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1.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 85-95, ene.-jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416209

ABSTRACT

El perfil molecular de los gliomas permite garantizar la precisión del diagnóstico, informar el pronóstico e identificar opciones de tratamiento. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo exponer que con la secuenciación de próxima generación (NSG) el diagnóstico de los pacientes con oligodendrogliomas puede ser más exacto. Además, con un dispositivo de diagnóstico in vitro, basado en la NSG (F1CDx), en el que se utilizan los bloques de parafina de gliomas para analizar hasta 395 genes relacionados con cáncer (incluido IDH 1 y 2), se puede también informar la pérdida de la totalidad del brazo corto del cromosoma 1 y del brazo largo del cromosoma 19 (codeleción 1p/19q), a diferencia de la hibridación fluorescente in situ (FISH) que detecta desde la más mínima deleción, lo cual los hace sensibles pero no específicos ya que el FISH es incapaz de distinguir entre la pérdida de la totalidad del brazo del cromosoma y una deleción focal. Esta distinción es importante ya que la sobrevida es inferior en tumores con deleción parcial en rela­ción con los oligodendrogliomas, que tienen por definición la pérdida total de ambos cromosomas. Se hace también alusión a otras plataformas genómicas como GlioSeq y GLIO-DNA panel, que pueden cumplir la misma función. En conclusión, la F1CDx puede determinar con precisión 1p/19q con una concordancia del 96.7% frente a FISH. Los casos en que el FISH dio positivo y no concordaban con F1CDx, era porque no se trataba de oligodendrogliomas. F1CDx también analiza todos los genes que permiten la aproximación más exacta al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma.


Molecular profiling of gliomas helps ensure diagnostic accuracy, inform prognosis, and identify treatment options. This review aims to show that with next generation sequencing (NGS) the diagnosis of patients with oligodendrogliomas can be more accurate. In addition, with an in vitro diagnostic device, based on NSG (F1CDx), in which glioma paraffin blocks are used to analyze up to 395 cancer-related genes (including IDH 1 and 2), it is also possible to report the loss of the entire short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19 (1p/19q codeletion), unlike fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that detects even the slightest deletion, making them sensitive but not specific, as FISH is unable to distinguish between the loss of the entire arm of the chromosome and a focal deletion. This distinction is important since survival is lower in tumors with partial deletion compared to oligodendrogliomas, which by definition have the total loss of both chromosomes. Reference is also made to other genomic platforms such as GlioSeq and GLIO-DNA panel, which can fulfill the same function. In conclusion, the F1CDx can accurately determine 1p/19q with a concordance of 96.7% against FISH. The cases in which the FISH was positive and did not agree with F1CDx, it was because they were not oligodendrogliomas. F1CDx also analyzes all the genes that allow the most accurate approach to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma.


O perfil molecular de gliomas ajuda a garantir a precisão do diagnóstico, informar o prognóstico e identificar as opções de tratamento. Esta revisão tem como objetivo mostrar que com o sequenciamento de próxima geração (NSG) o diagnóstico de pacientes com oligodendrogliomas pode ser mais preciso. Além disso, com um dispositivo de diagnóstico in vitro baseado em NSG (F1CDx), no qual blocos de parafina de glioma são usados para analisar até 395 genes relacionados ao câncer (incluindo IDH 1 e 2), também é possível relatar a perda do todo o braço curto do cromossomo 1 e o braço longo do cromossomo 19 (codeleção 1p/19q), ao contrário da hibridização fluorescente in situ(FISH) que detecta desde a menor deleção, o que os torna sensíveis, mas não específicos, pois o FISH é incapaz de distinguir entre a perda de todo o braço do cromossomo e uma deleção focal. Essa distinção é importante, pois a sobrevida é menor nos tumores com deleção parcial em relação aos oligodendrogliomas, que por definição apresentam a perda total de ambos os cromossomos. Também é feita referência a outras plataformas genômicas, como GlioSeq e painel GLIO-DNA, que podem cumprir a mesma função. Em conclusão, o F1CDx pode determinar com precisão 1p/19q com uma concordância de 96,7% versus FISH. Os casos em que FISH foi positivo e não concordaram com F1CDx, foi porque não eram oligodendrogliomas. O F1CDx também analisa todos os genes que permitem a abordagem mais precisa para o diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma , Oligodendroglioma , Survival , In Vitro Techniques , Diagnosis , Neoplasms
2.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 186-189, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362256

