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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD).@*METHODS@#PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to detect variant in the coding region of BT and HLCS genes in the patient. Suspected variants were verified in her parents and 80 unrelated healthy controls by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to carry compound heterozygous variants of the HLCS gene, namely c.286delG (p.Val96Leufs*162) and c.1648G>A (p.Val550Met). The c.286delG (p.Val96Leufs*162) was verified to be novel variant based on the result of PCR-RFLP analysis. No variant was found in the coding regions of BT gene in the patient.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound c.286delG (p.Val96Leufs*162) and c.1648G>A (p.Val550Met) variants probably underlie the MCD disorder in this patient. Above results have enriched the variant spectrum of MCA.


Subject(s)
Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases , Genetics , Exons , Female , Humans , Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency , Genetics , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sequence Analysis, DNA
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 772-781, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826899

ABSTRACT

Rhus chinensis is an important economic species, which could provide raw materials for pharmaceutical and industrial dyes. Rhus chinensis is famous for its resistance to drought, cold, and salt. It grows in temperate, warm temperate, and subtropical regions. We report here Rhus chinensis chloroplast genomes by de novo sequencing. The results show that the length of Rhus chinensis was 159 082 bp, exhibiting a typical four-part structure with two single-copy regions (long single copy [LSC] and short single copy [SSC] sections) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The length of LSC and SSC was 85 394 bp and 18 663 bp, respectively. The genomes contained 126 genes, including 88 protein encoding genes, 8 rRNA and 30 tRNA genes. In the chloroplast genome, 61.97% of the sequence were gene coding region. In the sequence of gene encoding region, the vast majority of sequences were protein encoding region, accounting for 86.65%, followed by rRNA (10 620 bp, 10.77%) and tRNA (2 540 bp, 2.58%). In Rhus chinensis chloroplast genome, only 8 genes contain introns, all containing 1 intron except ycf3 gene (2 introns). The Rhus chinensis chloroplast genome contains 755 SSR locies. SSR mainly consists of dinucleotide and mononucleotide, accounting for 60% (453) and 28.74% (217) respectively. The clustering results show that Anacardiaceae were closest to Rhus chinensis, followed by Aceraceae and Sapindaceae. This study provides a molecular basis for the classification of Rhus chinensis.


Subject(s)
Genome, Chloroplast , Genetics , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Rhus , Classification , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 65-70, July. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053486

ABSTRACT

Background: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msn2, which acts as a key transcription factor downstream the MAPKHOG cascade pathway, also regulates the expression of genes related to stress responses. However, little is known about the regulation mechanisms of the transcription factor in Setosphaeria turcica. Results: In this study, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, designated as StMSN2, was cloned from S. turcica. Sequencing results showed that StMSN2 had a 1752 bp open reading frame (ORF), which was interrupted by an intron (135 bp) and encoded a putative 538-amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that StMsn2 was more closely related to Msn2 of Aspergillus parasiticus. StMSN2 was cloned into the pET-28a vector with His (Histidine) tags and induced with 1 mM IPTG (isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactoside) at 37°C. The recombinant His-tagged StMsn2 was purified, and a band of size approximately 58.8 kDa was obtained. The high specificity of the polyclonal antibody Msn2-2 was detected with the StMsn2 protein from S. turcica and prokaryotic expression system, respectively. Conclusions: A new gene, named StMSN2, with 1617 bp ORF was cloned from S. turcica and characterized using bioinformatics methods. StMsn2 was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic system. A polyclonal antibody, named Msn2-2, against StMsn2 with high specificity was identified.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Transcription Factors/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Gene Expression , Blotting, Western , Open Reading Frames , Zinc Fingers , Cloning, Molecular , Zea mays , Escherichia coli , Helminthosporium , Epitopes
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773131

