral (100%OM), 50% organomineral (50%OM), and without fertilization (control), and three repetitions. Better performance and productivity of Lavandula dentatais related to respectively 100% OM and 50% OM fertilization in the field and greenhouse. The essential oil content does not differ between cultivation systems and kind of fertilizers, and the majorities compounds were 1.8-cineol, fenchone and camphor.


El objetivo fue evaluar la producción y composición del aceite esencial de lavanda a campo abierto e invernadero simultáneamente, en la temporada primavera-verano, bajo diferentes tipos de fertilización. Cada sistema de cultivo fue considerado un experimento (campo e invernadero), y en ambos, el diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques al azar, con cinco tratamientos, siendo la fertilización con fuente de nutrientes 100% mineral (100% M), 100% orgánico (100% O), 100% organomineral (100% MO), 50% organomineral (50% MO), y sin fertilización (control), y tres repeticiones. Un mejor rendimiento y productividad de Lavandula dentata está relacionado con una fertilización de 100%OM y 50% OM en el campo y en invernadero, respectivamente. El contenido de aceite esencial no difiere entre sistemas de cultivo y tipo de fertilizante, y los compuestos mayoritarios fueron 1.8-cineol, fenchone y alcanfor.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/metabolism , Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lavandula/chemistry , Crop Production , Nutrients , Monoterpenes/analysis , Greenhouses , Fertilization
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 672-686, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369988

ABSTRACT

Varronia curassavica has anti-inflammatory properties because of the terpenes, α-humulene and ß-caryophyllene, present in the essential oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the essential oil of V. curassavica accessions. Leaves from six accessions were collected from the Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Minas Gerais over 12 months. Correlations between the essential oil content and meteorological factors were determined. Gas chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectrometry was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. The content and chemical composition of the oil varied throughout the year. Relative humidity was correlated with accessions ICA-VC2 (-0.64) and ICA-VC4 (0.68). ß-bourbonene, ß-elemene, spathulenol, germacrene, caryophyllene oxide, α-humulene, and ß-caryophyllene occurred in all accessions. Accession ICA-VC3 exhibited lower variation (22.17%), higher average (0.97%) essential oil, and maintained an average abundance of α-humulene greater than 2.6%, which is the amount necessary for phytotherapeutics.


Varronia curassavica tiene propiedades antiinflamatorias debido a los terpenos, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno, presentes en el aceite esencial. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de la estacionalidad en el aceite esencial de las accesiones de V. curassavica. Se recolectaron hojas de seis accesiones del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais durante 12 meses. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre el contenido de aceite esencial y los factores meteorológicos. Se realizó un análisis de cromatografía de gases junto con espectrometría de masas para determinar la composición química del aceite esencial. El contenido y la composición química del aceite varió a lo largo del año. La humedad relativa se correlacionó con las accesiones ICA-VC2 (-0,64) e ICA-VC4 (0,68). En todas las accesiones aparecieron ß-bourboneno, ß-elemeno, espatulenol, germacreno, óxido de cariofileno, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno. La accesión ICA-VC3 mostró una menor variación (22,17%), un promedio más alto (0,97%) de aceite esencial y mantuvo una abundancia media de α-humuleno superior al 2,6%, que es la cantidad necesaria para los fitoterápicos.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Boraginaceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Temperature , Seed Bank , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Humidity
14.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(3)sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408555

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El uso de los aceites esenciales de plantas medicinales ha demostrado poseer propiedades antibacterianas frente a diversas especies bacterianas. Objetivo: Identificar la composición química del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis (Griseb) L. y determinar su actividad antibacteriana frente a Streptococcus mutans y Lactobacillus acidophilus. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro. Se empleó el software EpiInfoTM para el cálculo de las repeticiones. Se obtuvo aceite esencial de M. mollis proveniente de la región altoandina del Perú. La composición química fue analizada por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La actividad antibacteriana se evaluó por medio del método de difusión en disco, además, se identificó la concentración mínima inhibitoria y la concentración mínima bactericida. Resultados: Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial fueron mentona (32,9 por ciento) y eucaliptol (28,06 por ciento). El aceite esencial fue efectivo para inhibir el crecimiento de S. mutans y L. acidophilus, con halos de inhibición de 19,040 ± 0,883 mm y 18,008 ± 0,861 mm. La clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento fue más efectiva que el aceite esencial para inhibir el crecimiento de L. acidophilus (p < 0,05). Una concentración de 1,6 por ciento (v/v) del aceite esencial fue inhibitoria y bactericida frente a S. mutans; para L. acidophilus una concentración de 3,2 por ciento (v/v) fue inhibitoria. Conclusiones: Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. mollis fueron mentona y eucaliptol y demostró ser efectivo para inhibir el crecimiento de S. mutans y L. acidophilus(AU)


Introduction: The use of essential oils from medicinal plants has been shown to possess antibacterial properties against various bacterial species. Objective: To identify the chemical composition of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Griseb) L. and determine its antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: An experimental study was performed in vitro. EpiInfoTM software was used to calculate the repetitions. Essential oil of M. mollis was obtained from the high Andean region of Peru. The chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry; antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of the disk diffusion method, in addition the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration were identified. Results: The main constituents of the essential oil were menthone (32.9 percent) and eucalyptol (28.06 percent). The essential oil was effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and L. acidophilus, with inhibition halos of 19.040 ± 0.883 mm and 18.008 ± 0.861 mm. Chlorhexidine 0.12 percent was more effective than essential oil in inhibiting the growth of L. acidophilus (p < 0.05). A concentration of 1.6 percent (v/v) of the essential oil was inhibitory and bactericidal against S. mutans; for L. acidophilus a concentration of 3.2 percent (v/v) was inhibitory. Conclusions: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. mollis were menthone and eucalyptol and it was shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and L. acidophilus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Plants, Medicinal , In Vitro Techniques , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 443-462, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368583

ABSTRACT

Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. is a tree native to central and southern Chile. Also it found in part of Argentina. It is abundant in wet swampy localities from sea level to an altitude of 1700 m. This tree is sacred for the Mapuche culture; it is used in folk medicine in such as inflammatory and painful processes. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that this plant contains mainly sesquiterpenes of the drimane type, flavonoids, essential oils, phytosterols and some lignans. These drimanes have attracted interest because of their antifeedant, plant growth regulation, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The objective of this review is to establish clearly the phytochemistry and biological activity of Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. Articles based on other varieties are not considered.


Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. es un árbol nativo del centro y sur de Chile. También se encuentra en parte de Argentina. Es abundante en localidades pantanosas y húmedas desde el nivel del mar hasta una altitud de 1700 m. Este árbol es sagrado para la cultura mapuche. Se utiliza en la medicina popular para tratar enfermedades como procesos inflamatorios y dolorosos. Los estudios fitoquímicos han demostrado que esta planta contiene principalmente sesquiterpenos del tipo drimano, flavonoides, aceites esenciales, fitoesteroles y algunos lignanos. Estos drimanos han despertado interés debido a sus propiedades antialimentarias, regulación del crecimiento de las plantas, propiedades citotóxicas, antimicrobianas e insecticidas. El objetivo de este examen es establecer claramente la fitoquímica y la actividad biológica de Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. No se consideran los artículos basados en otras variedades D. winteri var winteri.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Drimys/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Lignans/analysis
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 503-514, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369017

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
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