Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 63
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 131-138, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092798

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La onicomicosis (OM) es una infección fúngica de las uñas, cuyo principal agente causal es el Tricophytum rubrum. Si bien es una patología infrecuente en niños, se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia en el último tiempo. Hasta la fecha, existen diversos estudios y guías clínicas de OM en adultos. Sin embargo, la literatura en edad pediátrica es escasa, lo que dificulta el tratamiento en pediatría. En el presente articulo se revisa la literatura actual, los métodos diagnosticos de OM, datos epidemiológicos locales y globales, y se presentan las opciones de tratamiento disponibles conside rando su eficacia y perfil de seguridad en población pediátrica.


Abstract: Onychomycosis (OM) is a fungal infection of the nails, whose main etiologic agent is Trichophytum rubrum. Although, it is an unusual pathology in children, in the last years an increase in its preva lence has been observed. To date, there are several studies and clinical guidelines for OM in adults. However, literature in children is scarce, which makes pediatric treatment difficult. The objective of this publication was to review the current literature in order to establish diagnostic methods for OM, national and international epidemiological data, and to provide treatment options taking into account their efficiency and safety profile in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Global Health , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 65(4)20191216.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048663

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A síndrome mão-pé é uma reação adversa experimentada por vários pacientes em tratamento para o câncer e fator preditor de morbidade e mortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar as evidências científicas relacionadas à identificação, prevenção e tratamento da síndrome mão-pé induzida por agentes quimioterápicos, identificar os principais sinais e sintomas que possibilitam o reconhecimento da síndrome e, ainda, discutir a ocorrência de onicomicoses no contexto da síndrome mão-pé. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática na MEDLINE/PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde e Scopus, incluindo literatura cinzenta e busca manual. Os 29 estudos incluídos na revisão foram analisados e classificados segundo a hierarquia dos níveis de evidência Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) e a confiabilidade entre os examinadores (coeficiente Kappa) foi calculada. Resultados: Foram identificados estudos que demonstraram eficácia na prevenção da síndrome mão-pé com o uso da crioterapia e hidroterapia. Evidenciaram-se resultados satisfatórios com o uso do creme de ureia na prevenção e tratamento, e o uso de piridoxina não apresentou resultados conclusivos. Foram encontrados mecanismos para identificação da síndrome e para classificação dos agentes indutores. O grupo dos taxanos predominou entre os medicamentos indutores da síndrome mão-pé. Conclusão: Existem evidências consistentes, porém não contemplam todos os fármacos indutores da síndrome e não exploram outras manifestações relacionadas às onicólises e onicomicoses. O estudo apresentou resultados que poderão auxiliar os prescritores na identificação da síndrome mão-pé, além de alternativas para prevenção e tratamento. Contudo, vale destacar a necessidade de pesquisas futuras para elucidar a etiologia e protocolos de tratamento.


Introduction: Hand-foot syndrome is an adverse reaction experienced by many cancer patients and a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Objective:To evaluate the scientific evidence related to the identification, prevention and treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced hand-foot syndrome, to identify the main signs and symptoms that enable the recognition of the syndrome, and to discuss the occurrence of onychomycosis in the context of the hand-foot syndrome. Method: This is a systematic review at MEDLINE/PubMed, Virtual Health Library and Scopus, including gray literature and manual search. The 29 studies included in the review were analyzed and graded according to the hierarchy of evidence levels Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) and reliability among examiners (Kappa coefficient) was calculated. Results:It were identified studies that demonstrated efficacy in preventing hand-foot syndrome using cryotherapy and hydrotherapy. Satisfactory results were evidenced with the use of urea cream for prevention and treatment, and the use of pyridoxine showed inconclusive results. Mechanisms for identification of the syndrome and classification of inducing agents were found. The taxane group predominated among hand-foot syndrome inducing drugs. Conclusion: There are consistent evidences but do not include all drugs inducing the syndrome and do not explore other manifestations related to onycholysis and onychomycosis. The study presented results that may help prescribers to identify hand-foot syndrome, as well as alternatives for prevention and treatment. However, it is worth highlighting the need for future studies to elucidate the etiology and treatment protocols.