ABSTRACT

The family of flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase catalyzes the modification of anthocyanin from unstable-structure to stable-structure. In this study,based on homology cloning and transcriptome library,we isolated the full-length c DNA of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase( named SmUF3GT) from the flower tissues of S. miltiorrhiza. This gene was consisted of 1 353 bp open reading frames( ORF) encoding 450 amino acids. And the SmUF3GT protein was performed for the bioinformatic analysis. Our results showed that the protein was preliminary localized in the Golgi and peroxisome of cytosol,as well as plasma membrane and cell nuclear.QRT-PCR analyses indicated that SmUF3GT expressed differently in all tissues and organs but roots of S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f.alba. During floral development,the expression of SmUF3GT showed a trend of rising fist and then down in purple-flower Danshen,whereas decreasing sharply fist and then slowly in white-flower Danshen. The present study provides basic information for further research on the network of synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids in S.miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Flowers , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glucosyltransferases , Genetics , Open Reading Frames , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771402

ABSTRACT

A novel protein encoded by the open reading frame 4 (ORF4) was recently discovered in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). However, little is known about the interaction proteins of ORF4 which hindered better understanding the biological functions of ORF4 in the life cycle of PCV2. In the present study, the ORF4 was inserted into the multiple cloning site of pCMV-N-Flag-GST, yielding recombinant plasmid pCMV-N-Flag-GST-ORF4. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into 293T cells and the intracellular interaction complex of ORF4 were enriched and separated by GST pull-down and SDS-PAGE, sequentially. The potential interacting proteins of PCV2 ORF4 were stained with silver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Finally, five candidate ORF4-interacting proteins, including Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 6 catalytic subunit, alpha cardiac muscle 1, actin, SEC14-like protein 5 and myosin 9 were identified. These results would benefit a better understanding of the biological function of ORF4 in PCV2 infected cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circoviridae Infections , Circovirus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Open Reading Frames , Swine , Viral Proteins
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758906

ABSTRACT

The 4a and 4b proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been described for their antagonism on host innate immunity. However, unlike clustering patterns of the complete gene sequences of human and camel MERS-CoVs, the 4a and 4b protein coding regions did not constitute species-specific phylogenetic groups. Moreover, given the estimated evolutionary rates of the complete, 4a, and 4b gene sequences, the 4a and 4b proteins might be less affected by species-specific innate immune pressures. These results suggest that the 4a and 4b proteins of MERS-CoV may function against host innate immunity in a manner independent of host species and/or evolutionary clustering patterns.


Subject(s)
Camelus , Clinical Coding , Coronavirus Infections , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Zoonoses
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the disease-causing mutation in a family with hereditary spherocytosis type Ⅰ.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his relatives. Next-generation sequencing was used to detect the mutations of relevant genes. Suspected pathogenic mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a novel frameshifting mutation in the coding region of ANK1 gene, which has resulted in abnormal structure or function of the protein. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing, with both his father and brother found to have carried the same mutation.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.247delG mutation of proband hereditary spherocytosis typeⅠin this family due to mutation of the ANK1 gene..