ABSTRACT

The most common mixed glioma encountered in routine surgical practice is oligoastrocytoma (OA); however, its is currently considered a vanishing entity. The 2016 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) discourages the diagnosis of tumors as mixed glioma. The recommendations are that diffuse gliomas, including those withmixed or ambiguous histological features, should be subjected tomolecular testing. Dual-genotype OAs are not yet a distinct entity or variant in the classification. We report a case ofmixed glioma: a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA)mixed with an oligodendroglioma. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) pattern of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) negativity with retained nuclear expression of the alpha-thalassemia x-linked intellectual disability syndrome (ATRX) protein, and 1p19q co-deletion negativity in both the components enabled its identification as a mixed glioma rather than a collision tumor. To the best of our knowledge, the case herein presented is the fourth case of PXA with oligodendroglioma. Out of the other three reported cases, only one was of a collision tumor with a dual genotype, and the other two showed similar molecular signatures in both components. The present article discusses the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of the aforementioned case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/surgery , Astrocytoma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/pathology , Temporal Lobe/surgery , Aconitate Hydratase/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Chromosome Deletion , Telomerase/genetics , Craniotomy/methods
3.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(1): 3-10, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155707

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar características por resonancia magnética (RM) de gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) en base a parámetros cualitativos, a fin de valorar el rendimiento del signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR y otras características morfológicas de los tumores, en predecir el estado del 1p/19q y su reproducibilidad interobservador. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico sobre una cohorte de 53 gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) y molecularmente definidos respecto al 1p/19q, seleccionados a partir de la base de datos de la institución, durante el periodo 2014- 2019. Dos neuroradiólogos evaluaron características imagenológicas de forma independiente y enmascarada al diagnóstico: mismatch T2-FLAIR, localización tumoral, bordes, señal, infiltración cortical e inhomogeneidad en T2. Los casos discordantes fueron evaluados por un tercer neuroradiólogo de mayor experiencia. Resultados: Treinta de 53 (56,6%) gliomas fueron no codelecionados, y 23/53 (43,4%) codelecionados. El signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR fue positivo en 16/53 (30,18%) pacientes, 15/16 (93,75%) no codelecionados y 1/16 (6,25%) codelecionado (Exacto de Fisher p = <,0001). Los dos evaluadores demostraron una concordancia interobservador casi perfecta para ese signo, κ =,907 (95% CI, 0,781 a 1,0). La especificidad y el valor predictivo positivo del signo para predecir la ausencia de la codeleción fue de un 95,7% y un 93,8% respectivamente. Discusión: La reciente actualización en la clasificación de los gliomas los clasifica acorde a su perfil molecular. En los últimos años, varios investigadores han estudiado características morfológicas por RM de los tumores con la intención de predecir las características moleculares de los mismos. Conclusión: En nuestra población, el signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR es el único biomarcador radiológico que muestra asociación estadísticamente significativa en predecir la ausencia de codeleción en los gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III), con una alta especificidad y un alto valor predictivo positivo.