Introducción: El síndrome de pies y manos es una reacción adversa experimentada por muchos pacientes con cáncer y un predictor de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la evidencia científica relacionada con la identificación, prevención y tratamiento del síndrome de pies y manos inducido por quimioterapia, identificar los principales signos y síntomas que permiten el reconocimiento del síndrome y analizar la aparición de onicomicosis en el contexto del síndrome mano-pie. Método:Esta es una revisión sistemática en MEDLINE/PubMed, Virtual Health Library y Scopus, que incluye literatura gris y búsqueda manual. Los 29 estudios incluidos en la revisión se analizaron y clasificaron de acuerdo con la jerarquía de los niveles de evidencia Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados: Identificamos estudios que demostraron eficacia en la prevención del síndrome mano-pie usando crioterapia e hidroterapia. También mostraron resultados satisfactorios con el uso de crema de urea en la prevención y el tratamiento, y el uso de piridoxina no mostró resultados concluyentes. Se encontraron mecanismos para la identificación del síndrome y la clasificación de los agentes inductores. El grupo de taxanos predominó entre los fármacos inductores del síndrome mano-pie. Conclusión: Existe evidencia consistente pero no incluye todas las drogas que inducen el síndrome y no explora otras manifestaciones relacionadas con la onicólisis y la onicomicosis. El estudio presentó resultados que pueden ayudar a los prescriptores a identificar el síndrome de manos y pies, así como alternativas para la prevención y el tratamiento. Sin embargo, vale la pena destacar la necesidad de futuras investigaciones para dilucidar la etiología y los protocolos de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hand-Foot Syndrome/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/therapy , Taxoids/adverse effects , Onycholysis/diagnosis , Onycholysis/therapy , Hand-Foot Syndrome/diagnosis
3.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 28(3): 177-180, 20170000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970212

ABSTRACT

Onychomicosis was considered uncommon in children. During recent years an increase in its frequency has been reported in children worldwide. This survey was carried out to estimate the frequency of causal agents of fungal nail infections in children and adolescents (0-15 years of age) during the period 2006-2016 in the Skin Laboratory of Clinical Hospital, University of Chile. It was a descriptive, retrospective analysis of all positive culture of children nails. A total of 1626 culture was analyzed. Cultures were positive in 417 cases (25,6%). Average age of patients with positive culture was 9,37 ages. Of the total positive culture, 42,9% was females and 57,1% was males. Toenails were more affected (90,6%) than finger nails. Trichophyton rubrum (66,9%), was the predominant pathogen isolated followed by Candida spp (26,1%) Trichophyton rubrum + Candida spp (3,8%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2,6%) and Trichophyton rubrum + Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0,5%). Fungal fingernail infection by Candida spp. was the most common (66,7%) and Trichophyton rubrum was the most common in toenail (70,6%). We found a decrease of Candida spp. with age. The results of our study show that onycomichosis in children and adolescents is not exceptional and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nail plate disorder in children. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 531-538, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787943

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Protium heptaphyllum is found in the Amazon region, and in various Brazilian states and South American countries. Also Known as almecega, it produces an oil resin used in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizant and expectorant, it is rich in pentacyclic triterpenes and essential oil. The main objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllumresin (OEPh) over different extraction times and to evaluate their antifungal activity against Candida species, obtained from gardeners with onychomycosis, using the disk diffusion method. The OEPh was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MDGC / MS). Candida species were obtained from lesions on the nails of horticulturist from a community garden in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The antifungal activity in concentrations of 1000 µg/L, 500 µg/L and 250 µg/L, PROTOCOL M44-A2 (CLSI 2009) OEPh was tested. The main constituents identified were: l-limonene, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cymene and α-phellandrene, however, its composition varies significantly with extraction time. All species, except C. rugosa, were inhibited with halo (≥ 14 mm) at 1000 μg / L. C. krusei is naturally resistant to the drug fluconazole, but when tested with OEPh the clinical species (case 9) demonstrated sensitivity in three dilutions (halo ≤ 10 ≥ 14) and the standard strain was inhibited at concentration of 1000 μg/Lg / L (halo 14mm). A similar situation also occurred with the standard strain of C. parapsilosis (halo ≥ 11mm). OEPh has considerable antifungal activity, which merits further investigation for alternative clinical applications, since this species is widely distributed in our community, and it presents good yields, and also has important therapeutic applications.


RESUMO Protium heptaphyllum é encontrada na região amazônica, em vários estados do Brasil e países da América do Sul. Conhecida como almecega produz uma resina oleosa usada na medicina popular como analgésica, antiinflamatória, cicatrizante e expectorante, é rica em triterpenos pentaciclicos e óleo essencial. O objetivo principal do presente trabalho foi analisar a composição química do óleo essencial da resina P. heptaphyllum (OEPh) em diferentes tempo de extração e avaliarsuaatividade antifúngica contra espécies de Candida, isoladas de horticultores com onicomicoses, por método de disco-difusão. O OEPh foi obtido por hidrodestilação, analisado por Cromatografia Gasosa Multidimensinal Acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (MDGC/MS). As espécies de Candida foram obtidas de lesões nas unhas de horticultores de uma horta comunitária na cidade de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Testou-se a atividade antifúngica do OEPhnas concentrações de 1000 μg/L, 500 μg/L e 250 μg/L, protocolo M44-A2 (CLSI 2009). Os principais constituintes identificados foram l- limoneno, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cimeno e α-felandreno, entretanto, sua composição varia significativamente em decorrência do tempo de extração. Todas as espécies, exceto a C. rugosa, foram inibidas com halo ( Χ ≥ 14 mm) na concentração de 1000 μg/L. C. krusei é naturalmente resistente ao fármaco fluconazol, mas quando testado com OEPh,a espécie clínico (caso 9) demonstrou sensibilidade nas três diluições (halo Χ ≤ 10 ≥ 14) e a cepa padrão foi inibida na concentração de 1000 μg/L (halo Χ 14mm). Fato semelhante também ocorreu com a cepa padrão de C. parapsilosis (halo Χ ≥ 11mm). O OEPh possui atividade antifúngica considerável, merecendo uma investigação mais aprofundada para aplicações clínicas alternativas, uma vez que esta espécie é amplamente distribuída em nossa comunidade, apresenta bom rendimento e, ainda, aplicações terapêuticas importantes.