Subject(s)
Ankyrins , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 777-784, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of conserved and variable regions of feline calicivirus capsid genome in order to investigate the molecular diversity of variants in Brazilian cat population. Twenty-six conjunctival samples from cats living in five public short-term animal shelters and three multicat life-long households were analyzed. Fifteen cats had conjunctivitis, three had oral ulceration, eight had respiratory signs (cough, sneeze and nasal discharge) and nine were asymptomatic. Feline calicivirus were isolated in CRFK cells and characterized by reverse transcription PCR target to both conserved and variable regions of open reading frame 2. The amplicons obtained were sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis along with most of the prototypes available in GenBank database and an amino acid analysis were performed. Phylogenetic analysis based on both conserved and variable region revealed two clusters with an aLTR value of 1.00 and 0.98 respectively and the variants from this study belong to feline calicivirus genogroup I. No association between geographical distribution and/or clinical signs and clustering in phylogenetic tree was observed. The variants circulating in public short-term animal shelter demonstrated a high variability because of the relatively rapid turnover of carrier cats constantly introduced of multiple viruses into this location over time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/virology , Calicivirus, Feline/isolation & purification , Calicivirus, Feline/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Pets/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Open Reading Frames , Genome, Viral , Calicivirus, Feline/classification , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Capsid Proteins/genetics
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mamastrovirus 5 (MAstV5), belonging to the Astroviridae (AstV) family, previously known as canine astrovirus or astrovirus-like particles, has been reported in several countries to be associated with viral enteric disease in dogs since the 1980s. Astroviruses have been detected in fecal samples from a wide variety of mammals and birds that are associated with gastroenteritis and extra enteric manifestations. In the present study, RT-PCR was used to investigate the presence of MAstV5 in 269 dog fecal samples. MAstV5 was detected in 26% (71/269) of the samples. Interestingly, all MAstV5-positive samples derived from dogs displaying clinical signs suggestive of gastroenteritis, other enteric viruses were simultaneously detected (canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus and canine rotavirus). Based on genomic sequence analysis of MAstV5 a novel classification of the species into four genotypes, MAstV5a-MAstV5d, is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ORF2 amino acid sequences, samples described herein grouped into the putative genotype 'a' closed related with Chinese samples. Other studies are required to attempt the clinical and antigenic implications of these astrovirus genotypes in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Astroviridae Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Gastroenteritis/veterinary , Phylogeny , Mamastrovirus/classification , Open Reading Frames , Astroviridae Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718758

ABSTRACT

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen and contains double stranded DNA genome with approximately 230 kbp. Molecular genomic studies of HCMV have been attempted in order to understand the pathogenesis and evolution of HCMV. However, studies on HCMV strains of Asian origin are limited. In this study, it was attempted to understand the genomics of HCMV isolated from Korea. Clinical strain LCW isolated from Korean patient was passaged in vitro cell culture, and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Complete genome sequence was obtained and compared with other HCMV strains. The LCW genome was found to contain 170 open reading frames (ORFs) and two ORF (RL5A and RL13) of the strain LCW were found to be truncated due to early stop codon. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the strain LCW was closely related with Asian strains such as HCMV strains JHC and HAN. Common nucleotide sequences among the 3 Asian strains distinguishable from other strains were detected at 197 sites including 104 sites in ORFs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Base Sequence , Cell Culture Techniques , Codon, Terminator , Cytomegalovirus , DNA , Ecthyma, Contagious , Genome , Genomics , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Korea , Open Reading Frames
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758832

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is recognized as one of the most important infectious diseases causing serious economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. Due to its increasing genetic diversity, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for PRRS control. The immunochromatographic strip test (ICST) is a rapid and convenient type of immunoassay. In this study, an on-site immunochromatographic assay-based diagnostic method was developed for detection of PRRS virus (PRRSV)-specific antibodies. The method utilized colloidal gold nanoparticle-labeled dual-type nucleocapsid proteins encoded by open reading frame 7. We evaluated 991 field samples from pig farms and 66 serum samples from experimentally PRRSV-inoculated pigs. Based on true PRRSV-specific antibody-positive or


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Antibodies , Colloids , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Genetic Variation , Gold Colloid , Immunoassay , Chromatography, Affinity , Immunoglobulin M , Methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Open Reading Frames , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758806

ABSTRACT

Recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in pig was reported. In this study, two APPV strains, APPV-China/GZ01/2016 (GZ01) and APPV-China/GD-SD/2016 (GD-SD), were identified in two newborn piglet herds with congenital tremor from China. The open reading frame of the two strains shared an 83.5% nucleotide identity. Phylogenetically, the APPV strains were placed into two groups: GZ01 belonged to group I and GD-SD belonged to group II. A high viral load was detected in the cerebellum (quantification cycles < 26). Further studies should be carried out to thoroughly elucidate the development of congenital tremors caused by APPV.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum , China , Genome , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Open Reading Frames , Pestivirus , Tremor , Viral Load
13.
Mycobiology ; : 429-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729732

