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1.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 64-71, Jan. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) is known as a kind of prebiotics. Mannanase plays a key role for the degradation of mannan to produce MOS. In this study, the mannanases of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 Man5HJ14 and GH26 ManAJB13 were employed to prepare MOS from locust bean gum (LBG) and palm kernel cake (PKC). The prebiotic activity and utilization of MOS were assessed in vitro using the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain. RESULTS: Galactomannan from LBG was converted to MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannoheptose by Man5HJ14 and ManAJB13. Mannoheptose was got from the hydrolysates produced by Man5HJ14, which mannohexaose was obtained from LBG hydrolyzed by ManAJB13. However, the same components of MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannotetrose were observed between PKC hydrolyzed by the mannanases mentioned above. MOS stability was not affected by high-temperature and high-pressure condition at their natural pH. Based on in vitro growth study, all MOS from LBG and PKC was effective in promoting the growth of L. plantarum CICC 24202, with the strain preferring to use mannose to mannotriose, rather than above mannotetrose. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mannanases and mannan difference on MOS composition was studied. All of MOS hydrolysates showed the stability in adversity condition and prebiotic activity of L. plantarum, which would have potential application in the biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/metabolism , beta-Mannosidase/metabolism , Plant Gums/chemistry , Mannans , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme Stability , Sphingomonas , Prebiotics , Fermentation
2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 642-656, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This narrative review aimed to provide practitioners a synthesis of the current knowledge on the role of a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders in children. This review is focused on the pathophysiology, efficacy and criticism of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet in children. Sources: Cochrane Database, Pubmed and Embase were searched using specific terms for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet interventions and functional abdominal pain disorders. Summary of the findings: In children, only one Randomized Control Trial and one open-label study reported positive results of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols diet; one Randomized Control Trial showed exacerbation of symptoms with fructans in children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome; no effect was found for the lactose-free diet whilst fructose-restricted diets were effective in 5/6 studies. Conclusions: In children there are few trials evaluating low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols in functional abdominal pain disorders, with encouraging data on the therapeutic efficacy particularly of fructose-restricted diet. Additional efforts are still needed to fill this research gap and clarify the most efficient way for tailoring dietary restrictions based on the patient's tolerance and/or identification of potential biomarkers of low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols efficacy, to maintain nutritional adequacy and to simplify the adherence to diet by labeling Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides and Polyols content in commercial products.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, foram feitos esforços consideráveis para esclarecer o papel da dieta com baixo teor de oligossacarídeos fermentáveis, dissacarídeos, monossacarídeos e polióis (FODMAPs) para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais (DGIFs). Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais uma síntese do conhecimento atual sobre o papel de uma dieta com baixo teor de FODMAPs (BFM) na redução dos sintomas associados a distúrbios funcionais de dor abdominal (DFDA) em crianças. Esta revisão está focada na fisiopatologia, eficácia e crítica da dieta BFM em crianças. Fontes: O banco de dados Cochrane, Pubmed e Embase foram pesquisados com o uso dos termos específicos para intervenções na dieta FODMAP e DFDA. Resumo dos achados: Em crianças, apenas um estudo controlado randomizado e um estudo aberto relataram resultados positivos da dieta BFM; um estudo controlado randomizado mostrou exacerbação dos sintomas com frutanos em crianças com síndrome do intestino irritável; nenhum efeito foi encontrado para a dieta livre de lactose, enquanto dietas com restrição de frutose foram eficazes em 5/6 estudos. Conclusões: Existem poucos estudos que avaliam BFM em DFDA em crianças, com dados encorajadores sobre a eficácia terapêutica, particularmente de dietas com restrição de frutose. Esforços adicionais ainda são necessários para preencher essa lacuna de pesquisa e esclarecer a maneira mais eficiente de adaptar as restrições dietéticas com base na tolerância do paciente e/ou identificação de biomarcadores potenciais de eficácia da BFM, para manter a adequação nutricional e simplificar a adesão à dieta, ao incluir informações sobre conteúdo de FODMAPs em rótulos de produtos comerciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Diet , Disaccharides/metabolism , Disaccharides/therapeutic use , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Monosaccharides/therapeutic use
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491

