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Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 155-162, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389847


Introducción: El olfato tiene una gran importancia en la calidad de vida. Los accesos quirúrgicos selares pueden realizarse por vía transcraneal, transeptal y transnasal, y pueden generar hiposmia al incluir resecciones que afectan a la mucosa olfatoria. Objetivo: Determinar la existencia de alteración persistente en el olfato ocasionado por los accesos quirúrgicos transeptal y transnasal en pacientes operados por adenoma hipofisiario en el Instituto de Neurocirugía Dr. Asenjo. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo de cohorte con comparación de resultados olfatorios ("sniffin' sticks" versión extendida) y encuesta SNOT-22 pre y poscirugía por adenoma hipofisiario por vía transeptal o transnasal. Se utilizaron medidas estadísticas de comparación de pruebas pareadas paramétricas y no paramétricas según las características de las variables evaluadas. Resultados: Se reclutaron 60 pacientes, completando el seguimiento 39. En 21 se realizó acceso transeptal y en 18 transnasal. Al analizar el total de pacientes y por cada técnica quirúrgica, no hubo diferencias significativas en los puntajes del "sniffin' sticks" versión extendida y tampoco en SNOT-22. Conclusión: La literatura describe incidencia de hiposmia posoperatoria muy variable, entre 0% y 88%, con mediciones subjetivas y objetivas. Existe una predilección por la técnica endoscópica a nivel internacional, por lo que cuenta con estudios de mejor calidad. A nivel nacional existen dos estudios previos que han encontrado tasas de hiposmia posoperatoria de 10% y 14%. En este estudio no hubo diferencias significativas en los puntajes obtenidos en la prueba de olfato entre el pre y posoperatorio.

Introduction: Olfaction is of great importance in quality of life. Surgical accesses to the sellar region can be performed by transcranial, transseptal, and transnasal routes, which can generate hyposmia when including resections that affect the olfactory mucosa. Aim: To determine the existence of persistent alteration in olfaction caused by transseptal and transnasal surgical accesses in patients operated for pituitary adenoma at the Instituto de Neurocirugía Dr. Asenjo. Material and Method: Prospective cohort study with comparison of olfactory results ("sniffin' sticks" extended version) and SNOT-22 survey pre and post transseptal or transnasal surgery for pituitary adenoma. Parametric and non-parametric paired test comparison statistics were used according to the characteristics of the variables evaluated. Results: 60 patients were recruited and 39 completed follow-up. 21 patients underwent transseptal access and 18 underwent transnasal access. When analyzing the total number of patients and for each surgical technique, there were no significant differences in the scores obtained in the "sniffin' sticks" extended version and neither for the SNOT-22. Conclusion: The literature describes a highly variable incidence of postoperative hyposmia, between 0% and 88%, with subjective and objective measurements. There is a predilection for the endoscopic technique at an international level, which is why it has better quality studies. At the national level there are two previous studies that have found postoperative hyposmia rates of 10% and 14%. In this study there were no significant differences in the scores obtained between pre and postoperative olfaction test.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Smell/physiology , Adenoma/surgery , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Chile , Prospective Studies , Olfactory Perception , Olfaction Disorders
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 75-83, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360132


ABSTRACT Background: The olfactory nerve has never been the shining star of neurological examination. Quite the contrary, examining the first cranial nerve is often an overlooked step. As cases of anosmia secondary to COVID-19 infection continue to rise, the 2020 pandemic has shed new light on this much-forgotten nerve, its value as an aid to diagnosis of several diseases and its central role in our daily lives. Objective: We aimed to emphasize how essential and simple clinical examination of the olfactory system can be by highlighting practical techniques and clinical tips for its assessment. We also share pearls and pitfalls in localization and differential diagnosis, which may prove valuable to busy clinicians. Methods: A broad review of the literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar for articles and books containing topics regarding examination of the olfactory nerve and its anatomy, physiology and pathology. No particular inclusion or exclusion criteria were used. Results: Forty different works were found, between books and articles, from which 20 were selected after careful analysis. Conclusions: Despite the tragedy and adversity that followed the COVID-19 pandemic, its legacy has taught us a crystal-clear lesson: olfaction should no longer be neglected in clinical practice.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O nervo olfatório nunca foi a estrela do exame neurológico. Pelo contrário, o exame desse nervo craniano é um passo frequentemente ignorado. No entanto, o aumento exponencial de casos de anosmia secundária a COVID-19 o colocou sob os holofotes, tanto em relação á sua função para o ser humano em sociedade, como seu papel no auxílio do diagnóstico de diversas patologias. Objetivos: Enfatizar quão importante é examinar o nervo olfatório e compreender as desordens do seu sistema. Ressaltamos pérolas clínicas e erros comuns no exame deste nervo, além dicas que possam auxiliar no diagnóstico de uma série de doenças neurológicas e sistêmicas. Métodos: Uma ampla revisão da literatura foi conduzida por meio de busca no PubMed, Cochrane e Google Acadêmico por artigos e livros relacionados aos tópicos do exame físico, fisiologia, anatomia e patologia do nervo olfatório. Não foram utilizados critérios específicos de inclusão ou exclusão. Resultados: Foram encontrados 40 artigos itens relacionados na língua inglesa, dentre os quais livros e artigos, tendo sido analisados e selecionados um a um até o total de 20 referências. Conclusões: Apesar da tragédia e adversidade trazidas pela pandemia de COVID-19, uma lição clara permanece: o olfato não deve mais ser negligenciado na prática clínica.

