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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Triglycerides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Oleic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Inflammation
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921358

ABSTRACT

To explore interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and characterize lipid accumulation in L02 hepatocytes induced by sodium oleate. L02 hepatocytes were incubated with 0, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600, or 1,200 μmol/L sodium oleate for 24 h, and the supernatant was collected to detect the concentration of IL-6. L02 hepatocytes were incubated with 300, 150, 75, or 0 μmol/L sodium oleate for 0-24 h. The supernatant was collected for detection of IL-6 and free fatty acids. L02 hepatocytes treated with 300 μmol/L sodium oleate for 0-24 h were stained with Oil Red O. With extended sodium oleate incubation time, IL-6 levels increased, and free fatty acids decreased. After 24 h incubation, IL-6 levels increased as sodium oleate increased from 37.5 to 300 μmol/L (


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Oleic Acid/administration & dosage , Time Factors
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 772-780, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921280

ABSTRACT

The development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to the fatty acid (FA) uptake. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) on CD36 (typical fatty acid translocase), hepatocellular lipid metabolism as well as the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver. High-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice and db/db mice were used to test the expression levels of Klf9 and Cd36 in the livers. The primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6J mice, treated with Ad-GFP, Ad-Klf9, Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shKlf9, and then incubated with oleic acid and palmitic acid for 24 h. Liver-specific knockout of Klf9 mice were established. The protein levels and relative mRNA levels were examined by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Triglyceride content was determined by using an assay kit. Lipid content was determined by Oil Red O staining. The results showed that: (1) Klf9 expression levels were increased in the livers of high-fat diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice, compared to their respective control mice. (2) Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Klf9 in primary hepatocytes increased Cd36 expression and cellular triglyceride contents. (3) In contrast, adenovirus-mediated knockdown of Klf9 expression in primary hepatocytes by Ad-shKlf9 decreased Cd36 expression and cellular triglyceride contents. (4) Finally, Klf9 deficiency decreased liver Cd36 expression and alleviated fatty liver phenotype of high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These results suggest that KLF9 can regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and development of NAFLD by promoting the expression of CD36.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD36 Antigens/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Oleic Acid/metabolism
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 135-140, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092753

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue comparar algunas características nutricionales y de calidad de huevos de tinamou, con huevos de gallina y codorniz. Los huevos de tinamou contienen menos extracto etéreo y proteína en yema, y similar cantidad de proteínas en clara que huevos de gallina y codorniz. La clara del huevo de tinamou contiene más hierro (0,5 mg/100g) que huevos de gallina y codorniz (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). El ácido oleico es el principal ácido graso de la yema de huevos de tinamou, al igual que los otros. El contenido de colesterol en yema de huevo de tinamou (21,2 mg/g) es mayor a los rangos descritos en huevos de gallina (10,9-16,3 mg/g) y codorniz (11,1-15,9 mg/g). El huevo de tinamou tiene un aspecto físico distinto a huevos de gallina y codorniz, la cáscara es de color chocolate oscuro, pesa en promedio 35 g, sus dimensiones son de 50 x 36 mm, y tienen una unidad Haugh inferior a lo registrado para huevos de gallina y codorniz. El huevo de tinamou es una alternativa muy nutritiva como alimento, de características nutricionales similares a huevos de gallina y codorniz, a excepción de su mayor contenido de colesterol en yema y hierro en clara.


The objective of this review was to compare the nutritional characteristics and quality of tinamou eggs. Tinamou eggs have less ether extract and protein in the yolk, they also have a similar quantity of protein in the egg white than hen and quail eggs. The egg white of the tinamou egg has more iron (0,5 mg/100g) compared to hen and quail eggs (0,1-0,2 mg/100g). Oleic acid is the main fatty acid in all three types of eggs. On the other hand, the amount of cholesterol in the tinamou yolk (21,2 mg/g) is higher than the amounts described for hen eggs (10,9-16,3 mg/g) and those of quail (11,1-15,9 mg/g). In terms of the physical characteristics, the tinamou eggshell has a chocolate color, weighs an average of 35g, has a length about 50 x 36 mm and has an inferior Haugh unity than hen and quail eggs. The tinamou egg represents a high nutritive alternative with similar nutritional characteristics compared to hen and quail eggs, with the exception of cholesterol in the yolk and iron in the egg white.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Quality , Palaeognathae , Eggs , Nutritive Value , Chile , Cholesterol/analysis , Oleic Acid/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Iron/analysis
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 716-731, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826904

