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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1497-1511, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010637


Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to white matter injury (WMI), which subsequently causes neurodegeneration and even cognitive impairment. However, due to the lack of treatment specifically for WMI, novel recognized and effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we found that honokiol and magnolol, two compounds derived from Magnolia officinalis, significantly facilitated the differentiation of primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes, with a more prominent effect of the former compound. Moreover, our results demonstrated that honokiol treatment improved myelin injury, induced mature oligodendrocyte protein expression, attenuated cognitive decline, promoted oligodendrocyte regeneration, and inhibited astrocytic activation in the bilateral carotid artery stenosis model. Mechanistically, honokiol increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine kinase (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by activating cannabinoid receptor 1 during OPC differentiation. Collectively, our study indicates that honokiol might serve as a potential treatment for WMI in chronic cerebral ischemia.

Magnolia , White Matter , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971575


Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the most prevalent pathologic processes affecting 5% of people over 50 years of age and contributing to 45% of dementia cases. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the pathological roles of chronic hypoperfusion, impaired cerebral vascular reactivity, and leakage of the blood-brain barrier in CSVD. However, the pathogenesis of CSVD remains elusive thus far, and no radical treatment has been developed. NG2 glia, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, are the fourth type of glial cell in addition to astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. Many novel functions for NG2 glia in physiological and pathological states have recently been revealed. In this review, we discuss the role of NG2 glia in CSVD and the underlying mechanisms.

Animals , Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 453-465, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971570


Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for structural and functional homeostasis of nervous tissue. Albeit with certain similarities, the regulation of CNS and PNS myelination is executed differently. Recent advances highlight the coordinated regulation of oligodendrocyte myelination by amino-acid sensing and growth factor signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss novel insights into the understanding of differential regulation of oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell biology in CNS and PNS myelination, with particular focus on the roles of growth factor-stimulated RHEB-mTORC1 and GATOR2-mediated amino-acid sensing/signaling pathways. We also discuss recent progress on the metabolic regulation of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and the impact of their dysfunction on neuronal function and disease.

Amino Acids , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Schwann Cells/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 379-392, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971559


Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. They contribute more than half of the total cells of the CNS, and are essential for neural development and functioning. Studies on the fate specification, differentiation, and functional diversification of glial cells mainly rely on the proper use of cell- or stage-specific molecular markers. However, as cellular markers often exhibit different specificity and sensitivity, careful consideration must be given prior to their application to avoid possible confusion. Here, we provide an updated overview of a list of well-established immunological markers for the labeling of central glia, and discuss the cell-type specificity and stage dependency of their expression.

Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Microglia
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1314-1324, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922627


The exacerbation of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is closely associated with obstruction of the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). To discover novel therapeutic compounds for enhancing remyelination by endogenous OPCs, we screened for myelin basic protein expression using cultured rat OPCs and a library of small-molecule compounds. One of the most effective drugs was pinocembrin, which remarkably promoted OPC differentiation and maturation without affecting cell proliferation and survival. Based on these in vitro effects, we further assessed the therapeutic effects of pinocembrin in animal models of demyelinating diseases. We demonstrated that pinocembrin significantly ameliorated the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and enhanced the repair of demyelination in lysolectin-induced lesions. Further studies indicated that pinocembrin increased the phosphorylation level of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Taken together, our results demonstrated that pinocembrin promotes OPC differentiation and remyelination through the phosphorylated mTOR pathway, and suggest a novel therapeutic prospect for this natural flavonoid product in treating demyelinating diseases.

Animals , Mice , Rats , Cell Differentiation , Flavanones , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Remyelination , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 87 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711933


Lesões sistêmicas peri e pré-natais alteram o desenvolvimento do SNC, levando a problemas cognitivos e motores em crianças que podem perdurar por toda a vida. Um tipo particular de lesão é a hipóxia-isquemia (HI), caracterizada pela interrupção momentânea ou permanente do fluxo sanguíneo. Um dos mecanismos propostos para as lesões decorrentes da HI é a excitotoxicidade glutamatérgica. O uso de inibidores da neurotransmissão glutamatérgica tem sido estudados em diversos modelos de HI. Neste trabalho, avaliamos os efeitos morfofuncionais da administração de um antagonista não-competitivo do receptor de glutamato NMDA sobre o desenvolvimento do cerebelo. Ratas no 18º dia de gestação foram anestesiadas, os cornos uterinos expostos e as 4 artérias uterinas obstruídas por 45 minutos (Grupo H). Animais controle tiveram os úteros expostos, sem a obstrução (Grupo S). Após a cirurgia a gestação prosseguiu. Somente animais nascidos a termo foram utilizados. Um dia após o nascimento, metade de cada ninhada foi designada para receber MK801, 0,3mg/kg/dia, (grupos SM e HM) e a outra metade recebeu solução salina (grupos SS e HS), por 5 dias. Após anestesia e perfusão-fixação com paraformaldeído 4% aos 9, 23, 30 e 60 dias pós-natais, cortes parassagitais do cerebelo foram obtidos em criótomo e submetidos à imunohistoquímica para calbindina, GFAP, GLAST, PDGFRα e MBP. A partir de 45 dias de vida, os animais foram testados em vários de testes comportamentais: labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), campo vazado (CV), ROTAROD, teste de caminhada sobre barras (ladder test) e teste do comprimento da passada (stride length). Aos 9 dias, a espessura da árvore dendrítica era menor nos animais SM, HS/HM, demonstrando efeitos deletérios tanto do MK801 quanto da HI. Menor número de células PDGFRα+ foi observado nos animais HS/HM, sem efeitos da administração de MK801. Aos 23 dias, maior número de células PDGFRα+ foi observado nos animais HM comparado aos outros 3 grupos, indicando efeito ...

Peri and prenatal systemic lesions alter CNS development leading to motor and cognitive problems in children that might persist throughout life. A particular kind of injury, the hypoxic ischemic (HI), is characterized by a permanent or temporary blockage of blood flow. One of the proposed mechanisms downstream from a HI event is called glutamatergic excitotoxicity. The administration of glutamate inhibitors has been studied in HI models for several years. In this work, we evaluated the effects of administration of a non-competitive antagonist of glutamate receptor, NMDA, on cerebellar development and behavioral tests of HI animals. Pregnant rats in the 18th gestational day were anesthetized, the uterine horns were exposed and the four uterine arteries were clamped for 45 minutes (group H). Sham controls had the uterine horns exposed, but no arteries were clamped (group S). Gestation proceeded after surgery. Only full term animals were used. One day after birth half the animals was assigned to receive either SALINE (groups SS and HS) or MK801 (groups SM and HM). Animals were anesthetized and perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde at 9, 23, 30 and 60 days of age. Parasagittal cerebellar sections were submitted to Calbindin, GFAP, GLAST, PDGFRα and MBP immunohistochemistry. Beginning at P45 animals were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests: elevated plus maze (EPM), hole board (HB), ROTAROD, ladder test and stride length. At P9 the dendritic tree of Purkinje cells were thinner in SM, HS/HM animals, indicating that both HI and MK801 are deleterious regarding this Purkinje cell differentiation. A lower number of PDGFRα+ cells was observed in HS/HM animals, with no effects of MK801 administration. At P23 a greater number of PDGFRα+ cells was found in HM animals when compared to the other 3 groups, demonstrating a neuroprotector effect of MK801. A lower number of myelinated fibers (MBP+) was observed in HS animals at P9, and MK801 administration reverse this ...

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Purkinje Cells/metabolism , Cerebellum/growth & development , Cerebellum , Dizocilpine Maleate/administration & dosage , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Amino Acid Transport System X-AG/metabolism