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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210182, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1350746

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo descrever as contribuições terapêuticas da utilização de tecnologias não invasivas de cuidado, oferecidas por enfermeiras obstétricas, durante o trabalho de parto. Método estudo qualitativo e descritivo, com oito enfermeiras obstétricas da casa de parto do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados de setembro a dezembro de 2018, através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, e submetidos à técnica de análise temática. Resultados para aliviar a dor e promover relaxamento, recorrem ao estímulo à participação do acompanhante e à respiração consciente, à aplicação da massagem, à promoção do ambiente acolhedor e ao uso da água morna e dos óleos essenciais. Para ativar o trabalho de parto, auxiliar na descida da apresentação e correção do posicionamento fetal, incentivam posicionamentos verticalizados e movimentos corporais, com alguns instrumentos. Conclusões e implicações para a prática tecnologias não invasivas de cuidado possuem contribuições terapêuticas e conformam um cuidado desmedicalizado, respeitoso e centrado na mulher, que promove a autonomia feminina.


Resumen Objetivo describir las contribuciones terapéuticas de la utilización de tecnologías de atención no invasivas que ofrecen las enfermeras obstétricas durante el trabajo de parto. Método estudio cualitativo y descriptivo, con ocho enfermeras obstétricas de una casa de partos de Río de Janeiro. Los datos fueron recolectados de septiembre a diciembre de 2018, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, y sometidos a la técnica de análisis temático. Resultados para aliviar el dolor y favorecer la relajación, se recurre a fomentar la participación del acompañante y la respiración consciente, la aplicación de masajes, la promoción de un ambiente acogedor y el uso de agua tibia y aceites esenciales. Para activar el trabajo de parto, facilitan en el descenso de la presentación y corrección del posicionamiento fetal, fomentan las posiciones verticales y los movimientos corporales, con algunos instrumentos. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica las tecnologías de atención no invasiva tienen aportes terapéuticos y conforman un cuidado desmedicalizado, respetuoso y centrado en la mujer que promueve la autonomía femenina.


Abstract Objective to describe the therapeutics contributions of the use of non-invasive care technologies offered by obstetric nurses during labor. Method a qualitative and descriptive study, with eight obstetric nurses from a birthing center in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from September to December 2018, through semi-structured interviews, and subjected to thematic analysis technique. Results to relieve pain and promote relaxation, they resort to encouraging the companion's participation and conscious breathing, the application of massage, the promotion of a supportive environment and the use of warm water and essential oils. To activate labor, assist in descending the presentation and correction of fetal positioning, they encourage vertical positioning and body movements, with some instruments. Conclusions and implications for practice non-invasive care technologies have therapeutic contributions and form a not medicalized, respectful and women-centered care that promotes female autonomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Labor, Obstetric , Labor Pain/nursing , Humanization of Assistance , Nurse Midwives , Nursing Care , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Walking , Aromatherapy/nursing , Personal Autonomy , Qualitative Research , Labor Pain/therapy , Hydrotherapy/nursing , Massage/nursing , Music Therapy
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1381-1390, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355675

ABSTRACT

The utilization of antimicrobials in animal production, causes selection of resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare the utilization of alternatives in association with preventive antibiotic therapy in swine feed during the growing and finishing phases. 1,045 animals were used from 60 to 190 days of age and were subjected to six treatments with 16 repetitions as follows: 1) antibiotic free; 2) antibiotics; 3) prebiotic; 4) probiotic; 5) essential oils; and 6) organic acid. Animals were weighted, and clinical history was recorded including mortality and diarrhea. At the abattoir, pneumonia index and gastric ulcers were investigated. The cost for each treatment was discussed. No difference between treatments were observed (P>0.05) regarding feed conversion rate (2.64±0.03), overall average weight gain (107.06±0.9kg), average daily weight gain (856.49±7.7g) and carcass weight (92.4±0.7kg). The application injectable drugs in animals presenting clinical symptoms, represented US$ 0.56/intervention, without difference between the treatments (P>0.05). Furthermore, independently of the treatment, high frequency of pneumonia was observed (>0.90). No difference for the degree of gastric ulcer nor feces consistency were observed (P>0.05). The utilization of antibiotic therapy and alternatives to antibiotics in feed did not produce benefits to the production indices and sanitary performances of the animals.(AU)


A utilização de antimicrobianos na produção animal provoca seleção de bactérias resistentes. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a utilização de alternativas associadas à antibioticoterapia preventiva na alimentação de suínos nas fases de recria e de terminação. Foram utilizados 1.045 animais de 60 a 190 dias de idade, submetidos a seis tratamentos com 16 repetições, como segue: 1) sem antibióticos; 2) com antibióticos; 3) prebióticos; 4) probióticos; 5) óleos essenciais; e 6) ácidos orgânicos. Os animais foram pesados, e a história clínica foi registrada, incluindo mortalidade e diarreia. No abatedouro, foram investigados índices de pneumonia e úlceras gástricas. O custo de cada tratamento foi discutido. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05) em relação à taxa de conversão alimentar (2,64 ± 0,03), ao ganho de peso médio geral (107,06 ± 0,9kg), ao ganho de peso médio diário (856,49 ± 7,7g) e ao peso de carcaça (92,4 ± 0,7kg). A aplicação de medicamentos injetáveis em animais com quadro clínico representou US$ 0,56/intervenção, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). Além disso, independentemente do tratamento, foi observada alta frequência de pneumonia (>0,90). Não foi observada diferença para o grau de úlcera gástrica nem na consistência das fezes (P>0,05). A utilização de antibioticoterapia e de alternativas aos antibióticos na ração não trouxe benefícios aos desempenhos zootécnico e sanitário dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Animal Feed/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3971, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289617