Humans , Animals , Anseriformes , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Nerve , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961094


Objective: To determine the quality of life among SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) positive patients with anosmia using the Short Version Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders - Negative Statements translated in Filipino (sQOD-NS Ph).Methods: Design: Cross-Sectional Study                 Setting: Tertiary Government Training Hospital                 Participants: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) RT-PCR positive patients aged 18 years old and above with COVID-19 symptoms and anosmia in a tertiary government hospital who consulted from March 2020 to August 2021 answered the short version of sQOD-NS Ph.Results: Out of 108 participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) RT-PCR test, 72 (66%) presented with anosmia, and sQOD-NS Ph scores ranged from 1 to 21 with a mean of 14.78. Thirty two (44%) encountered problems in eating while 21 (29%) had feelings of isolation due to loss of smell. There was an inverse correlation of -0.478 between recovery time of olfaction and QoL score, hence the longer the recovery time, the lower the QoL score, while the shorter the recovery time, the higher the QoL score (p Conclusion: Majority of COVID-19 patients with anosmia had mild or negligible impairment, while a small percentage had impaired quality of life. The low percentage may be due to high number of patients who may have recovered their sense of smell along the course of the disease.

Humans , Smell , Olfaction Disorders , Quality of Life
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47: 9-11, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1433756


: The effects of chronic rhino sinusitis with polyps (CRSWP) surgery on smell symptoms have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CRSWP surgery on smell symptoms over short and long-term follow-up and to identify the factors that might influence their evolution. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study about 184 patients operated endoscopically for CRSWP. In post operative period, long-term local steroids were prescribed systematically. The sense of smell was evaluated preand post-operatively according to a subjective score (1: good smell, 2: hyposmia, 3: anosmia). Some factors, related to the patient, the CRSWP and the treatment, were tested in order to identify predictors of smell outcome after surgery.. Results: Before surgery, the anosmia and the hyposmia were noted in 90.8% and in 8.7% of cases, respectively. At six months after surgery, the improvement of olfactory score was significant: 84% of patient had the score 1 compared with 0.5% preoperatively (p < 0.0001). This improvement was maintained during the 2 first years and decreased significantly at 3 years, although an average delay of polyps recurrence was 23.4 months. Among the factors studied in our series, only the observance of postoperative corticosteroids was retained as a predictor of smell recovery after surgery (p = 0,011). Conclusion: CRSWP surgery can significantly improve the smell sense, especially during the two first years. This effect can be sustainable if good post operative compliance for local corticosteroid are achieved

Humans , Smell , Endoscopy , Olfaction Disorders , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anosmia
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47(3): 9-12, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1392502


The effects of chronic rhino sinusitis with polyps (CRSWP) surgery on smell symptoms have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CRSWP surgery on smell symptoms over short and long-term follow-up and to identify the factors that might influence their evolution. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study about 184 patients operated endoscopically for CRSWP. In post operative period, long-term local steroids were prescribed systematically. The sense of smell was evaluated preand post-operatively according to a subjective score (1: good smell, 2: hyposmia, 3: anosmia). Some factors, related to the patient, the CRSWP and the treatment, were tested in order to identify predictors of smell outcome after surgery.. Results: Before surgery, the anosmia and the hyposmia were noted in 90.8% and in 8.7% of cases, respectively. At six months after surgery, the improvement of olfactory score was significant: 84% of patient had the score 1 compared with 0.5% preoperatively (p < 0.0001). This improvement was maintained during the 2 first years and decreased significantly at 3 years, although an average delay of polyps recurrence was 23.4 months. Among the factors studied in our series, only the observance of postoperative corticosteroids was retained as a predictor of smell recovery after surgery (p = 0,011). Conclusion: CRSWP surgery can significantly improve the smell sense, especially during the two first years. This effect can be sustainable if good post operative compliance for local corticosteroid are achieved.

Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic , Nasal Bone , Spina Bifida Occulta , Kallmann Syndrome , Olfaction Disorders
African Journal of Disability ; 11(1): 1-7, 28/10/2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399224


There exist many psychosocial sequelae associated with mobility impairment, especially in low-resource settings where access to mobility assistive devices is limited. Objectives: This study aims to (1) define the burden and presenting aetiologies of mobility impairment in the rural Northern Region of Malawi and (2) assess the relationship between physical disability, life satisfaction and access to mobility aids. Methods: At mobility device donation clinics throughout the Northern Region of Malawi, adults living with mobility impairment were surveyed with a demographic questionnaire and a series of validated surveys to assess their physical activity levels (Global Physical Activity Questionnaire [GPAQ]), degree of mobility impairment (Washington Group Extended Set Questions on Disability) and life satisfaction (patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems satisfaction with participation in social roles and general life satisfaction). Results: There were 251 participants who qualified for inclusion, of which 193 completed all surveys. Higher physical activity scores were positively correlated with increased life satisfaction: (1) satisfaction with participation in social roles (0.481, p < 0.0001) and (2) general life satisfaction (0.230, p < 0.001). Respondents who had previously used a formal mobility device reported 235.5% higher physical activity levels ([139.0%, 333.0%], p = 0.006), significantly higher satisfaction with participation in social roles ([0.21, 6.67], p = 0.037) and equivocally higher general life satisfaction ([−1.77, 3.84], p = 0.470). Conclusion: Disability and mental health do not exist in isolation from one another. Given the positive correlations between formal mobility device usage and both physical activity and life satisfaction, interventions that increase access to mobility-assistive devices in undertreated populations are imperative. Contribution: This study contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between physical disability, access to mobility aids, and life satisfaction. Results from this study suggest the potential benefit that increasing access to mobility aids may have in improving the quality of life of mobility impaired persons in resource-limited settings, such as the Northern Region of Malawi

Exercise , Patient Satisfaction , Disabled Persons , Olfaction Disorders , Self-Help Devices , Life
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936169


Objective: To observe the changes of olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function in patients with upper respiratory tract post-viral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD), and to explore the correlation of chemosensory function. Methods: The clinical data of 42 patients with PVOD who visited to the Olfactory and Taste Center of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January to December of 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 20 males and 22 females, aging (48.86±11.47) years (x¯). Twenty subjects in normal control group were selected according to the sex ratio of PVOD patients. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory tests were performed on the subjects, including threshold test (T), discrimination test (D) and identification test (I), and the sum of the above three test scores was the TDI value. At the same time, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs) and taste function test were performed. According to the taste function test, the patients were divided into normal gustation (NG) group and gustatory dysfunction (GD) group. The results of olfaction, taste and intranasal trigeminal nerve function tests were compared among different groups, and the correlation analysis was carried out. SPSS statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: GD was present in 14 (33.3%) of 42 PVOD patients with a course of PVOD of 5 (3, 6) months (M (Q1, Q3)). The gustatory function of patients with PVOD was related to gender (r=0.565, P<0.001), smoking status (r=-0.512, P=0.001), duration (r=-0.357, P=0.020) and olfactory function (all P<0.05). The olfactory function of GD group was worse than that of NG group, and the differences of TDI value and T value between the two groups were statistically significant (10.25±4.58 vs 13.35±3.61, 1.54±0.66 vs 2.10±0.88, t value was 2.40 and 2.10 respectively, both P<0.05). The amplitudes of oERPs and tERPs were significantly lower in GD group than those in NG group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: In patients with PVOD, the subjective and objective olfactory function, intranasal trigeminal nerve function and taste function were decreased, and there was a correlation, suggesting that there was a synergistic effect between the chemosensory functions of PVOD patients.

Female , Humans , Male , Nose , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Smell , Taste
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927679


Objective@#The scientific community knows little about the long-term influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on olfactory dysfunction (OD). With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing worldwide, the risk of imported cases remains high. In China, it is necessary to understand OD in imported cases.@*Methods@#A prospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 11 self-reported patients with COVID-19 and OD from Xi'an No. 8 Hospital were followed between August 19, 2021, and December 12, 2021. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, and treatment outcomes were analyzed at admission. We surveyed the patients via telephone for recurrence and sequelae at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up.@*Results@#Eleven patients with OD were enrolled; of these, 54.5% (6/11) had hyposmia and 45.5% (5/11) had anosmia. 63.6% (7/11) reported OD before or on the day of admission as their initial symptom; of these, 42.9% (3/7) described OD as the only symptom. All patients in the study received combined treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, and 72.7% (8/11) had partially or fully recovered at discharge. In terms of OD recovery at the 12-month follow-up, 45.5% (5/11) reported at least one sequela, 81.8% (9/11) had recovered completely, 18.2% (2/11) had recovered partially, and there were no recurrent cases.@*Conclusions@#Our data revealed that OD frequently presented as the initial or even the only symptom among imported cases. Most OD improvements occurred in the first 2 weeks after onset, and patients with COVID-19 and OD had favorable treatment outcomes during long-term follow-up. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and appropriate treatment of OD is needed to guide clinicians in the care of these patients.