ABSTRACT

Stearoyl-ACP Δ⁹ desaturase (SAD) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid or palmitoleic acid in plastids. SAD is the key enzyme to control the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in plant cells. In order to analyze the regulation mechanism of soybean oleic acid synthesis, soybean (Glycine max) GmSAD family members were genome-wide identified, and their conserved functional domains and physicochemical properties were also analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The spatiotemporal expression profile of each member of GmSADs was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression vectors of GmSAD5 were constructed. The enzyme activity and biological function of GmSAD5 were examined by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and genetic transformation of oleic acid-deficient yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant BY4389. Results show that the soybean genome contains five GmSAD family members, all encoding an enzyme protein with diiron center and two conservative histidine enrichment motifs (EENRHG and DEKRHE) specific to SAD enzymes. The active enzyme protein was predicted as a homodimer. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that five GmSADs were divided into two subgroups, which were closely related to AtSSI2 and AtSAD6, respectively. The expression profiles of GmSAD members were significantly different in soybean roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds at different developmental stages. Among them, GmSAD5 expressed highly in the middle and late stages of developmental seeds, which coincided with the oil accumulation period. Transient expression of GmSAD5 in tobacco leaves increased the oleic acid and total oil content in leaf tissue by 5.56% and 2.73%, respectively, while stearic acid content was reduced by 2.46%. Functional complementation assay in defective yeast strain BY4389 demonstrated that overexpression of GmSAD5 was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid, resulting in high oil accumulation. Taken together, soybean GmSAD5 has strong selectivity to stearic acid substrates and can efficiently catalyze the biosynthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid. It lays the foundation for the study of soybean seed oleic acid and total oil accumulation mechanism, providing an excellent target for genetic improvement of oil quality in soybean.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acid Desaturases , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Oleic Acid , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Seeds , Chemistry , Soybeans , Classification , Genetics
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 689-697, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777142

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ferroptosis in acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model induced by oleic acid (OA). ALI was induced in the mice via the lateral tail vein injection of pure OA. The histopathological score of lung, lung wet-dry weight ratio and the protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were used as the evaluation indexes of ALI. Iron concentration, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the lung tissues were measured using corresponding assay kits. The ultrastructure of pulmonary cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the expression level of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) mRNA was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) in lung tissues were determined by Western blot. The results showed that histopathological scores of lung tissues, lung wet-dry weight ratio and protein in BALF in the OA group were higher than those of the control group. In the OA group, the mitochondria of pulmonary cells were shrunken, and the mitochondrial membrane was ruptured. The expression level of PTGS2 mRNA in the OA group was seven folds over that in the control group. Iron overload, GSH depletion and accumulation of MDA were observed in the OA group. Compared with the control group, the protein expression levels of GPX4 and ferritin in lung tissue were down-regulated in the OA group. These results suggest that ferroptosis plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of ALI in our mouse model, which may provide new insights for development of new drugs for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Metabolism , Ferritins , Metabolism , Glutathione , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Iron , Iron Overload , Lung , Cell Biology , Pathology , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondrial Membranes , Oleic Acid
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761796

