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2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(3): e629, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138880

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios son una secuela no deseada durante la etapa de recuperación anestésica. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la dexametasona en comparación con el ondansetrón para la prevención de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios después de procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos mayores, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico, prospectivo, en 84 pacientes mayores de 19 años, en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Miguel Enríquez desde octubre de 2018 hasta septiembre de 2019, divididas de forma secuencial, en orden de llegada a la unidad quirúrgica, en dos grupos. Al grupo 1 se le administró dexametasona (4 mg endovenosa); al grupo 2 (4 mg de ondansetrón), 30 min antes de finalizar la cirugía. Resultados: Predominó de forma significativa el riesgo medio de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en los pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 41 y 50 años. Predominó la condición de excelente y buena (pgt;0,05) en cuanto a la efectividad del tratamiento profiláctico. La cefalea prevaleció de forma significativa en el grupo 2. La mayor parte de las pacientes no presentó eventos adversos. Conclusiones: El ondansetrón y la dexametasona son útiles para la profilaxis de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en pacientes intervenidas de cirugía mayor ginecológica, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal por lo que se considera un tratamiento seguro, con eventos adversos leves y de fácil control(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting are an unwanted sequel during the anesthetic recovery stage. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of dexamethasone compared with ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgical procedures, under general orotracheal anesthesia. Method: A prospective, analytical and observational study was carried out with 84 patients older than 19 years of age, at Miguel Enríquez Hospital Clinical-Surgical Hospital, from October 2018 to September 2019, divided sequentially, in order of arrival at the surgical unit, into two groups. The group 1 was administered dexamethasone (4 mg intravenously), and the group 2 was administered ondansetron (4 mg), 30 min before the end of the surgery. Results: The average risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting prevailed significantly among patients aged 41-50 years. Excellent and good conditions predominated (pgt;0.05) in terms of effectiveness of prophylactic treatment. Headache prevailed significantly in the group 2. Most of the patients did not present adverse events. Conclusions: Ondansetron and dexamethasone are useful for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis among patients who received major gynecological surgery, under general orotracheal anesthesia, a reason why it is considered a safe treatment, with mild adverse events and easy control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control
3.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002076, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141348

ABSTRACT

Sobre la base de una viñeta clínica de un niño con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, el autor de este artículo realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia que avala el uso de ondansetrón para tratar sus vómitos, práctica bastante común en instituciones con acceso a este fármaco en sus centrales de emergencia. Luego de dicha búsqueda, el autor concluye que en niños con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, la administración de ondansetrón no reduce la necesidad de hidratación intravenosa ni la frecuencia ni la severidad de los vómitos. (AU)


Based on a clinical vignette of a child with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the author of this article performs a literature search to review the evidence supporting the use of ondansetron to treat his vomiting, a fairly common practice in institutions with access to this drug in their emergency rooms. After this search, the author concludes that in children with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the administration of ondansetron does not reduce the need for intravenous hydration or the frequency or severity of vomiting. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Gastroenteritis/drug therapy , Vomiting/prevention & control , Vomiting/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Dehydration/prevention & control , Dehydration/therapy , Diarrhea , Fluid Therapy/methods , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/diet therapy
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(7): 392-398, agosto 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1022103

ABSTRACT

Background Th supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) exhibits a good anesthetic and analgesic effect to the upper extremity below the shoulder and reduces the need for opioid consumption. Among many medications, dexamethasone and ondansetron had been used as effective adjuvants to the local anesthetics in BPB. Aim: to compare the block characteristics with dexamethasone versus ondansetron as adjuvant to bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPV) in SCBPB. Materials and methods: 75 patients were allocated and divided into three equal groups. Combined ultrasound and nerve stimulation (CUSNS) - guided SCBPB had been done. Control group (C) received thirty ml of 0,5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of normal saline. Ondansetron group (O) received thirty l of 0.5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of 4 mg of ondasetron. In dexamethasone group (D), patient received thirty ml of 0.5% BPV plus 2 ml of 8 mg dexamethasone. Results: A prolonged effect of both sensory and motor block were observed in both group D and group O (more significant in D) than group C. Total dose of analgesic (tramadol in mgs in 24 hours) was obviously reduced in group D and group O than group C. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had better effects on sensory and motor block duration in comparison with ondansetron. The first time to analgesic request in dexamethasone group was longer than ondansetron group (AU)