Humans , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(4): 262-272, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1413922


Introducción: las alteraciones otorrinolaringológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 tienen particular importancia a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, todavía no hay consenso en la literatura acerca de la epidemiología, la gravedad y el tiempo de recuperación de estos trastornos. Objetivo: este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la asociación entre los síntomas otorrinolaringológicos y la positividad del SARS-CoV-2 confirmada mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa (RT-PCR), así como la gravedad, duración y recuperación de estos síntomas en pacientes de la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, un hospital de referencia de COVID-19 en Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: estudio observacional, prospectivo, tipo casos y controles, realizado entre el 9 de octubre de 2020 y el 14 de enero de 2021. Los casos incluyeron adultos que obtuvieron una prueba positiva para el SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR. Los casos se emparejaron en una proporción de 2:1 con adultos sintomáticos seleccionados al azar con una prueba negativa, o con pacientes prequirúrgicos. Resultados: se incluyeron 130 casos y 253 controles entre los 10.004 pacientes sometidos a la prueba del SARS-CoV-2. La edad media era de 41,8 años (desviación estándar [DE]: 16,3). Los síntomas otorrinolaringológicos asociados a la positividad al SARS-CoV-2 fueron anosmia/hiposmia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5,82; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 %: 1,92-17,68), disgeusia/hipogeusia (aOR: 9,09; IC del 95 %: 2,86-28,92) y tos seca (aOR: 3,18; IC del 95 %: 1,56-6,48). La duración media de la anosmia/hiposmia y de la disgeusia/hipogeusia en los pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 positivos fue de 14,5 días y 15 días (rango intercuartílico [IQR]: 8-27), respectivamente. Hasta el 70,3 % y el 67,5 % de la población informó de una recuperación completa de la anosmia/hiposmia y la disgeusia/hipogeusia. En cuanto a la gravedad de los síntomas de anosmia/hiposmia y disgeusia/hipogeusia, el 62,1 % y el 65,4 % de la población positiva para SARS-CoV-2 los clasificó como graves. Sin embargo, solo el 6,1 % de ellos recibió tratamiento para estos síntomas. Conclusiones: los síntomas otorrinolaringológicos asociados con la positividad para SARS-CoV-2 son útiles para orientar el diagnóstico, pero establecer sus características clínicas también es esencial para un tratamiento adecuado.

Introduction: Otolaryngological disorders in COVID-19 patients have drawn attention worldwide. However, there is still no consensus regarding the prevalence, severity or recovery of these disorders. This study aimed to assess the association between otolaryngological symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 positivity confirmed by RT-PCR, as well as the severity, duration, and recovery of these symptoms in patients receiving care at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, a COVID-19 referral hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: Observational, analytic, prospective, case-control study conducted between October 9, 2020, and January 14, 2021. Cases included adults who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cases were matched in a 2:1 ratio with randomly selected symptomatic adults with a negative test, or patients awaiting surgery. Results: Of 10004 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 130 cases and 253 controls were included. The mean age was 41.8 years (standard deviation [SD]: 16.3). The otolaryngological symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were anosmia/hyposmia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-17.68), dysgeusia/ hypogeusia (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 2.86-28.92), and dry cough (aOR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.56-6.48). The median duration of anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/hypogeusia in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients was 14.5 days and 15 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 8-27), respectively. Up to 70.3% and 67.5% of the population reported a complete recovery of anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/hypogeusia. Regarding the severity of anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/hypogeusia symptoms, 62.1% and 65.4% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive population classified them as severe. However, only 6.1% of them received treatment for these symptoms. Conclusions: Otolaryngological symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity are a useful guide to diagnosis, although adequate treatment also requires determination of their clinical characteristics.

Humans , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(3): 195-200, 20220000. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400893


Introducción: La identificación de los síntomas o sus combinaciones con un alto valor predictivo para la enfermedad, es una estrategia crucial para el control de las enfermedades transmisibles. Las alteraciones en el olfato y el gusto han surgido como síntomas de alta prevalencia y un confiable predictor temprano de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la prevalencia de las alteraciones del gusto y del olfato en pacientes con antecedente de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en la población colombiana. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica y electrónica a pacientes adultos con antecedente de infección por SARS-CoV-2 confirmado por PCR. Resultados: se incluyeron 182 pacientes en el estudio. El 59% manifestó alteraciones del olfato y 54% alteraciones del gusto. De estos, el 77% y 82%, respectivamente, presentaron mejoría de sus síntomas. El 14% de los participantes percibió las alteraciones del olfato antes del inicio de otros síntomas de COVID-19. El 9% reportó que la alteración del olfato fue el único síntoma de la infección. Para el gusto, 8% informó que fue el primer síntoma de COVID-19, mientras que el 6% reportó que fue el único síntoma. Conclusiones: las alteraciones del gusto y del olfato son síntomas de alta prevalencia en pacientes con infección por COVID-19 y en algunos casos pueden ser el síntoma de presentación de la infección o el único síntoma de la infección