Abstract Objective: To analyze magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of IDH-mutated gliomas (grades II/III) utilizing qualitative parameters with the goal of assessing the performance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and other morphological characteristics of tumors in predicting the 1p/19q co-deletion status as well as inter-observer reproducibility. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study analyzing a cohort of 53 IDH-mutated lower-grade (grades II/III) gliomas with known 1p/19q co-deletion status. Patients meeting selection criteria for this study were taken from our institutional data from 2014-2019. Two neuroradiologists assessed the following imaging characteristics independently, and blinded from the diagnosis: T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor location, borders, signal characteristics, cortical infiltration and T2* inhomogeneity. In the event of discordant interpretations, a third senior neuroradiologist also evaluated the case. Results: 23 of the 53 (43.4%) gliomas demonstrated 1p/19q co-deletion and 30 of 53 (56.6%) did not. T2-FLAIR mismatch was positive in 16 of 53 cases (30.2%) with 15 of 16 (93.8%) demonstrating no co-deletion and 1/16 (6.25%) with co-deletion (Fisher's exact p = < .0001). The two readers showed an almost perfect interreader agreement for this sign κ = 0.907 (95% CI, 0.781 to 1.0). Specificity and positive predictive value of the sign to predict the absence of co-deletion was 95.7% and 93.8% respectively. Discussion: The recent update in classification of lower-grade gliomas segregates gliomas according to molecular profile. In the recent past, many researchers have studied MR morphologic characteristics of these tumors with the intention of predicting molecular features of said tumors Conclusion: In our patient population, T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is the only radiologic biomarker that shows statistically significant association with the absence of 1p/19q co-deletion in lower-grade gliomas, with high specificity and positive predictive value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Glioma/classification
4.
Med. lab ; 25(4): 709-719, 2021. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370842

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los gliomas son las neoplasias malignas primarias más frecuentes del sistema nervioso central, asociadas con una mortalidad y morbilidad elevadas. Las mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 de la enzima isocitrato deshidrogenasa (IDH) son clave en la tumorogénesis, y son consideradas un factor pronóstico importante en estas neoplasias. En este estudio se buscó determinar la presencia de mutaciones de los genes IDH1 e IDH2 en pacientes con diagnóstico de glioma difuso en diferentes grados, y su correlación con la sobrevida. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y retrospectivo. La población de estudio fueron pacientes entre los 18 y 45 años con diagnóstico de glioma difuso grado II, III y IV, atendidos en el Hospital San Vicente Fundación de Medellín, entre 2012 y 2017, en quienes se realizó un análisis de mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 por secuenciación Sanger y tinción de inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. Se incluyeron 14 pacientes con edad promedio de 37 años, 57% de sexo masculino. Glioblastoma fue la neoplasia más frecuente, diagnosticada en el 42,9% de casos. Por inmunohistoquímica, 10 de los 14 (71,4%) pacientes presentaron mutación de la enzima IDH1, en tanto que 1 de los 11 (9%) pacientes en quienes se logró la secuenciación del gen IDH2, mostró mutación. En general, el 78,6% presentó mutaciones de la enzima IDH, con promedio de sobrevida de 48 meses. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los gliomas son un grupo heterogéneo de tumores, con gran variabilidad genética que impacta en su pronóstico y comportamiento


Introduction. Gliomas are the most common primary malignancies of the central nervous system, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme IDH1 and IDH2 genes, are key in tumorigenesis, and are considered an important prognostic factor in these neoplasms. This study aimed to determine the presence of IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations in patients diagnosed with diffuse glioma in different degrees, and their correlation with survival. Methodology. A descriptive, prospective and retrospective study was conducted. The study population consisted of patients between the ages of 18 and 45 with a diagnosis of grade II, III and IV diffuse glioma, treated at the Hospital San Vicente Fundación in Medellín, between 2012 and 2017, in whom an analysis of IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemical staining. Results. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 37 years were included, 57% were male. Glioblastoma was the most frequent neoplasm, diagnosed in 42.9% of the cases. By immunohistochemistry, 10 of the 14 (71.4%) patients had a mutation of the IDH1 enzyme, while 1 of the 11 (9%) patients in whom IDH2 gene sequencing was achieved showed a mutation. In general, 78.6% had IDH enzyme mutations, with an average survival of 48 months. Conclusion. These findings suggest that gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, withgreat genetic variability that impacts their prognosis and behavior


