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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11391, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285650

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis, is intrinsically related to obesity. Our previous study reported on the anti-obese activity of α,β-amyrin (AMY), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Protium heptaphyllum. This study investigated its ability to prevent fatty liver and the underlying mechanism using the mouse model of NAFLD. NAFLD was induced in male Swiss mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. The controls were fed a normal chow diet (ND). The mice were simultaneously treated with AMY at 10 and 20 mg/kg or fenofibrate at 50 mg/kg. Lipid levels along with metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed in liver and serum. The liver sections were histologically examined using H&E staining. RT-qPCR and western blotting assays were performed to analyze signaling mechanisms. Mice fed HFD developed severe hepatic steatosis with elevated triglycerides and lipid droplets compared with ND controls. This was associated with a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, an increase of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, and enhanced sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) expression, which have roles in lipogenesis, inhibition of lipolysis, and inflammatory response. AMY treatment reversed these signaling activities and decreased the severity of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response, evidenced by serum and liver parameters as well as histological findings. AMY-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis seemed to involve AMPK-mTORC1-SREBP1 signaling pathways, which supported its beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888052

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the leaves of Ilex guayusa were investigated. Sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of dried leaves of I. guayusa by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatographies and semi-prepa-rative HPLC. Those triterpenoids were identified by NMR, HR-MS, and literature analysis: 3β-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13β-olide(1), 3β-hydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanadien-28-methyl ester(2), oleanolic acid(3), 3β,28-dihydroxy-12-oleanene(4), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-'nor-olean-4(23)-ene-28,13β-olide(5), ursolic acid(6), 3β,23-dihydroxy ursolic acid(7), 3β,28-dihydroxy-12-ursene(8), 3β-28-nor-urs-12-ene-3,17-diol(9), 3β-hydroxyurs-11-ene-28,13β-olide(10), 13β,28-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-11-ursene(11), 3β-hydroxy-28,28-dimethoxy-12-ursene(12), 3β-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-oic acid(13), 3β-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-methyl ester(14), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13β-olide(15) and 2α,3β-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),20(30)-dien-28,13β-olide(16). Compounds 1-2 were new compounds, and compounds 4-5, 7 and 9-16 were isolated from I. guayusa for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ilex guayusa , Molecular Structure , Oleanolic Acid , Plant Leaves , Triterpenes
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888784

ABSTRACT

For local treatment of ulcerative colitis, a new azoreductase driven prodrug CDDO-AZO from bardoxolone methyl (CDDO-Me) and 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) was designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. It is proposed that orally administrated CDDO-AZO is stable before reaching the colon, while it can also be triggered by the presence of azoreductase in the colon to fragment into CDDO-Me and 5-ASA, generating potent anti-colitis effects. Superior to olsalazine (OLS, a clinically used drug for ulcerative colitis) and CDDO-Me plus 5-ASA, CDDO-AZO significantly attenuated inflammatory colitis symptoms in DSS-induced chronic colitis mice, which suggested that CDDO-AZO may be a promising anti-ulcerative colitis agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis/drug therapy , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice , Nitroreductases , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Prodrugs
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921645

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effects of chikusetsu saponin Ⅳa(CHS Ⅳa) on isoproterenol(ISO)-induced myocardial hypertrophy in rats and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. ISO was applied to establish a rat model of myocardial hypertrophy, and CHS Ⅳa(5 and 15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was used for intervention. The tail artery blood pressure was measured. Cardiac ultrasound examination was performed. The ratio of heart weight to body weight(HW/BW) was calculated. Morphological changes in the myocardial tissue were observed by HE staining. Collagen deposition in the myocardial tissue was observed by Masson staining. The mRNA expression of myocardial hypertrophy indicators(ANP and BNP), autophagy-related genes(Atg5, P62 and beclin1), and miR199 a-5 p was detected by qRT-PCR. Atg5 protein expression was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the model group exhibited increased tail artery blood pressure and HW/BW ratio, thickened left ventricular myocardium, enlarged myocardial cells, disordered myocardial fibers with widened interstitium, and a large amount of collagen aggregating around the extracellular matrix and blood vessels. ANP and BNP were largely expressed. Moreover, P62 expression was up-regulated, while beclin1 expression was down-regulated. After intervention by CHS Ⅳa at different doses, myocardial hypertrophy was ameliorated and autophagy activity in the myocardial tissue was enhanced. Meanwhile, miR199 a-5 p expression declined and Atg5 expression increased. As predicted by bioinformatics, Atg5 was a target gene of miR199 a-5 p. CHS Ⅳa was capable of preventing myocardial hypertrophy by regulating autophagy of myocardial cells through the miR-199 a-5 p/Atg5 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiomegaly/genetics , Isoproterenol , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology
5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(2): 1-11, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1120320