Subject(s)
Adult , Bupivacaine , Dexamethasone , Ondansetron , Brachial Plexus Block , Chi-Square Distribution
5.
CorSalud ; 11(2): 171-174, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089730

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El ondansetrón se usa para prevenir las náuseas y los vómitos causados por la quimioterapia, radioterapia y cirugías, pertenece a los antagonistas de receptores de serotonina 5-HT3, una sustancia natural que puede causar náuseas y vómitos, y bloquea su acción. El ondansetrón viene envasado en forma de tabletas de desintegración rápida, como una solución para tomar por vía oral y en ámpulas, para su uso parenteral. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 67 años de edad con diagnóstico de carcinoma de mama, a la cual se realizó mastectomía radical con vaciamiento axilar, y recibió quimioterapia con adriamicina, ciclofosfamida y paclitaxel; así como ondansetrón para tratar las náuseas y vómitos. La paciente presentó una taquicardia con QRS ancho después de utilizar el fármaco.


ABSTRACT The ondansetron is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, belonging to the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, a natural substance that can cause nausea and vomiting, and it blocks its action. The ondansetron is packaged in the form of rapid disintegration tablets, as a solution to be taken orally and in ampules, for parenteral use. The case of a 67-year-old female patient is presented, with a diagnosis of breast carcinoma, who underwent radical mastectomy with axillary dissection was performed, and who received chemotherapy with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel; as well as ondansetron to treat nausea and vomiting. The patient presented a wide QRS complex tachycardia after taking the drug.


Subject(s)
Ondansetron , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Tachycardia
7.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S26-S30, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116309

ABSTRACT

Acute diarrhea (AD) is the increase in frequency and volume of bowel movements with decrease in their consistency that lasts less than 14 days. AD is a major public health problem and is still nowadays a cause of significant morbidity and mortality during childhood, especially in children with nutritional deficits. At a younger age, there is a greater susceptibility to diarrhea, which is more intense and more likely cause dehydration. The prevention and management of dehydration is the mainstay of treatment. The use of medications must be used with caution, analyzing individual cases and based on the best available evidence. We will analyze the subject with special emphasis on treatment according to scientific evidence.


La diarrea aguda (DA) se define como el aumento en la frecuencia y volumen de las deposiciones con disminución de la consistencia y que dura menos de 14 días. La DA es un gran problema de salud pública y es aún hoy en día una causa de importante morbimortalidad durante la infancia en especial en niños con déficits nutricionales. A menor edad hay mayor susceptibilidad de presentar diarrea, siendo ésta de mayor intensidad y con mayores posibilidades de producir deshidratación. La prevención y el manejo de la deshidratación es el pilar fundamental del tratamiento. El uso de medicamentos debe ser criterioso, analizando cada caso individual y basado en la mejor evidencia disponible. Analizaremos el tema con especial énfasis en el tratamiento según evidencia científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Rehydration Solutions/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dehydration/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(3): e20180326, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1001974