Introduction: Identifying symptoms or symptom combinations with a high predictive value for diagnosing a disease is a crucial strategy for controlling transmissible diseases. Smell and taste alterations have been identified as highly prevalent symptoms of COVID-19 and have been used as a reliable early predictor of the disease. The objective in this study was characterizing the prevalence of smell and taste alterations in patients with COVID-19 in the Colombian population. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. A telephonic and electronic survey was applied to adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR. Results: 182 patients were included. 59% presented with smell alterations and 54% with taste symptoms. Among these patients, 77% and 82% respectively perceived symptomatic improvement. 14% of patients presented smell alterations before the onset of other COVID-19 symptoms. 9% reported smell alterations to be the only symptom of the disease. 8% of patients perceived taste alterations as a first symptom and 6% reported it to be the only symptom of the disease. Conclusion: Taste and smell alterations are highly prevalent symptoms in Colombian patients with Covid-19 and in some cases they can be the either the first or the only perceived symptoms of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Octogenarians , Olfaction Disorders/virology
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(3)20220000. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400909


Introducción: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad pandémica, que ha causado más de seis millones de muertes en todo el mundo. El cuadro clínico de la infección puede variar en función de la gravedad de la enfermedad y suele incluir síntomas generales, otorrinolaringológicos y neurológicos. Objetivo: proporcionar una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica sobre el diagnóstico clínico y tratamiento de la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19. Resultados: la disfunción olfatoria definida como la capacidad reducida o distorsionada de oler al inhalar (olfato ortonasal) o al comer (olfato retronasal), a menudo se informa en casos leves o incluso asintomáticos. La prevalencia de la disfunción olfatoria puede variar con respecto al entorno clínico, con tasas de pérdida total del olfato hasta del 70 % en pacientes con COVID-19 leve. Además, hasta la fecha existen pocos artículos que evalúen prospectivamente las tasas de recuperación de la disfunción olfatoria en pacientes con COVID-19. Conclusión: COVID-19 se asocia con disfunción olfatoria en diversos pacientes. Se requiere una investigación activa y colaborativa para delinear la historia natural y el manejo apropiado de la disfunción olfatoria en esta virulenta enfermedad. Mientras tanto, el diagnóstico y los tratamientos dirigidos como el entrenamiento olfatorio pueden ser útiles en la disfunción olfatoria relacionada con COVID-19.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a pandemic disease that has caused more than six million deaths worldwide. The clinical picture of the infection can vary depending on the severity of the disease and usually includes general, ENT and neurological symptoms. Objective: To provide a narrative review of the scientific literature on the clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory dysfunction related to coronavirus disease 2019. Results: Olfactory dysfunction defined as the reduced or distorted ability to smell when inhaling (orthonasal smell) or when eating (postnasal smell), is often reported in mild or even asymptomatic cases. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction can vary with respect to the clinical setting, with rates of total loss of smell as high as 70% in patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019. In addition, to date there is a paucity of articles prospectively evaluating recovery rates of olfactory dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with olfactory dysfunction in various patients. Active and collaborative research is required to delineate the natural history and appropriate management of olfactory dysfunction in this virulent disease. In the meantime, diagnosis and targeted treatments such as olfactory training may be helpful in olfactory dysfunction related to coronavirus disease 2019.

Humans , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/therapy
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 81(4): 510-514, dic. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389798


Resumen Introducción: La laringectomía total (LT) tiene como secuela la perdida de la voz, pero otra consecuencia no estudiada es la pérdida del olfato. Objetivo: Demostrar que la "maniobra de inducción del flujo aéreo nasal" (MIFAN) rehabilita el olfato en pacientes con LT. Material y Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después en pacientes laringectomizados por cáncer de laringe del Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco Trudeau (HBLT) de Santiago de Chile. Evaluación a través de encuesta, examen físico, nasofibroscopía y test olfatométrico. Pacientes con alteración del olfato por transmisión serán enrolados y se enseñará la MIFAN. Resultados: Se estudiaron 12 pacientes: 10 hombres, 2 mujeres. Edad promedio 66,3 años, todos autovalentes. 66,6% presentó anosmia y 33,3% hiposmia. Todos lograron realizar la maniobra. Posrehabilitación el 100% presentó presencia de olfato valorada por olfatometría. Población intervenida similar a otras series en cuanto a sexo y edad. La erigmofonación facilita la rehabilitación con MIFAN. La rehabilitación del olfato se logró en todos y paralelamente mejoró el sentido del gusto. Conclusión: La MIFAN es una técnica sencilla, barata y asequible para lograr rehabilitar el sentido del olfato en pacientes laringectomizados.