ABSTRACT

To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4′-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA, which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans, as a new reporter gene. The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant with the PPTase npgA gene. Several promoter regions of the trpC and crp genes were fused to the npgA gene containing the 1,034-bp open reading frame and the 966-bp 3’ downstream region from the TAA, and the constructed fusions were introduced into the NPG mutant in A. nidulans to evaluate color recovery due to the transcriptional activity of the sequence elements. Serial deletion of the trpC and crp promoter regions in this PPTase reporter assay system reaffirmed results in previous reports by using the fungal transformation step without a laborious verification process. This approach suggests a more rapid and convenient system than conventional analyses for fungal gene expression studies.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus , Complement System Proteins , Fungi , Genes, Fungal , Genes, Reporter , Open Reading Frames , Pigmentation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transferases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741510

ABSTRACT

The capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is important for neutralizing activity against PCV2 infection. This study investigated the heterogeneity of the ORF2 gene of PCV2 isolated in Korea during 2016–2017. The results revealed that PCV2d is currently the predominant genotype. Moreover, comparison of ORF2 from 17 PCV2 isolates revealed 88.3–100% homology at the nucleotide (deduced amino acid 86.3–100%) level. Interestingly, 61.5% (8/13) of the PCV2d isolates had glycine at position 210. These data provide a useful information for PCV2 epidemiology in Korea.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins , Circovirus , Epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Glycine , Korea , Open Reading Frames , Population Characteristics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plasma levels are associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of prevalent vertebral fracture. So, we hypothesized that postmenopausal women with increased baseline plasma S1P levels have a greater risk for future incident fracture (osteoporosis-related fractures [ORFs]). METHODS: This study was conducted in a prospective longitudinal cohort of 707 women recruited in 2004 and followed up annually for a mean period of 5.2±1.3 years. They were postmenopausal (aged ≥50 years). The primary outcome measure was the time to the first confirmed ORF event using radiographs and/or a surgical report. RESULTS: The plasma S1P levels (µmol/L) were significantly higher in the women with incident fracture (7.23±0.79) than in those without ORFs (5.02±0.51; P < 0.001). High S1P levels were strongly associated with increased fracture risk. After adjustment for age and other confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) was 6.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.92−7.66) for each 1-standard deviation increase in plasma S1P levels. The women in the highest quartile of S1P levels had a significant increase in fracture risk (HR, 9.89; 95% CI, 2.83−34.44). Results were similar when we compared plasma S1P levels at the 1-year visit. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between plasma S1P levels and fracture risk were independent of BMD and other confounders. These findings demonstrate that high plasma S1P level at baseline and at years 1 to 5 is a strong and independent risk factor for future [ORFs] among postmenopausal women and could be a useful biomarker for fracture risk assessment in this population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Ecthyma, Contagious , Female , Humans , Open Reading Frames , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sphingosine
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1860-1869, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776283

ABSTRACT

Small proteins (SPs) are defined as peptides of 100 amino acids or less encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs). SPs participate in a wide range of functions in cells, including gene regulating, cell signaling and metabolism. However, most annotated SPs in all living organisms are currently lacking expression evidence at the protein level and regarded as missing proteins (MPs). High efficient SPs identification is the prerequisite for their functional study and contribution to MPs searching. In this study, we identified 72 SPs and successfully validated 9 MPs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on SPs enrichment strategy. In-depth analysis showed that the missing factors of MPs were low molecular weight, low abundant, hydrophobicity, lower codon usage bias and unstable. The small protein-based enrichment can be used as MPs searching strategy, which might provide the foundation for their further function research.


