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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190213, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132272

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims to find the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield. For the HD technique is evaluated the best ratio between plant mass and water volume and for SFE and SD the pressure condition was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the similarity between the composition of the essential oil in different pressures and extraction methods. The experimental extraction curve was plotted and three different mathematical models were used to fit the data for SD and SFE methods, obtaining the relevant mass transfer parameters. The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being α-zingiberene the main component with different contents (from 11.9 to 28.9%). The best condition for the SFE was 100 bar, 40 °C (0.0508 goil/gplant) with 19.34% of α-zingiberene; for the SD, 3 bar (133 °C) (0.00616 goil/gplant) with 28.9% of α-zingiberene; and HD, the volume of 750 mL (0.006988 goil/gplant) with 15.70% of α-zingiberene, all measured on a dry basis.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Ginger/chemistry , Distillation , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Models, Theoretical
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 644-651, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057972

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.


Resumo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus citriodora e citronelal sobre nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos. A composição do óleo essencial foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. As substâncias foram avaliadas in vitro utilizando-se teste de motilidade de vermes adultos (AWMT) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). Teste de toxicidade aguda em camundongos e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais (FECRT) em ovinos foram realizados. Citronelal foi confirmado como componente majoritário do óleo essencial (63,9%). No AWMT, 2 mg/mL de óleo essencial e citronelal inibiram completamente a motilidade de H. contortus 6 h pós-exposição. H. contortus expostos ao óleo essencial e citronelal exibiram modificações ultraestruturais internas. Os valores da dose letal 50 em camundongos foram 5.000 e 2.609 mg/kg para óleo essencial e citronelal, respectivamente. Óleo essencial de E. citriodora reduziu opg de ovinos 14 dias pós-tratamento em 69,5% (P<0,05). Não houve diferença significativa de opg entre grupo controle negativo e citronelal (P>0,05). A interação entre citronelal e outros constituintes do óleo essencial pode ser relevante na atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo. Portanto, avaliação farmacocinética do óleo essencial de E. citriodora e citronelal pode auxiliar a elucidar a atividade anti-helmíntica desses compostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Haemonchiasis/parasitology , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/ultrastructure , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 533-543, nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100255

ABSTRACT

The livestock sector is continuously facing problems in controlling parasitic diseases especially Haemonchosis due to emergence of anthelminthic resistance and failure in vaccination control programmes. Therefore, to increase milk and meat production and emerging demand of meat free from drug residues development of new alternative approaches are appealing for prevention and control of Haemonchosis in small ruminants. Among alternatives, plants driven essentials oils have shown promising results in control of Haemonchus contortus infection at various concentrations by different assays including egg hatch assay, larval development assay, larval exsheathment assay and adult motility assay. Essential oils are complex mixtures of various impulsive or volatile compounds which have potential to control Haemonchosis. The current study reviews the therapeutic effects of essential oils of plants against Haemonchus contortus and to be used them against Haemonchus contortus for future perspectives.


El sector ganadero enfrenta continuamente problemas para controlar las enfermedades parasitarias, especialmente la hemoncosis, debido a la aparición de resistencia antihelmíntica y al fracaso en los programas de control de vacunación. Por lo tanto, para aumentar la producción de leche y carne, y la demanda emergente de carne libre de residuos de medicamentos, el desarrollo de nuevos enfoques alternativos es atractivo para la prevención y el control de la hemoncosis en pequeños rumiantes. Entre las alternativas, los aceites esenciales producidos por las plantas han mostrado resultados prometedores en el control de la infección por Haemonchus contortus a diversas concentraciones mediante diferentes ensayos, incluido el análisis de eclosión de huevos, el desarrollo de larvas, el análisis de vaciado de larvas y el ensayo de motilidad en adultos. Los aceites esenciales son mezclas complejas de varios compuestos impulsivos o volátiles que tienen potencial para controlar la hemonchosis. Este estudio revisa los efectos terapéuticos de los aceites esenciales de las plantas contra Haemonchus contortus y evalúa sus perspectivas futuras como agentes para combatir las enfermedades causadas por este parásito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants/chemistry , Ruminants/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Anthelmintics/isolation & purification
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 197-203, mar. 2019. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007815