Subject(s)
Burseraceae/chemistry , Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chemical Phenomena/analysis , Disease Susceptibility/classification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis
5.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(1): 54-6, Mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171806

ABSTRACT

We here report a clinical case of a female patient presenting with a three-month history of a white onychodystrophic lesion of both hallux. The infection was due to a mold, identified as Curvularia lunata var aeria. The Curvularia gender is related to the production of phaeohyphomycosis, Curvularia lunata cause onychomycosis occasionally. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200mg/day, during six month with complete remission of the lesions. In conclusion, it is important to consider these fungi as causative agent of nail mycosis since the initial site of infection may be a pathway for systemic dissemination in inmunocompromised patients


Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente que consultó por una lesión onicodistrófica blanquecina en ambos hallux, de 3 meses de evolución. El examen micológico determinó que el agente causal de la infección era un moho, Curvularia lunata var. aeria. El género Curvularia se asocia a la producción de feohifomicosis. Curvularia lunata es una especie que ocasionalmente puede producir onicomicosis. Se administró tratamiento por pulsos con itraconazol 200mg/día durante 6 meses, con remisión completa de las lesiones. Es importante tener en cuenta a estos hongos como agentes oportunistas causales de micosis ungueales, ya que el lugar inicial de infección puede significar una vía para la diseminación sistémica en pacientes inmunodeprimidos


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Culture Techniques/methods , Phaeohyphomycosis/complications
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(4): 311-314, dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008484

ABSTRACT

Se informa para Chile el aislamiento de S. pallida complex desde muestras médicas y del suelo del hogar de una paciente. Los hongos del complejo Sporothrix schenckii pueden causar distintas infecciones. En Chile, los aislamientos médicos y ambientales de este complejo son poco frecuentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar un agente atípico en un caso de onicomicosis y detectar su presencia en el suelo del jardín del hogar de la paciente. Para esto, las muestras clínicas se obtuvieron por raspado subungueal del primer dedo del pie derecho, y las muestras de suelo, de diferentes sectores del jardín. La identificación de las especies se realizó por morfofisiología y para la confirmación molecular se envió una de las cepas aisladas de la uña de la paciente al CBS (14.062). Se identificó S. pallida complex tanto de las muestras de uña como de aquellas provenientes del suelo del jardín


The isolation of S. pallida complex from medical samples and home garden soil of a patient in Chile is here in reported. Fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex can cause various infections. In Chile, the medical and environmental isolates of these this complex are rare. The aim of this study was to identify an unusual agent in a case of onychomycosis and to detect its presence in the patient's home garden. For this purpose, clinical samples were obtained by scraping the patient's subungueal first right toe nail as well as by taking soil samples from different areas of her home garden. Species identification was performed by morphophysiology and one of the strains isolated from the patient's toe nail was sent to CBS for molecular confirmation (14.062). S. pallida complex was identified both from the patient's toe nail and samples taken from her home garden


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Soil Microbiology , Sporothrix/classification , Soil Analysis , Chile , Onychomycosis/etiology
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(4): 581-586, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis or nail fungal infection is the most common nail disease. Despite the wide range of studies on this condition, it remains difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of classical laboratory methods for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and the in vitro susceptibility of the its main etiological agent to antifungals used in routine. METHODS: Nail samples of 100 patients with clinically suspected feet onychomycosis were collected to confirm the diagnosis by direct mycological examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against strains of the main dermatophyte isolated by microdilution, according to the standardized protocol (M38-A2 - CLSI) RESULTS: Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 59% of patients. Of these, 54.2% were positive only in direct mycological examination, 44.1% in direct mycological examination and culture, and one case (1.7%) was positive only in culture, resulting in weak agreement between these tests (Kappa = 0.385; p <0.001) High minimum inhibitory concentration values of fluconazole and itraconazole were observed in 66.7% and 25.0% of isolates of T. rubrum tested. Additionally, high MIC values of terbinafine and ciclopirox was detected in only one isolate, and this was one of the strains in which in vitro activity of itraconazole and fluconazole has not been proven. CONCLUSIONS: Poor agreement was observed between direct mycological examination and culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with direct mycological examination being significantly more sensitive. Except for fluconazole, the other three antifungals tested showed good in vitro activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Pyridones/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Nov-Dec; 79(6): 777-782
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154678

