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Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 131-138, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092798


Resumen: La onicomicosis (OM) es una infección fúngica de las uñas, cuyo principal agente causal es el Tricophytum rubrum. Si bien es una patología infrecuente en niños, se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia en el último tiempo. Hasta la fecha, existen diversos estudios y guías clínicas de OM en adultos. Sin embargo, la literatura en edad pediátrica es escasa, lo que dificulta el tratamiento en pediatría. En el presente articulo se revisa la literatura actual, los métodos diagnosticos de OM, datos epidemiológicos locales y globales, y se presentan las opciones de tratamiento disponibles conside rando su eficacia y perfil de seguridad en población pediátrica.

Abstract: Onychomycosis (OM) is a fungal infection of the nails, whose main etiologic agent is Trichophytum rubrum. Although, it is an unusual pathology in children, in the last years an increase in its preva lence has been observed. To date, there are several studies and clinical guidelines for OM in adults. However, literature in children is scarce, which makes pediatric treatment difficult. The objective of this publication was to review the current literature in order to establish diagnostic methods for OM, national and international epidemiological data, and to provide treatment options taking into account their efficiency and safety profile in the pediatric population.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Global Health , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057290


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.

Humans , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Nails/microbiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Hemolysis
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 344-347, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011119


Abstract: Background: Of all nail disorders seen in dermatology offices, half of them are due to onychomycosis. The main differential diagnosis is nail psoriasis. The objective of this study was to compare the microscopic findings, other than the presence of fungi, in the clipping of onychomycosis versus normal nails and nail psoriasis. Methods: Cross-sectional study of onychomycosis cases, analyzed by clipping and compared with data on normal nails and those with nail psoriasis. Results: Sixty-two onychomycosis samples were compared with 30 normal nails and 50 nails with psoriasis. In onychomycosis, measurement of subungual region, serous lakes, neutrophils and number of layers of parakeratosis are more intense than in psoriasis. Onychocariosis is less common in psoriasis, while bacteria are more frequent. The nail transition zone is more commonly blurred and irregular in onychomycosis. Conclusion: Clipping helps in the differential diagnosis of onychomycosis and nail psoriasis and may be useful even when fungi are not found.

Humans , Onychomycosis/pathology , Nail Diseases/pathology , Nails/pathology , Parakeratosis , Psoriasis/microbiology , Psoriasis/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Nail Diseases/microbiology , Nails/microbiology , Neutrophils
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 476-482, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889147


Abstract Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail caused by high densities of filamentous fungi and yeasts. Treatment for this illness is long-term, and recurrences are frequently detected. This study evaluated in vitro antifungal activities of 12 organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against standard fungal strains, such as Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507 URM 1666, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antifungal compounds were synthesized from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4a-4f) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (9a-9f). Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols M38-A2, M27-A3, and M27-S4. The amine series 4b-4e, mainly 4c and 4e compounds, were effective against filamentous fungi and yeast (MIC from 7.8 to 312 µg/mL). On the other hand, the amide series (9a-9f) did not present inhibitory effect against fungi, except amide 9c, which demonstrated activity only against C. albicans. This allowed us to infer that the presence of amine group and intermediate carbon number (8C-11C) in its aliphatic side chain seems to be important for antifungal activity. Although these compounds present cytotoxic activity on macrophages J774, our results suggest that these aromatic compounds might constitute potential as leader molecules in the development of more effective and less toxic analogs that could have considerable implications for future therapies of onychomycosis.

Humans , Amino Alcohols/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Amino Alcohols/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fungi/classification , Fungi/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Onychomycosis/drug therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(1): 134-136, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038242


ABSTRACT This is a retrospective study of 160 patients treated in private practice in São Paulo from March 2003 to March 2015. We analyzed 171 results of direct mycological examinations and fungal cultures from nail scrapings. The agreement between direct mycological examination results and fungal culture was satisfactory, consistent with the literature (kappa 0.603). The main agent identified was Trichophyton rubrum (51%). We observed an isolation rate of non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi superior to the literature (34%). Determining the agent is key to defining the appropriate onychomycosis treatment, and knowing the epidemiology of patients treated in private practice helps the dermatologist who works in this context.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Private Practice , Retrospective Studies
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 173-179, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781362