ABSTRACT

Background: Passiflora quadrangularis L. has antihypertensive and anxiolytic properties observed in experimental models. Objectives: The aim of this work was to establish the vascular effects exerted by two known monodesmosidic triterpene saponins, 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid (Compound 1) (not previously described for this plant) and, 3-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl] oleanolic acid (Compound 2), isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora quadrangularis L. leaves. Methods: The structural elucidation was achieved by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Aortic rings from Wistar rats, previously stimulated with phenylephrine (PE, 1µM) and washed, were exposed to cumulatively concentrations of compound 1 and compound 2 (10 to 400 µM). Ethanolic extract from leaves of P. quadrangularis L. (10 to 320 µg/ mL) and clonidine (1nM to 100µM) were also used for comparison. Concentration response curves of compounds 1 and 2 were examined in presence and absence of: endothelium, the alpha-2 antagonist yohimbine (1 and 100 µM), the alpha non selective antagonist phentolamine (1µM), the alpha-1 antagonist prazosin (1µM) and the calcium channel blocker verapamil (10 and 100 µM). In addition, cumulatively response curve of acetylcholine (ACh, 10nM to 10µM) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1nM to 100µM) were assayed in rings precontracted with compounds 1 and 2 (400 µM). Results: Compounds 1 and 2 elicited a vasoconstriction response in intact aorta rings in similar way (pEC50: 3.92±0.01 and 4.09±0.01, respectively), effect that did not change in denuded rings (pEC50: 3.90±0.01 and 4.11±0.01). The potency order (pEC50) of compounds 1 and 2 decreased according to the following: verapamil (3.53±0.01 and 3.90±0.02; p<0.05) < yohimbine (3.65±0.01 and 3.94±0.02; p<0.05) < prazosin (3.86±0.01 and 4.30±0.02) < phentolamine (4.05±0.02 and 4.05±0.01). SNP but not ACh, was able to decrease the vasopressor effect of compounds 1 and 2 (pIC50: 8.61±0.01 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively). Conclusions: Compounds 1 and 2 are key metabolites responsible for the ex vivo vasoconstrictor response induced by P. quadrangularis L. Activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels and/or α2-adrenergic receptors stimulation could be mechanisms implicated.


