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1.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293061

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The term cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) has been used to describe the constellation of cardiovascular abnormalities including diastolic and systolic dysfunctions in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). CCM contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with CLD. The aim of the study was to evaluate the left atrial and ventricular geometry, systolic and diastolic functions in patients with CLD. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study that involved 80 patients with CLD seen at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, and 80 apparently healthy controls matched for age/ gender. The participants were interviewed, examined and had resting transthoracic echocardiography. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 160 subjects were recruited into the study with a male to female ratio of 2.8:1. There was no difference in the mean age of cases and controls (P = 0.115). Systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in the two arms. However, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were more prevalent among the patients with CLD compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study demonstrated increased left atrial diameter, increased LVMI associated with diastolic dysfunction, and preserved systolic function at rest among CLD patients. Keywords: Chronic liver disease, Diastolic dysfunction, Systolic dysfunction


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Acrodynia , Olfaction Disorders
2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-6, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existen evidencias sobre el deterioro del olfato y el gusto en pacientes con la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Se hallaron diferencias en la proporción de pacientes afectados por estos síntomas en distintas poblaciones. Con base en el patrón de presentación, a partir de abril de 2020, la definición de caso sospechoso en Argentina incorporó la pérdida parcial o total de olfato o de gusto. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la proporción de pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan pérdida de olfato o de gusto en Argentina. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico. Participaron pacientes con COVID-19 mayores de 18 años confirmados con reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR, por sus siglas en inglés) en muestras obtenidas por hisopado entre el 15 de mayo y el 31 de agosto de 2020. Los participantes completaron una encuesta en línea, que incluyó preguntas sociodemográficas sobre síntomas de COVID-19, comorbilidades y la percepción de la pérdida del olfato y el gusto. RESULTADOS: Participaron 241 pacientes, 79% informaron pérdida de olfato y 54%, de gusto. En 32% de los casos, la pérdida de olfato fue el primer síntoma. La proporción de hombres y mujeres que informaron pérdida olfativa fue similar y lo mismo ocurrió en relación con la pérdida de gusto. Tampoco se observaron diferencias en relación con la edad. DISCUSIÓN: Una proporción elevada de pacientes con COVID-19 presenta disfunción olfativa y gustativa en la población argentina. Resulta importante la disponibilidad amplia de un test para la evaluación del olfato y el gusto con adaptación sociocultural y que pueda realizarse en el hogar. En el futuro, se implementará la realización de un test masivo desechable y digital


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections , Ageusia , Olfaction Disorders
3.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200205, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1251789

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To identify symptoms of COVID-19 in adults in the scientific literature. Method Systematic review of studies published from December 1, 2019 to April 21, 2020 from the Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed databases, in order to answer the following research question: "What are the symptoms caused by COVID-19 in adults?" using the keywords "Symptoms", "Clinical Manifestations", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Results Of the total 105 references, 13 references that addressed the symptoms of COVID-19 were selected. Fever and normal or dry cough were symptoms present in all studies. Conclusion The symptoms identified in adult patients were fever, normal or dry cough, headache, pharyngalgia, dyspnea, diarrhea, myalgia, vomiting, sputum or expectoration, anxiety or chest pain, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, rhinorrhea, runny nose or nasal congestion, dizziness, chills, systemic pain, mental confusion, hemoptysis, asthma, taste disorder, smell disorder, belching and tachycardia.