Abstract BACKGROUND: Although dermatophytes are considered the major cause of onychomycosis, many reports have incriminated non-dermatophyte moulds and yeasts in the disease’s etiology. Successive Trichosporon isolation from onychomycosis has led to the genus being suspected as a nail primary pathogen. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Trichosporon isolation in onychomycosis patients who attended a mycology diagnostic service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2003 and December 2006. The study also includes a worldwide review on Trichosporon isolation prevalence in ungueal disease, emphasizing T. ovoides. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted with the support of staff from the Mycology Laboratory at the Dermatological Service of Rio de Janeiro’s Santa Casa da Misericórdia (MLDS). RESULTS: Mycological analysis provided positive results equaling 47/5036 (0.93%) for Trichosporon spp.; obtained mainly as a single agent (72.35%), and from mixed cultures (27.65%; X2= 6.397; p= 0.018). The great majority belongs to the T. ovoides species (91.5%; n=43), obtained as a single isolate (74.41%; n= 32/43; X2 = 7.023; p= 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Although T. ovoides is classically associated as an etiologic agent of white piedra, this study highlights its potential as a human nail disease pathogen. Our study opens doors for future epidemiologic and virulence factors aimed at determining whether T. ovoides is an important causative agent of onychomycosis in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Trichosporon/isolation & purification , Trichosporon/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Hand Dermatoses/microbiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(5): 753-755, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764409


AbstractSuperficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Foot Dermatoses/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Onychomycosis/pathology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/pathology , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Trichophyton/ultrastructure
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 799-805, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755823


Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.


Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arthrodermataceae/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Tinea Capitis/epidemiology , Tinea Pedis/epidemiology , Tinea Versicolor/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Hospitals , Hair/microbiology , Keratins/metabolism , Nails/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Skin/microbiology , Tinea Capitis/microbiology , Tinea Pedis/microbiology , Tinea Versicolor/microbiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3): 334-337, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749656


Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungi , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 485-492, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749739


Onychomychosis, a nail fungus infection is the most frequent nail ailment, constituting about half of all nail disorders. It can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, yeasts and Prothoteca spp. Methods include 5407 samples of patients with suspected onychomycosis, studied from January 2002 to December 2006, by direct mycological examination and fungi culture. The diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in samples from 3822 direct mycological and/or culture positive. The diagnosis was established by culture for fungi. Among the 1.428 identified agents, the dermatophytes were responsible for 68.6% (N = 980) of cases, followed by yeasts with 27.6% (N = 394), non-dermatophytes fungi with 2.2% (N = 31), Prothoteca spp with 0.1% (N = 2), and associations with 1.5% (N = 22). Females were more affected, with 66% (N = 2527) of cases, and the most affected age group ranged from 31 to 60 years of age (median 47 years). Fungal microbiota is often changed in the world, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and is affected by several environmental factors. Thus, the periodic review of the composition of this microbiota is important to evaluate the epidemiology and thus proportion a better therapeutic response.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Hospitals , Microbiological Techniques , Prevalence , Sex Distribution
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 311-320, dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783086


Las enfermedades fúngicas superficiales que afectan la piel y sus faneras son motivo de consultas en los servicios básicos de triaje y en dermatología. Se encuentran distribuidas en Venezuela con una incidencia de 92,9%. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer los géneros y especies que causan dermatomicosis en pacientes residentes del estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, en el período 2002-2012. Se estudiaron 4257 pacientes con edades entre 7 meses y 79 años. La prevalencia general fue de 30,9%. Las más frecuentes fueron las dermatofitosis (44,7%). M. canis produjo 148 casos de tiña de la cabeza. Tres agentes dermatofiticos representaron el 95% de todos los casos, con predominio significativo de T. mentagrophytes representado por un 50%. La candidosis se presentó en 28,4%. C. albicans, y el complejo C. parapsilosis, fueron responsables del 80% de los casos. Otras especies identificadas fueron C. tropicalis (n = 41; 11,0%), C. glabrata (n = 10; 2,7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6; 1,6%), C. krusei (n = 4; 1,1%). Pitiriasis versicolor se presentó en (22,4%), y en menor frecuencia la onicomicosis por mohos no dermatofitos, dominando Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34; 65,4%), Aspergillus terreus (n = 16; 30,8%) y Scytalidium dimidiatum (2; 3,8%). Raros casos de onicomicosis por Trichosporon (0,5%) y un caso de tinea negra. Estos resultados revelan una alta frecuencia de las micosis superficiales con predominio de las dermatofitosis indicando la existencia de un problema de salud pública.

Superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. These diseases are distributed in Venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. The aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. A total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. The overall prevalence was 30.9%. The most frequent were dermatophytosis (44.7%). M. canis produced 148 cases of tinea capitis. Three dermatophytic agents represented 95% of all cases, with a significant predominance of T. mentagrophytes with 50%. Candidosis occurred in 28.4%. C. albicans, and the C. parapsilosis complex, were responsible for 80% of the cases. The other species identified were C. tropicalis (n = 41, 11.0%), C. glabrata (n = 10, 2.7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6, 1.6%), C. krusei (n = 4, 1.1%). Pityriasis versicolor occurred in 22.4% of the cases studied, and less frequently were present onychomycosis produced by a non dermatophytic mold: Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34, 65.4%), Aspergillus terreus (n=16, 30.8%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (n=2; 3.8%). Rare cases of Trichosporon onychomycosis (0.5%) and one case of black tinea were also found. Health education in the population is recommended to promote measures to prevent transmission of these fungi and prevent the spread of this silent public health problem.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , Tinea/epidemiology , Tinea/microbiology , Urban Population , Venezuela/epidemiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157676


Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, yeast or other non-dermatophyte molds and have been known to be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and the etiologic agents of onychomycosis in patients attending RIMS, Imphal, Manipur for a period of two years (January 2010 to December 2012). Nail samples of 347 clinically suspected cases of onycomycosis attending dermatology OPD RIMS, Manipur were collected and were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) mounts for direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). The male female ratio of the participants was 1:1.81 (165 male and 302 female). Out of 467, 399 (85.44.%) were positive by culture and KOH mount. Young adults in the age group of 21-30 years were commonly affected. In female patients finger nail infection was more common than toe nail infection. Both toe and finger nails involvement were noticed in nine patients of which two were male and seven were female. The most frequently isolated fungus was dermatophytes, in 107 (40.38%) patients followed by Aspergillus spp in 101 (38.11%) and Candida spp in 17 (6.4%). This study demonstrated that dermatophytes, as well as moulds especially Aspergillus spp are commonly isolated from onychomycosis patients in our region.

Adult , Agar , Culture Media , Culture Techniques , Female , Fungi/growth & development , Humans , Hydroxides/diagnosis , India/epidemiology , Male , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/etiology , Nails/microbiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/etiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Potassium Compounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Young Adult
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(4): 581-586, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715536


BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis or nail fungal infection is the most common nail disease. Despite the wide range of studies on this condition, it remains difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of classical laboratory methods for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and the in vitro susceptibility of the its main etiological agent to antifungals used in routine. METHODS: Nail samples of 100 patients with clinically suspected feet onychomycosis were collected to confirm the diagnosis by direct mycological examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against strains of the main dermatophyte isolated by microdilution, according to the standardized protocol (M38-A2 - CLSI) RESULTS: Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 59% of patients. Of these, 54.2% were positive only in direct mycological examination, 44.1% in direct mycological examination and culture, and one case (1.7%) was positive only in culture, resulting in weak agreement between these tests (Kappa = 0.385; p <0.001) High minimum inhibitory concentration values of fluconazole and itraconazole were observed in 66.7% and 25.0% of isolates of T. rubrum tested. Additionally, high MIC values of terbinafine and ciclopirox was detected in only one isolate, and this was one of the strains in which in vitro activity of itraconazole and fluconazole has not been proven. CONCLUSIONS: Poor agreement was observed between direct mycological examination and culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with direct mycological examination being significantly more sensitive. Except for fluconazole, the other three antifungals tested showed good in vitro activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Pyridones/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(2): 181-186, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709425


BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes are the main causative agent of all onychomycosis, but genus Microsporum is infrequent and the risk of acquiring the infection is often associated with exposure to risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics of onychomycosis due to Microsporum onychomycosis in an urban population. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the epidemiological and clinical features of 18Microsporum onychomycosis cases of a total of 4220 of onychomycosis cases diagnosed between May 2008 and September 2011 at the tertiary referral center for mycology in Guatemala. RESULTS: Eighteen cases of Microsporum onychomycosis (M. canis, n=10; M. gypseum, n=7; M. nanum, n=1) were identified (prevalence=0.43%). Infection was limited to nails only and disease duration ranged from 1 month to 20 years (mean=6.55 years). The toenails were affected in all cases except for a single M. gypseum case of fingernail. The most common clinical presentation was distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (12/18) followed by total dystrophic onychomycosis (5/18), and superficial white onychomycosis (1/18). M. gypseumpresented in 6 cases as distal lateral subungual onychomycosis and in 1 case like total dystrophic onychomycosis. Five cases (27.78%) were associated with hypertension, diabetes, and psoriasis. Treatment with terbinafine or itraconazole was effective. Two cases of M. canisdistal lateral subungual onychomycosis responded to photodynamic therapy. CONCLUSION: This is the largest reported series of Microsporum onychomycosis and demonstrates such a disease in an urban population. In 27.78% of the cases risk factors for infection were associated to comorbid states. We also report the first 2 cases of successfully treated M. canis onychomycosis with photodynamic therapy and a rare case of M. canis associated dermatophytoma. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Foot Dermatoses , Microsporum , Onychomycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Foot Dermatoses/drug therapy , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Guatemala/epidemiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urban Population
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 74-78, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703169


Introduction: There are more than 300,000 extractors using the babaçu coconut as a source of income in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins and Piauí, and this activity is associated with fungal infections. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of emergent fungi in the conjunctiva, nails and surface and subcutaneous injuries of female coconut breakers in Esperantinópolis, Maranhão. Additionally, soil samples and palm structures were collected. Methods: The obtained samples were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar and chloramphenicol. The etiological agent was confirmed by a direct mycological exam and growth in culture. Results: In total, 150 domiciles were visited, and samples were collected from 80 patients. From the ground, the most frequently isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger (53. 8%). the most frequently detected fungus in babaçu coconut was Aspergillus niger (66.7%). Conjunctival fungal growth occurred in 76.3% of the women. The ocular fungal microbiota consisted of filamentous fungi (80.6%), and yeasts were present in 19.4% of cases. Onychomycosis was diagnosed in 44% (11/25) of the women. Conclusions: The identification of the genera Neosartorya, Rhizopus and Curvularia in onychomycoses shows that emergent filamentous fungi can be isolated. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Scedosporium sp. were the predominant genera found in the babaçu coconut. From ocular conjunctiva, Candida spp. were the most prevalent species isolated, and Fusarium sp. was present only in one woman. The nearly permanent exposure of coconut breakers to the external environment and to the soil is most likely the reason for the existence of a mycotic flora and fungal infections, varying according to the individual's practices and occupation. .

Female , Humans , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/microbiology , Cocos/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 30(3): 271-274, 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835959


Introducción: la onicomicosis en niños y adolescentes ha presentadoaumento en la prevalencia, siendo Trichophyton rubrum detectadocon mayor frecuencia en uñas de pies y Candida en uñas de manos.Hasta la fecha no existen estudios etiológicos de onicomicosis enpoblación pediátrica chilena. Objetivo: Determinar los agentes fúngicospresentes en uñas enfermas con sospecha de onicomicosis enniños y adolescentes estudiados en el Hospital Clínico Universidadde Chile. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo que analizó losregistros micológicos de muestras de uñas de pacientes entre 0 y 18años, estudiados en el Laboratorio del Departamento de Dermatologíadel Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile desde Enero hastaSeptiembre 2012. Todas las muestras fueron analizadas con microscopíadirecta mediante KOH 10% y cultivo de hongos en agar Sabouraud. Resultados: Se analizaron los registros de 100 pacientes, 58 de sexo masculino, con sospecha de onicomicosis. Del registro demuestras de uñas de pies (n=84), 41 presentaron micológico directopositivo para hongos filamentosos o levaduras, de los cuales 13 tuvieroncultivos de hongos positivo para T. rubrum y 2 para Candidasp. Del registro de muestras de uñas de manos (n=16), 10 tuvieronmicológico directo positivo para hongos filamentosos o levaduras, delos cuales se encontró positivo un cultivo de hongos para Candidasp...