ABSTRACT

Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 46-51, Mar. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009650

ABSTRACT

Background: Current commercial production of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) commonly involves a lengthy multistage process with low yields. Results: To improve the process efficiency for production of IMOs, we developed a simple and efficient method by using enzyme cocktails composed of the recombinant Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase produced by Bacillus licheniformis, α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, barley bran ß-amylase, and α-transglucosidase from Aspergillus niger to perform simultaneous saccharification and transglycosylation to process the liquefied starch. After 13 h of reacting time, 49.09% IMOs (calculated from the total amount of isomaltose, isomaltotriose, and panose) were produced. Conclusions: Our method of using an enzyme cocktail for the efficient production of IMOs offers an attractive alternative to the process presently in use.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Starch/metabolism , Enzymes/metabolism , Isomaltose/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Temperature , Bacillus/enzymology , beta-Amylase/metabolism , Glycosylation , Liquefaction , alpha-Amylases/metabolism , Fermentation , Glucosidases/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 13-20, ene. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008291

ABSTRACT

Background: A simple and efficient strategy for agarase immobilization was developed with carboxyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (CMNPs) as support. The CMNPs and immobilized agarase (agarase-CMNPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, vibrating sample magnetometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and zeta-potential analysis. The hydrolyzed products were separated and detected by ESI-TOF-MS. Results: The agarase-CMNPs exhibited a regular spherical shape with a mean diameter of 12 nm, whereas their average size in the aqueous solution was 43.7 nm as measured by dynamic light scattering. These results indicated that agarase-CMNPs had water swelling properties. Saturation magnetizations were 44 and 29 emu/g for the carriers and agarase-CMNPs, respectively. Thus, the particles had superparamagnetic characteristics, and agarase was successfully immobilized onto the supports. Agaro-oligosaccharides were prepared with agar as substrate using agarase-CMNPs as biocatalyst. The catalytic activity of agarase-CMNPs was unchanged after six reuses. The ESI-TOF mass spectrogram showed that the major products hydrolyzed by agarase-CMNPs after six recycle uses were neoagarotetraose, neoagarohexaose, and neoagarooctaose. Meanwhile, the end-products after 90 min of enzymatic treatment by agarase-CMNPs were neoagarobiose and neoagarotetraose. Conclusions: The enhanced agarase properties upon immobilization suggested that CMNPs can be effective carriers for agarase immobilization. Agarase-CMNPs can be remarkably used in developing systems for repeated batch production of agar-derived oligosaccharides.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Enzymes, Immobilized , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Thermogravimetry , X-Ray Diffraction , Enzyme Stability , Catalysis , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Magnetometry , Dynamic Light Scattering , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(5): 366-370, 05/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To address the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake on serum cholesterol levels. METHODS: We performed a search for scientific articles in MEDLINE database from 1987 to 2014, using the following English keywords: fructooligosaccharides; fructooligosaccharides and cholesterol. A total of 493 articles were found. After careful selection and exclusion of duplicate articles 34 references were selected. Revised texts were divided into two topics: "FOS Metabolism" and "FOS effects on plasma cholesterol." RESULTS: The use of a FOS diet prevented some lipid disorders and lowered fatty acid synthase activity in the liver in insulin-resistant rats. There was also reduction in weight and total cholesterol in beagle dogs on a calorie-restricted diet enriched with short-chain FOS. Another study found that 2g FOS daily consumption increased significantly serum HDL cholesterol levels but did not ensure a significant reduction in levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides.. Patients with mild hypercholesterolemia receiving short-chain FOS 10.6g daily presented no statistically significant reduction in serum cholesterol levels. However, when FOS was offered to patients that changed their lifestyle, the reduction of LDL cholesterol and steatosis was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Fructooligosaccharides intake may have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and regulation of serum cholesterol levels in individuals that change their lifestyle. FOS supplementation use in diets may therefore be a strategy for lowering cholesterol. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rats , Cholesterol/blood , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74445

ABSTRACT

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.