RESUMEN Objetivo Verificar en la literatura científica las manifestaciones sintomáticas de COVID-19 en adultos. Método Una revisión sistemática realizada en las bases de datos Scopus, Web of Science y PubMed con estudios publicados del 1 de diciembre de 2019 al 21 de abril de 2020, con el fin de responder a la pregunta orientadora: "¿Cuáles son las manifestaciones sintomáticas causada por COVID-19 en adultos?" utilizando las palabras clave: "Síntomas", "Manifestaciones clínicas", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Resultados Del total de 105 referencias, se seleccionaron 13 que abordaron las manifestaciones sintomáticas de COVID-19, con fiebre y tos normal o seca presente en todos los estudios. Conclusión Las manifestaciones sintomáticas identificadas en pacientes adultos fueron: fiebre, tos normal o seca, dolor de cabeza, faringalgia, disnea, diarrea, mialgia, vómitos, esputo o expectoración, angustia o dolor en el pecho, fatiga, náuseas, anorexia, dolor abdominal, rinorrea, secreción nasal o congestión nasal, mareos, escalofríos, dolor sistémico, confusión mental, hemoptisis, asma, alteración del gusto, alteración del olfato, eructos y taquicardia.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar na literatura científica as manifestações sintomáticas da COVID-19 em pessoas adultas. Método Revisão sistemática utilizando as bases Scopus, Web of Science e PubMed com estudos publicados de 1 de dezembro de 2019 a 21 de abril de 2020, a fim de responder à questão norteadora: "Quais as manifestações sintomáticas causada pela COVID-19 em pessoas adultas?" utilizando-se as palavras-chave: "Symptoms", "Clinical Manifestations", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Resultados Do total de 105 referências, foram selecionadas 13 que abordaram as manifestações sintomáticas da COVID-19, estando a febre e a tosse normal ou seca presente em todos os estudos. Conclusão As manifestações sintomáticas identificadas nos pacientes adultos foram: febre, tosse normal ou seca, cefaleia, faringalgia, dispneia, diarreia, mialgia, vômito, escarro ou expectoração, angústia ou dor no peito, fadiga, náusea, anorexia, dor abdominal, rinorreia, coriza ou congestão nasal, tontura, calafrios, dor sistêmica, confusão mental, hemoptise, asma, comprometimento do paladar, comprometimento do olfato, arroto e taquicardia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , General Symptoms , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Asthma , Vomiting , Anorexia , Databases, Bibliographic , Cough , Ageusia , Diarrhea , Dizziness , Fatigue , Fever , Olfaction Disorders
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 781-792, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, and it is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The classic symptoms of the disease have been well defined by the World Health Organization; however, olfactory/gustatory disorders have been reported in some studies, but there are still several missing points in the understanding and in the consensus about the clinical management of these cases. Objective: To identify evidence in the scientific literature about olfactory/gustatory disorders, their clinical presentation, prevalence and possible specific treatments associated with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to April 25, 2020 was performed in Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine and Reasearch Gate. Inclusion criteria: (1) Studies on patients with COVID-19; (2) Records of COVID-19 signs/symptoms, and olfactory/gustatory functions. Exclusion criteria: (1) Studies on non-human coronavirus; (2) Review articles; (3) Experimental studies (in animals or in vitro); (4) Olfactory/gustatory disorders initiated prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk assessment of bias of the selected studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: Six articles from the 1788 records met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 1457 patients of different ethnicities were assessed; of them, 885 (60.7%) and 822 (56.4%) had smell and taste disorders, respectively, with women being most often affected. There were olfactory/gustatory disorders even without nasal obstruction/rhinorrhea and beginning even before the signs/symptoms of COVID-19; the recovery of smell/taste, when it occurs, usually happened in the first two weeks after COVID-19 resolution. There is evidence that olfactory/gustatory disorders are strong predictors of infection by SARS-CoV-2, and it is possible to recommend patient isolation, as early as of the medical consultation, preventing the spread of the virus. No scientific evidence has been identified for effective treatments for any of the disorders. Conclusion: Olfactory/gustatory disorders may occur at varying intensities and prior to the general symptoms of COVID-19 and should be considered as part of the clinical features of COVID-19, even in mild cases. There is still no scientific evidence of specific treatments for such disorders in COVID-19 disease.