Antecedentes: Passiflora quadrangularis L. tiene propiedades antihipertensivas y ansiolíticas observadas en modelos animales. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer los efectos vasculares ejercidos por dos conocidas saponinas triterpénicas monodesmosídicas: el ácido 3-O-ß-D glucopiranosiloleanólico (Compuesto 1) (no descrito previamente para esta especie vegetal) y el ácido 3-O-[ß-D-glucopiranosil- (1→2)-ß-D-glucopiranosil]oleanólico (Compuesto 2), aisladas del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Passiflora quadrangularis L. Métodos: La elucidación estructural se llevó a cabo mediante experimentos de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (NMR) y determinaciones de Espectrometría de Masas de Alta Resolución (HRMS). Los anillos aórticos de ratas Wistar, previamente estimulados con fenilefrina (PE, 1 µM) y lavados, fueron expuestos a concentraciones acumulativas del compuesto 1 y compuesto 2 (10 a 400 µM). El extracto etanólico de las hojas de P. quadrangularis L. (10 a 320 µg / ml) y clonidina (1 nM a 100 µM) se utilizaron para la comparación. Las curvas de concentración respuesta de los compuestos 1 y 2 se examinaron en presencia y ausencia de: endotelio, el antagonista alfa-2 yohimbina (1 y 100 µM), el antagonista alfa no selectivo fentolamina (1 µM), el antagonista alfa-1 prazosina (1 µM) y el bloqueador de canales de calcio verapamilo (10 y 100 µM). Además, la curva de concentraciones acumulativas de acetilcolina (ACh, 10 nM a 10 µM) y nitroprusiato de sodio (SNP, 1 nM a 100 µM) se ensayó en anillos pre-contraídos con los compuestos 1 y 2 (400 µM). Resultados: Los compuestos 1 y 2 provocaron una respuesta de vasoconstricción en los anillos de aorta intactos de manera similar (pEC50: 3.92 ± 0.01 y 4.09 ± 0.01, respectivamente), este efecto no cambió en los anillos denudados (pEC50: 3.90 ± 0.01 y 4.11 ± 0.01). El orden de potencia (pEC50) de los compuestos 1 y 2 disminuyó de la siguiente manera: verapamilo (3.53 ± 0.01 y 3.90 ± 0.02; p <0.05) < yohimbina (3.65 ± 0.01 y 3.94 ± 0.02; p <0.05) < prazosina (3.86 ± 0.01 y 4.30 ± 0.02)

Subject(s)
Humans , Saponins , Vasoconstriction , Passiflora , Oleanolic Acid , Antihypertensive Agents
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 27-31, Mar. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is one of the common malignant tumors of the head and neck. However, current treatments have numerous side effects, and drugs from natural sources may have better therapeutic potential. This research investigated the induction of apoptosis by α-hederin (α-HN), a constituent of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel, in the oral cancer cell line SCC-25 and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: SCC-25 cells were treated with 50, 100, and 200 µmol/L α-HN. Cell proliferation; extent of apoptosis; activities of caspases-3, 8, and 9; and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, phosphorylated (p)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Akt, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) proteins were determined using the 3-(4,5)-2-thiazole-(2,5)-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, caspase activity detection kits, and western blot assays, respectively. The results showed that the proliferation of SCC-25 cells in the α-HN-treated groups decreased significantly, and the inhibitory effect was time and concentration dependent. Compared with cells in the control group, the extent of apoptosis increased significantly, caspase-3 and -9 activities were significantly enhanced, and the Bcl-2 level was lowered and the Bax level was elevated significantly in SCC-25 cells treated with α-HN for 48 h (P b 0.05). The expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR was also significantly lower in SCC-25 cells treated with α-HN than that in the control group (P b 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that α-HN can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of SCC-25 cells and may exert these effects by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Saponins/pharmacology , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oleanolic Acid/metabolism , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Saponins/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Survival , Blotting, Western , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspases , Pulsatilla , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of calenduloside E on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#CCK-8 assay was used to examine the effect of different concentrations of calenduloside E (0-30 μg/mL) on the viability of RAW264.7 cells. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW264.7 cells in response to pretreatment with 6, 8, and 10 μg/mL calenduloside E for 2 h followed by stimulation with 100 ng/mL LPS was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 and the activation of JAK-stats, MAPKs and NF-кB signaling pathways in the treated cells were determined using Western blotting. A reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection kit was used to detect ROS production in the cells, and the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor stat3 was observed by laser confocal microscopy.@*RESULTS@#Calenduloside E below 20 μg/mL did not significantly affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells. Calenduloside E dose-dependently decreased the expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS, inhibited LPS-induced release of TNF-α and IL-1β, and suppressed LPS-induced JAK1-stat3 signaling pathway activation and stat3 nuclear translocation. Calenduloside E also significantly reduced ROS production induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Calenduloside E inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response by blocking ROS-mediated activation of JAK1-stat3 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , NF-kappa B , Oleanolic Acid , Reactive Oxygen Species , Saponins , Signal Transduction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773276