Subject(s)
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Oligodendroglioma , Astrocytoma , Immunohistochemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Mutation
5.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 217-221, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362439

ABSTRACT

The present report describes the case of a male 17-year-old patient who progressively developed a hydrocephalus and polyradiculopathy due to involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by a diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT). The tumor had partial remission in response to the treatment with radiotherapy plus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy, and the patient had improvement in function and pain levels. The current knowledge about DLGNT, including its clinical manifestations, imaging findings, histological characteristics, and treatment are revised and discussed in the present paper.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/drug therapy , Oligodendroglioma/radiotherapy , Meningeal Neoplasms , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Polyradiculopathy/complications , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/methods , Hydrocephalus/complications
6.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(1): 12-16, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115520

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los oligodendrogliomas anaplásicos son gliomas infiltrantes grado III de la organización mundial de la salud (OMS). Son tumores poco frecuentes y representan el 5-10% de todas las neoplasias intracraneales primarias. Su incidencia es de 0.3 por 100.000 habitantes por año en Estados Unidos. Con frecuencia se presentan en adultos entre los 40-60 años de edad. Los síntomas principales pueden ser déficit motor, déficit cognitivos y síntomas de aumento de la presión intracraneal. Su comportamiento en resonancia magnética muestra un aspecto heterogéneo con necrosis, degeneración quística y hemorragia intratumoral. Las presentaciones quísticas extensas son poco frecuentes. Reportamos el caso de un oligodendroglioma anaplásico de aspecto predominantemente quístico en una mujer joven.


Abstract: Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas are grade III infiltrating gliomas of the World Health Organization (WHO). They are rare tumors and represent 5-10% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. Its incidence is 0.3 per 100.000 inhabitants per year in the United States. They often occur in adults between 40-60 years of age. The main symptoms may be motor deficit, cognitive deficits and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Its behavior in MRI shows a heterogeneous appearance with necrosis, cystic degeneration and intratumoral hemorrhagic. Extensive cystic presentations are rare. We report the case of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma of predominantly cystic appearance in a young woman.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Contrast Media
7.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 14-20, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099573

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los gliomas son tumores malignos altamente celulares del sistema ner­ vioso central. Su grado histológico preoperatorio es de utilidad en el manejo quirúrgico, por lo que la resonancia magnética con secuencias avanzadas intenta brindar mayor información tumoral. Objetivo: Relacionar el coeficiente aparente de difusión (CAD) y celularidad de los gliomas de pacientes entre enero 2015 a diciembre 2017. Metodo­ logía: Retrospectivamente se obtuvieron de archivos clínicos la edad, sexo, tipo, grado histológico y sitio anatómico. Se calculó el CAD en 5mm 2 en los estudios de resonancia magnética preoperatorias y se utilizó las laminillas para conteo de celularidad en 5mm 2 digitalmente. Se utilizó análisis estadísticos descriptivos y coeficiente de correlación entre CDA con celularidad. Se utilizaron valores de p < 0.05 para significancia estadís­ tica. Resultados: 46 casos fueron incluidos, 56.5% fueron hombres. El rango de 41­64 años fueron los más afectados. El glioblastoma fue el tipo histológico más frecuente (47.8%), así como los gliomas de alto grado (73.9%). El 95.7% fueron supratentoriales. La celularidad promedio fue de 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 núcleos/5mm 2 (p = 0.13), con valores promedio de CDA mínimo de 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1.052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), para los gliomas de alto y bajo grado respectivamente. La co­ rrelación entre CDA y celularidad fue débil (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusión: Existe co­ rrelación débil inversamente proporcional entre el CDA y la celularidad con distinción de gliomas de bajo y alto grado con valores de CDA mínimos