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis ha demostrado poseer importantes propiedades antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Caracterizar químicamente las fracciones obtenidas del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Candida albicans. Material y Métodos: Las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol del AE de M. mollis fueron caracterizadas químicamente por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Las repeticiones del ensayo antimicrobiano se calcularon con el programa EPIDAT v.4.2. La actividad antimicrobiana se realizó por el método de difusión de disco y se calculó la concentración mínima inhibitoria por el método de microdilución. Los datos fueron analizados empleando la prueba ANOVA (p=0,05). Resultados: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone (39,8 por ciento, thymol (31,2 por ciento) y α-Terpineol (43,6 por ciento), respectivamente. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a las tres fracciones, aunque C. albicans fue la cepa más sensible, registrando halos de inhibición de 14,73±0,57 mm para la fracción de metanol, 20,91±0,55 mm para éter de petróleo y 20,38±0,58 mm para diclorometano, se encontraron diferencias significativas cuando se compararon frente a Clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento y Nistatina (p<0,05). Las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de las fracciones variaron de 0,2 a 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusiones: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone, thymol y α-Terpineol. Las fracciones de éter de petróleo y diclorometano fueron altamente efectivas para inhibir el crecimiento de S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis y C. albicans(AU)


Introduction: The essential oil of Minthostachys mollis has demonstrated to have important antimicrobial properties. Objective: To chemically characterize the fractions obtained from the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. Material and Methods: The petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions of the AE of M. mollis were chemically characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The repetitions of the antimicrobial test were calculated using the EPIDAT v.4.2 program. The antimicrobial activity was performed by the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated by the microdilution method. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test (p=0.05). Results: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone (39,8 percent), thymol (31,2 percent)) and α-Terpineol (43,6 percent)), respectively. All strains were sensitive to the three fractions, although C. albicans was the most sensitive strain, registering inhibition halos of 14,73±0.57 mm for the methanol fraction, 20,91±0.55 mm for petroleum ether and 20.38±0.58 mm for dichloromethane, finding significant differences when compared to 0,12 percent) Chlorhexidine and Nystatin (p<0,05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fractions ranged from 0,2 to 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusions: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone, thymol and α-Terpineol. The petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions were highly effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis, and Calbicans(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterococcus faecalis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 92-96, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367423

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a eficácia inseticida in vitro do óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis sobre Bovicolaovis. Os espécimes (n = 900) de B.ovis foram coletados de ovinos naturalmente infestados, distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos, e submetidos aos diferentes tratamentos: (G1) 1.000 a 15,6 mg/ml óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis; (G2) Tween 80 a 3% (controle negativo), e: (G3) Amitraz 1,25 g/mL (controle positivo). Realizou-se 4 réplicas (25 piolhos por réplica) para cada tratamento. A viabilidade dos piolhos foi avaliada nos tempos de 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 e 72 h. Os dados foram expressos em eficácia média ± desvio padrão (SPSS versão 23.0) e diferenças estatísticas dos grupos experimentais foram obtidas por Kruskal-Wallis e Friedman. Para obtenção da CI50e CI90 foi realizada Regressão de Probit, com nível de significância de p< 0,05. O óleo essencial de L. gracilis nas concentrações de 100 a 62,5 mg/mL apresentaram eficácia de 100%, 1 h pós-exposição. Os valores de CI50 e CI90 foram 18,1 mg/mL e 44,9 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dessa forma, concluímos que o óleo essencial de L. gracilis apresentou eficácia sobre B.ovis in vitro.


The objective of this work is to evaluate the in vitro insecticidal efficacy of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis against Bovicolaovis. The specimens (n = 900) of B.ovis were collected from naturally infested sheep, randomly distributed in groups, and subjected to different treatments: (G1) 1,000 to 15.6 mg/ml essential oil of Lippia gracilis; (G2) 3% Tween 80 (negative control), and: (G3) Amitraz 1.25 g/mL (positive control). 4 replicates (25 lice per replica) were performed for each treatment. Louse viability was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. The data were expressed as mean efficacy ± standard deviation (SPSS version 23.0) and statistical differences in the experimental groups were obtained by Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman. Probit regression was performed to obtain the IC50 and CI90, with a significance level of p <0.05. The essential oil of L. gracilis at concentrations of 100 to 62.5 mg/mL showed 100% efficacy, 1 h post-exposure. The IC50 and CI90 values were 18.1 mg/mL and 44.9 mg/mL, respectively. Thus, we conclude that L. gracilis essential oil is effective on B. ovis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lice Infestations/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Lippia/toxicity , Insecticides , Sheep/parasitology , Phytotherapeutic Drugs
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153042

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) such as carvacrol represent a wide range of mainly volatile aromatic plant compounds which hold antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal potential, in addition to other properties of interest to animal health, such as the ability to modulate the microbiome. Current horse care commonly involves an intensive management system with an excessive use of concentrated feed, which can lead to severe digestive and metabolic disorders. Studies with EO in horses are limited, but the use of carvacrol essential oil (CEO) can promote benefits in microbial fermentation. The objective was to investigate the effect of different quantities of CEO on the apparent total digestibility of nutrients, microbial profile in the feces and postprandial blood glucose and insulin response when added to the equine diet. Eight Mini-Horse geldings were used (42±6 months; 135±15 kg BW) and fed with a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% grass hay. The treatments were: 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of CEO. The addition of CEO up to 300 ppm did not influence the apparent digestibility of nutrients or the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. The use of CEO maintained the fermentative digestive health of horses fed with concentrate diets.(AU)


