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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-962347

ABSTRACT

O intuito, nesta pesquisa, foi compreender o embasamento teórico presente no discurso de 17 profissionais de saúde mental que atuam em três modelos de atendimento a dependentes químicos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário e classificados em três categorias de análise, segundo o arcabouço teórico-epistemológico de cada abordagem e instituição, sendo elas: o modelo biomédico (clínica), o modelo sociocultural (centro de atenção psicossocial) e o modelo psicossocial (comunidades terapêuticas). Concluiu-se que os profissionais participantes não apresentam definição específica sobre os conceitos de dependente e tratamento, relativos à dependência química, e, também, suas abordagens podem ser, por vezes, contraditórias às metodologias e ideologias das instituições analisadas.


The objective in this research was to understand the theoretical background in the discourse of 17 mental health professionals working in three care models for drug addicts. The data were collected through a questionnaire and classified in three analysis categories, according to the theoretical-epistemological framework of each approach and institution, being: the biomedical model (clinical), the sociocultural model (psychosocial care center) and the psychosocial model (therapeutic communities). It was concluded that the participating professionals do not present a specific definition regarding the addict and treatment concepts of drug addiction. Also, their approaches can sometimes be contradictory to the methods and ideologies of the institutions analyzed.


La presente búsqueda, tuvo el intuito de entender el fundamento teórico presente en el discurso de 17 profesionales de salud mental que actúan en 3 modelos de atención a los adictos de drogas psicoactivas. Los datos fueron colectados por medio de cuestionarios y clasificados en 3 categorías de análisis según el marco teórico/epistemológico de cada enfoque e institución, siendo ellas: El modelo biomédico (clínica), el modelo sociocultural (centro de atención psicosocial) y el modelo psicosocial (comunidades terapéuticas). Se concluyó que los profesionales participantes no presentan una definición específica sobre los conceptos de "adictos" y "tratamiento" de dependencia química. Se concluye incluso que, el enfoque de los profesionales pueden, a veces, ser contradictorios a las metodologías e idiologías de las instituciones analizadas.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Team , Substance-Related Disorders , Mental Health Services , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721365

ABSTRACT

The proposed study is justified by the vulnerability of young people regarding psychoactive substances consumption. The objectives were: to identify the number of students who use psychoactive substances in an Institution of Higher Education; to identify factors that influence consumption and the number of students who need intervention. For data collection we used two instruments: the sociodemographic and ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test). In a sample of 437 students, we found that 221 of them must receive intervention and eight need to be referred for treatment; 68 students think that alcohol hinders them in college and 99 students miss classes due to alcohol consumption...


A realização do estudo justifica-se pela vulnerabilidade dos jovens para o consumo de substâncias psicoativas. Os objetivos foram: identificar o número de universitários que fazem uso, em uma instituição de ensino superior, verificar fatores que influenciam o consumo e o número de universitários que necessitam receber intervenção. Para a coleta de dados utilizaram-se dois instrumentos: de caracterização sociodemográfica e o Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screen Test. Em amostra com 437 acadêmicos, verificou-se que 221 precisavam receber intervenção e oito precisavam ser encaminhados para tratamento; 68 universitários achavam que o álcool os atrapalhava na faculdade e 99 universitários faltavam às aulas devido ao consumo de álcool...


La realización del estudio se justifica por la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes para el consumo de substancias psicoactivas. Los objetivos fueron: identificar el número de universitarios que hacen uso, en una Institución de Enseñanza Superiora; verificar factores que influencian el consumo; y el número de universitarios que necesitan recibir intervención. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó dos instrumentos: de caracterización sociodemográfica y el ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screen Test). En muestra de 437 académicos, se verificó que 221 necesitan recibir intervención y ocho necesitan ser encaminados para tratamiento; 68 universitarios creen que el alcohol les estorba en la facultad y 99 universitarios faltan a las clases debido al consumo de alcohol...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism , Students , Tobacco Use , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/therapy
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-717794

ABSTRACT

The objective was to analyze how is the care of drug users from the perspective of practicing professionals in an emergency care service in Ribeirão Preto-SP. For data collection, it was used a semi-structured interview conducted with 17 participants and found the Content Analysis of thematic type. It was found that most professionals do not have the knowledge to meet this demand, they feel insecure and their postures were guided by moral judgment and prejudice. Actions proved ineffective in attendance, as often the same were concentrated on clinical problems. It was reinforced the need for training of health professionals for this service, mainly due to the increasing demand for these services...


Objetivou-se analisar como ocorre o atendimento de usuários de substâncias psicoativas, a partir da perspectiva dos profissionais atuantes, num serviço de pronto atendimento do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se entrevista semiestruturada, realizada com 17 participantes e procedeu-se à Análise de Conteúdo do tipo temática. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais não dispõe de conhecimento para o atendimento a essa demanda, sentiam-se inseguros e suas posturas eram guiadas por julgamento moral e preconceito. As ações mostraram-se pouco eficazes no atendimento, visto que quase sempre as mesmas se concentravam em problemas clínicos. Reforça-se a necessidade de formação dos profissionais de saúde para esse atendimento, sobretudo devido à crescente procura por esses serviços...