ABSTRACT

Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classifi ed as distal and lateral subungual (DLSO), proximal subungual, superfi cial white, endonyx and totally dystrophic onychomycosis. Nail samples from children with clinically diagnosed onychomycosis were collected, examined by direct microscopy and inoculated for culture study. The demographic features and possible risk factors were recorded and assessed by logistic regression models. Results: We clinically diagnosed onychomycosis in 152 out of 8,122 (0.18%) school children. DLSO was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (120/152, 78.9%). Culture-positive onychomycosis was detected in 27/152 (17.7%) children. The prevalence of culture-positive onychomycosis was determined as 0.33%. All culture-positive samples were only from toenails. The onychomycosis causative agents were dermatophytes in 17/27 cases (62.9%), including Trichophyton rubrum 12 (44.4%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 1 (3.7%), Trichophyton tonsurans 1 (3.7%) and Trichophyton spp. 3 (11.1%) and yeasts in 10/27 cases (37.1%), including Candida glabrata 4 (14.8%), Candida parapsilosis 1 (3.7%), Trichosporon 2 (7.4%) and Rhodotorula 3 (11.1%). Age, father’s occupation, number of siblings and rooms were statistically associated with the frequency of onychomycosis. Conclusions: Although to be prevalence of onychomycosis in school children in central Anatolia of Turkey seems very low degree, pediatric onychomycosis is a growing public health concern all over the world. Children having more siblings or unemployed fathers and children living in small house as well as older children should be examined carefully for onychomycosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Foot Dermatoses/diagnosis , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population/trends , Students , Turkey/epidemiology , Urban Population/trends
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(supl.1): 3-11, fev. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a type of fungal infection that accounts for over 50% of all onycopathies. Some authors consider superficial mycosis the most difficult to be treated. Very few studies have been carried out in order to assess the epidemiology of onychomycosis in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological profile of onychomycosis in Brazilian dermatology offices and to assess the etiology of the disease, how often mycosis exams are requested, and the treatment adopted. METHODS: A descriptive, observational study was carried out between May and July, 2010. Thirty-eight dermatologists from different Brazilian regions participated in the study, and 7,852 patients with any skin diseases who had all of their nails examined were included in the study. RESULTS: Of the 7,852 patients, 28.3% were clinically diagnosed as having onychomycosis. Women over 45 years old who practiced exercises or with a personal history of the disease showed greater likelihood of having onychomycosis. The disease was most seen in the feet, and the majority of cases involved the hallux. On the hands, the index finger was the most affected. Mycosis exams were not requested for all clinically suspected cases. When exams were done, results showed that the most common fungus was Trichophyton rubrum. The most common clinical lesion was distal-lateral. The most prescribed topical treatments were amorolfine and ciclopirox olamine, while systemic treatments included fluconazole and terbinafine. CONCLUSION: This study was important to describe the epidemiological behavior of onychomycosis in Brazilian ...


BACKGROUND: Fundamentos: As onicomicoses são infecções fúngicas que representam mais de 50% de todas onicopatias e são consideradas por alguns autores a micose superficial de mais difícil tratamento. Poucos estudos foram feitos para investigar a epidemiologia da onicomicose no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Descrever perfil epidemiológico da onicomicose nos consultórios brasileiros de dermatologia. Também observar a etiologia, a freqüência da solicitação do exame micológico e a terapia empregada. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e observacional no período de Maio a Julho de 2010. Participaram 38 dermatologistas de diferentes regiões do Brasil e foram incluídos 7852 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 7852 pacientes, 28.3% apresentaram diagnóstico de onicomicose. Mulheres, maiores de 45 anos, praticantes de esportes, ou com histórico pessoal da doença, apresentaram chance maior de adquirir onicomicose. A doença foi mais frequente nos pés, sendo o hálux, o dedo mais acometido. Nas mãos, o primeiro dedo foi o mais atingido. Exame micológico não foi solicitado para todos os casos. Quando realizado, o fungo mais freqüente foi o Trichophyton rubrum. A lesão clinica mais comum foi a distal-lateral. Os tratamentos tópicos mais prescritos foram amorolfina e ciclopirox olamina, enquanto os sistêmicos foram o fluconazol e a terbinafina. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo foi de fundamental importância para descrever o comportamento epidemiológico ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dermatology/statistics & numerical data , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Exercise/physiology , Foot Dermatoses/diagnosis , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Foot Dermatoses/therapy , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/microbiology , Hand Dermatoses/therapy , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors
11.
Dermatol. argent ; 19(1): 34-38, 2013. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-785540