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the factors associated to Potential Drug Interactions with High Alert Medications in the Intensive Care Unit of a Sentinel Hospital. Methods: a cross-sectional, retrospective study using a quantitative approach carried out at a Sentinel Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The research was based on the analysis of the prescriptions of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital, in a period of one year, in order to identify the drug interactions related to high alert medications in these prescriptions. Results: Of the 60 prescriptions analyzed, 244 were selected. In these prescriptions, 846 potential drug interactions related to high alert medications and 33 high alert medications were identified. Of the 112 types of potential drug interactions identified, some were more recurrent: tramadol e ondansetron, midazolam and omeprazole, regular insulin and hydrocortisone, fentanyl and midazolam, and regular insulin and noradrenaline. The variables polypharmacy, length of hospital stay, and some specific medications were associated with drug interactions with high alert medications. Conclusion and Implications for practice: It is important to strengthen strategies to reduce adverse drug events. Therefore, the relevance of studies that investigate the origin of these events is highlighted. Drug interactions can represent medication errors. It's indispensable to work with strategies to better manage the medication system.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar los puntos asociados a las Interacciones Medicamentos Potenciales con Medicamentos de alta vigilancia en un Centro de Cuidados Intensivos de un Hospital de Guardia. Métodos: estudio transversal, retrospectivo, de abordaje cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital de guardia en Rio de Janeiro. Esta investigación se basó en el análisis de las prescripciones medicamentosas de pacientes internados en un Centro de Cuidados Intensivos de un hospital, en un período de 1 año, con el objetivo de identificar las interacciones medicamentosas relacionadas con Medicamentos de alta Vigilancia recurrentes en las mismas. Resultados: de los informes analizados, se seleccionaron 244 prescripciones medicamentosas. En las 244 prescripciones de medicamentos, se pudieron identificar 846 Interacciones de Medicamentos Potenciales (IMP) relacionados a Medicamentos de Alta Vigilancia y 33 Medicamentos de Alta Vigilancia. De los 112 tipos de interacciones de medicamentos potenciales identificados, algunos han sido más recurrentes; a saber: tramadol y ondansetrón, midazolam y omeprazol, insulina regular e hidrocortisona, fentanilo y midazolam, insulina regular y noradrenalina. Las variables polifarmacia, tiempo de internación y algunos medicamentos específicos se asociaron a las interacciones medicamentosas potenciales con Medicamentos de Alta Vigilancia. Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica: es importante fortalecer las estrategias para reducir los eventos adversos relacionados con medicamentos. Por lo tanto, se destaca la relevancia de los estudios que plantean la naturaleza de estos eventos. Las interacciones medicamentosas pueden provocar errores de medicación. Es imprescindible trabajar con estrategias para administrar mejor el sistema de medicación.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os fatores associados às Interações Medicamentosas Potenciais com Medicamentos de alta vigilância em Centro de Terapia Intensiva de um Hospital Sentinela. Métodos: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em um hospital sentinela no Rio de Janeiro. A pesquisa apoiou-se na análise das prescrições de pacientes internados no setor, com recorte temporal de 1 ano, a fim de identificar as interações medicamentosas relacionadas a medicamentos de alta vigilância recorrentes nas mesmas. Resultados: Dos 60 prontuários analisados, selecionaram-se 244 prescrições. Nelas identificaram-se 846 interações medicamentosas potenciais, relacionadas aos medicamentos de alta vigilância e 33 medicamentos de alta vigilância. Dos 112 pares de interações identificadas, foram mais recorrentes: tramadol e ondansetrona, midazolam e omeprazol, insulina regular e hidrocortisona, fentanil e midazolam, e insulina regular e noradrenalina. As variáveis polifarmácia, tempo de internação e alguns medicamentos específicos foram associadas às interações com medicamentos de alta vigilância. Conclusão e Implicações para a prática: É importante fortalecer as estratégias para reduzir os eventos adversos relacionados a medicamentos. Portanto, destaca-se a relevância de estudos que levantem a natureza desses eventos. As interações medicamentosas podem configurar erros de medicação. Portanto, é indispensável que se trabalhe com estratégias para melhor manejar o sistema de medicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Interactions , Pharmacovigilance , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Health Profile , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Patient Safety , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 363-370, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978046

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Sarocladium kiliense es un hongo saprófito que puede generar infecciones oportunistas asociadas a procedimientos invasores. Se informa un brote multicéntrico nosocomial de fungemias de fuente común por este agente. Luego del reporte de cinco casos en pacientes en tres hospitales al Programa de Control de Infecciones del Ministerio de Salud de Chile en julio de 2013, se estudiaron a nivel nacional todos los pacientes con hemocultivo positivo para este agente. Se trató de cuadros clínicos leves a moderados, sin muertes atribuibles. El estudio identificó 65 casos en 8 hospitales, en su mayoría pacientes pediátricos en quimioterapia. Estudios iniciales de 94 muestras de cuatro fármacos y dispositivos usados en todos los casos resultaron negativas hasta que, en un segundo análisis de lotes seleccionados por criterios epidemiológicos y su matriz farmacéutica, se identificó la contaminación intrínseca de ampollas de ondansetrón de un productor específico, que se usó en todos los casos. Se realizó un retiro nacional de las ampollas de los tres lotes contaminados del fármaco, después de lo cual se contuvo el brote. La vigilancia de infecciones en los hospitales y el programa nacional coordinado con los laboratorios de microbiología fueron claves para identificar un brote multicéntrico de fuente común por contaminación de un fármaco por un hongo inusual.