Introduction: onychomycosis in children and adolescents haspresented increased prevalence. Trichophyton rubrum is detectedmore often in toenails and Candida sp in fingernails. Todate there are no studies of onychomycosis causative in Chileanpediatric population. Objective: To determine the fungalagents in diseased nails with suspected onychomycosis in childrenand adolescents studied at the University of Chile Clinical Hospital. Patients and method: Retrospective study analyzingmycological records of nail samples of patients between 0 and18 years old, studied at the Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology, Clinical Hospital University of Chile from Januaryto September 2012. All samples were analyzed by direct microscopywith KOH 10% and fungal culture on Sabouraud agar. Results: The records of 100 patients, 58 males, with suspectedonychomycosis were analyzed. Records toenail (n = 84),41 were positive in direct mycological test for filamentous fungior yeasts, of which 13 were positive fungal cultures for T. rubrumand 2 for Candida sp. The fingernails records (n = 16),10 were mycological direct test positive for filamentous fungior yeast, of which one fungal out culture for Candida sp waspositive...

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(3): 377-380, jun. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676227


BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections are caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or filamentous fungi. They are correlated to the etiologic agent, the level of integrity of the host immune response, the site of the lesion and also the injured tissue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to isolate and to identify onychomycosis agents in institutionalized elderly (60 years old +). METHODS: The identification of the fungi relied upon the combined results of mycological examination, culture isolation and micro cultures observation under light microscopy from nail and interdigital scales, which were collected from 35 elderly with a clinical suspicion of onychomycosis and a control group (9 elderly with healthy interdigital space and nails). Both groups were institutionalized in two nursing homes in Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil. RESULTS: The nail scrapings showed 51.40% positivity. Of these, dermatophytes were found in 44.40% isolates, 27.78% identified as Trichophyton rubrum and 5.56% each as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The second more conspicuous group showed 38.89% yeasts: 16.67% Candida guilliermondii, 11.11% Candida parapsilosis, 5.56% Candida glabrata, and 5.56% Trichosporon asahii. A third group displayed 16.70% filamentous fungi, like Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp and Neoscytalidium sp (5.56% each). The interdigital scrapings presented a positivity rate of 14.29%. The agents were coincident with the fungi that caused the onychomycosis. In the control group, Candida guilliermondii was found at interdigital space in one person. CONCLUSION: Employing a combination of those identification methods, we found no difference between the etiology of the institutionalized elderly onychomycosis from that reported in the literature for the general population. .

FUNDAMENTOS: As infecções fúngicas superficiais se correlacionam com o agente etiológico, a resposta imune do hospedeiro, o local da lesão e o tecido lesado, sendo causadas por dermatófitos, leveduras ou fungos filamentosos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo é isolar e identificar os agentes das onicomicoses em idosos institucionalizados. MÉTODO: A identificação dos fungos baseou-se nos resultados combinados do exame micológico, isolamento em cultura e da observação de microculturas sob microscopia de luz, do material subungueal e escamas interdigitais, coletado de 35 idosos com suspeita clínica de onicomicose e de um grupo controle (9 idosos com espaço interdigital e unhas saudáveis). Ambos os grupos eram institucionalizados em duas casas de assistência em São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brasil. RESULTADOS: As unhas raspadas apresentaram 51,40% de positividade. Os dermatófitos foram encontrados em 44,40% de isolados, sendo 27,78% identificados como Trichophyton rubrum e 5,56%, cada, como Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes e Microsporum gypseum. O segundo grupo mais frequente (38,89%) foi o de leveduras, identificadas como 16,67% Candida guilliermondii, 11,11% Candida parapsilosis, 5,56% Candida glabrata e 5,56% Trichosporon asahii. Um terceiro grupo exibia 16,70% fungos filamentosos, como Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp e Neoscytalidium (5,56% de cada). Os raspados interdigitais exibiram positividade de 14,29%. Os agentes foram coincidentes com os fungos que causaram a onicomicose. No grupo controle, a Candida guilliermondii foi identificada no espaço interdigital em apenas uma pessoa. CONCLUSÃO: Empregando-se a combinação destes métodos de identificação, não houve diferença entre a etiologia da onicomicose ...

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Institutionalization , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Sex Factors