Se objetivó analizar como ocurre el servicio de usuarios de substancias psicoactivas, desde la perspectiva de los profesionales actuantes, en un servicio de presto servicio del municipio de Ribeirão Preto-SP. Para recogida de datos se utilizó entrevista semiestructurada realizada con 17 participantes y se procedió el Análisis de Contenido del tipo temática. Se constató que la mayoría de los profesionales no dispone de conocimiento para el servicio la esa demanda, se sienten inseguros y sus posturas eran guiadas por juicio moral y preconcepto. Las acciones se mostraron poco eficaces en el servicio, visto que casi siempre las mismas se concentraban en problemas clínicos. Reforzamos la necesidad de formación de los profesionales de salud para ese servicio, especialmente debido a la creciente busca de estos servicios...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Users , Emergency Medical Services , Nursing, Team , Patient Care Team , Professional Training , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140328

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The patterns of abused psychoactive substances change over time, and it is important to document such changes. The present retrospective study was carried out to document these changes in patients registered in a de-addiction centre in north India over three decades. Methods: Case notes of all patients registered in the centre from September 1978 till December 31, 2008 were reviewed. Comparisons were made among three decades (1978-1988, 1989-1998, and 1999-2008). Results: The number of registered subjects increased eight-fold over the decades, and age of the subjects presenting for the treatment decreased. The percentages of subjects presenting for the treatment with opioid dependence were 36.8 per cent (n=204), 42.9 per cent (n=809) and 53.2 per cent (n=2219), respectively for the three decades (P<0.001). The proportion of subjects using natural opioids decreased over the three decades (47.4, 26.5 and 18.3%; P<0.001), with a concomitant emergence and/or increase of newer and prescription opioids such as buprenorphine, codeine and dextropropoxyphene. Dependence on tobacco and sedative-hypnotics also increased, and inhalant abuse was reported especially in the third decade. Polysubstance dependence increased significantly over the decades (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed major shifts in the patterns of substance abuse in clinic-attending patients in north India over the three decades from 1978 till 2008. These have important implications for all the stakeholders concerned with combating the challenge of psychoactive substance abuse in our society.


Subject(s)
Humans , India , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Narcotics/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/trends , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers/trends
5.
Rev. colomb. psicol ; 18(1): 95-102, ene.-jun. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-555542

ABSTRACT

En el ensayo se argumenta que preguntarse por los beneficios de tomar o no una postura de “reducción de daño” en el contexto del consumo de drogas es un falso dilema. No es posible tener una posición absoluta frente al tema, debido a que existen variables individuales, culturales, históricas, entre otras, que influyen en los resultados de las prácticas asociadas a la reducción del daño y que no permiten establecer la bondad o no de dicha postura


Subject(s)
Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy
6.
Armaghane-danesh. 2005; 10 (37): 71-80
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-69916

ABSTRACT

Opiates include natural alkaloids and synthetic derivates. Their pharmacologic effects are based on bounding opiate receptors. Peak toxic and therapeutic effect of opiate is 90 minutes after oral administration. Acute presentations of opiate poisoning are CNS, respiratory and Gl involvements. In long term, opiate can change numbers and sensitivity of their receptors, and result in tolerance or withdrawal syndrome. In opiate over dosage, morbidity and mortality decrease with careful therapeutic and supportive managements. Study of frequency distribution of opiate poisoning according to individual characteristics and clinical manifestations are the main objectives of recent investigation. in this retrospective descriptive study, 2520 patients were enrolled in 2001-2002. Information including demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects was collected. 263 cases of 2520 [10.4%] were poisoned with opiates. The most frequent age group was 21-30 years old [38.3%] and the most common hospital stay was 1-7 days [55.8%]. The males were more poisoned than female [71.4%] and respiratory support was used for 29 patients [18%]. Poisoning route was often [68.8%] by ingestion [181 cases]. The most common clinical presentation was CNS involvement [74.1%]. The most common type of used narcotic substances was opium [60.4%]. Mortality rate was 4.5% [12 cases]. Opiate poisoning can result in morbidity and mortality. Complications were more among those who referred to hospital with delay or used high dose or potent agents. The main cause of mortality in opiate overdose was hypoxia with respiratory depression


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Opiate Alkaloids/pharmacology , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Drug Overdose , Substance-Related Disorders , Mortality
7.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 26(4): 259-269, dez. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-393330

ABSTRACT

Existe uma prevalência relativamente baixa do uso de ópioides no Brasil, em particular envolvendo o uso não médico da codeína e de xaropes que contêm opióides. No entanto, a síndrome de dependência apresenta um significativo impacto total na mortalidade e morbidade. Nos últimos 20 anos, o avanço científico tem modificado nosso entendimento sobre a natureza da adição aos opióides e os variados tratamentos possíveis. A adição é uma doença crônica tratável se o tratamento for realizado e adaptado tendo em vista as necessidades do paciente específico. Há, de um fato, um conjunto de tratamentos que podem efetivamente reduzir o uso da droga, ajudar a gerenciar a fissura pela droga, prevenir recaídas e recuperar as pessoas para o funcionamento social produtivo. O tratamento da dependência de drogas será parte de perspectivas de longo prazo do ponto de vista médico, psicológico e social. Esta diretriz almeja fornecer um guia para os psiquiatras e outros profissionais de saúde que tratam de pacientes com Síndrome de Dependência de Opióides. Ela tece comentários sobre o tratamento somático e psicossocial que é utilizado nesses pacientes e revisa as evidências científicas e seu poder. Da mesma forma, os aspectos históricos, epidemiológicos e neurobiológicos da dependência de opióides são revisados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Brazil , Opioid-Related Disorders/classification , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Syndrome
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