Resumo Introdução: O vírus SARS-CoV-2 causa a COVID-19 e é responsável pela maior pandemia desde o surto de influenza H1N1 de 1918. Os sintomas clássicos da doença já foram bem definidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde; entretanto, distúrbios olfativo-gustativos têm sido relatados em alguns estudos, mas ainda com várias lacunas no entendimento e no consenso sobre a condução clínica desses casos. Objetivo: Identificar evidências na literatura científica sobre os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos acerca da apresentação clínica, prevalência e possíveis tratamentos específicos associados à COVID-19. Método: Revisão sistemática de artigos publicados até 25 de abril de 2020 nas bases de dados: Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus e Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine e Research Gate. Foram critérios de inclusão: 1) Estudos com indivíduos com COVID-19; 2) Registro dos sinais/sintomas da COVID-19 e das funções olfativo-gustativa. Foram critérios de exclusão: 1) Estudos sobre coronavírus não humano; 2) Artigos de revisão; 3) Estudos experimentais (em animais ou in vitro); 4) Distúrbios olfativos-gustativos iniciados previamente à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. A avaliação de risco de viés dos estudos selecionados foi feita por meio da escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Seis artigos dos 1.788 registros foram selecionados. Um total de 1.457 pacientes de diversas etnias foi avaliado; desses, 885 (60,7%) apresentaram perda do olfato e 822 (56,4%) perda do paladar, sendo as mulheres as mais afetadas. Os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos estiveram presentes mesmo sem obstrução nasal/rinorreia e com início mesmo antes dos sinais/sintomas clínicos da COVID-19; a recuperação do olfato/paladar, quando ocorre, geralmente se dá nas duas primeiras semanas após a resolução da doença. Há evidências de que os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos sejam fortes preditores de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, podendo-se recomendar o isolamento do paciente, já a partir da consulta médica, para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Não foram identificadas evidências científicas para tratamentos eficazes para qualquer dos distúrbios. Conclusão: Podem ocorrer distúrbios olfativo-gustativos em intensidades variáveis e prévios aos sintomas gerais da COVID-19, devem ser considerados como parte dos sintomas da doença, mesmo em quadros leves. Não há ainda evidências científicas de tratamentos específicos para tais distúrbios na COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Betacoronavirus
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1602-1608, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143629

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence based on a systematic review of the literature (PRISMA) to systematize information on smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The studies were selected through combinations based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, and BIREME databases were used. The search encompassed articles published from January 2010 to May 2020, with no restriction of language or localization. RESULTS: A total of 665 retrieved articles had the potential for inclusion. Of these, two answered the research question, which was to verify the smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results found in this review demonstrated that there likely is an association between self-reported smell and taste dysfunctions and COVID-19 infection in such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 381-395, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130181

ABSTRACT

La Enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) supone un reto sin precedentes para la salud pública. Los médicos deben fortalecer sus habilidades clínicas para combatir esta nueva enfermedad. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir los signos, síntomas y complicaciones de pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una búsqueda en la literatura en la base de datos PubMed incluyendo publicaciones entre 1 de diciembre 2019 y 15 de agosto 2020, sin restricciones de lenguaje, utilizando las palabras clave 'COVID-19' cruzada con 'manifestaciones clínicas', 'signos y síntomas' y 'complicaciones'. Se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis, estudios epidemiológicos y series de casos. Se identificaron 1,066 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 71 de acuerdo a los contenidos previamente definidos por los autores. La COVID-19 presenta un curso de leve a moderado y severo-crítico, específicamente en mayores de 65 años con o sin comorbilidades. Los signos y síntomas no son específicos y usualmente se superponen de acuerdo a la edad y a la fase de la enfermedad. Los síntomas más comunes son fiebre, tos y fatiga. Síntomas menos comunes incluyen escalofríos, dolor de garganta, cefalea, mialgias/artralgias, pérdida del gusto y del olfato, diarrea, nausea, vómitos, congestión nasal, palpitaciones, opresión precordial y dolor pleurítico. La sintomatología en niños difiere de la de los adultos y el curso es usualmente benigno y de baja mortalidad. La evaluación clínica de COVID-19 supone un reto hoy en día. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de la historia natural de la enfermedad permite situar los síntomas comunes e inespecíficos en el contexto clínico correcto.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents an unprecedented challenge to public health. Physicians must strengthen clinical skills for this new disease. This review aimed to describe the signs, symptoms and complications of patients with COVID-19. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database, including publications between December 1, 2019, to August 15, 2020, without language restrictions, using the keywords 'COVID-19' crossed with 'clinical manifestations', 'signs and symptoms', and 'complications'. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, epidemiological studies, and case report series were included. A total of 1,066 articles were identi¬fied, among 71 were selected according to the contents previously defined by the authors. COVID-19 has a mild to moderate or severe-critical course, specifically in over 65 years of age, with or without comorbidities. Signs and symptoms are not specific and usually overlap according to the age and stage of the disease. The most common symptoms are fever, cough, and fatigue. Less common symptoms include chills, sore throat, headache, myalgia/ arthralgia, loss of taste and smell, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, nasal congestion, palpitations, chest tightness, and pleuritic pain. The symptomatology in children differs from that of adults, and the course is usually benign and low mortality. Clinical evaluation of COVID-19 is challenging today. However, knowledge of the disease's natural history allows placing common and nonspecific symptoms in the correct clinical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Signs and Symptoms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Cough , Ageusia , Diarrhea , Fever , Myalgia , Headache , Literature , Olfaction Disorders , Nausea
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 632-638, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The real number of COVID-19 cases may be underestimated since several countries have difficulty offering laboratory tests for all the population. Therefore, finding a symptom with a high predictive value would help in diagnostic and isolation strategies. Objective: To correlate the sudden loss of the sense of smell in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic with results of diagnostic tests for COVID-19. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. An online questionnaire was digitally addressed to 725 outpatients in Brazil who reported partial or total sudden loss of the sense of smell from March to April 2020. Results: Total or partial sudden loss of the sense of smell showed high positive predictive value for COVID-19 diagnosis, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil (88.8%). There were no differences between groups tested positive and negative in regard to demographic and clinical characteristics such as presence of allergy, rhinitis, neither to olfactory recovery time. Conclusion: The identification of sudden loss of the sense of smell during COVID-19 pandemic may serve as a sentinel symptom and may be a warning to establish measures to prevent the transmission of the disease.