Abstract Introduction: Total laryngectomy (TL) has as a consequence the loss of voice, but another not studied consequence is the loss of smell. Aim: To demonstrate that the "nasal airflow inducing maneuver" (NAIM) rehabilitates smell in patients with TL. Material and Method: A quasi-experimental before-after study in laryngectomized patients for laryngeal cancer from the Otorhinolaryngology Service (ENT) of the Barros Luco Trudeau Hospital (BLTH) at Santiago, Chile. Evaluation through survey, physical examination, nasofibroscopy and olfactory test. Patients with transmission impairment of smell were enrolled and NAIM was performed. Results: 12 patients were studied: 10 men, 2 women. Average age 66.3 years. All self-supporting. 66.6% presented anosmia and 33.3% hyposmia. They all managed to perform the maneuver. Post-rehabilitation, 100% presented the presence of smell assessed by olfactometry. Intervened population similar to other series in terms of sex and age. Esophageal speech facilitates NAIM rehabilitation. Rehabilitation of smell was achieved in all of them and in parallel, the sense of taste improved. Conclusion: NAIM is a simple, cheap and affordable technique to rehabilitate the sense of smell in laryngectomized patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Olfactory Training , Laryngectomy/rehabilitation , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Laryngectomy/adverse effects
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 702-710, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350351


Abstract Introduction: Functions attributed to androgens have increased, ranging from the role in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive behaviors to modulation of cognition, mood and some other functions. Sex differences and changes in circulating sex hormones affect human sensory function. In the literature, authors reported this kind of influence for olfaction predominantly in females. Objective: To investigate the effects of low testosterone levels on olfactory functions in males, in this prospective clinical study. Methods: Male patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were included. Thirty-nine patients with prostate cancer whose testosterone levels were lower than 50 ng/dL due to castration, were the study group. Thirty-one patients with prostate cancer who were not castrated with testosterone levels higher than 50 ng/dL were selected as the control group. Acoustic rhinometry and peak nasal inspiratory flow tests were performed for all participants; and for evaluation of olfactory function, both groups completed the Connecticut chemosensory clinical research center olfactory test. Results: The mean ages of the patients and controls were 69.6 ± 7.2 (57-89) and 66.3 ± 5.8 (50-78) years, respectively (= 0.039). There was a significant difference between groups in terms of testosterone levels (p < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression revealed testosterone level as the only predictive factor determining the difference between the groups. In terms of olfactory parameters, all scores were lower in the emasculated group (butanol threshold test p = 0.019, identification p = 0.059, and Connecticut center score p = 0.029) There was a significant correlation between testosterone levels and olfactory parameters (p = 0.023; p = 0.025 for identification and Connecticut center scores, respectively). Conclusion: Low testosterone levels in males have negative effects on olfactory functions. Further molecular research is required to understand the connection between testosterone and olfaction.

Resumo Introdução: As funções atribuídas aos andrógenos aumentaram, variam desde o papel no eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal e comportamentos reprodutivos até a modulação da cognição, humor e outras funções. As diferenças entre os sexos e as mudanças nos hormônios sexuais circulantes afetam a função sensorial humana. Na literatura, os autores relataram esse tipo de influência para o olfato, principalmente no sexo feminino. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos dos baixos níveis de testosterona nas funções olfativas em homens, neste estudo clínico prospectivo. Método: Pacientes do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de câncer de próstata foram incluídos no estudo. Compreenderam o grupo de estudo 39 pacientes com câncer de próstata cujos níveis de testosterona eram inferiores a 50 ng/dL devido à castração. Foram determinados como grupo controle 31 pacientes com câncer de próstata que não foram emasculados, com níveis de testosterona superiores a 50 ng/dL. Testes de rinometria acústica e pico de fluxo inspiratório nasal foram feitos para todos os participantes; e para avaliação da função olfativa, ambos os grupos concluíram o teste olfativo do Connecticut chemosensory clinical research center. Resultados: A média da idade dos pacientes e controles foi de 69,6 ± 7,2 (57 ± 89) e 66,3 ± 5,8 (50 ± 78) anos, respectivamente (= 0,039). Houve uma diferença significante entre os grupos em relação a níveis de testosterona (p < 0,0001). A regressão logística multivariada revelou o nível de testosterona como o único fator preditivo que determinou a diferença entre os grupos. Em termos de parâmetros olfativos, todos os escores foram menores no grupo castrado (teste do limiar de butanol p = 0,019, identificação p = 0,059 e escore do Connecticut center p = 0,029). Houve uma correlação significante entre o nível de testosterona e os parâmetros olfativos (p = 0,023; p = 0,025 para identificação e escore do Connecticut center, respectivamente). Conclusão: Baixos níveis de testosterona em homens têm efeito negativo na função olfativa. Mais pesquisas moleculares são necessárias para entender a conexão entre testosterona e olfação.