Os óleos essenciais (EO), como o carvacrol, são descritos por representarem ampla gama de compostos principalmente voláteis de plantas aromáticas, com potencial antioxidante, antibacteriano, antifúngico, entre outras propriedades de interesse para a saúde animal, como a modulação do microbioma. Atualmente, os cavalos são submetidos a manejo intensivo, com uso excessivo de ração concentrada, o que pode causar graves distúrbios digestivos e metabólicos. Em cavalos, estudos com EO são limitados, mas o uso de óleo essencial de carvacrol (CEO) poderia promover benefícios na fermentação microbiana. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de óleo essencial de carvacrol, adicionadas à dieta de equinos, sobre a digestibilidade aparente total de nutrientes, o perfil microbiano por meio das fezes e a resposta sanguínea pós-prandial de glicose e insulina. Foram utilizados oito cavalos castrados, da raça Mini-Horse (42±6 meses), 135±15kg PV, alimentados na proporção de 60% concentrado e 40% feno de capim. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 100, 200 e 300ppm de CEO. A adição de CEO até 300ppm não influencia a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a resposta de glicose e insulina plasmática pós-prandial. O uso de EO demonstra manter a saúde digestiva fermentativa quando os cavalos são alimentados com dieta rica em concentrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Digestion/drug effects , Glucose , Horses/blood , Insulin/blood , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Monoterpenes
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153527

ABSTRACT

Hyptis crenata, commonly known as "salva-do-Marajó", "hortelã-do-campo", and "hortelãzinha", is used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil as tea or infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. Due to the pharmacological efficacy and the low toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), we decided to investigate the EOHc antiedematogenic effect in experimental models of inflammation. EOHc was administrated orally at doses of 10-300 mg/kg to male Swiss albino mice. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous injection in the right hind paw of inflammatory stimuli (carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin) 60 min after administration of EOHc. EOHc significantly inhibited the induced edema. The inhibitory effect of EOHc on dextran-induced edema extended throughout the experimental time. For the 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of EOHc, the inhibition was of 40.28±1.70, 51.18±2.69, and 59.24±2.13%, respectively. The EOHc inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema started at 10 mg/kg at the second hour (h) and was maintained throughout the observation period. At 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses the inhibition started earlier, from 30 min. At the edema peak of 180 min, 56, 76, and 82% inhibition was observed for 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses, respectively. Additionally, the effect of EOHc on carrageenan-induced paw edema was influenced by the time of administration. The EOHc also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In conclusion, the EOHc showed a potent effect, both preventing and reversing the edema, consistent with its anti-inflammatory use in folk medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Hyptis/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Brazil , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Edema/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1891-1900, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131574

ABSTRACT

Oito equinos foram distribuídos em delineamento randomizado cruzado, sendo um grupo sem suplementação (GC) e outro grupo suplementado com óleo de avocado (GOAv) por um período de sete semanas. Ao fim da sexta semana, os animais foram submetidos a teste padrão de exercício progressivo (TPEP) e, após sete dias, a teste de baixa intensidade e longa duração (BILD). Após o primeiro ciclo, houve período de descanso "washout" de 30 dias para troca de grupos para o segundo ciclo, que seguiu o protocolo do primeiro. A termorregulação foi avaliada com base na temperatura retal e na temperatura superficial corpórea, obtidas por termografia, de 15 regiões de interesse. A temperatura retal e as imagens termográficas foram obtidas antes, um minuto e 15 minutos após o exercício. Não houve diferença entre os grupos GC e GOAv em nenhum momento. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que a suplementação de 5% da matéria seca (MS) com óleo de avocado por seis e sete semanas não influenciou na termorregulação com base na temperatura superficial corpórea dos equinos submetidos ao teste padrão de exercício progressivo (TPEP) e ao exercício de baixa intensidade e longa duração (BILD), respectivamente.(AU)


Eight equines were distributed in a randomized crossover design, one control group (CG) without supplementation and another group supplemented (SG) with avocado oil for a period of six weeks. At the end of the sixth week, the animals were submitted to standard exercise test (SET) and after seven days to the low intensity test (LIT). After the first cycle, there was a 30-day washout rest period to exchange groups for the second cycle, which followed the protocol of the first one. Thermoregulation was evaluated based on rectal temperature and body surface temperature of 15 regions of interest obtained by thermography. Rectal temperature and thermographic images were obtained before, one minute and 15 minutes after exercise. There was no difference between the CG and SG at any time. The results obtained in this study revealed that the supplementation of 5% of dry matter with avocado oil for six and seven weeks did not influence the thermoregulation based on the body surface temperature of the horses submitted to SET and LIT, respectively.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Persea/chemistry , Horses/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Thermography/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis
8.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-10, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145405