ABSTRACT

Free fatty acid (FFA) intake regulates blood pressure and vascular reactivity but its direct effect on contractility of systemic arteries is not well understood. We investigated the effects of saturated fatty acid (SFA, palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, linoleic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, oleic acid) on the contractility of isolated mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of Sprague–Dawley rats. Isolated MA and DFA were mounted on a dual wire myograph and phenylephrine (PhE, 1–10 µM) concentration-dependent contraction was obtained with or without FFAs. Incubation with 100 µM of palmitic acid significantly increased PhE-induced contraction in both arteries. In MA, treatment with 100 µM of linoleic acid decreased 1 µM PhE-induced contraction while increasing the response to higher PhE concentrations. In DFA, linoleic acid slightly decreased PhE-induced contraction while 200 µM oleic acid significantly decreased it. In MA, oleic acid reduced contraction at low PhE concentration (1 and 2 µM) while increasing it at 10 µM PhE. Perplexingly, depolarization by 40 mM KCl-induced contraction of MA was commonly enhanced by the three fatty acids. The 40 mM KCl-contraction of DFA was also augmented by linoleic and oleic acids while not affected by palmitic acid. SFA persistently increased alpha-adrenergic contraction of systemic arteries whereas PUFA and MUFA attenuated PhE-induced contraction of skeletal arteries. PUFA and MUFA concentration-dependent dual effects on MA suggest differential mechanisms depending on the types of arteries. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms of the various effects of FFA on systemic arteries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femoral Artery , Linoleic Acid , Mesenteric Arteries , Oleic Acid , Oleic Acids , Palmitic Acid , Phenylephrine , Rats , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha , Vasoconstriction
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The skin pH is maintained by epidermal lactate, free fatty acids (FFAs), and free amino acids (FAAs). As a significant determinant of skin health, the skin pH is increased (less acidic) under abnormal and aged skin conditions. In a search for dietary alternatives that would promote an acidic skin pH, this study investigated the dietary effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 isolated from Korean kimchi on the skin pH, and epidermal levels of lactate, FFAs, and FAAs in adult subjects. METHODS: Seventy eight subjects (mean age 24.9 ± 0.5 years, range 19 ~ 37 years) were assigned randomly to ingest CJLP55, Lactobacillus strain from kimchi, (n = 39, CJLP group) or placebo supplements (n = 39, placebo group) for 12 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Skin pH and epidermal levels of lactate, FFAs and FFAs were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: Although significant decreases in skin pH were observed in both the CJLP and placebo groups at 6 weeks, the skin pH was decreased significantly only in the CJLP group at 12 weeks. In parallel, the epidermal level of lactate in the CJLP group was also increased by 25.6% at 12 weeks. On the other hand, the epidermal level of FAAs were not altered in the CJLP and placebo groups, but the epidermal level of total FFAs, including palmitic acid and stearic acid, was lower in the CJLP group than in the placebo group over 12 weeks. The changes in the other FFAs, such as palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, were similar in the CJLP and placebo groups over 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Overall, a dietary supplement of CJLP55 promotes acidic skin pH with a selective increase in epidermal lactate in adult subjects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acids , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Hand , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus , Oleic Acid , Palmitic Acid , Skin
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741646

ABSTRACT

Microbial wound infection prolonged the hospitalization and increase the cost for wound management. Silver is commonly used as antimicrobial wound dressing. However, it causes several adverse side effects. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of Swietenia macrophylla seed extract on clinical wound pathogens. Besides, the bioactive constituents of the seed extract were also determined. S. macrophylla seeds were extracted with methanol by maceration method. The seed extract inhibited 5 test bacteria and 1 yeast on disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial activity was broad spectrum, as the extract inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. On kill curve analysis, the antibacterial activity of the seed extract was concentration-dependent, the increase of extract concentration resulted in more reduction of bacterial growth. The extract also caused 99.9% growth reduction of Bacillus subtilis relative to control. A total of 21 compounds were detected in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The predominant compounds present in the extract were oleic acid (18.56%) and linoleic acid (17.72%). In conclusion, the methanolic extract of S. macrophylla seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity on clinical wound pathogens. Further investigations should be conducted to purify other bioactive compounds from the seeds of S. macrophylla.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Bacteria , Bandages , Diffusion , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitalization , Linoleic Acid , Meliaceae , Methanol , Methods , Oleic Acid , Silver , Wound Infection , Wounds and Injuries , Yeasts
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1698-1706, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771761

ABSTRACT

Yuhua91 is a new peanut variety with high oleic acid content bred by Qingdao Agricultural University. The crossing was conducted with Luhua11 as female parent and with Kainong1715, an F435-type variety with high oleic acid content as male parent. The real F1 hybrids were screened by sequencing on PCR amplification products, and those homozygotes with bb genotype in F2 populations were screened by the same sequencing method as above. The content of oleic and linoleic acid was measured on the kernels harvested from F2 single plants by near infrared ray method, and those kernels whose content of oleic was above 80%, oleic and linoleic acid ratio was above 10.0 were obtained and planted into a row, with pedigree method for subsequent selection breeding. Yuhua91 has some characters of small pod, light and obvious pod texture, 148.06 g per 100 pods, 63.31 g per 100 kernels, 75.15% shelling percentage, long elliptic seed kernel, pink seed coat, without crack, white endotesta. Its content of protein, oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid was 26.57%, 52.72%, 80.40%, 2.50% and 5.57% respectively. Yuhua91 has other characters of strong seedlings, compact pod areas, and moderate resistance to leaf spot disease and bacterial wilt. Average pod yield is 215.79 kg per Mu, 15.27% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Average seed kernels yield is 157.33 kg per Mu, 21.64% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Yuhua 91 has been registered on department of agriculture in 2018, and the registration No. is GPD peanut (2018) 370210, fit for growing in Shandong Province.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Oleic Acid , Plant Breeding , Seeds
11.
ImplantNewsPerio ; 3(3): 518-526, mai.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905519

