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1.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(1): 3-10, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155707

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar características por resonancia magnética (RM) de gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) en base a parámetros cualitativos, a fin de valorar el rendimiento del signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR y otras características morfológicas de los tumores, en predecir el estado del 1p/19q y su reproducibilidad interobservador. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico sobre una cohorte de 53 gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) y molecularmente definidos respecto al 1p/19q, seleccionados a partir de la base de datos de la institución, durante el periodo 2014- 2019. Dos neuroradiólogos evaluaron características imagenológicas de forma independiente y enmascarada al diagnóstico: mismatch T2-FLAIR, localización tumoral, bordes, señal, infiltración cortical e inhomogeneidad en T2. Los casos discordantes fueron evaluados por un tercer neuroradiólogo de mayor experiencia. Resultados: Treinta de 53 (56,6%) gliomas fueron no codelecionados, y 23/53 (43,4%) codelecionados. El signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR fue positivo en 16/53 (30,18%) pacientes, 15/16 (93,75%) no codelecionados y 1/16 (6,25%) codelecionado (Exacto de Fisher p = <,0001). Los dos evaluadores demostraron una concordancia interobservador casi perfecta para ese signo, κ =,907 (95% CI, 0,781 a 1,0). La especificidad y el valor predictivo positivo del signo para predecir la ausencia de la codeleción fue de un 95,7% y un 93,8% respectivamente. Discusión: La reciente actualización en la clasificación de los gliomas los clasifica acorde a su perfil molecular. En los últimos años, varios investigadores han estudiado características morfológicas por RM de los tumores con la intención de predecir las características moleculares de los mismos. Conclusión: En nuestra población, el signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR es el único biomarcador radiológico que muestra asociación estadísticamente significativa en predecir la ausencia de codeleción en los gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III), con una alta especificidad y un alto valor predictivo positivo.


Abstract Objective: To analyze magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of IDH-mutated gliomas (grades II/III) utilizing qualitative parameters with the goal of assessing the performance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and other morphological characteristics of tumors in predicting the 1p/19q co-deletion status as well as inter-observer reproducibility. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study analyzing a cohort of 53 IDH-mutated lower-grade (grades II/III) gliomas with known 1p/19q co-deletion status. Patients meeting selection criteria for this study were taken from our institutional data from 2014-2019. Two neuroradiologists assessed the following imaging characteristics independently, and blinded from the diagnosis: T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor location, borders, signal characteristics, cortical infiltration and T2* inhomogeneity. In the event of discordant interpretations, a third senior neuroradiologist also evaluated the case. Results: 23 of the 53 (43.4%) gliomas demonstrated 1p/19q co-deletion and 30 of 53 (56.6%) did not. T2-FLAIR mismatch was positive in 16 of 53 cases (30.2%) with 15 of 16 (93.8%) demonstrating no co-deletion and 1/16 (6.25%) with co-deletion (Fisher's exact p = < .0001). The two readers showed an almost perfect interreader agreement for this sign κ = 0.907 (95% CI, 0.781 to 1.0). Specificity and positive predictive value of the sign to predict the absence of co-deletion was 95.7% and 93.8% respectively. Discussion: The recent update in classification of lower-grade gliomas segregates gliomas according to molecular profile. In the recent past, many researchers have studied MR morphologic characteristics of these tumors with the intention of predicting molecular features of said tumors Conclusion: In our patient population, T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is the only radiologic biomarker that shows statistically significant association with the absence of 1p/19q co-deletion in lower-grade gliomas, with high specificity and positive predictive value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Glioma/classification
2.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(1): 12-16, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115520

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los oligodendrogliomas anaplásicos son gliomas infiltrantes grado III de la organización mundial de la salud (OMS). Son tumores poco frecuentes y representan el 5-10% de todas las neoplasias intracraneales primarias. Su incidencia es de 0.3 por 100.000 habitantes por año en Estados Unidos. Con frecuencia se presentan en adultos entre los 40-60 años de edad. Los síntomas principales pueden ser déficit motor, déficit cognitivos y síntomas de aumento de la presión intracraneal. Su comportamiento en resonancia magnética muestra un aspecto heterogéneo con necrosis, degeneración quística y hemorragia intratumoral. Las presentaciones quísticas extensas son poco frecuentes. Reportamos el caso de un oligodendroglioma anaplásico de aspecto predominantemente quístico en una mujer joven.