ABSTRACT

Bupleuri Radix has both liver protection and hepatotoxicity. Saponins are the main pharmacodynamic and toxic components of Bupleuri Radix. Based on zebrafish physical model and the model of alcoholic fatty liver( AFL) pathology,the liver toxic and protective effect of saikosaponin a( SSa) were assessed. The results indicated that 1. 77 μmol·L-1 SSa showed protective effect to AFL zebrafish. 5. 30 μmol·L-1 SSa was hepatotoxic to healthy zebrafish,but it showed protective effect to AFL zebrafish. 5. 62 μmol·L-1 SSa was hepatotoxic to healthy and AFL zebrafish. This study is benefit for clinical safety of saikosaponin a.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Fatty Liver, Alcoholic , Drug Therapy , Oleanolic Acid , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Zebrafish
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773202

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of saikosaponin b2( SS-b2) on inflammatory factors and energy metabolism against lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine( LPS/Gal N) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were randomly divided into normal group( equal amount of normal saline),model group( 100 g·kg~(-1) LPS and 400 mg·kg~(-1) Gal N),low,medium,high dose group of SS-b2( SS-b25,10,20 mg·kg~(-1)·d-1) and positive control group( dexamethasone,10 mg·kg~(-1)). All of the groups except for the normal group were treated with LPS/Gal N though intraperitoneally injection to establish the acute liver injury model. The organ indexes were calculated. The levels of serum transaminases( ALT and AST) and the activities of ATPase( Na+-K+-ATPase,Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in liver were detected. The activity of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α),interleukin-1β( IL-1β) and interleukin-6( IL-6) were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The contents of lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) in liver were determined by micro-enzyme method. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of the liver. Histochemical method was used to investigate the protein expression of liver lactate dehydrogenase-A( LDH-A). The protein expressions of Sirt-6 and NF-κB in the liver were detected by Western blot. According to the results,compared with the model group,there were significant changes in organ indexes in the high-dose group of SS-b2( P<0. 05). The level of ALT,AST,TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6 and the activities of LDH in serum of mice with liver injury were significantly reduced in the medium and high dose groups of SS-b2( P<0. 01). With the increase of the concentration of SS-b2,the range of hepatic lesions and the damage in mice decreased. The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in liver of mice were significantly enhanced in each dose group( P<0. 01). The expression of NF-κB in liver tissues was significantly down-regulated in the medium and high dose group( P<0. 01). Meanwhile,the expression of Sirt-6 protein in the liver of mice with acute liver injury was significantly increased in each dose group( P<0. 01).In summary,SS-b2 has a significant protective effect on LPS/Gal N-induced acute liver injury in mice,which may be related to the down-regulation of NF-κB protein expression and up-regulation of Sirt-6 protein expression to improve inflammatory injury and energy metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Cytokines , Metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Galactosamine , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver , Mice , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Oleanolic Acid , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Saponins , Pharmacology , Sirtuins , Metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774550

ABSTRACT

In this study, the synthetic pathway of β-amyrin was constructed in the pre-constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae chassis strain Y0 by introducing β-amyrin synthase from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, resulting strain Y1-C20-6, which successfully produced β-amyrin up to 5.97 mg·L~(-1). Then, the mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene(ERG19), mevalonate kinase gene(ERG12), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase gene(ERG13), phosphomevalonate kinase gene(ERG8) and IPP isomerase gene(IDI1)were overexpressed to promoted the metabolic fluxto the direction of β-amyrin synthesis for further improving β-amyrin production, resulting the strain Y2-C2-4 which produced β-amyrin of 10.3 mg·L~(-1)under the shake flask fermentation condition. This is 100% higher than that of strain Y1-C20-6, illustrating the positive effect of the metabolic engineering strategy applied in this study. The titer of β-amyrin was further improved up to 157.4 mg·L~(-1) in the fed-batch fermentation, which was almost 26 fold of that produced by strain Y1-C20-6. This study not only laid the foundation for the biosynthesis of β-amyrin but also provided a favorable chassis strain for elucidation of cytochrome oxidases and glycosyltransferases of β-amyrin-based triterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Genetics , Industrial Microbiology , Intramolecular Transferases , Genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Oleanolic Acid , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776900