ABSTRACT

Las onicomicosis son un grupo de afecciones ungueales causadas por dermatofitos, levaduras y hongos no dermatofitos, que pueden confundirse con otras onicopatías. Objetivos. 1. Aislar e identificar los hongos presentes en uñas de manos y pies en un grupo depacientes con infección por VIH que presenten lesiones compatibles con onicomicosis. 2. Comparar estos hallazgos con la microbiota presente en pacientes también VIH positivos pero que noevidencien clínica de onicomicosis. 3. Evaluar la asociación entre la afectación ungueal y diversas variables propias de la patología de base, como la cantidad de células CD4, carga viral, terapiaantirretroviral y otras comorbilidades.Materiales y métodos. En este estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, observacional, se evaluaron pacientes con y sin lesiones ungueales. Se observó el grado de afectación y se tomaron muestras deescamas de uñas, sometiéndolas a análisis micológico de rutina. Resultados. Se observó mayor frecuencia de onicomicosis en pacientes con carga viral mayor a 50copias/ml; así se obtuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre estas variables (p <0,05), no observándose asociación entre la presencia de onicomicosis y el nivel de CD4 en sangre.Conclusiones. Destacamos la importancia de realizar el estudio micológico en pacientes VIH con onicopatías, debido a que hay diversas causas de afectación del lecho ungueal, más aún teniendoen cuenta los fracasos terapéuticos, las recidivas y las interacciones medicamentosas entre agentesantimicóticos y antirretrovirales. Dado que en este estudio preliminar encontramos asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre algunas de las variables estudiadas, continuaremos con este trabajo con el fin de poder ampliar la información disponible sobre la etiopatogenia de las lesiones ungueales en pacientes VIH positivos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/pathology , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Antifungal Agents
12.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 80(2): 61-65, abr.- jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699532

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la onicomicosis es la infección de las uñas producida por hongos dermatofitos y no dermatofitos, como las levaduras y mohos. A los dermatofitos corresponde la inmensa mayoría de estas infecciones, pero informes recientes señalan el incremento de las infecciones producidas por los otros agentes referidos; dentro de éstos merecen especial atención el incremento reportado en diversos estudios de las especies del género Candida. La onicomicosis por Candida spp usualmente ocurre en inmunosupresos, siendo más frecuente en mujeres y en uñas de las manos. Caso clínico: masculino de 15 años con lesión en la uña del primer dedo de la mano derecha de un año de evolución, constituida por distrofia, cambios de coloración, opacidad y onicolisis, afecta el borde distal y medial; se consideró el diagnóstico clínico de onicomicosis, se tomó muestras para estudio microbiológico e indicó tratamiento con terbinafina oral mientras se esperaba el resultado del cultivo, sin obtener mejoría satisfactoria en 6 semanas. Se aisló Candida albicans, por lo que se indicó fluconazol vía oral 150mg/semana por 16 semanas, con lo que se logró la remisión completa. Conclusión: el paciente descrito es un masculino sin antecedentes personales patológicos u ocupacionales que favorescan la onicomicosis por Cándida, lo que nos demuestra la necesidad del aislamiento del agente etiológico de la onicomicosis para elegir la mejor opción terapéutica, y así obtener los mejores resultados. Dado que en nuestro medio los estudios de sensibilidad para antimicóticos son muy limitados, se necesita mejorar la disponibilidad de los mismos, lo cual nos ayudará a determinar la sensibilidad o resistencia a los agentes antimicóticos con que contamos en la actualidad...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Candida albicans/classification , Fungi , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses , Yeasts/growth & development
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(1): 0-0, mar. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639713

ABSTRACT

Desde marzo de 2007 hasta marzo de 2011 se estudiaron prospectivamente 414 pacientes con onicodistrofias en un laboratorio privado de Esquel. La prevalencia de onicomicosis de pie fue del 78 %; la de mano, del 58 %. Los principales agentes etiológicos fueron Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. El desarrollo de dermatofitos prevaleció en las onicopatías de pie y el de Candida spp. en las de uñas de mano (ambos, p < 0,05). En las onicomicosis candidiásicas predominaron especies diferentes a Candida albicans. Las onicomicosis fueron más frecuentes en los hombres que en las mujeres. A su vez, en los hombres hubo más aislamientos de T. rubrum en pies (p < 0,05) y mayor proporción de exámenes directos (ED) y cultivos positivos (ambos, p < 0,05). La correlación entre los resultados del ED y del cultivo fue del 68 %. El rédito de ambos métodos se asoció a un mayor tamaño de la lesión ungueal. El ED fue más efectivo en onicodistrofias que superaban los 5 años de evolución. La positividad del cultivo fue independiente de la cronicidad de la onicodistrofia.