Sarocladium kiliense is a saprophyte fungus that can cause opportunistic infections associated to invasive procedures. We report a multi-hospital nosocomial outbreak of fungemias due to this agent. Patients with positive blood culture to this agent were studied after six bloodstream infections identified in three Chilean hospitals in July 2013 were reported to Ministry of Health National Infection and Prevention Control Program. In general, there were mild clinical manifestations, without deaths attributable to the infection. Epidemiological and micro-biological study identified 65 cases in 8 hospitals, mostly pediatric patients in chemotherapy. Initial studies of 94 different drugs and medical devices had negative results, until a second analysis of specific blisters and their pharmaceutical matrix selected by epidemiological criteria identified an intrinsic contamination of ondansetron blisters from a specific producer used in all the patients. A recall of contaminated ondansetron blisters was performed in all the country, after which the outbreak was contained. Surveillance and response of local and national infection prevention and control programs and laboratory support were key to control of a national multi-hospital common source outbreak due to contamination of a drug by an unusual fungus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Contamination , Disease Outbreaks , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Ondansetron , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Chile/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals, Public
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 62-68, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a single intramuscular dose of bromopride, metoclopramide, or ondansetron for treating vomiting. Methods: Randomized controlled trial including children 1-12 years of age presenting with acute vomiting at the pediatric emergency department. Outcomes: Number of children that stopped vomiting at one, six, and 24 h following treatment; episodes of diarrhea; acceptance of oral liquids; intravenous rehydration; return to hospital and side effects. Results: There were 175 children who completed the study. Within the first hour after treatment, all drugs were equally effective, with ondansetron preventing vomiting in 100%, bromopride in 96.6%, and metoclopramide in 94.8% of children (p = 0.288). Within six hours, ondansetron was successful in preventing vomiting in 98.3% of children, compared to bromopride and metoclopramide, which were successful in 91.5% and 84.4% of patients, respectively (p = 0.023). Within 24 h, ondansetron was superior to both other agents, as it remained efficacious in reducing vomiting in 96.6% of children, as opposed to 67.8% and 67.2% with bromopride and metoclopramide, respectively (p = 0.001). The ondansetron group showed better acceptance of oral liquids (p = 0.05) when compared to the bromopride and metoclopramide. The ondansetron group did not show any side effects in 75.9% of cases, compared to 54.2% and 53.5% in the bromopride and metoclopramide groups, respectively. Somnolence was the most common side effect. Conclusions: A single dose of ondansetron is superior to bromopride and metoclopramide in preventing vomiting six hours and 24 h following treatment. Oral fluid intake after receiving medication was statistically better with Ondansetronwhile also having less side effects compared to the other two agents.


Resumo Objetivo: Para comparar a eficacia de uma unica dose intramuscular de bromoprida, metoclopramida ou ondansetrona no tratamento de vomito. Métodos: Ensaio controlado randomizado incluindo crianc¸as de 1 a 12 anos de idade que apresentam vomito agudo no departamento de emergencia pediatrica. Desfechos: Numero de crianças que pararam de vomitar 1, 6 e 24 horas apos o tratamento; episodios de diarreia; aceitac¸ao de liquidos orais; reidratac¸ao intravenosa, retorno ao hospital e efeitos colaterais. Resultados: 175 crianças concluiram o estudo. Na primeira hora apos o tratamento, todos os medicamentos foram igualmente eficazes, sendo que a ondansetrona preveniu vomito em 100%, a bromoprida em 96,6% e metoclopramida em 94,8% das crianças (p = 0,288). Em 6 horas, a ondansetrona mostrou sucesso na prevençao do vomito em 98,3% das crianças, em comparac¸ao a bromoprida e a metoclopramida, que mostraram sucesso em 91,5% e 84,4% dos pacientes, respectivamente (p = 0,023). Em 24 horas, a ondansetrona foi superior aos dois outros agentes, pois ela continuou eficaz na reduçao do vomito em 96,6% das crianças, diferente de 67,8% e 67,2% com bromoprida e metoclopramida, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo de ondansetrona mostrou melhor aceitaçao de liquidos orais (p = 0,05) em comparaçao a bromoprida e metoclopramida. O grupo de ondansetrona nao mostrou efeitos colaterais em 75,9% dos casos, em comparaçao a 54,2% e 53,5% dos grupos de bromoprida e metoclopramida. O efeito colateral mais comum foi sonolencia. Conclusões: Uma unica dose de ondansetrona e superior a bromoprida e metoclopramida no tratamento de vomito 6 horas e 24 horas apos o tratamento. A ingestao de fluidos orais apos receber medicaçao foi estatisticamente melhor com ondansetrona, ao mesmo tempo em que tambem apresentando menos efeitos colaterais em comparaçao aos outros dois agentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Vomiting/drug therapy , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Metoclopramide/administration & dosage , Metoclopramide/analogs & derivatives , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Emergency Service, Hospital
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aprepitant is effective in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, when administrated with other antiemetics. We compared the effectiveness of aprepitant to ondansetron for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients who received a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) containing opioids. METHODS: 198 patients were randomized into two groups. The treatment group was received an aprepitant, 80 mg, and the control group received a placebo. General anesthesia with inhalational anesthetics–N2O was performed, and PCA was supplied, which contained opioids-NSAIDs-ondansetron. The primary end-point was the incidence of PONV for postoperative 48 hours, and the secondary end-point was the changes in the relationship between PONV incidence and risk factors. RESULTS: PONV incidence in the treatment group was lower than in the control group (18.6% [95% CI: 10.8–26.3], 33.3% [95% CI: 23.6–43.1], respectively, P = 0.021). Relative risk of PONV in the control group was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.08–3.00, P = 0.010). PONV scores peaked at around postoperative 6 hours, then gradually decreased in the control group but not in the treatment group, which showed lower values than the control group (P = 0.001), and no changing patterns were observed (P < 0.001). Risk factors analyzed were sex, surgery type, history of motion sickness or PONV, and smoking habits. Their effects of all risk factors except sex were abolished in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic aprepitant with ondansetron was more effective than ondansetron-only regimen in preventing PONV after volatile anesthesia with opioid-containing PCA. Aprepitant abolished the effects of most of risk factors, so it could be efficacious in a high-risk PONV group.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Antiemetics , Humans , Incidence , Motion Sickness , Nausea , Ondansetron , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Vomiting
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741809