Humans , Male , Female , Olfaction Disorders , Smell , Testosterone , Prospective Studies , Rhinometry, Acoustic
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(10): 1491-1497, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351450


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether the volume and morphology of the olfactory bulb are effective in the occurrence of anosmia in patients after COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The olfactory bulbus volume was calculated by examining the brain magnetic resonance imaging of cases with positive (+) COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test with and without anosmia. Evaluated magnetic resonance imaging images were the scans of patients before they were infected with COVID-19. The olfactory bulbus and olfactory nerve morphology of these patients were examined. The brain magnetic resonance imaging of 59 patients with anosmia and 64 controls without anosmia was evaluated. The olfactory bulb volumes of both groups were calculated. The olfactory bulb morphology and olfactory nerve types were examined and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The left and right olfactory bulb volumes were calculated for the anosmia group and control group as 47.8±15/49.3±14.3 and 50.5±9.9/50.9±9.6, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. When the olfactory bulb morphology was compared between the two groups, it was observed that types D and R were dominant in the anosmia group (p<0.05). Concerning olfactory nerve morphology, type N was significantly more common in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, the olfactory bulb volume does not affect the development of anosmia after COVID-19. However, it is striking that the bulb morphology significantly differs between the patients with and without anosmia. It is clear that the evaluation of COVID-19-associated smell disorders requires studies with a larger number of patients and a clinicoradiological approach.

Humans , COVID-19 , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 255-260, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346104


Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. Métodos: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Resultados: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). Conclusión: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.

Abstract Introduction: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. Objective: To know the frequency in which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. Results: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 789-794, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346898


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have a high risk of contagiousness, as they usually progress with asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms. Disorder in taste and/or smell has rarely been reported in pediatric cases. In our study, early diagnosis and isolation measures were emphasized by evaluating the clinical, laboratory, and radiological imaging findings of pediatric COVID-19 cases presenting with symptoms of taste and/or smell disorder. METHODS: Seven cases aged 0-18 years were included in the study. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test was performed for the seven cases presented with taste and/or smell disorders. Clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiological imaging of all the cases were evaluated on the day of admission and on the fifth day. RESULTS: Seven (5.7%) of 122 pediatric COVID-19 cases had disorder in taste and/or smell. In two cases, pneumonia findings were detected in thorax computed tomography imaging. It was observed that all the patients fully recovered at the latest on the 21st day. In the cranial diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of a case, diffusion restriction was detected in the corpus callosum splenium. CONCLUSION: Although less common than adults, children with COVID-19 may also have taste and smell disorders, and this may be accompanied by central nervous system imaging findings.

Humans , Child , Adult , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Taste , Taste Disorders , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 94-102, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153582


Abstract Introduction The prediction of the impact of olfactory impairment on cognitive decline in older adults has been different among different age groups. Objective This meta-analysis sought to estimate the predictive power of olfactory impairment on cognitive decline during follow-up in older adults of different ages. Material and methods A medical literature search was carried out using these databases for eligible studies: MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE. Studies recording olfaction and cognition detection at the beginning and end of the follow-up were included in the preliminary screening. The medical records of older adults without cognitive impairment at the beginning of the follow-up were taken into account in this analysis. Raw data was extracted in order to estimate the relative risk and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Subgroup analysis of age was performed to eliminate the effect of age on the results. Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the I 2 index and Cochran's Q test. Results Eight studies were enrolled in this analysis (3237 events and 13165 participants), and the pooled relative risk for the 70-80 years old subgroup was 2.00 (95% CI = 1.79-2.23). Conclusion Relatively, there is a higher risk of cognitive impairment at the end of follow-up in younger adults with olfactory impairment at the beginning of follow-up. The length of follow-up has a little effect on the relative risk.

Resumo Introdução A previsão do impacto do comprometimento olfativo no declínio cognitivo em idosos tem sido distinta entre diferentes faixas etárias. Objetivo Esta metanálise buscou estimar o poder preditivo do comprometimento olfativo no declínio cognitivo durante o seguimento em idosos de diferentes idades. Material e métodos Foi feita uma pesquisa na literatura médica nos seguintes bancos de dados para estudos elegíveis: Medline, Cochrane e Embase. Os estudos que registraram olfação e detecção de cognição no início e no fim do seguimento foram incluídos na triagem preliminar. Os prontuários médicos de idosos sem comprometimento cognitivo no início do seguimento foram considerados nessa análise. Os dados brutos foram extraídos para estimar o risco relativo e o intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) correspondente. A análise de subgrupos da idade foi feita para eliminar o efeito da idade nos resultados. A heterogeneidade estatística foi medida utilizando o índice I2 e o teste Q de Cochran. Resultados Oito estudos foram incluídos nesta análise (3.237 eventos e 13.165 participantes) e o risco relativo combinado para o subgrupo de 70 a 80 anos foi de 2,00 (IC95% = 1,79-2,23). Conclusão Relativamente, existe um risco maior de comprometimento cognitivo no fim do seguimento em adultos mais jovens que se se apresentam com comprometimento olfativo no início do seguimento. A duração do seguimento tem um pequeno efeito no risco relativo.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Cognition
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200205, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1251789


ABSTRACT Objective To identify symptoms of COVID-19 in adults in the scientific literature. Method Systematic review of studies published from December 1, 2019 to April 21, 2020 from the Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed databases, in order to answer the following research question: "What are the symptoms caused by COVID-19 in adults?" using the keywords "Symptoms", "Clinical Manifestations", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Results Of the total 105 references, 13 references that addressed the symptoms of COVID-19 were selected. Fever and normal or dry cough were symptoms present in all studies. Conclusion The symptoms identified in adult patients were fever, normal or dry cough, headache, pharyngalgia, dyspnea, diarrhea, myalgia, vomiting, sputum or expectoration, anxiety or chest pain, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, rhinorrhea, runny nose or nasal congestion, dizziness, chills, systemic pain, mental confusion, hemoptysis, asthma, taste disorder, smell disorder, belching and tachycardia.