Resumo Introdução: O número real de casos Covid-19 pode estar subestimado, pois vários países têm dificuldade em oferecer exames laboratoriais para toda a população. Portanto, encontrar um sintoma com alto valor preditivo ajudaria nas estratégias de diagnóstico e isolamento. Objetivo: Correlacionar a perda súbita do olfato no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19 com os resultados dos testes de diagnóstico da Covid-19. Método: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal. Um questionário on-line foi enviado digitalmente a 725 voluntários que apresentaram perda súbita parcial ou total do sentido de olfato de março a abril de 2020 no Brasil. Resultados: A perda súbita total ou parcial do sentido do olfato apresentou alto valor preditivo positivo para o diagnóstico de Covid-19, durante a pandemia de Covid-19 no Brasil (88,8%). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos positivos e negativos em relação às características demográficas e clínicas, como presença de alergia, rinite e tempo de recuperação olfativa. Conclusão: A identificação de perda súbita do olfato durante a pandemia de Covid-19 pode servir como sintoma sentinela e pode ser um alerta para estabelecer medidas para impedir a transmissão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Smell , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Olfaction Disorders , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 490-496, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132608

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Sudden olfactory dysfunction is a new symptom related to COVID-19, with little data on its duration or recovery rate. Objective To characterize patients with sudden olfactory dysfunction during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially their recovery data. Methods An online survey was conducted by the Brazilian Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-Facial Surgery, and Brazilian Academy of Rhinology, including doctors who assessed sudden olfactory dysfunction patients starting after February 1st, 2020. Participants were posteriorly asked by e-mail to verify data on the recovery of sudden olfactory loss and test for COVID-19 at the end of the data collection period. Results 253 sudden olfactory dysfunction patients were included, of which 59.1% were females with median age of 36 years, with a median follow-up period of 31 days. 183 patients (72.3%) had been tested for COVID-19, and of those 145 (79.2%) tested positive. Patients that tested positive for COVID-19 more frequently showed non-specific inflammatory symptoms (89.7% vs. 73.7%; p = 0.02), a lower rate of total recovery of sudden olfactory dysfunction (52.6% vs. 70.3%; p = 0.05) and a longer duration to achieve total recovery (15 days vs. 10 days; p = 0.0006) than the ones who tested negative for COVID-19. Considering only positive-COVID-19 patients, individuals with sudden hyposmia completely recovered more often than the ones with sudden anosmia (68.4% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.04). Conclusion Positive-COVID-19 patients with sudden olfactory dysfunction showed lower total recovery rate and longer duration than negative-COVID-19 patients. Additionally, total recovery was seen more frequently in positive-COVID-19 patients with sudden hyposmia than the ones with sudden anosmia.