Subject(s)
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Hypersensitivity/complications , Inflammation/complications , Intestines/pathology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications , Monosaccharides/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 499-504, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688585

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic action of phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) was investigated regarding its prebiotic activity on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Diarrhea was induced in dogs by experimental infection with EPEC strains. Then MOS was supplied once a day, in water for 20 days. Immunological (IgA and IgG), hematological (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes) and bacteriological variables (PCR detection of the eae gene of EPEC recovered from stool culture), as well as occurrence of diarrhea were evaluated. All strains caused diarrhea at 24, 48 and 72 h after infection. PCR results indicated that E. coli isolated from stool culture of all infected animals had the eae gene. There was no significant difference among groups as to number of blood cells in the hemogram and IgA and IgG production. MOS was effective in recovering of EPEC-infected dogs since prebiotic-treated animals recovered more rapidly from infection than untreated ones (p < 0.05). This is an important finding since diarrhea causes intense dehydration and nutrient loss. The use of prebiotics for humans and other animals with diarrhea can be an alternative for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPEC infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Blood/immunology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/immunology , Feces , Gastrointestinal Agents/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Prebiotics , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Chemical Phenomena , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Agents/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Leukocytes/immunology , Oligosaccharides/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/chemistry
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(3): 279-282, Mar. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617970

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the current status of scientific knowledge in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), non-conventional sugars that play an important role in glycemia control. METHODS: We performed a search for scientific articles in MEDLINE and LILACS databases, from January 1962 to December 2011, using English/Portuguese key words: "blood glucose/glicemia", "prebiotics/prebióticos" and "dietary fiber/fibras na dieta". From an initial number of 434 references, some repeated, 43 references published from 1962 to 2011 were included in this study. The selected texts were distributed in three topics: (1) metabolism of FOS, (2) FOS and experimental studies involving glucose and (3) human studies involving glucose and FOS. RESULTS: Five studies have shown that the use of FOS reduces the fecal content and increases intestinal transit time. Experimental studies have shown that dietary supplementation with high doses (60 g/Kg) of propionate, a short-chain fatty acid decreased glycemia. The use of lower doses (3 g/kg) did not produce the same results. Study in subjects with diabetes type II showed that the addition of 8 grams of FOS in the diet for 14 days, caused a reduction in serum glucose. In another study with healthy subjects, there were no changes in glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that consumption of FOS has a beneficial influence on glucose metabolism. The controversies appear to be due to inadequate methodological designs and/or the small number of individuals included in some studies.


OBJETIVO: Conhecer o estado atual do conhecimento científico em fructooligossacarídeos (FOS), açúcares não-convencionais que desempenham um papel importante no controle da glicemia. MÉTODOS: Realizamos uma busca de artigos científicos nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), a partir de janeiro 1962 a dezembro de 2011, usando como descritores termos Português/Inglês: "glicemia/blood glucose, "prebióticos/prebiotics" e "fibras na dieta/dietary fiber. A partir de um número inicial de 434 referências, algumas repetidas, 43 referências foram consideradas adequadas para a finalidade deste estudo e foram, portanto, selecionadas para análise. Os textos selecionados foram distribuídos em três tópicos: (1) metabolismo de FOS (2), FOS e estudos experimentais envolvendo glicose e (3) estudos em humanos envolvendo glicose e FOS. RESULTADOS: Cinco trabalhos mostraram que o uso de FOS diminui o conteúdo fecal e aumenta o tempo do transito intestinal. Estudos experimentais demonstraram que a suplementação dietética com altas doses (60 g/Kg) de propionato, um ácido graxo de cadeia curta, diminuiu a glicemia. A utilização de doses menores (3 g/Kg) não produziu os mesmos resultados. Em indivíduos diabéticos tipo II a adição de 8 g de FOS na dieta, durante 14 dias, induziu uma redução da glicemia. Em indivíduos sadios, não ocorreram alterações da glicemia. CONCLUSÕES: Essa revisão mostra que o consumo de FOS exerce influência benéfica no metabolismo glicêmico. As controvérsias evidenciadas parecem estar mais ligadas a desenhos metodológicos inadequados e/ou ao número reduzido de indivíduos incluídos em alguns estudos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Defecation/drug effects , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/administration & dosage
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(6): 9-9, Nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640526