Since March 2007 to March 2011, 414 patients with onychopathies were prospectively analyzed. Prevalence of the toenail and fingernail mycoses was 78 % and 58 %, respectively. The major etiological agents were Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Dermatophytes were more frequently cultured from toenails, whereas Candida spp. from fingernails (both, p < 0.05). In candidal onychomycosis, species different from C. albicans were prevalent. A higher prevalence of toenail and fingernail mycoses, a predominance of T. rubrum in toenails (p < 0.05), and greater positivity in the direct examination (DE) and in culture (both, p < 0.05) were more frequently observed in men than in women. The correlation between DE and culture was 68 %. DE and culture yields were associated with a greater size lesion. DE was more effective in onycodystrophies with duration of more than 5 years. Culture positivity was independent of nail affection chronicity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mycology/methods , Onychomycosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Candida/growth & development , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/microbiology , Fingers/microbiology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tinea Capitis/diagnosis , Tinea Capitis/epidemiology , Tinea Capitis/microbiology , Toes/microbiology , Trichophyton/growth & development , Trichophyton/isolation & purification
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 34 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, HSPM-Producao, SMS-SP, SMS-SP | ID: lil-667372

ABSTRACT

A onicomicose é uma infecção fúngica das unhas, correspondendo à cerca de 50% das onicopatias. A dificuldade de se estabelecer um diagnóstico clínico da onicomicose, somado ao fato do tratamento dessa patologia muitas vezes exigir o uso de antifúngicos sistêmicos, por longos períodos e potenciais efeitos colaterais, justificam a necessidade de se estabelecer o diagnóstico correto, com isolamento do agente causal. Atualmente, os exames mais utilizados para diagnóstico são a microscopia direta e a cultura fúngica. Esses métodos, no entanto, podem apresentar dificuldades técnicas, mesmo quando executados por profissionais experientes. A coleta das amostras é a fase mais crítica do diagnóstico da onicomicose. Normalmente, por desconhecimento ou dificuldade técnica, as amostras são coletadas da parte mais distal da unha, onde a viabilidade fúngica é baixa. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o uso da onicoabrasão (lixamento da unha) como método auxiliar na coleta de material para o diagnóstico de onicomicose, comparando com os resultados obtidos por meio da coleta tradicional. Trinta pacientes com suspeita clínica de onicomicose nos pés tiveram amostras da unha colhidas de 2 formas diferentes para exame. Primeiro, a coleta foi feita da forma tradicional, ou seja, da parte distal da unha. Depois, realizava-se a onicoabrasão da parte mais proximal da lesão e coleta das escamas dessa área abrasada. Ambas as amostras foram submetidas ao exame micológico direto e culturas. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que a onicoabrasão é um método auxiliar eficaz no diagnóstico da onicomicose, mostrando-se superior à técnica tradicional de coleta


Subject(s)
Humans , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/therapy , Nails/pathology
16.
Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012; 18 (92): 8-14
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-144493

ABSTRACT

Saprophytes are one of the agents causing nail dystrophy. Saprophytes can invade healthy nail or may invade nails previously damaged in the course of other diseases and grow with suitable conditions. The reported incidence of saprophytic nails is between 1.43-17.6%. Saprophytes preferably invade the nails on the big toes, especially in individuals above 60 years. The most etiologic agents of saprophyte nail are Aspergillus spp, Acremonium spp, Scopulariopsis spp, Penicillium spp, and fusarium. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence agents of saprophytic nails in patient that had referred to Razi hospital. This was a cross sectional study and nail samples were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. Microscopic examination of these specimens was carried out in potassium hydroxide solution [20%]. These specimens were cultured on two media of sabourad dextrose Agar [S]. Czapek-Dox Agar [CZA] medium was used for identification of Aspergillus species. For investigation of relevance between the variables, Chi-square test and Fisher exact tests were used. In this study, 34 cases were positive by both direct microscopy and culture. Of those, 17 patients were females and 17 patients were males. The most frequently isolated saprophytes from nails was Aspergilus flavous [35.3%]. Meanwhile 58.8% of saprophytes were isolated from toe nails. In this study the distal subungual onychomycosis was the most frequent [% 64.7%]. The age group 50-59 years [29.4%] had the highest prevalence of saprophytic nail infections.In this study the prevalence of saprophytic nails infections was 17.2%. A proper diagnosis, consisting of both clinical and mycological examinations, may aid the clinician in selecting the most appropriate therapy. Knowledge of epidemiology and mycology characteristics of nail infections has been noted by many authors as being an important tool for control of these fungal infections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Nails/microbiology , Nails/pathology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Onychomycosis/diagnosis
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 34 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, HSPM-Producao, SMS-SP, SMS-SP | ID: biblio-938438