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the Balkan endemic species Thymus longedentatus was studied by GC-MS. Twenty eight compounds, consisting 98.2% of the total components were detected in amounts exceeding 0.1%. The oil was characterized by relatively high concencentration of oxygentated monoterpenes (78.7%), among which citral isomers neral (27.5%) and geranial (30.3%) were the principal ones. In addition, 1,8-cineole (7.8%), trans-ß-ocimene (7.5%), and ß-myrcene (3.7%) were detected in significant ammounts. Germacrene D (4.4%) was found to be the main sesquiterpene in the essential oil.


Se estudió mediante GC-MS la composición química del aceite esencial obtenido de las partes aéreas de Thymus longedentatus, especie endémica de los Balcanes. Se detectaron veintiocho compuestos, que representaban un 98,2% del total de compuestos y que se encontraban en cantidades superiores al 0,1%. El aceite se caracterizó por una concentración relativamente alta de monoterpenos oxigenados (78.7%), entre los cuales los isómeros de citral, neral (27.5%) y geranial (30.3%) eran los principales. Además, se detectó 1,8-cineol (7,8%), trans-ß-ocimeno (7,5%) y ß-mirceno (3,7%) en cantidades significativas. Se encontró que Germacreno D (4.4%) es el principal sesquiterpeno en el aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Balkan Peninsula , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180197, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041584

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are important vectors that transmit arboviruses to human populations. METHODS: Natural products were obtained and tested against larvae collected from the field in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state. RESULTS: The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 32.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 138.1 ppm) and Croton nepetaefolius (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 81.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 76.1 ppm) showed the most intense larvicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oils and methyl esters showed greater larvicidal activity than did the ethanol extracts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Oils/classification , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180459, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041559

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ability of Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oils to kill Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated. METHODS: The larvae were treated with their respective essential oils at 50-125 ppm concentration. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 for V. trifolia against Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, and those for V. negundo against Ae. aegypti were 57.7+0.4, 77.9+0.9 ppm and 55.17+3.14, 78.28+2.23 ppm, and 50.86+0.9, 73.12+1.3 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptol and caryophyllene were the major components in Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oil, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential larvicidal properties of essential oil from V. trifolia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Vitex/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 291-296, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae/classification , Culex/classification , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microwaves
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2825-2832, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886866

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Abnormal multiplication of oral bacteria causes dental caries and dental plaque. These diseases continue to be major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in developing countries. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus leaves (VAC‒EO) collected in the North of Brazil against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of VAC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The chemical constituents of VAC-EO were identified by gas chromatography (GC‒FID) and gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC‒MS). VAC‒EO displayed some activity against all the investigated oral pathogens; MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 200 μg/mL. VAC-EO had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), Lactobacillus casei (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), and Streptococcus mitis (MIC= 31.2 μg/mL). The compounds 1,8-cineole (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (14.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.5%), sabinene (11.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (7.7%) were the major chemical constituents of VAC‒EO. VAC-EO displays antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. The efficacy of VAC-EO against S. mutans is noteworthy and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Vitex/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Sesquiterpenes/classification , Streptococcus mutans , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 693-699, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755897

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichomonas/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 519-525, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749743

ABSTRACT

In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 189-194, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748257