Introduction: Gliomas are highly cellular malignant tumors of the central nervous sys­ tem. Its preoperative histological grade is useful in surgical management, so magnetic resonance imaging with advanced sequences tries to provide more tumor information. Objective: Correlate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cellularity of gliomas of patients between January 2015 to December 2017. Methodology: Data of age, sex, ty­ pe, histologic grade and anatomic site were retrospectively obtained from clinical archi­ ves. The preoperative magnetic resonance ADC was calculated in a 5 mm 2 region of interest and the microscope slides were used for the cellularity digitally count in 5 mm 2 . Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation coefficient between ADC and cellularity were used. Values of p <0.05 were used for statistical significance. Results: 46 cases were included, 56.5% were men. The 41­64 years ranges were the most affected. Glio­ blastoma was the most frequent histological type (47.8%), as well as high grade glio­ mas (73.9%). 95.7% were supratentorial. The average cellularity was 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 nuclei/ 5mm 2 (p = 0.13), with average minimum ADC values of 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), for high­ and low­grade glio­ mas, respectively. The correlation between ADC and cellularity was weak (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusions: There is a weak inversely proportional correlation between ADC and cellularity. With distinction of low­ and high­grade gliomas with minimum ADC values


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Astrocytes/pathology , Glioma/epidemiology , Oligodendroglioma/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Glioblastoma/physiopathology
8.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 37-42, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361898

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo tecnológico y científico en salud de los últimos años ha permitido mejoras en el diagnóstico y mayor eficacia en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores cerebrales, generado un aumento no solo en la supervivencia, sino también una mayor demanda de los servicios de neuropsicología y rehabilitación, debido a las alteraciones cognitivas asociadas y dificultades en cuanto a la funcionalidad e independencia, disminuyendo significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La presente investigación documenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, remitido al servicio de neuropsicología tras la resección de oligoastrocitoma frontal derecho, en la evaluación neuropsicológica se evidenció alteraciones en funciones ejecutivas, fluidez de lenguaje discursivo y dificultad en habilidades instrumentales. La investigación se realizó bajo el diseño cuasi experimental de caso único, donde se aplicó en repetidas ocasiones a lo largo del tratamiento el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland (MPAI-4) para determinar las dificultades funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica se centró en implementar estrategias de autoinstrucciones y automonitoreo, que pudieran ser aplicadas en contextos cotidianos y en intereses específicos del paciente. Los resultados indican que el proceso de rehabilitación neuropsicológica demostró tener un efecto positivo en la funcionalidad del paciente y las estrategias aprendidas pueden ser trasladadas a su vida cotidiana


The technological and scientific development on health in recent years has allowed improvements in diagnosis and treatment on brain tumor patients, have increase not only their survivor rate but also their need of neuropsychology and rehabilitation services due to cognitive alterations associated and the subsequent struggling with independence and functionality that reduces significantly their life quality. The present research documents the case of a male patient, 43 years old, referred to the service after resection of right frontal oligoastrocytoma, in the neuropsychologic evaluation evidenced executive functions, discursive language fluency alterations and difficulties in instrumental skills. The research was carried out under the quasi experimental design of a single case where there will be applied repeatedly during the course of treatment the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) to identify functional difficulties on the patient. The objective of the neuropsychological rehabilitation focuses on implementing self-instruction and self-observance strategies in order to apply them on an ordinary context and the patient's specific areas of interest. The results indicate that the neuropsychological rehabilitation treatment has shown a positive effect on the patient's functionality and an improvement on his ability to apply the learned strategies to his day to day life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/rehabilitation , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Brain Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Executive Function/physiology , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Frontal Lobe
9.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 439-446, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gliomas are neoplasms with high recurrence and mortality. Due to the difficulty to apply the World Health Organization (2016) classification, developing countries continue to use histological evaluation to diagnose and classify these neoplasms. Objective: To develop a semi-quantitative scale to numerically grade gliomas by its morphological characteristics. Method: A cohort of patients with gliomas was assessed and followed for 36 months. Tumor tissue sections were analyzed and graded, including aspects such as cell line, cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitosis, endothelial hyperplasia, hypoxic changes, apoptotic bodies, necrosis, hemorrhage and proliferation index. Results: 58 cases were analyzed. Low-grade gliomas median score was 12 points (9 and 13.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively), whereas for high-grade gliomas it was 17 points (16 and 20.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively) (p < 0.0001). Thirty-six-month survival of patients with low (13/17) and high grade gliomas (6/41) was also significantly different (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The semi-quantitative morphological scale allows an objective evaluation of gliomas, with an adequate correlation between the score, tumor grade and survival time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/mortality , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Astrocytoma/mortality , Astrocytoma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/classification , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis , Cohort Studies , Glioblastoma/mortality , Glioblastoma/pathology , Ependymoma/mortality , Ependymoma/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Glioma/classification
10.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(2): 128-136, 15/06/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362595