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar os efeitos antimicrobiano e antibiofilme, e a citotoxicidade promovida pela associação do hidróxido de cálcio ao óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia (MA), em diferentes concentrações, e ao propilenoglicol (PG). Métodos: As seguintes medicações compuseram os grupos experimentais: G1) HC/MA 1%; G2) HC/MA 5%; G3) HC/MA 10%; G4) HC/MA 20%; e G5) HC/PG. Solução salina 0,85% e meio DMEM serviram como controle nos testes antimicrobianos e de citotoxidade em fibroblastos do ligamento periodontal humano (FbLP), respectivamente. A atividade antimicrobiana (n = 12) foi avaliada por meio do teste de difusão em ágar. O efeito antibiofilme (n = 12) imediato das medicações foi avaliado por meio do teste de viabilidade bacteriana em biofilmes de 72 horas de E. faecalis, formados sobre discos de dentina e tratados por sete dias com as medicações. Após a coleta microbiológica do biofilme remanescente, os discos de dentina foram imersos em meio estéril e armazenados por mais sete dias, para a análise do efeito antibiofilme residual das medicações, quando nova coleta microbiológica foi realizada. A atividade metabólica de FbLP foi avaliada por meio do ensaio colorimétrico MTS (n = 9). Os valores médios dos halos de inibição, em mm, das unidades formadoras de colônia, e o percentual de atividade metabólica celular foram analisados pelos testes Kruskal-Wallis e post hoc Dunn (α = 5%). Resultados:Todas as medicações experimentais apresentaram superior ação antimicrobiana e antibiofilme comparadas ao controle, solução salina (p < 0,05), e mantiveram viáveis os FbLP, semelhante ao controle DMEM (p > 0,05). Conclusão: A associação do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia, nas concentrações de 1%, 5%, 10% e 20%, ao hidróxido de cálcio promoveu excelente ação antimicrobiana, antibiofilme e biocompatibilidade com fibroblastos, de forma semelhante à associação com propilenoglicol.


Aim:To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect, as well as the cytotoxicity of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with the Melaleuca alternifolia (MA)essential oil, in different concentrations, and with propylene glycol. Methods: The following medications composed the experimental groups: G1) CH/MA 1%; G2) CH/MA 5%; G3) CH/MA 10%; G4) CH/MA 20%; and G5) CH/PG. Saline solution and culture medium DMEM were used as a control in antimicrobial and cytotoxicity tests in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), respectively. The antimicrobial activity (n = 12) was evaluated by the disk-diffusion agar method. The immediate antibiofilm effect (n = 12) of the medications was evaluated for bacterial viability in 72 hours-biofilms of E. faecalis, formed on the dentin disc surface and treated for seven days with medications. After microbiological sampling of the remaining biofilm, the dentin discs were immersed in sterile culture medium and stored for another seven days, for analysis of the residual antibiofilm effect of the medications, when a new microbiological sampling was performed. PDLF viability was evaluated by MTS colorimetric assay (n = 9). The mean values of the inhibition halos, in mm, the colony forming units, and the metabolic cell activity percentage were analyzed by means of Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn (α = 5%) tests. Results:All of the experimental medications presented higher antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects, when compared to the saline solution control (p < 0.05), and maintained the PDLF feasible, similar to the DMEM control (p > 0.05). Conclusions:The association of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, with calcium hydroxide promoted an excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, and biocompatibility with fibroblasts, similarly to the association with propylene glycol.


Subject(s)
Calcium Hydroxide/analysis , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Endodontics , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Enterococcus faecalis , Fibroblasts , Regenerative Endodontics
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200206, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132262

ABSTRACT

Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Citrus/chemistry , GABA Modulators/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Maze Learning/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190408, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.


Subject(s)
Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Mycobacterium avium/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2065-2074, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055118

ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (EO) doses on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen metabolism, as well as performance and coccidia oocyst discharge. In experiment I, 20 rumen-cannulated wethers received the experimental diets containing 80% dry matter (DM) of haylage and 20% DM of concentrate. Treatments were 25mg of monensin/kg DM or doses of 1.25, 2.50, or 3.75g of thyme EO/kg DM. In experiment II, 50 ewe lambs received the same diets from experiment I, including a diet without feed additives. Wethers fed with diets containing 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO had higher molar proportion of propionate (P= 0.03) and butyrate (P< 0.01), and lower (P= 0.04) acetate to propionate ratio than other treatments. Adding thyme EO to diets increased (P= 0.02) nitrogen retention compared to monensin. The performance of ewe lambs was not affected (P≥ 0.05) by treatments. However, lambs fed monensin had a lower (P= 0.04) number of coccidia oocyst discharge than others. Adding 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO in high-forage diet improved ruminal fermentation. Thyme EO enhanced nitrogen metabolism, however, it did not improve performance.(AU)


Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito de doses de óleo essencial (OE) de tomilho (Thymus vulgaris) sobre a fermentação ruminal, a digestibilidade de nutrientes e o metabolismo de nitrogênio, bem como sobre o desempenho e a descarga de oocistos de coccídeos. No experimento I, 20 ovinos canulados receberam dietas experimentais contendo 80% de matéria seca (MS) de pré-secado e 20% de MS de concentrado. Os tratamentos foram 25mg de monensina/kg de MS ou doses de 1,25, 2,50 ou 3,75g de OE de tomilho/kg de MS. No experimento II, 50 borregas receberam as mesmas dietas do experimento I, incluindo uma dieta sem aditivos. Os animais alimentados com dietas contendo 1,25g de OE de tomilho apresentaram maior proporção molar de propionato (P=0,03) e de butirato (P<0,01) e menor (P=0,04) relação acetato/propionato do que outros tratamentos. A adição de OE de tomilho nas dietas aumentou (P=0,02) a retenção de nitrogênio em comparação com a monensina. O desempenho de cordeiros não foi afetado (P≥0,05) pelos tratamentos. No entanto, cordeiros alimentados com monensina apresentaram menor (P=0,04) número de oocistos de coccídeos. A adição de 1,25g/kg de MS de OE de tomilho na dieta forrageira melhorou o perfil da fermentação ruminal. O OE de tomilho aumentou a retenção de nitrogênio, no entanto não melhorou o desempenho.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Sheep/metabolism , Monensin , Coccidiosis/prevention & control , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Nitrogen , Food Additives
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1251-1259, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038617