ABSTRACT

Whey is a co-product of processes for the production of cheese and casein that retains most of the lactose content in milk. World production of whey is estimated around 200 million tons per year with an increase rate of about 2 percent/per year. Milk production is seasonal, so surplus whey is unavoidable. Traditionally, whey producers have considered it as a nuisance and strategies of whey handling have been mostly oriented to their more convenient disposal. This vision has been steadily evolving because of the upgrading potential of whey major components (lactose and whey proteins), but also because of more stringent regulations of waste disposal. Only the big cheese manufacturing companies are in the position of implementing technologies for their recovery and upgrading, so there is a major challenge in incorporating medium and small size producers to a platform of whey utilization, conciliating industrial interest with environmental protection within the framework of sustainable development. Within this context, among the many technological options for whey upgrading, transformation of whey components by enzyme biocatalysis appears as prominent. In fact, enzymes are green catalysts that can perform a myriad of transformation reactions under mild conditions and with strict specificity, so reducing production costs and environmental burden. This review pretends to highlight the impact of biocatalysis within a platform of whey upgrading. Technological options are shortly reviewed and then an in-depth and critical appraisal of enzyme technologies for whey upgrading is presented, with a special focus on newly developed enzymatic processes of organic synthesis, where the added value is high, being then a powerful driving force for industrial implementation.


Subject(s)
Lactose , Milk/enzymology , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Prebiotics , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Esterification , Enzymes/metabolism
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2005 Dec; 42(6): 339-44
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26940

ABSTRACT

The chitinase A (ChiA)-coding gene of Pseudomonas sp. BK1, which was isolated from a marine red alga Porphyra dentata, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural gene consists of 1602 bp encoding a protein of 534 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 55,370 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of ChiA showed low identity (less than 32%) with other bacterial chitinases. The ChiA was composed of multiple domains, unlike the arrangement of domains in other bacterial chitinases. Recombinant ChiA overproduced as inclusion bodies was solubilized in the presence of 8 M urea, purified in a urea-denatured form and re-folded by removing urea. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. It exhibited high activity towards glycol chitosan and glycol chitin, and lower activity towards colloidal chitin. The enzyme hydrolyzed the oligosaccharides from (GlcNAc)4 to (GlcNAc)6, but not GlcNAc to (GlcNAc)3. The results suggest that the ChiA is a novel enzyme, with different domain structure and action mode from bacterial family 18 chitinases.


Subject(s)
Chitin/metabolism , Chitinases/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Pseudomonas/enzymology , Substrate Specificity
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 7(2): 115-123, Aug. 2004. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-387552

ABSTRACT

The influence of N-glycosylation on the kinetic and catalytical properties of a bacterial fructosyltransferase (LsdA) produced in Pichia pastoris was studied. The glycosylated enzyme behaved similarly to non-glycosylated LsdA when substrate specificity, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) production, sucrose hydrolysis or levan formation reactions were carried out under different experimental conditions. The kinetic parameters for native or yeast-expressed LsdA determined at 60ºC, condition for the highest hydrolytic activity, followed a conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Synthase activity of this levansucrase increased in water-restricted environments by addition of salt or organic solvent to the reaction mixtures.