ABSTRACT

Oligodendrogliomas are infiltrative tumors of the central nervous systemconsidered to be morphologically stable and to offer a better prognosis. Here, we describe the case of a 36- year-old man with an initial diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, who presented transformation to a sarcomatous form, while maintaining the oligodendroglial component as well as the genetic characteristics of the initial tumor without having undergone any complementary treatments previously. Despite the favorable genetic characteristics, the tumor presented poor response to complementary treatments, and rapid progression, including spinal metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/therapy , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Sarcoma/complications , Prognosis , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
11.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(1): 47-50, 15/03/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362649

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) correspond to 23% of all oligodendrogliomas. They correspond to a tumor with malignant histological characteristics, focal or diffuse, associated with a worse prognosis. In the present case report, we describe the case of a 30-year-old female submitted to resection of a right parietal lesion whose histology showed to be an AO. She underwent complementary treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the Roger Stupp protocol. Four years after the initial diagnosis, there was tumor recurrence within the superior sagittal sinus, with no evidence of recurrence elsewhere. In the literature, we have found no similar published case reinforcing the rarity of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/surgery , Oligodendroglioma/complications , Oligodendroglioma/radiotherapy , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Superior Sagittal Sinus/abnormalities
12.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 33-38, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with glioma. The clotting factor von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a highly adhesive procoagulant molecule that mediates platelet adhesion to endothelial and subendothelial surfaces. In the current analysis, we examined The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data to assess the VWF gene in patients with lower grade gliomas. METHODS: For newly diagnosed gliomas, we evaluated the association between VWF and overall survival in the Genomic Data Commons TCGA Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) dataset in TCGA. Simple statistics were calculated to identify patterns of mutual exclusivity or co-occurrence of VWF mutations. For each pair of query genes an odds ratio was calculated that indicates the likelihood that the mutations in the two genes are mutually exclusive or co-occurrent across the selected cases. To determine whether the identified relationship was significant for a gene pair, Fisher's exact test was performed. RESULTS: Lower grade gliomas with less VWF gene expression had significantly better survival than those with more VWF gene expression (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92, p=0.015 log rank test). When we analyzed the data with Cox regression, VWF expression had a significant effect on survival (p=0.02) that was unrelated to the effect of IDH1 expression (p=0.062), TP53 expression (p=0.135), independent of ATRX expression (p=0.021) and histology (astrocytoma versus oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, p=0.002). VWF mutations significantly co-occur with mutations in TP53 and ATRX (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The deleterious prognostic effect of VWF expression and its co-occurrent mutations with TP53 and ATRX in lower grade gliomas are not surprising, given VWF's role in other cancers. Therefore, VWF gene expression may be a clinically important risk marker in lower grade glioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesives , Blood Platelets , Dataset , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Genome , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Odds Ratio , Oligodendroglioma , Venous Thromboembolism , von Willebrand Factor
13.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 74-84, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
15.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 98-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies reported a usefulness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in high grade gliomas. However, fluorescence patterns and intensities are variable among gliomas. In this study, we report our extensive experience with FGS in various gliomas, focusing on epidemiological data of fluorescence patterns. METHODS: A total of 827 histologically proven glioma patients out of 900 brain tumor patients who had undergone FGS using 5-ALA during the period of 8.5 years between July 2010 and January 2019 were analyzed. Indications of FGS in glioma surgery are evidence for possible high-grade foci in putative gliomas in preoperative MRI. RESULTS: Among the 827 gliomas, the number of cases corresponding to 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, III, II, and I are 528 (58.7%), 193 (21.4%), 87 (9.7%) and 19 (2.1%), respectively. In terms of fluorescence rate, grade IV gliomas showed positive fluorescence in 95.4% of cases including strong intensity in 85.6%. Grade III gliomas showed fluorescence in about half of cases (55.0%), but 45.0% of the cases showed no fluorescence at all. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma had a higher positive rate (63.9%) than anaplastic astrocytoma (46.2%). Both grade II and I gliomas still showed positive fluorescence in about one-fourth of cases (24.1% and 26.3% respectively). Among them ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma were fluorescence-prone tumors. CONCLUSION: This epidemiological data of 5-ALA fluorescence in various grades of glioma provides a basic reference to the clinical application of FGS with 5-ALA in glioma surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Ependymoma , Fluorescence , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oligodendroglioma , World Health Organization