ABSTRACT

O hemangioma é considerado como uma neoplasia vascular benigna, caracterizado por uma fase de crescimento rápido, com proliferação de células endoteliais, seguida por uma estabilização gradual. A principal queixa dos pacientes portadores dessa neoplasia é referente à estética e, por esse motivo, a escleroterapia vem sendo uma boa opção de tratamento para obter resultados estéticos satisfatórios. Para esse tipo de tratamento, são utilizadas aplicações com oleato de monoetanolamina a 0,05 g/ml (Ethamolin), que promovem a regressão da lesão por fibrose dos espaços endoteliais. No presente artigo, é descrito um relato de caso clínico de uma paciente do sexo feminino, portadora de um hemangioma no lábio superior esquerdo. Foram realizadas três aplicações do agente esclerosante Ethamolin no interior do tumor, até que ele regredisse o suficiente para ser removido cirurgicamente com maior segurança e eficiência. As aplicações com oleato de monoetanolamina proporcionaram a involução do hemangioma de forma rápida e segura, de modo a promover uma esclerose dos vasos tumorais, favorecendo a remoção cirúrgica.


The hemangioma is considered as a benign vascular neoplasm, characterized by a phase of rapid growth, with proliferation of endothelial cells, followed by gradual estabilization. The main complaint of patients with this neoplasm is related to aesthetics and, for this reason, sclerotherapy has been a good treatment option to obtain satisfactory aesthetic results. For this type of treatment, applications with 0.05 g/ml Monoethanolamine Oleate (Ethamolin), which causes regression of the lesion by fibrosis of the endothelial spaces, are used. In the present article a clinical case report of a female patient with a hemangioma in the upper left lip will be described. As a treatment, three applications of the Ethamolin sclerosing agent were performed inside the tumor until it regress to be excised with greater safety and efficiency. The applications with Monoethanolamine Oleate provided a quick hemangioma involution, in order to promote sclerosis of tumor vessels, favoring it surgical removal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Hemangioma/therapy , Lip Neoplasms/therapy , Oleic Acid/therapeutic use , Oral Surgical Procedures , Sclerosing Solutions/therapeutic use , Sclerotherapy , Vascular Malformations/drug therapy
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 250-258, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of propofol pretreatment on lung morphology and heme oxygenase-1 expression in oleic acid -induced acute lung injury in rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300g) were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=8/group): group C, group OA, group OA+PR, and group OA+IX to compare related parameter changes. Results: PaO2, PCO2, and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly different among the four treatment groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Lung wet/dry weight ratio and HO-1 protein expression also significantly differed among the groups (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of HO-1 in group OA+PR was stronger than those in groups OA, OA+IX, and C. Light microscopy revealed that pathological changes in lung tissues in group OA+PR were milder than those in group OA and group OA+IX. Electron microscopy showed that alveolar type II epithelial cell ultrastructure in group OA was relatively irregular with cell degeneration and disintegration and cytoplasmic lamellar bodies were vacuolized. Changes in group OA+PR were milder than those in group OA; however, they were more severe in group OA+IX than in group OA. Conclusion: Propofol significantly increases the expression of HO-1 in the lung tissueand prevents changes in lung morphology due to ALI in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Propofol/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oleic Acid , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/enzymology , Lung/ultrastructure
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739621