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L. contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli e a citotoxicidade sobre células epiteliais da glândula mamária bovina (MAC-T), visando a seu uso no tratamento da mastite bovina. A análise qualitativa do óleo revelou cis-tagetona (24,24%), di-hidrotagetona (16,65%), 1,3,6-octatrieno-3,7-dimetil-E (13,61%), trans-ocimenona (13,52%) e cis-ocimenona (10,06%) como compostos majoritários. Nos ensaios da atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) verificada foi de 1 mg/mL para a cepa padrão (ATCC 25923), cinco isolados de S. aureus provenientes de leite de vacas com mastite e a cepa padrão resistente à meticilina (MRSA) (ATCC 33592). Para a cepa padrão de E. coli (ATCC 8739) e dois isolados de leite de vacas com mastite, a CIM foi de 3 mg/mL. Elevado efeito citóxico do óleo sobre as células da linhagem MAC-T foi constatado. Concentrações superiores a 10 (g/mL do óleo resultaram em mais de 90% de morte celular. Tais resultados sugerem que, apesar da atividade antimicrobiana contra agentes causadores da mastite bovina, a utilização intramamária do óleo de T. minuta não seria recomendada. É importante destacar a sensibilidade da cepa MRSA ao óleo essencial, o que evidencia seu potencial como antisséptico e sanitizante.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tagetes minuta L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and its cytotoxicity to bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T line), aiming at its use for bovine mastitis treatment. The qualitative analysis of the oil by GC-MS identified cis-tagetone (24.24%), dihydrotagetone (16.65%), 1,3,6-Octatriene 3,7-Dimethyl-E (13.61%); trans-ocimenone (13.52%) and cis-ocimenone (10.06%) as major compounds. Antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution technique and revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/mL for the standard strain of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and five bacterias isolated from mastitic milk, including a multiresistant strain (ATCC 33592); and 3mg/ml for the standard strain of E. coli (ATCC 8739) and two bacterias isolated from mastitic milk. However, a strong citotoxic effect on MAC-T cells was found. Oil concentrations from 10(g/mL resulted in over 90% of cell death. The results suggest that although the antimicrobial activity was identified against the main agents of bovine mastitis, the intramammary use of T. minuta oil may not be recommended. On the other hand, it is important to highlight the sensibility of the MSRA strain to the essential oil, which evidences its potential as an antiseptic or sanitizer.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Tagetes , Mastitis, Bovine/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180489, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This work describes a chemical study of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia ochrantha, an endemic Annonaceae species from Brazil, and its activity against Biomphalaria species. Considering its poor solubility in aqueous medium, the essential oil was nanoemulsified to evaluate its action on controlling some mollusc species of genus Biomphalaria, snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis, which mainly affects tropical and subtropical countries. OBJECTIVES The main aims of this work were to analyse the chemical composition of essential oil from X. ochrantha, and to evaluate the effect of its nanoemulsion on molluscs of genus Biomphalaria and their oviposition. METHODS Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Nanoemulsions were prepared by a low energy method and characterised by particle size and polydispersity index. Biological assays evaluating the mortality of adult species of B. glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila and their ovipositions upon contact with the most stable nanoemulsion during 24 and 48 h were performed. FINDINGS Chemical analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the majority presence of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D in the essential oil. The formulation with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of 9.26 was the most suitable for the oil delivery system. This nanoemulsion caused the mortality in B. tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabarata of different sizes at levels ranging from 50 to 100% in 48 h. Additionally, the formulation could inhibit the development of deposited eggs. CONCLUSION Thus, these results suggest the use of nanoemulsified essential oil from X. ochrantha as a possible alternative in controlling some Biomphalaria species involved in the schistosomiasis cycle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Biomphalaria , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Xylopia
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-12, 2 abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912753

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the dietary supplementation with essential oil of Lippia alba on the hemato-immunological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) submitted to acute inflammation induced by carrageenin injection in the swim bladder. For a period of 45 days, 96 fish were divided in four treatments in triplicate, as follows: fish fed supplemented diet with essential oil of L. alba (4 mL kg-1 dry ration) injected with carrageenin; fish fed supplemented diet with cereal alcohol injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet with essential oil injected with carrageenin; fish fed unsupplemented diet and noninjected. Cortisol levels, erythrogram, leukogram and the inflammatory infiltrate were analyzed 6 h after inflammatory stimulus. Carrageenin-injected fish showed acute inflammatory reaction in the swim bladder characterized by higher infiltrate of neutrophils and monocytes. The circulating neutrophils number was significantly higher in fish fed L. alba when compared to other treatments. No difference in cortisol levels was found. For dose, time and administration form tested, supplementation with essential oil of L. alba did not present anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, influence of dietary supplementation was observed on the neutrophils number after induced aerocystitis highlighting its immunomodulatory characteristic.(AU)


O presente estudo avaliou a suplementação dietária com óleo essencial de Lippia alba sobre os parâmetros hemato-imunológicos em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) submetidas à inflamação aguda induzida por carragenina na bexiga natatória. Pelo período de 45 dias, 96 peixes foram divididos em quarto tratamentos em triplicata: a) peixes suplementados com óleo esencial de L. alba (4 mL kg-1 de ração) injetados com carragenina; b) peixes suplementados com álcool de cereais injetados com carragenina; peixes não suplementados com óleo essencial injetados com carragenina; c) peixes não suplementados não injetados. Os níveis de cortisol, eritrograma, leucograma e o infiltrado inflamatório foram analisados seis horas após o estímulo inflamatório. Peixes injetados com carragenina apresentaram reação inflamatória aguda na bexiga natatória caracterizada por maior infiltrado de neutrófilos e monócitos. O número de neutrófilos circulantes foi significativamente maior nos peixes suplementados com L. alba quando comparado aos outros tratamentos. Não houve diferença nos níveis de cortisol. Para a dose, o tempo e a forma de administração testada, a suplementação com óleo essencil de L. alba não apresentou atividade anti-inflamatória. Por outro lado, foi constatada influência da suplementação dietária no número de neutrófilos após a aerocistite enfatizando a sua característica imunomoduladora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cichlids/blood , Cichlids/immunology , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Air Sacs , Carrageenan/administration & dosage , Inflammation/therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(6): 449-458, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886204