Abstract: Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas are grade III infiltrating gliomas of the World Health Organization (WHO). They are rare tumors and represent 5-10% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. Its incidence is 0.3 per 100.000 inhabitants per year in the United States. They often occur in adults between 40-60 years of age. The main symptoms may be motor deficit, cognitive deficits and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Its behavior in MRI shows a heterogeneous appearance with necrosis, cystic degeneration and intratumoral hemorrhagic. Extensive cystic presentations are rare. We report the case of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma of predominantly cystic appearance in a young woman.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Contrast Media
3.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 14-20, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099573

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los gliomas son tumores malignos altamente celulares del sistema ner­ vioso central. Su grado histológico preoperatorio es de utilidad en el manejo quirúrgico, por lo que la resonancia magnética con secuencias avanzadas intenta brindar mayor información tumoral. Objetivo: Relacionar el coeficiente aparente de difusión (CAD) y celularidad de los gliomas de pacientes entre enero 2015 a diciembre 2017. Metodo­ logía: Retrospectivamente se obtuvieron de archivos clínicos la edad, sexo, tipo, grado histológico y sitio anatómico. Se calculó el CAD en 5mm 2 en los estudios de resonancia magnética preoperatorias y se utilizó las laminillas para conteo de celularidad en 5mm 2 digitalmente. Se utilizó análisis estadísticos descriptivos y coeficiente de correlación entre CDA con celularidad. Se utilizaron valores de p < 0.05 para significancia estadís­ tica. Resultados: 46 casos fueron incluidos, 56.5% fueron hombres. El rango de 41­64 años fueron los más afectados. El glioblastoma fue el tipo histológico más frecuente (47.8%), así como los gliomas de alto grado (73.9%). El 95.7% fueron supratentoriales. La celularidad promedio fue de 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 núcleos/5mm 2 (p = 0.13), con valores promedio de CDA mínimo de 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1.052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), para los gliomas de alto y bajo grado respectivamente. La co­ rrelación entre CDA y celularidad fue débil (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusión: Existe co­ rrelación débil inversamente proporcional entre el CDA y la celularidad con distinción de gliomas de bajo y alto grado con valores de CDA mínimos


Introduction: Gliomas are highly cellular malignant tumors of the central nervous sys­ tem. Its preoperative histological grade is useful in surgical management, so magnetic resonance imaging with advanced sequences tries to provide more tumor information. Objective: Correlate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cellularity of gliomas of patients between January 2015 to December 2017. Methodology: Data of age, sex, ty­ pe, histologic grade and anatomic site were retrospectively obtained from clinical archi­ ves. The preoperative magnetic resonance ADC was calculated in a 5 mm 2 region of interest and the microscope slides were used for the cellularity digitally count in 5 mm 2 . Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation coefficient between ADC and cellularity were used. Values of p <0.05 were used for statistical significance. Results: 46 cases were included, 56.5% were men. The 41­64 years ranges were the most affected. Glio­ blastoma was the most frequent histological type (47.8%), as well as high grade glio­ mas (73.9%). 95.7% were supratentorial. The average cellularity was 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 nuclei/ 5mm 2 (p = 0.13), with average minimum ADC values of 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), for high­ and low­grade glio­ mas, respectively. The correlation between ADC and cellularity was weak (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusions: There is a weak inversely proportional correlation between ADC and cellularity. With distinction of low­ and high­grade gliomas with minimum ADC values