ABSTRACT

Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is a perennial medicinal herb that contains pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins as the major bioactive constituents. In China, the rhizomes are used as treatments for a variety of ailments including arthritis. However, yields of the saponins are low, and little is known about the plant's genetic background or phytohormonal responsiveness. Using one-quarter of the 454 pyrosequencing information from the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to identify 157 genes putatively encoding 26 enzymes involved in the synthesis of the bioactive compounds. It was revealed that there are two biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins in A. flaccida. One pathway depends on β-amyrin synthase and is similar to that found in other plants. The second, subsidiary ("backburner") pathway is catalyzed by camelliol C synthase and yields β-amyrin as minor byproduct. Both pathways used cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYPs) and family 1 uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to modify the triterpenoid backbone. The expression of CYPs and UGTs were quite different in roots treated with the phytohormones methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. This study provides the first large-scale transcriptional dataset for the biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins and their phytohormonal responsiveness in the genus Anemone.


Subject(s)
Anemone , Genetics , Metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycosyltransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Oleanolic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome , Genetics , Metabolism , Saponins , Metabolism , Triterpenes , Metabolism
12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 219-224, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741639

ABSTRACT

During the screening for cytotoxic compounds from plants grown in Korea, Betula platyphylla (BP) showed potent activity against the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cell line. To identify the cytotoxic components from BP, the CH₂Cl₂ fraction with the most significant cytotoxic effect was applied to the column chromatographies. Seven compounds were isolated: lupeol (1), betulinic acid (2), (−)-rhododendrol (3), platyphyllenone (4), platyphyllone (5), (−)-centrolobol (6), and oleanolic acid (7). Among them, three diarylheptanoids (4 – 6) exhibited cytotoxicity toward A549 cells. Especially, 50 µM of 4 reduced A549 cell viability to 18.93 ± 0.82% compared to control (100.00 ± 21.48%). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also induced by 50 µM 4. This is the first report on the cytotoxic effect of BP-derived diarylheptanoids 4–6 against A549 cells. The compound 4 may be useful for the development of early hit compounds for non-small cell lung carcinoma, but the consideration about selectivity of 4 is required since 4 also showed the cytotoxicity in the human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cell line.


Subject(s)
Betula , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Chromatography , Diarylheptanoids , Humans , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lung , Mass Screening , Oleanolic Acid , Reactive Oxygen Species
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771729

ABSTRACT

Epoxy ether type and isophthalene type saponin are the main saponins of Bupleurum chinense. However,due to the difference of their UV spectrum,there is no quantitative method for simultaneous determination of these two kinds of saponins. In this paper,a dual-wavelength high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was developed for simultaneous determination of five saponins in epoxidized ether(saikosaponin a,c,d) and isosorbide type(saikosaponin b1,b2). The mobile phase was eluted with acetonitrile-water(0.1% phosphoric acid) gradient at a column temperature of 30 °C and a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min⁻¹. The detection wavelengths were 208 nm for saikosaponins a,c, and d, and 254 nm for saikosaponins b₁ and b₂. The results showed that the separation of five kinds of saikosaponin was good, with the linear range of 9.70-1 935.00(=0.999 4),8.20-1 380.00(=0.999 3),6.90-1 640.00(=0.999 0),5.25-630.00(=0.999 4), and 5.15-618.00 mg·L⁻¹(=0.999 5), respectively. The average recoveries were 97.70%-100.2% and the RSD was less than 3%(=6). The method is simple,rapid and reproducible. It can be used for the determination of five kinds of saikosaponins in B. chinense.