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cellular response to injury, analyzing histopathologic changes associated with increased cellularity, degeneration and disorganization of collagen fibers. Methods: Thirty wistar rats were divided in two groups after partial Achilles tenotomy: the right hind paw were treated with the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbet (EOAz), diluted to 33% (0.3 mL kg-1), and the left hind paw received sunflower oil for 3, 14, 30 and 90 days. Statistical significance was determined using a Chi-square and Pearson Correlation qualitative variables test. Moreover, Mann-Whitney U-test test for comparison between different groups of the same cell, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test of quantitative measurement. Results: A decrease hyperemia (p < 0.001) was observed in the acute phase of inflammatory cell number (p < 0.001), whereas sub-acute phase was marked by significant correlation with macrophages in fibroblasts (r = 0.17, p = 0.03), with probable induction a dense and modeled tissue. At chronic phase, it was found an increase in the number of fibroblasts and a higher percentage of type I collagen fibers (78%) compared with control collagen fibers (55%). Conclusion: Oil of Alpinia zerumbet stimulated the process of maturation, organization and tissue repair which gave it greater resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Wound Healing/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Alpinia/chemistry , Achilles Tendon/pathology , Collagen/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Tenotomy
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(3): 221-226, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842059

ABSTRACT

Sustainable control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants has been based on the use of alternative methods, including targeted selective treatment, such as FAMACHA. Another GIN control alternative is the use of herbal medicines, although in many cases their use is based on empirical knowledge. Biopolymer nanoformulations has been investigated to maximize the essential oil effects against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of the present study was to combine a Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil nanoemulsion (EsNano) with FAMACHA as an alternative control for sheep haemonchosis. The study was performed over six months at a commercial sheep farm located in a semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. Initially, a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep with levamisole, ivermectin and oxfendazole in sheep was performed used to determine the most effective anthelmintic to use as the positive control. Levamisole has been selected because it showed efficacy superior to 95%. EsNano was obtained and then its physicochemical properties were characterized. The average (±SE) size of the particles in the nanoemulsion was 276.8 (±12.3) nm with bimodal distribution and polydispersity. Nine visits were performed, from April to September 2013, with an interval of 17 days. One hundred sixty-two male and female sheep were divided into three groups (n=54 each) and were treated when FAMACHA score was 3, 4, or 5: G-EsNano 250mg kg-1 EsNano; G-Lev 7.5mg kg-1 levamisole (positive control), and G-Neg was not treated (negative control). Feces from sheep were collected to quantify the number of eggs per gram of feces (epg) and to identify nematode genera. Sheep weight gain was monitored. The epg data for each group and the average sheep weight gains were analyzed by variance analysis and compared with the Tukey's test (P<0.05). Significant difference between the number of animals treated with EsNano and levamisole was not observed in any visit (P>0.05). The epg variation was similar in the G-EsNano and G-Lev groups on visits (P>0.05), except the second and fifth evaluation in the epg groups were significantly different (P<0.05). Haemonchus spp. was the most prevalent nematode. There was no significant weight gain in any of the treated groups (P<0.05). The combination of phytotherapy and FAMACHA can be an alternative to minimize the use of synthetic anthelmintics to control resistant GIN populations of small ruminants.(AU)


O controle sustentável de nematoides gastrintestinais (NGI) em pequenos ruminantes tem sido baseado na utilização de métodos alternativos, incluindo o tratamento alvo-seletivo, tal como o FAMACHA. Outra alternativa de controle de NGI é o uso de plantas medicinais, embora, em muitos casos, a sua utilização seja baseada no conhecimento empírico. Nanoformulações biopoliméricas tem sido investigadas para maximizar os efeitos de óleos essenciais sobre nematoides gastrointestinais em ovinos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi combinar a nanoemulsão do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus staigeriana (EsNano) com o método FAMACHA como uma alternativa para o controle da hemoncose em ovinos. Este estudo foi realizado ao longo de seis meses em uma fazenda comercial de ovinos localizada em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Inicialmente, um teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (FECRT) em ovinos com levamisol, ivermectina e oxfendazole foi realizado para determinar o anti-helmíntico mais eficaz, para posterior uso como controle positivo. Levamisol foi selecionado porque mostrou eficácia superior a 95%. EsNano foi obtido e, em seguida, as suas propriedades físico-químicas foram caracterizadas. O tamanho médio (±SE) das partículas na nanoemulsão foi 276,8 (±12,3) nm, com distribuição bimodal e polidispersividade. Foram realizadas nove visitas, de abril a setembro de 2013, com um intervalo de 17 dias. Cento e sessenta e dois ovinos machos e fêmeas foram divididos em três grupos (n=54 cada) e foram tratados quando o FAMACHA foi 3, 4 ou 5: G-EsNano 250 mg kg-1 EsNano; G-Lev 7,5mg kg-1 de levamisol (controlo positivo), e G-Neg não foi tratado (controle negativo). As fezes dos ovinos foram coletadas para quantificar o número de ovos por grama de fezes (opg) e identificar os gêneros de nematóides. O ganho de peso de ovinos foi monitorado. Os dados do opg de cada grupo e os ganhos de peso médio dos ovinos foram analisados por análise de variância e comparadas com o teste de Tukey (P<0,05). Diferença significativa entre o número de animais tratados com EsNano e levamisol não foi observada em nenhuma visita (P>0,05). A variação opg foi semelhante para os grupos G-EsNano e G-Lev nas vistas (P>0,05), excetuando a segunda e quinta avaliação em que os opg dos grupos foram significativamente diferentes (P>0,05). O nematoide Haemonchus spp. foi o mais prevalente. Não houve aumento significativo de peso em qualquer um dos grupos tratados (P>0,05). Assim, a combinação de fitoterapia e FAMACHA pode ser uma alternativa para minimizar o uso anti-helmínticos sintéticos para controlar populações resistentes NGI em pequenos ruminantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Sheep/parasitology , Chitosan , Emulsions/therapeutic use , Haemonchus , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901507