Resumo Introdução A perda súbita do olfato é um novo sintoma relacionado à COVID-19, porém com poucos dados sobre sua duração ou resolução. Objetivo Caracterizar pacientes que apresentaram perda súbita do olfato durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e em especial a sua recuperação. Método Pesquisa online desenvolvida pela Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial e Academia Brasileira de Rinologia direcionado aos médicos que atenderam pacientes com perda súbita do olfato com início após 1° de fevereiro de 2020. Os participantes foram questionados posteriormente por e-mail, para verificar os dados sobre a recuperação da perda súbita do olfato e teste para COVID-19, no final do período de coleta de dados. Resultados Foram incluídos 253 pacientes com perda súbita de olfato, 59,1% mulheres e idade mediana de 36 anos, acompanhados por 31 dias (mediana). Testagem para COVID-19 foi feita em 183 (72,3%) pacientes, 145 (79,2%) positivos e 38 (20,8%) negativos. COVID-19 positivos apresentaram sintomas inflamatórios inespecíficos mais frequentemente (89,7% vs. 73,7%; p = 0,02); menor taxa de recuperação total da perda súbita do olfato (52,6% vs. 70,3%; p = 0,05) e maior tempo para atingir a recuperação total (15 dias vs. 10 dias; p = 0,0006) comparados aos COVID-19 negativos. Considerando somente COVID-19 positivos, hiposmia súbita apresentou melhoria total mais frequentemente do que anosmia súbita (68,4% vs. 50,0%; p = 0,04). Conclusão A perda súbita do olfato em pacientes COVID-19 positivos apresentou menor taxa de recuperação total e duração mais prolongada do que em Covid-19 negativos. E a hiposmia súbita apresentou recuperação total mais frequentemente do que a anosmia súbita em COVID-19 positivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
9.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 247-258, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115841

ABSTRACT

Nos enfrentamos actualmente a una pandemia mundial de gran impacto, como resultado de la rápida propagación de un nuevo coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causante de la enfermedad COVID-19. Todavía nos falta entender la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad, y la variedad de signos y síntomas que puede generar. Se ha descrito un porcentaje no menor de pacientes que desarrollan alteraciones del olfato y del gusto. La comunidad científica y médica está constantemente publicando sus observaciones sobre este tema, un proceso dinámico con abundante información. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura sobre las alteraciones del olfato y del gusto en los pacientes con COVID-19. Se observó una variabilidad importante en la incidencia de hiposmia/anosmia, de 5,1% hasta 85,7%, y de alteraciones del gusto de 5,6% hasta 88,8%. Esto se debe a que la mayoría de los estudios son principalmente retrospectivos, y varios ocuparon encuestas sin evaluación objetiva del olfato o gusto, limitando establecer con claridad la incidencia de estas alteraciones. Se observó que las alteraciones del olfato y del gusto son en general, frecuentes en estos pacientes, y presentan un buen pronóstico.


We are currently facing a global pandemic of great impact, as a result of the rapid spread of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We have yet to understand the pathophysiology of this disease, as well as the variety of signs and symptoms it can cause. The scientific and medical communities are constantly publishing their observations on this subject, a dynamic process with a wealth of information. An exhaustive review of the literature on smell and taste alterations in patients with COVID-19 was carried out. A significant variability was observed in the incidence of hyposmia/anosmia, from 5.1% to 85.7%, and of taste alterations ranging from 5.6% to 88.8%. This is due to the fact that most of the studies were mainly retrospective, and several occupied surveys without objective evaluation of smell or taste, limiting to establish clearly the incidence of these alterations. It was observed that alterations of smell and taste are in general frequent in these patients, and that they present a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. Objective: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. Results: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


RESUMO Introdução: À medida que a pandemia da COVID-19 se desenvolve em todo o mundo, diferentes tipos de publicações descreveram suas manifestações neurológicas. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura sobre complicações neurológicas da infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada seguindo diretrizes de revisões sistemáticas, usando palavras-chave específicas baseadas nas complicações neurológicas da COVID-19 descritas até 10 de maio de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 43 artigos, incluindo descrições que variam de sintomas comuns e inespecíficos, como hiposmia e mialgia, a condições mais complexas e com risco de vida, como doenças cerebrovasculares, encefalopatias e síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Conclusão: O reconhecimento das manifestações neurológicas da SARS-CoV-2 deve ser enfatizado apesar dos óbvios desafios enfrentados pelos clínicos que cuidam de pacientes críticos, muitas vezes sedados e apresentando outras complicações sistêmicas concomitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Ageusia/complications , Pandemics , Myalgia/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 18-24, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091897