Subject(s)
Bupleurum , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Oleanolic Acid , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Saponins
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773608

ABSTRACT

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from olea europaeal, a traditional Chinese medicine herb. OA has been used in the clinic as a hepatoprotective medicine in China since 1970s. In our previous study, we observed that OA could ameliorate hyperlipidemia in animal models. In the present study, we conducted a small-scale clinical trial to evaluate the hypolipidemia effect of OA in hyperlipidemic patients. Hyperlipidemic patients were administrated with OA for four weeks (4 tablets once, three times a day). The blood samples of the patients were collected before and after OA treatment. The biological parameters were measured. Furthermore, three patients' blood samples were studied with DNA microarray. After OA administration, the TC, TG, and HDLC levels in serum decreased significantly. DNA microarray analysis results showed that the expressions of 21 mRNAs were significantly changed after OA treatment. Bioinformatics analysis showed 17 mRNAs were up-regulated and 4 mRNAs were down-regulated significantly after OA treatment. Five mRNAs (CACNA1B, FCN, STEAP3, AMPH, and NR6A1) were selected to validate the expression levels by qRT-PCR. Therefore, OA administration differentially regulated the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The data showed a clinical evidence that OA could improve hyperlipidemia and also unveiled a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effect of OA on hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
China , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Blood , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Oleanolic Acid , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812397

ABSTRACT

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from olea europaeal, a traditional Chinese medicine herb. OA has been used in the clinic as a hepatoprotective medicine in China since 1970s. In our previous study, we observed that OA could ameliorate hyperlipidemia in animal models. In the present study, we conducted a small-scale clinical trial to evaluate the hypolipidemia effect of OA in hyperlipidemic patients. Hyperlipidemic patients were administrated with OA for four weeks (4 tablets once, three times a day). The blood samples of the patients were collected before and after OA treatment. The biological parameters were measured. Furthermore, three patients' blood samples were studied with DNA microarray. After OA administration, the TC, TG, and HDLC levels in serum decreased significantly. DNA microarray analysis results showed that the expressions of 21 mRNAs were significantly changed after OA treatment. Bioinformatics analysis showed 17 mRNAs were up-regulated and 4 mRNAs were down-regulated significantly after OA treatment. Five mRNAs (CACNA1B, FCN, STEAP3, AMPH, and NR6A1) were selected to validate the expression levels by qRT-PCR. Therefore, OA administration differentially regulated the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The data showed a clinical evidence that OA could improve hyperlipidemia and also unveiled a new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effect of OA on hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
China , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Blood , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Oleanolic Acid , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728579

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we tried to examine whether oleanolic acid regulates the activity, secretion and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in primary cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes, as well as the production of MMP-3 in the knee joint of rat to evaluate the potential chondroprotective effect of oleanolic acid. Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), ADAMTS-5 and type II collagen. In rabbit articular chondrocytes, the effects of oleanolic acid on IL-1β-induced secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3 were investigated using western blot analysis and casein zymography, respectively. The effect of oleanolic acid on in vivo MMP-3 protein production was also examined, after intra-articular injection to the knee joint of rat. The results were as follows: (1) oleanolic acid inhibited the gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5, but increased the gene expression of type II collagen; (2) oleanolic acid reduced the secretion and proteolytic activity of MMP-3; (3) oleanolic acid suppressed the production of MMP-3 protein in vivo. These results suggest that oleanolic acid can regulate the activity, secretion and gene expression of MMP-3, by directly acting on articular chondrocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Caseins , Chondrocytes , Collagen Type II , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Injections, Intra-Articular , Knee Joint , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Oleanolic Acid , Osteoarthritis , Rats , Thrombospondins
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 55-60, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331593