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study. This study has been conducted on new case BCC patients in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Fatty acid concentration in erythrocyte membranes defined as relative values after extraction, purification and preparation, by gas chromatography.Analysis revealed that heptadecenoic acid (p = 0.010) and oleic acid (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in BCC patients in comparison with control group. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly higher in BCC patients (p < 0.001). It has been indicated that n-3 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and n-6 was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in BCC patients. In addition, total PUFA (p < 0.001) and n-6 PUFAs/n-3 PUFAs (p = 0.002) were significantly higher in BCC patients compared to the control group. Here we indicated that new case BCC patient had significantly higher n-6 PUFA and lower n-3 along with other differences in unsaturated fatty acid in comparison with healthy subjects. Our study provides evidence that lipids are important in BCC development.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acid , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Case-Control Studies , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocytes , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Iran , Linoleic Acid , Oleic Acid , Skin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we observed the effect of ethanol extract of Allium fistulosum (EAF) on NAFLD and have suggested the possibility of using EAF as a natural product for application in the development of a treatment for NAFLD. MATERIALS/METHODS: The preventive effect on hepatic lipid accumulation was estimated by using an oleic acid (OA)-induced NAFLD model in vitro and a Western diet (high-fat high-sucrose; WD)-induced obese mouse model. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 7): normal diet group (ND), WD group, and WD plus 1% EAF group. RESULTS: EAF reduced OA-stimulated lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells in the absence of cellular cytotoxicity and significantly blocked transcriptional activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase genes. Subsequently, we investigated these effects in vivo in mice fed either ND or WD in the presence or absence of EAF supplementation. In comparison to the ND controls, the WD-fed mice exhibited increases in body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight, and accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, and these effects were significantly attenuated by EAF supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Allium fistulosum attenuates the development of NAFLD, and EAF elicits anti-lipogenic activity in liver. Therefore, EAF represents a promising candidate for use in the development of novel therapeutic drugs or drug combinations for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Allium , Animals , Body Weight , Diet , Diet, Western , Drug Combinations , Ethanol , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocytes , In Vitro Techniques , Lipogenesis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Mice , Mice, Obese , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Oleic Acid , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Transcriptional Activation
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 9-12, ene. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008287

ABSTRACT

Background: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oilseed crop worldwide. Fatty acid composition of peanut oil may affect the flavor and shelf life of the resulting food products. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids of peanut oil. The conversion from oleic acid to linoleic acid is controlled by theΔ12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) encoded byAhFAD2AandAhFAD2B, two homoeologous genes from A and B subgenomes, respectively. One nucleotide substitution (G:C→A:T) ofAhFAD2Aand an "A" insertion ofAhFAD2Bresulted in high-oleic acid phenotype. Detection ofAhFAD2mutation had been achieved by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS), real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). However, a low cost, high throughput and high specific method is still required to detectAhFAD2genotype of large number of seeds. Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) can detect both alleles in a single reaction. The aim of this work is to develop KASP for detectionAhFAD2genotype of large number of breeding materials. Results: Here, we developed a KASP method to detect the genotypes of progenies between high oleic acid peanut and common peanut. Validation was carried out by CAPS analysis. The results from KASP assay and CAPS analysis were consistent. The genotype of 18 out of 179 BC4F2seeds was aabb. Conclusions: Due to high accuracy, time saving, high throughput feature and low cost, KASP is more suitable fordeterminingAhFAD2genotype than other methods.


Subject(s)
Arachis/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Genetic Markers , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Oleic Acid , Fatty Acid Desaturases/genetics , Peanut Oil , Genotype , Mutation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147981

ABSTRACT

S-methyl-(L)-methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of −3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect. Moreover, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol further enhanced in vitro permeation and deposition of SMM through hairless mouse skin. Furthermore, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol significantly increased the in vivo deposition of SMM in the epidermis/dermis for 12 hr, which was high enough to exert a therapeutic effect. Therefore, based on the in vitro and in vivo studies, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol was shown to be effective in improving the topical skin delivery of SMM, which may be applied in the cosmetic production process for SMM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Oleic Acid , Skin Care , Skin , Vitamin U , Wound Healing
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 15(1): 52-60, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780903

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão teve como objetivo apresentar e discutir os achados mais recentes do efeito dos ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGMI) sobre marcadores plasmáticos do metabolismo lipídico em estudos pós-prandiais e de intervenção clínica nutricional. Realizou-se busca em diferentes bases de dados entre 2010 e 2014, usando os seguintes termos de indexação: MUFA, Lipemia, Lipid Metabolism, Triglycerides e Postprandial. O consumo de refeição com alto conteúdo de AGMI tem demonstrado efeito benéfico na resposta lipidêmica pós-prandial, mas se essa resposta pode ser alterada em indivíduos com excesso de peso e/ou outras doenças crônicas após consumo de AGMI, ainda não está totalmente elucidado. De modo geral, após a intervenção com AGMI, os fatores de risco cardiovascular diminuíram, além de haver melhora no perfil lipídico. Em conclusão, os estudos recentes têm demonstrado um efeito benéfico do consumo de AGMI em curto e longo prazos, mediante aumento/manutenção das concentrações de HDL colesterol e diminuição do LDL colesterol.