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oral ondansetron is a safe and effective antiemetic drug to facilitate oral rehydration therapy in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with mild dehydration. We investigated the effect of oral ondansetron therapy on intravenous (IV) hydration frequency and emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) in dehydrated children with AGE. METHODS: We reviewed 15,813 children aged 12-60 months with primary diagnosis of AGE who visited a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital emergency department. The enrolled children were divided into the pre- (from January 2009 to June 2011) and post- (from January 2016 to June 2018) ondansetron groups according to the implementation of oral ondansetron therapy in the emergency department. As primary outcomes, IV hydration frequency, EDLOS, and hospitalization rate were compared between the 2 groups. As secondary outcomes, EDLOS and hospitalization rate were compared between the children in the post-ondansetron group who underwent the therapy, and those who did not. RESULTS: Of 7,990 enrolled children, 3,300 (41.3%) were designated as the post-ondansetron group, and among them 1,093 (33.1%) underwent oral ondansetron therapy. This group showed a lower IV hydration frequency, a shorter median EDLOS compared to the other group (55.8% vs. 61.9%, P < 0.001; 175.0 vs. 223.0 minutes, P < 0.001, respectively), and a higher hospitalization rate (9.9% vs. 7.9%, P < 0.001). The children in the post-ondansetron group who underwent the therapy showed a shorter median EDLOS and a lower hospitalization rate compared to those who did not (142.0 vs. 205.0 minutes, P < 0.001; 2.9% vs. 13.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Oral ondansetron therapy may reduce IV hydration frequency and EDLOS in dehydrated children with AGE, and can be considered in those having severe vomiting.


Subject(s)
Child , Dehydration , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fluid Therapy , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Ondansetron , Tertiary Healthcare , Vomiting
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189579