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to study lipid-lowering effect of seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers in zebrafish system. Zebrafish were fed with high fat diet to establish a hyperlipemia model, then fasted and bathed with seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers stigmasterol, triacontanol, chrysophanol, vanillic acid, shikimic acid, polydatin and oleanolic acid respectively. The oil red O staining was used to detect the blood lipids of zebrafish. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were detected to validate the lipid-lowering effect. The result showed that a zebrafish model of hyperlipemia could be established by feeding larvae zebrafish with high fat diet. Among the seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers, chrysophanol had lipid-lowering effect. Chrysophanol significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish fed with high fat diet. Chrysophanol accelerated peristalsis frequency of zebrafish intestine and the excretion of high fat food. It is concluded that chrysophanol has lipid- lowering effect in zebrafish, and the mechanism of the effect may be due to the roles of chrysophanol in reducing lipid absorption from gastrointestinal tract and accelerating the excretion of food.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Alcohols , Pharmacology , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias , Drug Therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents , Pharmacology , Larva , Lipids , Blood , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Oleanolic Acid , Pharmacology , Shikimic Acid , Pharmacology , Stigmasterol , Pharmacology , Stilbenes , Pharmacology , Vanillic Acid , Pharmacology , Zebrafish
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812106

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to synthesize 2-Cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9(11)-en-28-oate-13β, 28-olide (1), a lactone derivative of oleanolic acid (OA) and evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity. Compound 1 significantly diminished nitric oxide (NO) production and down-regulated the mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further in vivo studies in murine model of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) showed that 1 possessed more potent protective effects than the well-known anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone by inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reducing total cells and neutrophils, and suppressing inflammatory cytokines expression, and thus ameliorating the histopathological conditions of the injured lung tissue. In conclusion, compound 1 could be developed as a promising anti-inflammatory agent for intervention of LPS-induced ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Allergy and Immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutrophils , Allergy and Immunology , Oleanolic Acid , Peroxidase , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812092

ABSTRACT

5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT) receptor is one of the major targets of anti-obesity agents, due to its role in regulation of appetite. In the present study, the 70% EtOH extract of the roots of Bupleurum chinense was revealed to have agonistic activity on 5-HT receptor, and the subsequent bioassay-guided isolation led to identification of several saikosaponins as the active constituents with 5-HT receptor agonistic activity in vitro and anti-obesity activity in vivo. The new compound, 22-oxosaikosaponin d (1), was determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses (HR-ESI-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR). The primary structure-activity relationship study suggested that the intramolecular ether bond between C-13 and C-28 and the number of sugars at C-3 position were closely related to the 5-HT receptor agonistic activity. Saikosaponin a (3), the main saponin in B. chinense, showed obviously agonistic activity on 5-HT receptor with an EC value of 21.08 ± 0.33 μmol·Lin vitro and could reduce food intake by 39.1% and 69.2%, and weight gain by 13.6% and 16.4%, respectively, at 3.0 and 6.0 mg·kgin vivo. This investigation provided valuable information for the potential use of B. chinense as anti-obesity agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Biological Assay , Bupleurum , Chemistry , Male , Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812041

ABSTRACT

As the carrier of water-insoluble drugs, microspheres can play a role in increasing solubility and delaying releasing essence. The objective of this study was to improve the solubility and to delay the release of a newly discovered antitumor compound 3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester (T-OA). Early-stage preparation discovery concept (EPDC) was employed in the present study. The preparation, physicochemical characterization, and drug release properties of PLGA microspheres were evaluated. T-OA-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsification solvent evaporation method. Characterization and release behaviors of the T-OA PLGA microspheres were evaluated by X-ray diffract (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results demonstrated that T-OA-loaded PLGA microspheres could be successfully obtained through solvent evaporation method with appropriate morphologic characteristics and high encapsulation efficiency. The XRD analysis showed that T-OA would be either molecularly dispersed in the polymer or distributed in an amorphous form. The DSC and FTIR analysis proved that there were interactions between T-OA and PLGA polymer. SEM observations displayed the morphology of the microspheres was homogeneous and the majority of the spheres ranged between 50 and 150 μm. The drug release behavior of the microspheres in the phosphate buffered saline medium exhibited a sustained release and the duration of the release lasted for more than 23 days, which was fit with zero-order release pattern with r = 0.9947. In conclusion, TOA-loaded PLGA microspheres might hold great promise for using as a drug-delivery system in biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Delayed-Action Preparations , Chemistry , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Lactic Acid , Chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microspheres , Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Polyglycolic Acid , Chemistry , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer , Pyrazines , Chemistry , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
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