16.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 298-307, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors has been modified to incorporate the IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion in the diagnosis of diffuse gliomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and prognostic significance of the revised 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors in Mongolian patients with diffuse gliomas. METHODS: A total of 124 cases of diffuse gliomas were collected, and tissue microarray blocks were made. IDH1 mutation was tested using immunohistochemistry, and 1p/19q co-deletion status was examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. RESULTS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, 124 cases of diffuse brain glioma were reclassified as follows: 10 oligodendroglioma, IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted; three anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted; 35 diffuse astrocytoma, IDHmut, 11 diffuse astrocytoma, IDHwt, not otherwise specified (NOS); 22 anaplastic astrocytoma, IDHmut, eight anaplastic astrocytoma, IDHwt, NOS; and 35 glioblastoma, IDHwt, NOS, respectively. The 2016 WHO classification presented better prognostic value for overall survival in patients with grade II tumors than traditional histological classification. Among patients with grade II tumors, those with oligodendroglioma IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted and diffuse astrocytoma IDHmut showed significantly higher survival than those with diffuse astrocytoma IDHwt, NOS (p<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Mongolian diffuse gliomas could be reclassified according to the new 2016 WHO classification. Reclassification revealed substantial changes in diagnosis of both oligodendroglial and astrocytic entities. We have confirmed that the revised 2016 WHO CNS tumor classification has prognostic significance in Mongolian patients with diffuse gliomas, especially those with grade II tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Chromosome Deletion , Classification , Diagnosis , Fluorescence , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Global Health , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Nervous System Neoplasms , Nervous System , Oligodendroglioma , World Health Organization
17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 28-36, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mixed gliomas, such as oligoastrocytomas (OA), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and glioblastomas (GBMs) with an oligodendroglial component (GBMO) are defined as tumors composed of a mixture of two distinct neoplastic cell types, astrocytic and oligodendroglial. Recently, mutations ATRX and TP53, and codeletion of 1p/19q are shown to be genetic hallmarks of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, respectively. Subsequent molecular analyses of mixed gliomas preferred the reclassification to either oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma. This study was designed to apply genetically integrated diagnostic criteria to mixed gliomas and determine usefulness and prognostic value of new classification in Korean patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight cases of mixed OAs and GBMOs were retrieved from the pathology archives of Seoul National University Hospital from 2004 to 2015. Reclassification was performed according to genetic and immunohistochemical properties. Clinicopathological characteristics of each subgroup were evaluated. Overall survival was assessed and compared between subgroups. RESULTS: We could reclassify all mixed OAs and GBMOs into either astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors. Notably, 29 GBMOs could be reclassified into 11 cases of GBM, IDH-mutant, 16 cases of GBM, IDH-wildtype, and two cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH mutant. Overall survival was significantly different among these new groups (p<.001). Overall survival and progression-free survival were statistically better in gliomas with IDH mutation, ATRX mutation, no microscopic necrosis, and young patient age (cut off, 45 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a genetically integrated diagnosis of glioma better reflects prognosis than former morphology-based methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytoma , Classification , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Genetics , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Necrosis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prognosis , Seoul
18.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 483-485, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718414