ABSTRACT

A onicomicose é uma infecção fúngica das unhas, correspondendo à cerca de 50% das onicopatias. A dificuldade de se estabelecer um diagnóstico clínico da onicomicose, somado ao fato do tratamento dessa patologia muitas vezes exigir o uso de antifúngicos sistêmicos, por longos períodos e potenciais efeitos colaterais, justificam a necessidade de se estabelecer o diagnóstico correto, com isolamento do agente causal. Atualmente, os exames mais utilizados para diagnóstico são a microscopia direta e a cultura fúngica. Esses métodos, no entanto, podem apresentar dificuldades técnicas, mesmo quando executados por profissionais experientes. A coleta das amostras é a fase mais crítica do diagnóstico da onicomicose. Normalmente, por desconhecimento ou dificuldade técnica, as amostras são coletadas da parte mais distal da unha, onde a viabilidade fúngica é baixa. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o uso da onicoabrasão (lixamento da unha) como método auxiliar na coleta de material para o diagnóstico de onicomicose, comparando com os resultados obtidos por meio da coleta tradicional. Trinta pacientes com suspeita clínica de onicomicose nos pés tiveram amostras da unha colhidas de 2 formas diferentes para exame. Primeiro, a coleta foi feita da forma tradicional, ou seja, da parte distal da unha. Depois, realizava-se a onicoabrasão da parte mais proximal da lesão e coleta das escamas dessa área abrasada. Ambas as amostras foram submetidas ao exame micológico direto e culturas. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que a onicoabrasão é um método auxiliar eficaz no diagnóstico da onicomicose, mostrando-se superior à técnica tradicional de coleta


Subject(s)
Humans , Nails/pathology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/therapy
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-652106

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La sensibilidad de las pruebas convencionales (examen directo, cultivo) para el diagnóstico de la onicomicosis (25 a 80%), representa un problema para la decisión terapéutica del dermatólogo. Objetivo. Determinar la exactitud diagnóstica de la muestra de la lámina ungular en pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de onicomicosis. Metodología. Es un estudio prospectivo de pruebas diagnósticas en 50 pacientes con sospecha de onicomicosis. Se tomó muestra de la lámina ungular con cortaúñas estéril en el área de onicólisis para pruebas micológicas (KOHcultivo) y de histopatología (hematoxilina y eosina y ácido peryódico de Schiff), y muestra de detritos mediante raspado del lecho para prueba micológica. La toma de muestras y el procesamiento de las pruebas se realizaron en laboratorios de referencia y se interpretaron de manera ciega e independiente. La muestra de detritos se consideró la prueba estándar. Resultados. Se observó compromiso de los pies en 90% de los pacientes, 86,6% con afectación del primer dedo. La prueba micológica de detritos fue positiva en 80% de los casos, encontrándose estructuras micóticas en el examen directo en 72% y aislamiento al cultivo en 64%. En la lámina ungular, la sensibilidad fue de 87,5% y la especificidad de 80%; el cociente de probabilidades positivo fue 4,4. Cinco muestras positivas con la tinción PAS fueron negativas en la prueba estándar. La sensibilidad neta aumentó a 95% mediante el análisis de las pruebas en paralelo de la lámina ungular. La mayoría de los aislamientos fueron especies de Candida (77,3% en detritos y 75,9% en la lámina ungular), y C. parapsilosis fue el aislamiento más frecuente. Conclusión. Se propone la muestra de la lámina ungular para pruebas micológicas y tinción de PAS, como complemento a la muestra de detritos para el diagnóstico de onicomicosis.


Subject(s)
Foot Dermatoses , Onychomycosis/diagnosis
19.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 119(3): 207-212, jul.-sept. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701647

ABSTRACT

Se determinó la prevalencia de dermatomicosis en ancianos institucionalizados de Ciudad Bilívar, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, y se evaluó la sensibilidad in vitro de los aislamientos clínicos a los antifúngicos itraconazol, fluconazol y terbinafina mediante el método de microdilución en medio líquido, recomendado por el Comité Internacional de Laboratorios Clínicos (M38-P), con algunas modificicaciones. Los hongos fueron identificados mediante métodos tradicionales. Las levaduras se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas, sistema Api 20 C AUX (Biomérieux SA®, France) y crecimiento en medio de Staib. Se estudiaron 74 ancianos, todos recluidos en el Asilo "San Vicente de Paúl" y el Geriátrico "Carlos Fragachán" quienes dieron consentimiento por escrito para participar en el estudio. La edad de los pacientes estuvo comprendida entre 63 y 98 años (80 ± 8,4 años), la mayoría eran hombres (73%). Todos los pacientes tenían lesiones sugestivas de onicomicosis en los pies. El único dermatofito aislado fue Trichophyton rubrum (n=2) el cual resultó sensible al Itraconazol, terbinafina y sensibilidad variable a flucozazol. Asimismo se logró aislar Aspergillus niger (n=5; 6,7%) demostrándose sensible a terbinafina y fluconazol con sensibilidad variable a itraconazol. Candida albicans (n=3; 4,1%) fue sensible a fluconazol, resistentes a itraconazol y variable a la terbinafina. Aspergillus flavus fue aislado en dos casos (2,7%). Además de Geomyces sp, Fusarium oxysporum y Pseudeurotium ovale. Se concluye que existe una prevalencia baja de dermatomicosis en los ancianos institucionalizados de Ciudad Bolívar y que las lesiones clinicamente observadas son debidas a los cambios degenerativos propios de la edad.