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Astrocytes/pathology , Glioma/epidemiology , Oligodendroglioma/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Glioblastoma/physiopathology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with glioma. The clotting factor von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a highly adhesive procoagulant molecule that mediates platelet adhesion to endothelial and subendothelial surfaces. In the current analysis, we examined The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data to assess the VWF gene in patients with lower grade gliomas. METHODS: For newly diagnosed gliomas, we evaluated the association between VWF and overall survival in the Genomic Data Commons TCGA Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) dataset in TCGA. Simple statistics were calculated to identify patterns of mutual exclusivity or co-occurrence of VWF mutations. For each pair of query genes an odds ratio was calculated that indicates the likelihood that the mutations in the two genes are mutually exclusive or co-occurrent across the selected cases. To determine whether the identified relationship was significant for a gene pair, Fisher's exact test was performed. RESULTS: Lower grade gliomas with less VWF gene expression had significantly better survival than those with more VWF gene expression (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92, p=0.015 log rank test). When we analyzed the data with Cox regression, VWF expression had a significant effect on survival (p=0.02) that was unrelated to the effect of IDH1 expression (p=0.062), TP53 expression (p=0.135), independent of ATRX expression (p=0.021) and histology (astrocytoma versus oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, p=0.002). VWF mutations significantly co-occur with mutations in TP53 and ATRX (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The deleterious prognostic effect of VWF expression and its co-occurrent mutations with TP53 and ATRX in lower grade gliomas are not surprising, given VWF's role in other cancers. Therefore, VWF gene expression may be a clinically important risk marker in lower grade glioma.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Blood Platelets , Dataset , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Genome , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Odds Ratio , Oligodendroglioma , Venous Thromboembolism , von Willebrand Factor
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies reported a usefulness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in high grade gliomas. However, fluorescence patterns and intensities are variable among gliomas. In this study, we report our extensive experience with FGS in various gliomas, focusing on epidemiological data of fluorescence patterns. METHODS: A total of 827 histologically proven glioma patients out of 900 brain tumor patients who had undergone FGS using 5-ALA during the period of 8.5 years between July 2010 and January 2019 were analyzed. Indications of FGS in glioma surgery are evidence for possible high-grade foci in putative gliomas in preoperative MRI. RESULTS: Among the 827 gliomas, the number of cases corresponding to 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, III, II, and I are 528 (58.7%), 193 (21.4%), 87 (9.7%) and 19 (2.1%), respectively. In terms of fluorescence rate, grade IV gliomas showed positive fluorescence in 95.4% of cases including strong intensity in 85.6%. Grade III gliomas showed fluorescence in about half of cases (55.0%), but 45.0% of the cases showed no fluorescence at all. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma had a higher positive rate (63.9%) than anaplastic astrocytoma (46.2%). Both grade II and I gliomas still showed positive fluorescence in about one-fourth of cases (24.1% and 26.3% respectively). Among them ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma were fluorescence-prone tumors. CONCLUSION: This epidemiological data of 5-ALA fluorescence in various grades of glioma provides a basic reference to the clinical application of FGS with 5-ALA in glioma surgery.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Ependymoma , Fluorescence , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oligodendroglioma , World Health Organization
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors has been modified to incorporate the IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion in the diagnosis of diffuse gliomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and prognostic significance of the revised 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors in Mongolian patients with diffuse gliomas. METHODS: A total of 124 cases of diffuse gliomas were collected, and tissue microarray blocks were made. IDH1 mutation was tested using immunohistochemistry, and 1p/19q co-deletion status was examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. RESULTS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, 124 cases of diffuse brain glioma were reclassified as follows: 10 oligodendroglioma, IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted; three anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted; 35 diffuse astrocytoma, IDHmut, 11 diffuse astrocytoma, IDHwt, not otherwise specified (NOS); 22 anaplastic astrocytoma, IDHmut, eight anaplastic astrocytoma, IDHwt, NOS; and 35 glioblastoma, IDHwt, NOS, respectively. The 2016 WHO classification presented better prognostic value for overall survival in patients with grade II tumors than traditional histological classification. Among patients with grade II tumors, those with oligodendroglioma IDHmut and 1p/19q co-deleted and diffuse astrocytoma IDHmut showed significantly higher survival than those with diffuse astrocytoma IDHwt, NOS (p<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Mongolian diffuse gliomas could be reclassified according to the new 2016 WHO classification. Reclassification revealed substantial changes in diagnosis of both oligodendroglial and astrocytic entities. We have confirmed that the revised 2016 WHO CNS tumor classification has prognostic significance in Mongolian patients with diffuse gliomas, especially those with grade II tumors.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Chromosome Deletion , Classification , Diagnosis , Fluorescence , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Global Health , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Nervous System Neoplasms , Nervous System , Oligodendroglioma , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) improves survival in patients with recurrent highgrade gliomas.METHODS: Twenty nine patients with recurrent high-grade glioma underwent 38 GKR. The male-to-female ratio was 10 : 19, and the median age was 53.8 years (range, 20–75). GKR was performed in 11 cases of recurrent anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, five anaplastic astrocytomas, and 22 glioblastomas. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy (range, 10–24), and the median target volume was 7.0 mL (range, 1.1–15.7). Of the 29 patients, 13 (44.8%) received concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after GKR depending on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), pathology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and target tumor volume.RESULTS: Starting from when the patients underwent GKR, the median PFS and OS were 5.0 months (range, 1.1–28.1) and 13.0 months (range, 1.1–75.1), respectively. On univariate analysis, the median PFS was significantly long in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ECOG PS 1, and target tumor volume less than 10 mL (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, on multivariate analysis, patients with ECOG PS 1 and target tumor volume less than 10 mL showed improved PFS (p=0.043 and p=0.007, respectively). The median OS was significantly increased in patients with ECOG PS 1 and tumor volume less than 10 mL on univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: GKR could be an additional treatment option in recurrent high-grade glioma, particularly in patients with good PS and limited tumor volume.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) improves survival in patients with recurrent highgrade gliomas. METHODS: Twenty nine patients with recurrent high-grade glioma underwent 38 GKR. The male-to-female ratio was 10 : 19, and the median age was 53.8 years (range, 20–75). GKR was performed in 11 cases of recurrent anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, five anaplastic astrocytomas, and 22 glioblastomas. The median prescription dose was 16 Gy (range, 10–24), and the median target volume was 7.0 mL (range, 1.1–15.7). Of the 29 patients, 13 (44.8%) received concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after GKR depending on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), pathology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and target tumor volume. RESULTS: Starting from when the patients underwent GKR, the median PFS and OS were 5.0 months (range, 1.1–28.1) and 13.0 months (range, 1.1–75.1), respectively. On univariate analysis, the median PFS was significantly long in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ECOG PS 1, and target tumor volume less than 10 mL (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, on multivariate analysis, patients with ECOG PS 1 and target tumor volume less than 10 mL showed improved PFS (p=0.043 and p=0.007, respectively). The median OS was significantly increased in patients with ECOG PS 1 and tumor volume less than 10 mL on univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GKR could be an additional treatment option in recurrent high-grade glioma, particularly in patients with good PS and limited tumor volume.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718414

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old man who previously underwent a craniotomy due to oligodendroglioma was admitted with a diagnosis of recurrent brain tumor. An awake craniotomy was planned. Approximately 15 minutes after completing the scalp nerve block, his upper torso suddenly moved and trembled for 10 seconds, suggesting a generalized clonic seizure. He recovered gradually and fully in 55 minutes without any neurological sequelae. The emergency computed tomography scan revealed a localized fluid collection and small intracerebral hemorrhage nearby in the temporoparietal cortex beneath the skull defect. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia at 8 hours after the seizure and was discharged from the hospital after 10 days. This report documents the first case of generalized seizure that was caused by the accidental intracerebral injection of local anesthetics. Although the patient recovered completely, the clinical implications regarding the scalp infiltration technique in a patient with skull defects are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics, Local , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Humans , Nerve Block , Oligodendroglioma , Scalp , Seizures , Skull , Torso
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mixed gliomas, such as oligoastrocytomas (OA), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and glioblastomas (GBMs) with an oligodendroglial component (GBMO) are defined as tumors composed of a mixture of two distinct neoplastic cell types, astrocytic and oligodendroglial. Recently, mutations ATRX and TP53, and codeletion of 1p/19q are shown to be genetic hallmarks of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, respectively. Subsequent molecular analyses of mixed gliomas preferred the reclassification to either oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma. This study was designed to apply genetically integrated diagnostic criteria to mixed gliomas and determine usefulness and prognostic value of new classification in Korean patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight cases of mixed OAs and GBMOs were retrieved from the pathology archives of Seoul National University Hospital from 2004 to 2015. Reclassification was performed according to genetic and immunohistochemical properties. Clinicopathological characteristics of each subgroup were evaluated. Overall survival was assessed and compared between subgroups. RESULTS: We could reclassify all mixed OAs and GBMOs into either astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors. Notably, 29 GBMOs could be reclassified into 11 cases of GBM, IDH-mutant, 16 cases of GBM, IDH-wildtype, and two cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH mutant. Overall survival was significantly different among these new groups (p<.001). Overall survival and progression-free survival were statistically better in gliomas with IDH mutation, ATRX mutation, no microscopic necrosis, and young patient age (cut off, 45 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a genetically integrated diagnosis of glioma better reflects prognosis than former morphology-based methods.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Classification , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Genetics , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Necrosis , Oligodendroglioma , Pathology , Prognosis , Seoul
13.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 53(2): 12-14, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847817

ABSTRACT

Desde o primeiro relato de doença desmielinizante associada a tumores cerebrais por Scherer em 1938, inúmeros outros relatos de casos foram publicados fazendo associação desta doença com diferentes tumores primários do sistema nervoso central. Nosso trabalho descreve o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos com duas lesões encefálicas biopsiadas, mostrando inicialmente processo inflamatório desmielinizante que no seguimento desenvolve um oligodendroglioma anaplásico. A partir deste caso, realizamos uma revisão da literatura dessa associação específica, primeiramente publicada por Barnard e Jellinek em 1967, e ressaltamos a importância da diferenciação entre a forma desmielinizante tumefativa de uma neoplasia cerebral verdadeira. (AU)


Since the first report of demyelinating disease associated with brain tumors by Scherer in 1938, several other case reports have been published making association of this disease with different primary tumors of the central nervous system. Our paper describes the case of a 23 year old patient with two brain lesions, biopsied, initially showing a demyelinating inflammatory process that in the follow up develops an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. From this case, we conducted a literature review of this specific association, first published by Barnard and Jellinek in 1967, and emphasize the importance of difference in a tumefactive demyelinating lesions between of true brain neoplasm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Demyelinating Diseases/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Oligodendroglioma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diagnosis, Differential
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38103

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53, and ATRX, oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC, FUBP1, and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp). IDH-wildtype (primary) glioblastomas typically lack mutations in IDH, but are characterized by copy number variations of EGFR, PTEN, CDKN2A/B, PDGFRA, and NF1 as well as mutations of TERTp. High-grade pediatric gliomas differ from those of adult gliomas, consisting of mutations in H3F3A, ATRX, and DAXX, but not in IDH genes. In contrast, well-circumscribed low-grade neuroepithelial tumors in children, such as pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma, often have mutations or activating rearrangements in the BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB genes. Other CNS tumors, such as ependymomas, neuronal and glioneuronal tumors, embryonal tumors, meningothelial, and other mesenchymal tumors have important genetic alterations, many of which are diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers and therapeutic targets. Therefore, the neuropathological evaluation of brain tumors is increasingly dependent on molecular genetic tests for proper classification, prediction of biological behavior and patient management. Identifying these gene abnormalities requires cost-effective and high-throughput testing, such as next-generation sequencing. Overall, this paper reviews the global guidelines and diagnostic algorithms for molecular genetic testing of brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Central Nervous System , Child , Classification , Diagnosis , Ependymoma , Ganglioglioma , Genes, myb , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Molecular Biology , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Neurons , Oligodendroglioma , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Telomerase , World Health Organization
15.
Journal of Sheikh Zayed Medical College [JSZMC]. 2016; 7 (1): 909-912
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176336