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To compare two combinations of olfactory agents for olfactory training therapy of olfactory dysfunction after upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and investigate the influencing factors on clinical effects. METHODS 125 patients with olfactory dysfunction were randomly divided into two groups: test and control. During the olfactory training, four odors were used in both groups. The olfactory training lasted for 24 weeks. Then, participants were tested using Sniffin' Sticks and threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) composite scoring before treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The TDI scores were compared at different time points between the groups and within them, and influence factors were analyzed. RESULTS There was no significant difference in TDI scores between both groups. Furthermore, TDI scores did not significantly change after one month of treatment in either of the groups. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, TDI scores both significantly increased, and the odor discrimination and identification abilities significantly strengthened in both groups; however, the odor thresholds did not improve. The course of the disease was a significant influencing factor on the therapeutic effect of olfactory training for both groups. CONCLUSION The combination of essential balm, vinegar, alcohol, and rose perfume for olfactory training, which are scents commonly found in daily life, can effectively cure URTI-induced olfactory dysfunction, and significantly improve the odor discrimination and identification abilities. Furthermore, prolonging the treatment time can help with the recovery of olfactory functions, and earlier olfactory training can improve the therapeutic effect.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Comparar duas combinações de agentes olfativos para uso em terapia de treinamento olfativo no tratamento de disfunção olfatória após infecção do trato respiratório superior (ITRS) e investigar os fatores que influenciam os efeitos clínicos. METODOLOGIA 125 pacientes com disfunção olfativa foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: teste e controle. Durante o treinamento olfativo, quatro odores foram utilizados em ambos os grupos. O treinamento olfativo durou 24 semanas. Em seguida, os participantes foram testados usando Sniffin' Sticks e o escore de discriminação, limiar e identificação (TDI) antes do tratamento e 1, 3 e 6 meses após o ele. Os escores de TDI foram comparados em momentos diferentes, entre os grupos e dentro deles, e os fatores de influência foram analisados. RESULTADOS Não houve diferença significativa nos escores de TDI entre os dois grupos. Além disso, os escores de TDI não demonstração nenhuma alteração significa após um mês de tratamento em ambos os grupos. Após 3 e 6 meses de tratamento, ambos os escores de TDI aumentaram significativamente, e as habilidades de identificação e discriminação de odores melhoraram significativamente em ambos os grupos; contudo, os limiares de odor não demonstraram melhora. O curso da doença foi um importante fator de influência no efeito terapêutico do treinamento olfativo em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO A combinação de bálsamo essencial, vinagre, álcool, e perfume de rosas no treinamento olfativo, todos aromas comumente encontrados na vida cotidiana, podem efetivamente curar disfunção olfativa induzida por ITRS e melhorar significativamente as habilidades de discriminação e identificação de odores. Além disso, a prolongamento do tempo de tratamento pode ajudar na recuperação das funções olfativas, e o início antecipado do treinamento olfativo pode melhorar o efeito terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Odorants , Reference Values , Sensory Thresholds , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Recovery of Function/physiology , Olfactometry , Middle Aged
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826718

ABSTRACT

Dysosmia affects not only odour identification, but also memory, appetite, immunity and affection. Moreover, it suggests the occurrence of some diseases. The etiology of dysosmia is various and the treatment with western medicine is limited. In this paper, by analyzing the relevant research articles on olfactory disorders treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion, the clinical application of acupuncture and moxibustion, the thought of its diagnosis and treatment as well as relevant effect mechanism were explored. It is anticipated to provide the clinical physicians with the references to the treatment of dysosmia.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Olfaction Disorders , Therapeutics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the severity of olfactory disturbance (OD) in the murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in mice. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of an intranasal steroid on OD. METHODS: Forty BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 for each). The control group was sensitized intraperitoneally (i.p.) and challenged intranasally (i.n.) with saline. Mice in the AR group got i.p. and i.n. ovalbumin (OVA) administration for AR induction. The LAR group was challenged i.n. with 1% OVA for inducing local nasal allergic inflammation, without inducing the systemic allergy. The OD group got an i.p. methimazole administration (75 mg/kg) to induce total destruction of olfactory mucosa. Mice in the intranasal budesonide group received i.n. budesonide (12.8 μg per time, 30 minutes after the i.n. OVA challenge) while using OVA to cause systemic allergies. We conducted a buried-food pellet test to functionally assess the degree of OD in each group by measuring the time taken until finding hidden food. We evaluated the damage to olfactory epithelium using histopathologic evaluation and compared the degree of olfactory marker protein (OMP) expression in olfactory epithelium using immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: Mice of the AR (81.3 ± 19.8 seconds) and LAR groups (66.2 ± 12.7 seconds) spent significantly more time to detect the pellets than the control group (35.6 ± 12.2 seconds, P < 0.01). After treatment, the intranasal budesonide group exhibited significantly better results (35.8 ± 11.9 seconds) compared with the AR and LAR groups (P < 0.01). The AR and LAR groups showed considerable olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression compared with the control group. In the intranasal budesonide group, the olfactory lesions and OMP expression had improved substantially. CONCLUSIONS: OD may be caused by olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression in nasal allergic inflammation and could be reversed using an intranasal steroid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Budesonide , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Methimazole , Mice , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Marker Protein , Olfactory Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic , Steroids
15.
Goiânia; s.n; 2020. 1-34 p. ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1128284