ABSTRACT

Palonosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT-3) receptor antagonist used for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Compared with ondansetron and granisetron, it is a better drug because of prolonged action and minimal side effects. Some adverse effects of palonosetron have been reported. In this report, we describe a 37-year-old male who developed severe hypersensitivity reactions to palonosetron during surgery for kidney donation. His medical history was unremarkable, except for inguinal hernia with herniorrhaphy 8 years ago. The surgery was uneventful until 2 hours 20 minutes. After palonosetron injection, his blood pressure dropped to 80/50 mm Hg, and facial edema, rash, conjunctival swelling, and wheezing developed. The patient was resuscitated by administration of ephedrine, hydrocortisone, and peniramine. Following the surgery, the patient was monitored for 3 days, and there were no subsequent anaphylactic reactions or other complications. The skin test on postoperative day 54 was positive for hypersensitivity to palonosetron. Although palonosetron is known for its safety, other hypersensitivity events have been reported. Ondansetron is another widely used 5-HT-3 antagonist, which has been reported to cause anaphylaxis. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of patients experiencing severe adverse reactions to palonosetron.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia, General , Blood Pressure , Drug Hypersensitivity , Edema , Ephedrine , Exanthema , Granisetron , Hernia, Inguinal , Herniorrhaphy , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypersensitivity , Kidney , Male , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Respiratory Sounds , Skin Tests
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has a prophylactic effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and perioperative hydration is believed to play a role in PONV prophylaxis. This study was performed to examine the combined effects of pre-induction dexamethasone plus super-hydration on PONV and pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: A total of 100 female patients undergoing LC were enrolled and randomized equally into two groups. Group DF received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) plus 30 ml/kg Ringer's lactate (intraoperative) and group D received 5 mg dexamethasone (pre-induction) alone. Anesthetic and surgical managements were standardized for all patients. The incidence and severity of PONV, and intra and post-operative analgesic and postoperative antiemetic consumption, were assessed during the first 24 h postoperatively. Post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay and aggregated 24 h pain scores were calculated. RESULTS: Group DF had significantly lower PONV than group D (P = 0.03). The number of patients with the lowest PONV score was significantly increased in group DF (P = 0.03). Ondansetron consumption was significantly lower in group DF (P < 0.0001). The mean accumulated 24 h pain scores were significantly lower in group DF compared to group D (P < 0.0001). The time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in group DF than group D (P < 0.0001). In addition, total meperidine consumption during the first postoperative 24 h was significantly lower in group DF than group D (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In female patients undergoing LC, pre-induction with 5 mg dexamethasone plus intraoperative 30 ml/kg Ringer's lactate solution decreased PONV and pain during the first 24 h postoperatively compared to 5 mg dexamethasone alone.


Subject(s)
Cholecystectomy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Dexamethasone , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lactic Acid , Laparoscopy , Meperidine , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Htr3a antagonist, ondansetron, has been reported to prolong the QT interval and induce Torsades de pointes in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. To explore the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined the effects of ondansetron on the mouse cardiac voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ondansetron increased QT intervals in late pregnant (LP) mice. We measured the Kv channels in freshly isolated left ventricular (LV) myocytes from non-pregnant (NP) and late pregnant (LP) mice, using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Ondansetron blocked Kv current at a dose of 50 µM, and reduced the amplitude of peak current densities in a dose-dependent manner (0, 1, 5, 50 µM), in LP but not in NP mice. In contrast, serotonin and the Htr3 agonist, m-CPBG, increased Kv current densities in NP, but not in LP mice. Interestingly, during pregnancy, serum serotonin levels were markedly increased, suggesting the saturation of the effect of serotonin. Immunostaning data showed that Kv4.3 protein and Htr3a co-localize at the membrane and t-tubule of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Kv4.3 membrane trafficking was enhanced in response to Htr3a-mediated serotonin stimulation in NP, but not in LP mice. Membrane analysis showed that serotonin enhances Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in NP, but not LP mice. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron reduced Kv current densities, and reduced the Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in LP mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. This data suggests that QT prolongation by ondansetron is mediated by the reduction of Kv current densities and Kv4.3 membrane trafficking.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrophysiology , Membranes , Mice , Muscle Cells , Myocytes, Cardiac , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Pregnancy , Serotonin , Torsades de Pointes
17.
Anest. analg. reanim ; 29(1): 2-2, ago. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793034

ABSTRACT

Los temblores son una complicación frecuente, desagradable y que pueden relacionarse a un aumento de la morbilidad del período postoperatorio. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de presentación de temblores en el postoperatorio inmediato. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 119 pacientes adultos, operados de coordinación una vez que ingresaron a la Sala de Recuperación Postanestésica (SRPA). Se consignó la presencia y severidad (grado I a IV) de temblores al ingreso y luego cada 15 minutos. Se trataron mediante medidas de recalentamiento externo, ondansetrón y meperidina, de manera escalonada cada 15 minutos. Resultados: hubo 24 (21.2 %) pacientes con temblores postoperatorios, 17/24 (71%) asociados a hipotermia. En 8 (33,3%) pacientes el temblor fue grado I, en 2 (8,3%) fueron grado II, y en 14 (58,3%) fueron grado III. En todos los casos cedieron con el tratamiento pautado y no más allá de los 45 minutos. Conclusiones: Los temblores fueron una complicación frecuente en la SRPA, asociados a hipotermia en la mayor parte de los casos, pero de duración limitada, y fácilmente tratables.