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old man who previously underwent a craniotomy due to oligodendroglioma was admitted with a diagnosis of recurrent brain tumor. An awake craniotomy was planned. Approximately 15 minutes after completing the scalp nerve block, his upper torso suddenly moved and trembled for 10 seconds, suggesting a generalized clonic seizure. He recovered gradually and fully in 55 minutes without any neurological sequelae. The emergency computed tomography scan revealed a localized fluid collection and small intracerebral hemorrhage nearby in the temporoparietal cortex beneath the skull defect. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia at 8 hours after the seizure and was discharged from the hospital after 10 days. This report documents the first case of generalized seizure that was caused by the accidental intracerebral injection of local anesthetics. Although the patient recovered completely, the clinical implications regarding the scalp infiltration technique in a patient with skull defects are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics, Local , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Nerve Block , Oligodendroglioma , Scalp , Seizures , Skull , Torso
19.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 516-524, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) improves survival in patients with recurrent highgrade gliomas. METHODS: Twenty nine patients with recurrent high-grade glioma underwent 38 GKR. The male-to-female ratio was 10 : 19, and the median age was 53.8 years (range, 20–75). GKR was performed in 11 cases of recurrent anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, five anaplastic astrocytomas, and 22 glioblastomas. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy (range, 10–24), and the median target volume was 7.0 mL (range, 1.1–15.7). Of the 29 patients, 13 (44.8%) received concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after GKR depending on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), pathology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and target tumor volume. RESULTS: Starting from when the patients underwent GKR, the median PFS and OS were 5.0 months (range, 1.1–28.1) and 13.0 months (range, 1.1–75.1), respectively. On univariate analysis, the median PFS was significantly long in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ECOG PS 1, and target tumor volume less than 10 mL (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, on multivariate analysis, patients with ECOG PS 1 and target tumor volume less than 10 mL showed improved PFS (p=0.043 and p=0.007, respectively). The median OS was significantly increased in patients with ECOG PS 1 and tumor volume less than 10 mL on univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GKR could be an additional treatment option in recurrent high-grade glioma, particularly in patients with good PS and limited tumor volume.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytoma , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Multivariate Analysis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 516-524, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) improves survival in patients with recurrent highgrade gliomas.METHODS: Twenty nine patients with recurrent high-grade glioma underwent 38 GKR. The male-to-female ratio was 10 : 19, and the median age was 53.8 years (range, 20–75). GKR was performed in 11 cases of recurrent anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, five anaplastic astrocytomas, and 22 glioblastomas. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy (range, 10–24), and the median target volume was 7.0 mL (range, 1.1–15.7). Of the 29 patients, 13 (44.8%) received concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after GKR depending on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), pathology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and target tumor volume.RESULTS: Starting from when the patients underwent GKR, the median PFS and OS were 5.0 months (range, 1.1–28.1) and 13.0 months (range, 1.1–75.1), respectively. On univariate analysis, the median PFS was significantly long in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ECOG PS 1, and target tumor volume less than 10 mL (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, on multivariate analysis, patients with ECOG PS 1 and target tumor volume less than 10 mL showed improved PFS (p=0.043 and p=0.007, respectively). The median OS was significantly increased in patients with ECOG PS 1 and tumor volume less than 10 mL on univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: GKR could be an additional treatment option in recurrent high-grade glioma, particularly in patients with good PS and limited tumor volume.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytoma , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Multivariate Analysis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
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