ABSTRACT

Background: Central Nervous System [CNS] tumors include brain and spinal cord tumors, where as metastatic tumors are extradural usually


Objective: To know the histopathological pattern of central nervous system tumors reported in Pathology Department Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar. Pakistan


Methodology: Study Design: Descriptive case series. Setting: Pathology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Pakistan. Duration: Six years, study from 1[st] January, 2008 to 31[st] December, 2012. Sample Technique: Convenient [non-probability] sampling. Central Nervous System [CNS] biopsy specimen were received in 10% formalin, labeled, gross performed, sections processed in alcohol, xyelen, wax, block prepared, freezed, microtome sections taken and processed for H and E staining, mounted and reported by Histopathologist. The inclusion criteria was any sufficient CNS biopsy specimen of any age, where as the exclusion criteria was insufficient and autolysed biopsy specimen. A minimum of three and maximum of eight 5 micron thick sections were taken from each specimen. Data was entered in SPSS version 15 and analyzed


Results: A total of 106 biopsy specimens were received in pathology laboratory with age range of 09 to 70 years, mean age was 37 +/- 15.18 years. Male to female ratio was 1.55:1. Astrocytoma was the commonest tumor 49 [48%] cases followed by meningioma 22 [21.%] cases and oligodendroglioma 6 [5.6%] cases. Amongst the 49 cases of Astrocytoma the age range was 10 to 66 years with mean age of 37 + 15.93. Male to female ratio was 1.72: 1. Grade I,II,III and IV were 7[14.2%],15[30.3%], 9[19.5%] and were 18 [36.6%] respectively. Amongst the 22 cases of meningiomas age range was 22 to 65 years, 20 [90.9%] cases were grade I meningionas and 2[9.9%] cases were of atypical meningiomas


Conclusion: Astrocytoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system followed by meningioma and oligodendroglioma


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , Astrocytoma , Oligodendroglioma , Meningioma , Medulloblastoma
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27922

ABSTRACT

When treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), secondary neoplasms are a significant long term problem. Radiation is generally accepted to be a major cause of the development of secondary neoplasms. Following treatment for ALL, a variety of secondary tumors, including brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, sarcomas, thyroid cancers, and skin cancers have been reported. However, oligodendroglioma as a secondary neoplasm is extremely rare. Herein we present a case of secondary oligodendroglioma occurring 13 years after the end of ALL treatment.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Global Health , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , Oligodendroglioma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Sarcoma , Skin Neoplasms , Thyroid Neoplasms , World Health Organization
17.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 160-164, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56409

ABSTRACT

Primary spinal cord oligodendrogliomas are rare tumors comprising two percent of all spinal cord tumors. Although a treatment guideline has yet to be established, maximal surgical resection is primary in the treatment of spinal cord oligodendrogliomas. Adjuvant radiotherapy has remained controversial, and it is unclear whether chemotherapy adds any benefit. In this case report, the authors present a 24-year-old male who had a seven-year history of left leg weakness and a radiating pain in both legs. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an intramedullary mass at the T4-T8 level. He underwent subtotal removal of the tumor and pathologic diagnosis revealed a WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. The patient was treated with radiotherapy postoperatively and followed up with MRI annually. Clinical and radiological status of the patient had been stationary for four years after the surgery. The five-year follow-up MRI showed an increase in the size and extent of the residual tumor. Despite radiological progression, considering that symptoms and the performance status of the patient had remained unchanged, further treatment has not been performed. Given the clinical outcome of this patient, close observation after subtotal removal with adjuvant radiotherapy is one of the acceptable treatment options for WHO grade II spinal cord oligodendrogliomas.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neoplasm, Residual , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Spinal Cord Neoplasms , Spinal Cord , Young Adult
18.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 546-550, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304455

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression of Sox17 and β-catenin proteins in oligodendroglioma, and its clinical significance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred cases of oligodendroglioma of different grades and 10 cases of surrounding benign tissue from First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from 2003 to 2013 were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Sox17 and β-catenin protein expression. The clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of patients with oligodendroglioma were evaluated by Kaplan-Meien and Cox regression analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Sox17 was expressed in 10/10, 82% (41/50) and 62% (31/50) of normal control, oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, respectively. β-catenin was expressed in 2/10, 22% (11/50), and 52% (26/50) of normal control, oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, respectively. The differences of Sox17 and β-catenin expression between normal control and different types of oligodendroglioma were statistically significant. Univariate analysis showed that the expression of Sox17 protein (P = 0.000), β-catenin protein (P = 0.033), tumor position (P = 0.001), radiotherapy (P = 0.077), and chemotherapy (P = 0.000) were significant prognostic factors.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Oligodendrogliomas with expression of Sox17 protein, but not β-catenin, have better prognosis. Evaluation of Sox17 and β-catenin protein expression is important for accurate pathological diagnosis, prognostication and guiding treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Metabolism , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Oligodendroglioma , Metabolism , Regression Analysis , SOXF Transcription Factors , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 663-667, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304422

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To correlate the presence of chromosome 1p/19q deletion with the expression of R132H mutant IDH1 status in oligodendroglial tumors, and to explore molecular markers for predicting chemosensitivity of oligodendroglial tumors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The study included 75 oligodendroglial tumors (38 oligodendrogliomas and 37 oligoastrocytomas). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of R132H mutant IDH1 protein, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to detect 1p/19q deletion.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Deletion of chromosome 1p and/or 19q was detected in 37 cases (37/75, 49.3%), among which co-deletion of 1p and 19q was seen in 34 cases (closely correlated, P < 0.01). Oligodendrogliomas WHOIIhad a slightly higher deletion rate than oligodendrogliomas WHO III, although without statistical significance. Oligodendrogliomas WHO IIand WHO III had a significantly higher deletion rate of chromosome 1p/19q than oligoastrocytomas WHO II and WHO III (P < 0.05). While combined loss of 1p/19q was always detected in oligodendrogliomas when FISH was positive, isolated 1p or 19q deletion was only found in oligoastrocytomas. The expression of R132H mutant IDH1 was detected in 51 of 75 cases (68.0%), in which oligodendrogliomas had a higher positive rate than oligoastrocytomas. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the expression of R132H mutant IDH1 protein and the presence of combined 1p/19q deletion in oligodendrogliomas (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A significant correlation was observed between the expression of R132H mutant protein and 1p/19q LOH.Expression of 132H mutant IDH1 protein is the potential biomarker for predicating the presence of 1p/19q deletion in oligodendrogliomas.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, 19-20 , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Middle Aged , Mutant Proteins , Metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Oligodendroglioma , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2014; 24 (12): 935-939
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154014

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma [AO/AOA] is a WHO Grade-III primary brain tumor. These tumors comprise about 5 - 10% of all gliomas, which make them the third most common primary brain tumors after glioblastoma multiforme and astrocytomas. For many years standard of treatment remained Maximum Safe Resection [MSR] followed by Radiotherapy [RT]. These tumors have also been known to be sensitive to alkylator-based chemotherapy particularly the subset having 1p/19q co-deletion signature. There is robust data showing that these tumors are responsive to chemotherapy in recurrent or progressive setting. Recently, up front chemotherapy has been added to standard post-surgery RT. It has been found that subset of AO/AOA having 1p/19q co-deletion responded very well to the addition of chemotherapy. This substantial benefit in terms of median Overall Survival [OS] and median Progression Free Survival [PFS] have intrigued the personalized treatment of AO/AOA on the basis of molecular signature markers


Subject(s)
Humans , Oligodendroglioma/surgery , Astrocytoma/surgery , Astrocytoma/therapy , Brain Neoplasms , Oligodendroglioma/radiotherapy , Oligodendroglioma/prevention & control , Oligodendroglioma/classification , Oligodendroglioma/diagnosis , Radiotherapy , Antineoplastic Agents
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