ABSTRACT

Orientações em alimentação e nutrição para adultos e idosos com COVID-19 em isolamento domiciliar e após alta hospitalar, com suspeita ou diagnóstico do novo Coronavírus, também às pessoas que apresentam sintomas leves ou moderados e que não precisam ficar internadas em hospitais, direcionada também para os cuidadores e pessoas que convivem no mesmo ambiente e demais interessados no tema. Em uma linguagem acessível e usando ótimas ilustrações e tabelas, esclarece sobre os cuidados nutricionais e também sobre alguns alimentos e nutrientes importantes para a imunidade. Instrui como fazer em situações de falta de apetite, perda de paladar (Disgeusia), dificuldade para engolir (Disfagia), perda de olfato (Anosmia) e diarréia. Orienta sobre as compras dos alimentos, sobre os riscos de contaminação, tempo de validade e armazenagem na geladeira e freezer, bem como os cuidados no preparo dos mesmos. Apresenta instruções sobre a higienização das mãos com água e sabonete e como fazer a fricção anti-séptica das mãos com preparação alcoólicas, sobre o manuseio adequado na retirada do lixo e instruções para diluição da solução clorada para superfícies e para embalagens e alimentos. Por fim, apresenta sete passos para manter a alimentação saudável para adultos e idosos


Guidelines on food and nutrition for adults and the elderly with COVID-19 in home isolation and after hospital discharge, with suspicion or diagnosis of the new coronavirus, also those with mild or moderate symptoms and who do not need to be hospitalized, also directed to the caregivers and people who live in the same environment and others interested in the topic. In an accessible language and using great illustrations and tables, it clarifies about nutritional care and also about some foods and nutrients important for immunity. Instructs you how to do it in situations of poor appetite, loss of taste (dysgeusia), difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), loss of smell (anosmia) and diarrhea. It advises on food purchases, on the risks of contamination, expiration time and storage in the refrigerator and freezer, as well as care in preparing them. It presents instructions on hand hygiene with soap and water and how to rub hands with alcoholic preparations, on proper handling of waste removal and instructions for diluting the chlorinated solution to surfaces and to packaging and food. Finally, it presents seven steps to maintain healthy eating for adults and the elderly


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Patient Isolation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Elderly Nutrition , Pandemics , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups , Deglutition Disorders/diet therapy , Diarrhea/diet therapy , Dysgeusia/diet therapy , Hand Hygiene/methods , Food Handling/methods , Olfaction Disorders/diet therapy
16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): [285-287], 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087926

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una breve revisión de órgano vascular de la lámina terminal (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis) y el nervio olfatorio, el primero un elemento neuroanatómico hipotalámico relacionado con la producción de hormona antidiurética y su asociación como una vía potencial de invasión del COVID-19 al sistema nervioso central, afectando la regulación fisiológica de liberación de hormonas relacionadas con la homeostásis del sodio. También se vincula el neurotropismo de este virus al asociarse con el nervio olfatorio, una evaginación del cerebro en la que se altera su funcionalidad por generación de disosmia entre otras características neurosemiológicas. Se plantea la necesidad de advertir a los profesionales de la salud en general y a los neurólogos en especial, sobre las potenciales alteraciones neurológicas relacionadas con esta pandemia antes y después del contagio de este virus e implementar una prueba olfatoria rápida con ácido acético, incluso antes de otras valoraciones como hipertérmia, tos y cefalalgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Olfactory Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Organum Vasculosum/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Olfactory Perception , Pandemics
18.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 48(4): 316-321, 20200000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1141459

ABSTRACT

Los sentidos químicos, como el olfato y el gusto, son determinantes en la calidad de vida y el desempeño de algunas labores de la vida diaria, ya que desempeñan un papel fundamental tanto en la rutina como en las relaciones interpersonales. Existen múltiples patologías que alteran estos sentidos, entre estas las enfermedades por infección viral. A través de los últimos meses, se ha demostrado que el virus responsable de la pandemia actual (SARS-CoV-2) puede generar cambios en el olfato y en el gusto secundarios a la infección por este, siendo estas alteraciones, en ocasiones, las primeras manifestaciones. En esta revisión se busca recopilar la información encontrada en la literatura médica y resaltar la importancia de tener en cuenta estas alteraciones al momento de examinar a un paciente y generar una alerta en cuanto a las posibles medidas de aislamiento y/o tratamiento de estos pacientes.


Chemical senses such as smell and taste are decisive in the quality of life and performance of some tasks of daily life. They are senses that play a fundamental role in everyday life and in interpersonal relationships. There are multiple pathologies that alter these senses, including viral infection diseases. Over the last few months, it has been shown that the virus responsible for the current pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) can generate changes in smell and taste secondary to its infection, these alterations being sometimes the first demonstrations. This review seeks to compile the information found in the medical literature and conclude the importance of taking these alterations into account when examining a patient and generating an alert regarding the possible isolation and / or treatment measures for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Olfaction Disorders , Taste Disorders , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(4): e374959, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127210

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Percibir la contaminación atmosférica por partículas finas (PM25) en el organismo humano en la zona urbana del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey [AMM], Nuevo León; considerando sus efectos y capacidad de detección sensorial a razón y percepción de cada sujeto. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó una investigación con 504 sujetos participantes de los efectos producidos por dicha exposición de contaminantes en el AMM, Nuevo León, teniendo en cuenta en el diseño los antecedentes del sujeto y su percepción inconsciente, con motivo de evitar el posible sesgo en el resultado. Resultados Se encontró que los niveles de contaminación presentes en el ambiente por partículas finas afectaron de manera distinta a los sujetos participantes sanos que a los reportados con alguna susceptibilidad o enfermedad visual y/o respiratoria. Discusión Se determinó que los niveles prevalecientes de contaminación atmosférica en el AMM han alcanzado grados de afectación en organismos de personas con susceptibilidad o problemas, ya sea visuales o respiratorios, cuando realizan sus actividades en ambientes exteriores.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Perceive the air pollution atmospheric by fine particles (PM25) in the human organism on the Metropolitan Urban Area of Monterrey [MUAM], Nuevo León; considering its effects and the sensorial detection capability by each subject's perception. Materials and Methods This research was made with 504 participating subjects exposed to the effects of the contaminants mentioned on the MUAM, Nuevo León, considering the background of each subject and their unconscious perception, in order to avoid the possible bias in the result. Results It was found that the present levels of environment pollution by fine particles affected on different ways the healthy participant subjects than the ones reported with any susceptibility or visual affection and/or respiratory illness. Discussion It was determined that the current levels of environment contaminants in the MUAM have reached degrees of affectation in organisms of people with susceptibility or problems either visual or respiratory, when they carry out their activities in external environments.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Visual Perception , Colombia , Olfaction Disorders
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762590

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the CHD7 gene, encoding for the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7, are found in approximately 60% of individuals with CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities and/or hearing loss). Herein, we present a clinical case of a 14-year-old male presenting for evaluation of poor growth and pubertal delay highlighting the diagnostic challenges of CHARGE syndrome. The patient was born full term and underwent surgery at 5 days of life for bilateral choanal atresia. Developmental milestones were normally achieved. At age 14 his height and weight were


Subject(s)
Adolescent , CHARGE Syndrome , Choanal Atresia , Diagnosis , Ear , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Testing , Gonadotropins , Growth and Development , Hearing , Heart , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Olfaction Disorders , Puberty, Delayed , Testis , Testosterone
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