Trembling are frequent, unpleasant complication and can relate to increased morbidity postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of earthquakes in the immediate postoperative period. Patients and Methods: 119 adult patients operated coordination once entered the recovery room (PACU) were studied. the presence and severity (grade I to IV) of tremors at admission and then every 15 minutes was recorded. They were treated by external measures, ondansetron and meperidine overheating, staggered every 15 minutes. Avaliação da incidência de tremores na sala de recuperação posanestesica.


Tremores é uma complicação freqüente, desagradável e que pode relacionar-se a um aumento da morbilidade do período posoperatorio. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de manifestação de tremores no posoperatorio imediato. Pacientes e métodos: Estudaram-se 119 pacientes adultos, de cirurgias eletivas que chegaram à Sala de Recuperação Posanestesica (SRPA). Registraram-se a presença e severidade (grado I a IV) de tremores ao ingresso e cada 15 minutos. O tratamento foi: medidas de aquecimento externo, ondansetron e meperidina de maneira alternativa cada 15 minutos. Resultados. Teve 24 (21.2%) de pacientes com tremores posoperatorio, 17/24 (71%) associados à hipotermia. Em 8 (33,3%) pacientes o tremor foi grado I, em 2 (8,3%) foi grado II, em 14 (58,3%) grado III. Todos os casos acalmaram com o tratamento pautado nos primeiros 45 minutos. Conclusões. Os tremores foram uma complicação freqüente em SRPA, associado à hipotermia na maioria dos casos, com duração limitada e de fácil tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Postoperative Period , Shivering , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Tremor/etiology , Tremor/epidemiology , Tremor , Tremor/therapy , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Rewarming , Observational Study , Meperidine/therapeutic use
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of intravenous ondansetron (4 mg, 2 mL) and granisetron (2 mg, 2 mL) for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients during oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, and double blind clinical study was carried out with 60 patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Approximately two minutes before induction of general anesthesia, each patient received either 4 mg (2 mL) ondansetron or 2 mg (2 mL) granisetron intravenously in a double blind manner. Balanced anesthetic technique was used for all patients. Patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting, and the need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0-2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Incidence of complete response and adverse effects were assessed at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test, unpaired t-test, or the Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for incidence of PONV or the need for rescue antiemetic. Both study drugs were well tolerated with minimum adverse effects; the most common adverse effect was headache. The overall incidence of complete response in the granisetron group (86.7%) was significantly higher than the ondansetron group (60.0%). CONCLUSION: Granisetron at an intravenous dose of 2 mg was found to be safe, well tolerated, and more effective by increasing the incidence of complete response compared to 4 mg intravenous ondansetron when used for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia. Benefits of granisetron include high receptor specificity and high potency, which make it a valuable alternative to ondansetron.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Double-Blind Method , Granisetron , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Nausea , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surgery, Oral , Vomiting
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(4): 244-248, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

METHODS:

180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metoclopramide 10 mg (Group I - control), droperidol 2.5 mg (Group II) or ondansetron 8 mg (Group III). Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pruritus (absent, mild, moderate or severe) or other side effects by blinded investigators. Patients were also blinded to their group allocation. The tendency to present more severe forms of pruritus was compared between groups. NNT was also determined.

RESULTS:

Patients assigned to receive droperidol [Proportional odds ratio: 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88)] reported less pruritus than those who received metoclopramide. Ondansetron effect was similar to metoclopramide [Proportional odds ratio: 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.83)]. The NNT for droperidol and ondansetron was 4.0 and 14.7, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Ondansetron does not inhibit subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

.

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS:

O efeito profilático do ondansetron sobre prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea é controverso, enquanto evidências sugerem que o droperidol previne o prurido. O objetivo do presente trabalho é comparar o efeito do droperidol com o do ondansetron sobre o prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea.