Subject(s)
Codon , Open Reading Frames , Peptides , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
17.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 22-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714916

ABSTRACT

Incorporation of unique barcodes into fission yeast gene deletion collections has enabled the identification of gene functions by growth fitness analysis. For fine tuning, it is important to examine barcode sequences, because mutations arise during strain construction. Out of 8,708 barcodes (4,354 strains) covering 88.5% of all 4,919 open reading frames, 7,734 barcodes (88.8%) were validated as high-fidelity to be inserted at the correct positions by Sanger sequencing. Sequence examination of the 7,734 high-fidelity barcodes revealed that 1,039 barcodes (13.4%) deviated from the original design. In total, 1,284 mutations (mutation rate of 16.6%) exist within the 1,039 mutated barcodes, which is comparable to budding yeast (18%). When the type of mutation was considered, substitutions accounted for 845 mutations (10.9%), deletions accounted for 319 mutations (4.1%), and insertions accounted for 121 mutations (1.6%). Peculiarly, the frequency of substitutions (67.6%) was unexpectedly higher than in budding yeast (~28%) and well above the predicted error of Sanger sequencing (~2%), which might have arisen during the solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and PCR amplification of the barcodes during strain construction. When the mutation rate was analyzed by position within 20-mer barcodes using the 1,284 mutations from the 7,734 sequenced barcodes, there was no significant difference between up-tags and down-tags at a given position. The mutation frequency at a given position was similar at most positions, ranging from 0.4% (32/7,734) to 1.1% (82/7,734), except at position 1, which was highest (3.1%), as in budding yeast. Together, well-defined barcode sequences, combined with the next-generation sequencing platform, promise to make the fission yeast gene deletion library a powerful tool for understanding gene function.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Deletion , Mutation Rate , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saccharomycetales , Schizosaccharomyces
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 260-261, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rio Negro virophage (RNV) was co-isolated with a strain of mimivirus named sambavirus, from Brazilian Amazon. We report the near complete genome sequence of RNV, the first virophage isolated in Brazil. We also present new microscopical data demonstrating that RNV particles have similar dimensions to that described to sputnik virophages.


Subject(s)
Togaviridae/genetics , Acanthamoeba/virology , Genome, Viral , Virophages/genetics , Phylogeny , Togaviridae/isolation & purification , Togaviridae/ultrastructure , Brazil , Open Reading Frames , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Virophages/isolation & purification , Virophages/ultrastructure
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 187-188, April.-June 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839392

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudomonas taiwanensis strain SJ9 is a caprolactam degrader, isolated from industrial wastewater in South Korea and considered to have the potential for caprolactam bioremediation. The genome of this strain is approximately 6.2 Mb (G + C content, 61.75%) with 6,010 protein-coding sequences (CDS), of which 46% are assigned to recognized functional genes. This draft genome of strain SJ9 will provide insights into the genetic basis of its caprolactam-degradation ability.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Caprolactam/metabolism , Genome, Bacterial , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Base Composition , Water Microbiology , Biotransformation , Open Reading Frames , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Industrial Waste , Korea
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes epidemics in developing countries and is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. There have been recent reports on the zoonotic spread of the virus, and several animal species, primarily pigs, have been recognized as reservoirs of HEV. Because of its possible spread, there is an urgent need of a method for the cost-effective production of HEV proteins that can be used as diagnostic antigens for the serological detection of anti-HEV antibodies. METHODS: The HEV open reading frame (ORF)2 protein was purified from plant tissue by using immobilized metal-anion chromatography (IMAC). The recombinant protein was used to develop an in-house ELISA for testing anti-HEV antibodies in both human and swine sera. Thirty-six serum samples collected from patients with serologically proven HEV infection with commercial kits were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies by using the plant-expressed protein. Forty-five serum samples collected from apparently healthy pigs in Bulgarian farms were also tested. RESULTS: We confirmed the transient expression and purification of a truncated version of the HEV genotype 3 capsid protein in Nicotiana benthamiana and its usefulness as a diagnostic antigen. ELISA showed the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in 29 of the 36 human samples. The in-house ELISA showed anti-HEV IgG antibodies in 34 of the 45 pigs. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a method for the production of HEV ORF2 protein in N. benthamiana and the usefulness of this protein for the serological detection of anti-HEV antibodies in both humans and swine.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Antibodies , Capsid Proteins , Capsid , Chromatography , Developing Countries , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , Hepatitis E virus , Hepatitis E , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Methods , Open Reading Frames , Plants , Swine , Tobacco
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