The objective of this review is to present and discuss the most recent findings related to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on plasma markers of lipid metabolism observed in postprandial studies and clinical nutritional intervention studies. Searches were conducted on several different databases for publications from 2010 to 2014 using the following keywords: MUFA, Lipemia, Lipid Metabolism, Triglycerides and Postprandial. High-MUFA meal has presented beneficial effect on postprandial lipidemia response, but it is not yet completely clear whether this response to MUFA intake may be different in people with excess weight and/or other chronic diseases. In general, cardiovascular risk factors were reduced and lipid profiles improved after interventions with MUFA. In conclusion, recent studies have demonstrated that consuming MUFA has beneficial effects at short and long time by increasing/maintaining HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reducing levels of LDL cholesterol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Oleic Acid/blood , Bertholletia , Olive Oil
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84876

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Skin pH, an indicator of skin health, is maintained by various organic factors, which include lactate, free amino acid (FAA), and free fatty acid (FFA). As skin ages or with illness, skin pH becomes less acidic, and functional food has been developed to maintain the acidic pH of skin. In this study, we determined the dietary effect of green tea extract (GTE) on skin pH of photo-aged mice, as measured by epidermal levels of lactate, FAA, and FFA. The protein expression and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an enzyme of pyruvate reduction for lactate generation, was further determined. METHODS: Albino hairless mice were fed a control diet (group UV+) or a diet with 1% GTE (group GTE) in parallel with UV irradiation for 10 weeks. A normal control group was fed a control diet without UV irradiation for 10 weeks (group UV-). RESULTS: Skin pH was higher (less acidic) in group UV+ than in group UV-. In parallel, epidermal levels of lactate and FFA, as well as of LDH protein expression and activity, were reduced in group UV+. Dietary supplementation of GTE (group GTE) reduced skin pH to similar to the level of group UV-, and inversely increased epidermal levels of lactate, LDH protein expression and activity, but not of FFA. Although epidermal levels of FAA were similar in groups UV- and UV+, it was increased in group GTE to a level higher than in group UV-. In further analysis of major FFA, epidermal levels of palmitic acid [16:0], oleic acid [18:1(n-9)], and linoleic acid [18:2(n-6), but not of stearic acid [18:0] in group GTE were similar to or lower than those in group UV+. CONCLUSION: Dietary GTE normalized skin pH with increased levels of lactate and FAA, as well as with increased protein expression and activity of LDH in the epidermis of UVB irradiated hairless mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Epidermis , Functional Food , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lactic Acid , Linoleic Acid , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Oleic Acid , Palmitic Acid , Pyruvic Acid , Skin , Tea
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 339-346, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337410

ABSTRACT

Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Biofuels , Biomass , Culture Media , Fatty Acids , Hydrolysis , Industrial Microbiology , Lignin , Chemistry , Linoleic Acid , Lipids , Oleic Acid , Rhodotorula , Metabolism
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 661-668, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331618

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The rat model of ARDS was induced by intravenous injection of oleic acid (OA), and observed for 4 h. The lung injury was evaluated by arterial blood gas, lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) and histological analyses. Simultaneously, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential cell analysis and total protein determination. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level in BALF was determined with a rat TNF-α ELISA kit. Expressions of receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in lung tissue were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. The interaction between RIPK1 and RIPK3 was explored by immunoprecipitation. The results showed that, compared with those in control group, total white blood cells count (WBC), polymorphonuclear percentage (PMN%), total protein concentration, TNF-α level in BALF, W/D, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (P(A-a)O) in OA group were significantly increased at 4 h after OA injection. Western blot and immunostaining further showed remarkably increased expressions of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL in lung tissue from OA group. Additionally, immunoprecipitation results indicated an enforced interaction between RIPK1 and RIPK3 in OA group. Collectively, the TNF-α level in BALF and the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signaling pathway in lung tissue were found to be upregulated and activated with the process of ARDS. These findings implicate that RIPK1/RIPK3-mediated necroptosis plays a possible role in the pathogenesis of ARDS, which may provide a new idea to develop novel drugs for the therapy of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Lung Diseases , Necrosis , Oleic Acid , Rats , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Respiration Disorders , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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