MÉTODOS:

180 pacientes ASA I ou II programadas para serem submetidas a cesarianas sob anestesia subaracnoidea à qual foram acrescentados 0,2 mg de morfina foram divididas aleatoriamente para receber, logo após o nascimento da criança, 10 mg de metoclopramida (grupo I - controle), 2,5 mg de droperidol (grupo II),ou 8 mg de ondansetron (grupo III). No período pós-operatório as pacientes foram avaliadas quanto ao prurido (ausente, leve, moderado ou intenso) ou outros efeitos colaterais por observadores que não sabiam a alocação das pacientes. As pacientes também não sabiam da sua alocação. Os grupos foram comparados pela sua tendência a apresentar formas mais severas de prurido. Também determinamos o NNT.

RESULTADOS:

As pacientes alocadas para receber droperidol [Odds RatioProporcional: 0,45 (Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 0,23 - 0,88)] relataram menos prurido do que as que receberam metoclopramida. O efeito do ondansetron foi semelhante ao da metoclopramida [Odds Ratio Proporcional: 0,95 (Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 0,49 - 1,83)]. O NNT do droperidol foi 4,0 e o do ondansetron foi 14,7.

CONCLUSÕES:

O ondansetron não inibiu o prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea.

.

JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS:

El efecto profiláctico del ondansetrón sobre el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea es controvertido, mientras las evidencias nos muestran que el droperidol previene el prurito. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar el efecto del droperidol con el del ondansetrón sobre el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea.

MÉTODOS:

Ciento ochenta pacientes ASA I o II programadas para someterse a cesáreas bajo anestesia subaracnoidea a la cual se le añadió 0,2 mg de morfina fueron divididas aleatoriamente para recibir, inmediatamente después del nacimiento del niño, 10 mg de metoclopramida (grupo I-control), 2,5 mg de droperidol (grupo II) u 8 mg de ondansetrón (grupo III). En el período postoperatorio las pacientes fueron evaluadas en cuanto al prurito (ausente, leve, moderado o intenso) u otros efectos colaterales por observadores que no sabían nada respecto de la ubicación de las pacientes. Las pacientes tampoco conocían su propia ubicación. Los grupos fueron comparados por su tendencia a presentar formas más severas de prurito. También se determinó el NNT.

RESULTADOS:

Las pacientes aleatorizadas para recibir droperidol (odds ratioproporcional: 0,45 [intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,23-0,88]) relataron menos prurito que las que recibieron metoclopramida. El efecto del ondansetrón fue similar al de la metoclopramida (odds ratio proporcional: 0,95 [intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,49-1,83-+). El NNT del droperidol fue 4 y el del ondansetrón 14,7.

CONCLUSIONES:

El ondansetrón no inhibió el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pruritus/prevention & control , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Droperidol/therapeutic use , Morphine/adverse effects , Pruritus/chemically induced , Cesarean Section/methods , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Metoclopramide/therapeutic use , Morphine/administration & dosage
20.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2015; 19 (2): 118-123
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166440

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine or ondansetron with haloperidol, as a control, for the treatment of postoperative delirium in trauma patients. A total of 96 adult trauma patients diagnosed with postoperative delirium were randomized into three equal groups. Patients were given either 1 microg/kg dexmedetomidine [Dexmed group] or 4 mg ondansetron [Ondan group] or 5 mg haloperidol [Halo group], administered twice daily for 3 consecutive days. Number of delirious patients, patients who needed [rescue haloperidol] and the total amount of [rescue haloperidol] during study period was calculated. At the end of the study, the number of remaining delirious patients was 3, 6, and 2 in Dexmed,Ondan, and Halo groups, respectively, without statistical significance. During the study period, there was no significant difference in the number of patients who needed [rescue haloperidol] between Dexmed and Halo groups [5 vs. 3; p = 0.7]. However, the difference was significantly higher in Ondan group compared to Halo group [11 vs. 3; p = 0.03]. The mean total [rescue haloperidol] dose was significantly higher in Ondan group compared to Halo group [p < 0.001], but there was no difference between Dexmed and Halo groups [p = 0.07]. At the same time of delirium assessment, mean arterial blood pressure and mean score on Visual Analog Scale were not statistically different between Dexmed or Ondan group versus Halo group. No serious adverse events were reported. Dexmedetomidine is a potential alternative treatment for postoperative delirium in trauma patients admitted to ICU


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Ondansetron/pharmacology , Haloperidol , Wounds and Injuries , Postoperative Care , Intensive Care Units
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