ABSTRACT

This study had analyzed the antibacterial, antifungal and trypanocidal activity of the essential oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (Canellaceae) and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (Siparunaceae). The essential oils were obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that these essential oils are rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Activity against the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated with the agar cavity diffusion method, while activity on the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium commune was evaluated by the disk diffusion technique. Trypanocidal activity was tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, using the Tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay. Both essential oils exhibited low inhibitory effect towards bacteria, showing high MIC values (125–500 μg mL−1), with Gram positive bacteria being more susceptible. Better inhibitory effect was obtained for the evaluated fungi, with lower MIC values (7.81–250 μg mL−1), being A. flavus the most susceptible species. Both essential oils presented low trypanocidal activity, with IC50/24 h values of 209.30 μg mL−1 for S. guianensis and 282.93 μg mL−1 for C. dinisii. Thus, the high values observed for the MIC of evaluated bacteria and for IC50/24 h of T. cruzi, suggest that the essential oils have a low inhibitory activity against these microorganisms. In addition, the low MIC values observed for the tested fungi species indicate good inhibitory activity on these microorganisms’s growth.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 138-141, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741607

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogens among children between zero-five years old. Host immunity and viral genetic variability are important factors that can make vaccine production difficult. In this work, differences between biological clones of HRSV were detected in clinical samples in the absence and presence of serum collected from children in the convalescent phase of the illness and from their biological mothers. Viral clones were selected by plaque assay in the absence and presence of serum and nucleotide sequences of the G2 and F2 genes of HRSV biological clones were compared. One non-synonymous mutation was found in the F gene (Ile5Asn) in one clone of an HRSV-B sample and one non-synonymous mutation was found in the G gene (Ser291Pro) in four clones of the same HRSV-B sample. Only one of these clones was obtained after treatment with the child's serum. In addition, some synonymous mutations were determined in two clones of the HRSV-A samples. In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Cocos/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pelargonium/growth & development , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/economics , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Iran , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/economics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/economics , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Pelargonium/chemistry , Pelargonium/metabolism , Perfume/chemistry , Perfume/economics , Perfume/isolation & purification , Perfume/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Silicates/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130576

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130569

ABSTRACT

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were alpha-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 mug/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 mug/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 mug/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclohexanols/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Leishmania tropica/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Myrtus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1409-1413, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741294

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial effect of α-terpineol from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao leaf essential oils were studied with special reference to the mechanism of inhibiting the standard strain of Escherichia coli (CMCC (B) 44102) growth at ultrastructural level. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves of α-terpineol were determined; Escherichia coli was treated with α-terpineol and observed under a transmission electron microscope. The MIC and MBC values of α-terpineol were all 0.78 µL/mL, and time-kill curves showed the concentration-dependent. Under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Escherichia coli exposed to MIC levels of α-terpineol exhibited decreased cell size and irregular cell shape, cell wall and cell membrane were ruptured, nucleus cytoplasm was reduced and nuclear area gathered aside. Results suggest that α-terpineol has excellent antibacterial activity and could induce morphological changes of Escherichia coli.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cyclohexenes/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/cytology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Cell Nucleus/ultrastructure , Cell Wall/ultrastructure , Cinnamomum/chemistry , Cyclohexenes/isolation & purification , Cytoplasm/ultrastructure , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 759-767, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727000

ABSTRACT

Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chromobacterium/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromobacterium/metabolism , Chromobacterium/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Pigments, Biological/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 821-828, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727008

ABSTRACT

The essential oil (EO) composition of ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil extraction yielded 6.54 ± 1.06% (w/w). Seventeen compounds were identified, accounting for 91.15% of the total oil, where monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (85.81%), followed by sesquiterpenes (5.34%). The major monoterpene identified was δ-3-carene (30.37%), followed by limonene (17.44%), α-phellandrene (12.60%) and α-pinene (12.59%). Trans-caryophyllene (1.77%) was the major sesquiterpene identified. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against wild strains of hospital origin (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Bacillus sp., Nocardia sp. and Streptococcus group D). The essential oil of the ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi has shown to be active against all tested wild strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3.55 μg/mL to 56.86 μg/mL. However, it has revealed some differences in susceptibility: the general, Gram-positive species showed greater sensitivity to the action of EO, which is probably due to the lower structural complexity of their cell walls.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
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