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Piper tuberculatum Jacq., popularmente conhecida como pimenta-longaou pimenta-d'Arda, é utilizada empiricamente no tratamento de doenças respiratórias (asma, bronquite e tosse) e digestivas (dores abdominais e diarreias). Na literatura é descrita com importantes atividades anti-inflamatória, antimicrobiana, antileucêmico e anti-helmíntica. Objetivos: avaliar a atividade moduladora do óleo essencial dos frutos de P. tuberculatum (OEPT) em associação com diferentes antibióticos frente à Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Pseudomona aeruginosa. Metodos: Os frutos (frescos) de P. tuberculatum foram coletados em Barbalha/CE e submetidos à hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger para ser extraído o óleo essencial, após a extração o óleo essencial foi tratado com sulfato de sódio anidro para eliminação da umidade residual. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e modulação (em resistência bacteriana) frente às cepas de S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) e P. aeruginosa (PA03) foram determinadas pelo método de microdiluição para identificar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), realizada em triplicata. CIM de ≤ 256 µg/mL foi considerado clinicamente relevante. Resultados: a atividade antibacteriana do OEPT exibiu um CIM de ≥ 1024 µg/mL contra as cepas de bactérias de padrão resistente a múltiplas drogas. Na avaliação da atividade moduladora, o OEPT antagonizou o efeito da amicacina contra E. coli e S. aureus, mas teve efeito sinérgico contra P. aeruginosa. Combinado com a getamicina o óleo exibiu antagonismo frente a E. coli, no entanto não apresentou resultado relevante contra S. aureas e P. aeruginosa. A associação do OEPT com o antibiótico imipenem resultou efeito mais relevante, apresentando sinergismo para todas as bactérias avaliadas, por outro lado, em associação com ciprofloxacino não apresentou efeito significante em relação ao controle. Conclusão: O OEPT apresentou uma melhor atividade quando associado ao imipenem frente todas as bactérias avaliadas, mostrando ser uma possível alternativa no desenvolvimento de novos fármacos com atividade antibacteriana advindos de produtos fitoterápicos(AU)


Introducción: Piper tuberculatum Jacq. popularmente conocida como pimenta-longa o pimenta-d'Arda, se utiliza empíricamente en el tratamiento de enfermedades respiratorias (asma, bronquitis y tos) y digestivas (dolor abdominal y diarrea). En la literatura es describe con importantes actividades antiinflamatorias, antimicrobianas, antileucémicas y antihelmínticas. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad moduladora de los aceites esenciales de frutos de P. tuberculatum (AEPT) en asociación con diferentes antibióticos contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Pseudomona aeruginosa. Metodología: los frutos (frescos) de P. tuberculatum fueron recolectados en Barbalha/CE y sometidos a hidrodestilación en un equipo Clevenger, para extraer el aceite essencial (AEPT), el cual, una vez extraído, fue tratado con sulfato de sodio anhidro para eliminar la humedad residual. Se evaluó su actividad antibacteriana contra las cepas de S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) y P. aeruginosas (PA03). Empleando el método de microdilución se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), con tres réplicas por cada tratamiento. Un valor de CIM ≤ 256 µg/mL se considera clínicamente relevante. Resultados: la actividad antibacteriana del AEPT exhibió una CIM ≥ 1024 µg/mL contra las cepas estándar de bacterias resistentes a múltiples fármacos. En efecto, la actividad AEPT antagoniza el efecto de amikacina contra E. coli y S. aureus, pero tenía un efecto sinérgico contra P. aeruginosa. Combinado con la getamicina el aceite exhibió antagonismo contra E. coli, sin embargo no presentó resultado relevante ante S. aureus y P. aeruginosa. La asociación de AEPT con el antibiótico imipenem resultó el efecto más relevante, mostrando sinergismo frente a todas las bacterias evaluadas. Por el contrario, en asociación con ciprofloxacina no mostró ningún efecto significativo con respecto al control. Conclusión: el AEPT presentó una mejor actividad cuando se asoció a imipenem, frente todas las bacterias evaluadas, demostrando ser una posible alternativa en el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos con actividad antimicrobiana, a partir de productos herbarios(AU)