Subject(s)
Fructose/metabolism , Gluconacetobacter/enzymology , Hexosyltransferases/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Pichia , Catalysis , Glycosylation , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Substrate Specificity , Yeasts
13.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(3): 432-440, 2004. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482166

ABSTRACT

Human consumption of soy-derived products has been limited by the presence of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), such as the alpha-galactooligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose. Most mammals, including man, lack pancreatic alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal), which is necessary for the hydrolysis of these sugars. However, such NDO can be fermented by gas-producing microorganisms present in the cecum and large intestine, which in turn can induce flatulence and other gastrointestinal disorders in sensitive individuals.The use of microorganisms expressing alpha-Gal is a promising solution to the elimination of NDO before they reach the large intestine. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria engineered to degrade NDO have been constructed and are being used as a tool to evaluate this solution. The alpha-Gal structural genes from Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC8014 (previously characterized in our laboratory) and from guar have been cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis. The gene products were directed to different bacterial compartments to optimize their possible applications. The alpha-Gal-producing strains are being evaluated for their efficiency in degrading raffinose and stachyose: i) in soymilk fermentation when used as starters and ii) in situ in the upper gastrointestinal tract when administered to animals orally, as probiotic preparations. The expected outcomes and possible complications of this project are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestion , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Lactococcus lactis/metabolism , Soy Milk/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Raffinose/metabolism , alpha-Galactosidase/genetics , Cultured Milk Products , Fermentation , Food, Genetically Modified , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactococcus lactis/growth & development , Probiotics , Rodentia , alpha-Galactosidase/metabolism
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1993 Dec; 30(6): 333-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27084

ABSTRACT

Glucosidase I initiates the processing of the oligosaccharide, Glc3Man9GlcNAc2, in newly assembled glycoproteins by excising the distal alpha 1,2-linked glucosyl residue in the oligosaccharide. Earlier, the enzyme purified from the ER of rat and bovine mammary gland has been found to have M(r) of 85 kDa, as examined by SDS-PAGE along with a domain structure in which a 39 kDa lumenally-oriented region is anchored to the ER through a transmembrane segment and a short cytoplasmic tail. These studies were further extended to include the enzyme from several different tissues of the rat, mouse, guinea pig and bovine mammary glands, sheep liver and pig kidney. Using anti-rat glucosidase I antibody as a probe and several biochemical parameters such as SDS-PAGE analysis, trypsin-catalyzed digestion, ConA-binding, endo H susceptibility and peptide mapping analysis by cleavage of the tryptophanyl peptide linkages within the enzyme, it was found that glucosidase I in all of the tissue sources examined has an M(r) of 85 kDa and is cross-reactive to anti-rat glucosidase antibody. The enzyme is a high mannose glycoprotein, and has domain features in its structure; the enzyme from mouse, rat, guinea pig and bovine mammary glands and sheep liver is sequentially cleaved by trypsin to generate fragments of 69, 55 and 39 kDa. The rate of release of the different fragments differs for different sources, indicating some evolutionary changes in its primary structure. The trypsin-released fragments from pig kidney enzyme are 69, 45 and 29 kDa in size, identical to the same observed earlier for pig liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbohydrate Sequence , Cattle , Female , Glycoproteins/biosynthesis , Guinea Pigs , Liver/enzymology , Mammary Glands, Animal/enzymology , Mice , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Organ Specificity , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Rats , Sheep , Species Specificity , Swine , alpha-Glucosidases/chemistry
16.
Biol. Res ; 26(1/2): 69-75, 1993. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-228618

ABSTRACT

This review deals with the pathway leading to the synthesis of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in trypanosomatid protozoa. Special emphasis is put on steps differing from those occurring in mammalian cells


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Trypanosomatina/enzymology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/enzymology , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/enzymology , Oligosaccharides/metabolism
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