RESUMEN Objetivo Verificar en la literatura científica las manifestaciones sintomáticas de COVID-19 en adultos. Método Una revisión sistemática realizada en las bases de datos Scopus, Web of Science y PubMed con estudios publicados del 1 de diciembre de 2019 al 21 de abril de 2020, con el fin de responder a la pregunta orientadora: "¿Cuáles son las manifestaciones sintomáticas causada por COVID-19 en adultos?" utilizando las palabras clave: "Síntomas", "Manifestaciones clínicas", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Resultados Del total de 105 referencias, se seleccionaron 13 que abordaron las manifestaciones sintomáticas de COVID-19, con fiebre y tos normal o seca presente en todos los estudios. Conclusión Las manifestaciones sintomáticas identificadas en pacientes adultos fueron: fiebre, tos normal o seca, dolor de cabeza, faringalgia, disnea, diarrea, mialgia, vómitos, esputo o expectoración, angustia o dolor en el pecho, fatiga, náuseas, anorexia, dolor abdominal, rinorrea, secreción nasal o congestión nasal, mareos, escalofríos, dolor sistémico, confusión mental, hemoptisis, asma, alteración del gusto, alteración del olfato, eructos y taquicardia.

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar na literatura científica as manifestações sintomáticas da COVID-19 em pessoas adultas. Método Revisão sistemática utilizando as bases Scopus, Web of Science e PubMed com estudos publicados de 1 de dezembro de 2019 a 21 de abril de 2020, a fim de responder à questão norteadora: "Quais as manifestações sintomáticas causada pela COVID-19 em pessoas adultas?" utilizando-se as palavras-chave: "Symptoms", "Clinical Manifestations", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". Resultados Do total de 105 referências, foram selecionadas 13 que abordaram as manifestações sintomáticas da COVID-19, estando a febre e a tosse normal ou seca presente em todos os estudos. Conclusão As manifestações sintomáticas identificadas nos pacientes adultos foram: febre, tosse normal ou seca, cefaleia, faringalgia, dispneia, diarreia, mialgia, vômito, escarro ou expectoração, angústia ou dor no peito, fadiga, náusea, anorexia, dor abdominal, rinorreia, coriza ou congestão nasal, tontura, calafrios, dor sistêmica, confusão mental, hemoptise, asma, comprometimento do paladar, comprometimento do olfato, arroto e taquicardia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , General Symptoms , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Asthma , Vomiting , Anorexia , Databases, Bibliographic , Cough , Ageusia , Diarrhea , Dizziness , Fatigue , Fever , Olfaction Disorders
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-6, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151491


INTRODUCCIÓN: Existen evidencias sobre el deterioro del olfato y el gusto en pacientes con la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Se hallaron diferencias en la proporción de pacientes afectados por estos síntomas en distintas poblaciones. Con base en el patrón de presentación, a partir de abril de 2020, la definición de caso sospechoso en Argentina incorporó la pérdida parcial o total de olfato o de gusto. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la proporción de pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan pérdida de olfato o de gusto en Argentina. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico. Participaron pacientes con COVID-19 mayores de 18 años confirmados con reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR, por sus siglas en inglés) en muestras obtenidas por hisopado entre el 15 de mayo y el 31 de agosto de 2020. Los participantes completaron una encuesta en línea, que incluyó preguntas sociodemográficas sobre síntomas de COVID-19, comorbilidades y la percepción de la pérdida del olfato y el gusto. RESULTADOS: Participaron 241 pacientes, 79% informaron pérdida de olfato y 54%, de gusto. En 32% de los casos, la pérdida de olfato fue el primer síntoma. La proporción de hombres y mujeres que informaron pérdida olfativa fue similar y lo mismo ocurrió en relación con la pérdida de gusto. Tampoco se observaron diferencias en relación con la edad. DISCUSIÓN: Una proporción elevada de pacientes con COVID-19 presenta disfunción olfativa y gustativa en la población argentina. Resulta importante la disponibilidad amplia de un test para la evaluación del olfato y el gusto con adaptación sociocultural y que pueda realizarse en el hogar. En el futuro, se implementará la realización de un test masivo desechable y digital

Rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections , Ageusia , Olfaction Disorders