Introduction: Piper tuberculatum Jacq., commonly known as pimenta-longa or pimenta-d'Arda, is empirically used to treat respiratory conditions (asthma, bronchitis and coughing) and digestive disorders (abdominal pain and diarrhea). Reference may be found in the literature to outstanding antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antileukemic and antihelmintic activity. Objective: Evaluate the modulatory activity of essential oils from fruits of P. tuberculatum (AEPT) combined with various antibiotics againstStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Methods: Fresh fruits of P. tuberculatum were collected in Barbalha, CE, and subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger set to extract the essential oil (AEPT). The oil extracted was then treated with anhydrous sodium sulfate to eliminate residual humidity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains of S. aureus (SA358), E. coli (EC27) and P. aeruginosas (PA03). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution method, with three replications for each treatment. A MIC ≤ 256 µg/mL was considered to be clinically relevant. Results: Antibacterial activity of AEPT displayed a MIC of ≥1024 µg/mL against standard strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria. In fact, activity of AEPT antagonized the effect of amikacin against E. coli and S. aureus, but had a synergic effect against P. aeruginosa. Combined with gentamicin, the oil exhibited antagonism against E. coli, but no relevant result was obtained against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Combination of AEPT with the antibiotic imipenem had the most relevant effect, displaying synergism against all the bacteria evaluated. However, in combination with ciprofloxacin it did not show any significant effect with respect to the control. Conclusion: AEPT displayed better activity against all the bacteria evaluated when combined with imipenem, proving to be a possible alternative for the development of new herbal drugs with antimicrobial activity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Piper nigrum/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (Supp. 10): 110-122
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-185700

ABSTRACT

Background: Nowadays, liver disorders are one of the most serious and threatening problems of the health. Persian Golpar [Heracleum [H.] persicum] as an endemic medicinal plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties was used [noted] in the study for reducing the live injuries


Objective: This experiment -for the first time- was conducted to consider the effects of the oils obtained from fruits of Persian Golpar on the liver toxicity induced by the injection of tetrachloride carbon [CCl4] in the Wistar rats


Methods: In this study, 100 male Wistar rats were divided into 20 groups [n=5]. Negative control group [NC] received DMSO and olive oil for two weeks and the positive control group [C] received DMSO as i.p injection in 14 days following CCl4 [2 ml/kg b.w] at day 15th. The standard group [BHT], The treatment groups received H. persicum essential oils at both doses 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w as i.p injection following CCl4 [2 ml/kg b.w] at day 15th. Then, the levels of the glutathione [GSH], total antioxidant capacity of plasma [FRAP], proxidasion lipids [MDA] and glutathione stransferase [GST] and also liver enzymes for instance alanin teransferase [ALT] and aspartate teransferase [AST] were estimated at 4, 8, 16 and 24 h after CCL4 injection


Results: The injection of the essential oils [at the both doses] obtained from Persian Golpar could surprisingly modulate the changes of the antioxidant/oxidative parameters as well as liver enzymes induced by CCL4 administration


Conclusion: These results indicated the protective effect of Iranian Golpar essential oils on the liver. These effects are probably due to its antioxidant capacity


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Heracleum , Phytotherapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Carbon Tetrachloride/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e16101, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839444

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize mupirocin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules using two different oils and to develop and validate an analytical method for quantitative determination by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean size of the nanoparticles was 233.05 nm and 275.03 nm for nanocapsules with a rosemary oil like oily core and caprylic/capric triglyceride, respectively, and a good polydispersity index below 0.25 for both formulations. The nanocapsules showed good stability when stored at 40 ºC and room temperature for 30 days. The quantitative method was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium ammonium acetate (0.05 M adjusted to pH 5.0 with acetic acid) and acetonitrile 60:40 (v/v); the flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, UV detection at 230 nm. The analytical method was linear in the range of 5.0-15.0 µg/mL, specific for both oils, accurate, precise (intermediate precision RSD = 1.68% and repeatability RSD = 0.81%) and robust under the evaluated conditions. Therefore, this method can be performed for quantification of mupirocin in polymeric nanocapsules containing both oils.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Nanocapsules/analysis
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 905-911, set. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-829320

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se determinar atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial de Lippia origanoides na presença de leite bovino. A composição química do óleo essencial de alecrim pimenta foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM), sendo detectados 53 compostos, dos quais 16 foram identificados (>0,1% área total). O carvacrol (32,7%), p-cimeno (23%), timilmetil éter, cariofileno (7,98%) e o γ-terpineno (5,40%) foram os componentes mais abundantes. A concentração inibitória mínima para Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e E. coli ATCC 8739 foi de 60µL/mL, enquanto para Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 35640 foi de 90µL/mL. A concentração bactericida mínima foi de 120µL/mL para as três bactérias. Avaliou-se a atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial na concentração de 120µL/mL na presença de leite bovino sobre as mesmas cepas bacterianas. O óleo em estudo apresentou efeito inibitório do crescimento das cepas em diferentes tempos de ação (p<0,05). S. aureus apresentou maiores índices de inibição após 5 min de contato e Escherichia coli e Salmonella Choleraesuis após 15 min. O óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta revelou ser um potencial antimicrobiano natural, mesmo na presença de matéria orgânica constituída de uma matriz nutricional complexa que é o leite bovino.(AU)


This study aimed to determine the antiseptic activity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides in the presence of bovine milk. The essential oil chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG EM) 53 compounds were detected, of which 16 were identified (>0.1% total area). The carvacrol (32.7%), p-cymene (23%), thymil methyl ether (10.03%), caryophyllene (7.98 %) and γ-terpinene (5.40%) were the most abundant components. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was 60uL/mL, as for this Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 35640 was 90uL/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration was 120µL/mL for all three bacteria. We evaluated the antiseptic activity of the essential oil in the concentration of 120µL/mL in the presence of bovine milk for the same bacterial strains. The oil under study It showed an inhibitory effect of growth of the strains in different action times (p <0.05). S. aureus showed higher inhibition rates after 5 min of contact and E. coli and Salmonella Choleraesuis after 15 min. The essential oil Lippia origanoides proved to be a natural antimicrobial potential even in the presence of organic matter consists of a complex nutritional matrix is bovine milk.(AU)


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/analysis , Lippia/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Thymol/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Cattle , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Products with Antimicrobial Action
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