A study determine prevalence of dermatomycosis in 74 institutionalized elderly patients was conductted in Ciudad Bolivar, state of Bolivar, Venezuela. Clinical isolates were assayed for in vitro sensitivity to itraconazole, fluconazole, and terbinafine using a slightly modified version of the microdilution method in liquid medium recommended by the International Committee of Clinical Laboratory (M38-P). Traditional methods were used to identify the fungi. The yeasts were identified by Api 20C AUX biochemical testing (bioMérieux SA®, France) and growth on Staib media. The elders, mostly men (73%), from the "San Vicente de Paúl" Nursing Home and the "Carlos Fragachan" Geriatric Hospital, were aged between 63 and 98 (80 ± 8.4 years). All the patients, whose written consent was secured, had lesions suggestive of onychomycosis. Trichophyton rubrum was the only isolated dermatophyte (n=2), which resulted sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine, with variable sensitivity to fluconazole. Aspergillus niger (n=5;6.7%) was sensitive to terbinafine and fluconazole with variable itraconazole sensitivity. Candida albicans (n=3; 4.1%) was fluconazole sensitive, resistant to itraconazole, and variable to terbinafine. Aspergillus flavus was isolated in two cases 2.7%). Geomyces sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Pseudeurotium ovale were also isolated. It is concluded that there is a low prevalence of dermatomycosis among institutionalized elders in Ciudad Bolivar, and that the lesions clinically observed were due to degenerative changes naturally occurring with aging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dermatomycoses/physiopathology , Skin Aging/physiology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Itraconazole , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Foot Injuries/pathology , Foot Injuries/therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Arthrodermataceae/pathogenicity , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 689-693, jul.-ago. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600610

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS: O Scytalidium spp. é fungo filamentoso, saprobio do solo e plantas, considerado, atualmente, patógeno primário das unhas. A prevalência das infecções ungueais causadas por este fungo vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, embora ainda sejam poucos os trabalhos publicados sobre sua epidemiologia. OBJETIVO: Estudo clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de onicomicose por Scytalidium spp. em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados os dados clínico-epidemiológicos de 30 pacientes com onicomicose por Scytalidium spp. por meio do estudo observacional de 1.295 pacientes que se submeteram a exame micológico ungueal no período de 16 meses. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (66,6 por cento), a média de idade foi de 56,7 anos e 63,3 por cento eram não-brancos. O nível de escolaridade em 53,3 por cento dos pacientes era o ensino fundamental e a renda familiar predominante foi de 3 a 5 salários mínimos em 36,6 por cento dos entrevistados. Em 90 por cento dos casos, as unhas dos pododáctilos foram acometidas, sendo a alteração clínica mais comum a onicólise (18 pacientes) e em 66,6 por cento dos casos observou-se melanoníquia. O tempo de evolução da doença foi maior do que cinco anos em 43,3 por cento dos casos. Dezenove pacientes (63,3 por cento) já haviam realizado tratamento medicamentoso para o quadro atual. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados mostram que a infecção ungueal pelo Scytalidium spp. é crônica, mais comum no sexo feminino (2:1) e atinge indivíduos adultos. Clinicamente, é semelhante às dermatofitoses. A prevalência na amostra estudada foi de 4,86 por cento e correspondeu a 26,92 por cento dos exames positivos.


BACKGROUND: Scytalidium sp. is a filamentous (thread-like), saprobic fungus which affects soil and plants. It is currently considered a primary pathogen of the nail. The prevalence of nail infections caused by this fungus has been increasing in recent decades, although few published studies have been done on its epidemiology. OBJECTIVE: To study clinico-epidemiological data referring to patients with onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium spp. at a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and epidemiological data of 30 patients with onychomycosis by Scytalidium sp. through an observational study of 1295 patients who underwent mycological nail tests over a period of 16 months. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were female (66.6 percent), with an average age of 56.7 years. 63.3 percent of them were nonwhite. 53.3 percent of the patients had attended elementary school and 36.6 percent referred a family income of 3 to 5 minimum wages. In 90 percent of cases, the toenails were affected, primarily with onycholysis (18 patients), and in 66 percent of the cases melanonychia was observed. In 43.3 percent of cases the disease had progressed for more than 5 years. 19 patients (63.3 percent) had undergone some medical treatment for their current condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that nail infection by Scytalidium sp. is chronic, affecting adults, particularly females (2:1). Clinically the disease resembles dermatophytosis. Prevalence of the disease in our sample was 4.86 percent, accounting for 26.92 percent of the positive tests.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Hand Dermatoses/microbiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Foot Dermatoses/diagnosis , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL