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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305

ABSTRACT

Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cricetinae , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786649

ABSTRACT

An archaeoparasitological analysis of the soil samples from Nadym Gorodok site of Western Siberia has been carried out in this study. The archaeological site was dated as the 13 to 18th century, being characterized as permafrost region ensuring good preservation of ancient parasite eggs. Parasite eggs as Opisthorchis felineus, Alaria alata, and Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in the archaeological soil samples, which made clear about the detailed aspects of Nadym Gorodok people's life. We found the Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs throughout the 14 to 18th century specimens, allowing us to presume that raw or undercooked fish might have been commonly used for the foods of Nadym Gorodok inhabitants and their dogs for at least the past 400 years. Our study on Nadym Gorodok specimens also demonstrate that there might have been migratory interactions and strong economic ties between the people and society in Western Siberia, based on archaeoparasitological results of Opisthorchis felineus in Western Siberia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Asia, Northern , Diphyllobothrium , Dogs , Eggs , Humans , Middle Aged , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Permafrost , Siberia , Soil
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742251

ABSTRACT

Aim of the present study was to provide presence of opisthorchiid metacercariae in cyprinid fish Leuciscus idus in Nura-Sarysu river, Kazakhstan. Infection rate of the ides by the metacercariae was 42%. The metacercariae, similar morphologically to those of the liver flukes, were found: elliptical in shape, 0.19–0.25×0.15–0.22 mm, oral and ventral suckers nearly equal size, and excretory bladder O-shape with black content, occupying posterior part of the body. The metacercariae were divided into 2 groups with differences in size and thickness of cyst wall. Adult flukes were recovered from the Syrian hamsters infected with the opisthorch metacercariae and identified with morphological characters to Opisthorchis felineus and Metorchis bilis. DNA sequences of ITS1, ITS2, and cox1 supported the taxonomic assignment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Base Sequence , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Kazakhstan , Mesocricetus , Metacercariae , Opisthorchis , Rivers , Trematoda , Urinary Bladder
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742218

ABSTRACT

Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2–42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini. All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis. All OvCaBPs were detected in soluble and insoluble crude worm extracts and in the excretory-secretory product, at approximate sizes of 21–23 kDa. The ion-binding properties of the proteins were analyzed by mobility shift assays with the divalent cations Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Cu²+. All OvCaBPs showed mobility shifts with Ca²⁺ and Zn²⁺. OvCaBP1 showed also positive results with Mg²⁺ and Cu²⁺. As tegumental proteins, OvCaBP1, 2, and 3 are interesting drug targets for the treatment of opisthorchiasis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Cations, Divalent , Dyneins , EF Hand Motifs , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Molecular Weight , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Parasites , Protein Isoforms
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50085

ABSTRACT

Codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of genomes and has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular features and the evolution processes of particular gene. In this study, genetic indices associated with CUB, including relative synonymous codon usage and effective numbers of codons, as well as the nucleotide composition, were investigated in the Clonorchis sinensis tyrosinase genes and their platyhelminth orthologs, which play an important role in the eggshell formation. The relative synonymous codon usage patterns substantially differed among tyrosinase genes examined. In a neutrality analysis, the correlation between GC₁₂ and GC₃ was statistically significant, and the regression line had a relatively gradual slope (0.218). NC-plot, i.e., GC₃ vs effective number of codons (ENC), showed that most of the tyrosinase genes were below the expected curve. The codon adaptation index (CAI) values of the platyhelminth tyrosinases had a narrow distribution between 0.685/0.714 and 0.797/0.837, and were negatively correlated with their ENC. Taken together, these results suggested that CUB in the tyrosinase genes seemed to be basically governed by selection pressures rather than mutational bias, although the latter factor provided an additional force in shaping CUB of the C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini genes. It was also apparent that the equilibrium point between selection pressure and mutational bias is much more inclined to selection pressure in highly expressed C. sinensis genes, than in poorly expressed genes.


Subject(s)
Bias , Clonorchis sinensis , Codon , Genome , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Opisthorchis , Platyhelminths
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168668

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini infection induces chronic inflammation, and a minor proportion of infected individuals develop advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Inflammatory cytokines and/or their gene polymorphisms may link to these biliary pathologies. We therefore investigated associations among cytokine gene polymorphisms and cytokine production in 510 Thai cases infected with O. viverrini who presented with APF+ or APF−, as established by abdominal ultrasonography as well as in patients diagnosed with CCA. Levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined in culture supernatants after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with O. viverrini excretory-secretory (ES) products. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, LT-α, and TNF-α were significantly increased in CCA patients compared with non-CCA (APF− and APF+) cases. Polymorphisms in genes encoding IL-1β-511C/T, IL-6-174G/C, IFN-γ +874T/A, LT-α +252A/G, and TNF-α−308G/A were then investigated by using PCR-RFLP or allele specific-PCR (AS-PCR) analyses. In the CCA cases, LT-α +252A/G and TNF-α−308G/A heterozygous and homozygous variants showed significantly higher levels of these cytokines than the wild type. By contrast, levels of cytokines in wild type of IFN-γ +874T/A were significantly higher than the variants in CCA cases. IFN-γ +874T/A polymorphisms were associated with advanced periductal fibrosis, whereas IL-6 −174G/C polymorphisms were associated with CCA. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first demonstration that O. viverrini infected individuals carrying several specific cytokine gene polymorphisms are susceptible to develop fibrosis and CCA.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Asians , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cytokines , Fasciola hepatica , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Liver , Opisthorchis , Pathology , Ultrasonography
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16096

ABSTRACT

Calreticulin (CALR), a multifunctional protein thoroughly researched in mammals, comprises N-, P-, and C-domain and has roles in calcium homeostasis, chaperoning, clearance of apoptotic cells, cell adhesion, and also angiogenesis. In this study, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the Opisthorchis viverrini CALR gene were analyzed, and calcium-binding and chaperoning properties of recombinant O. viverrini CALR (OvCALR) investigated. OvCALR mRNA was detected from the newly excysted juvenile to the mature parasite by RT-PCR while specific antibodies showed a wide distribution of the protein. OvCALR was localized in tegumental cell bodies, testes, ovary, eggs, Mehlis’ gland, prostate gland, and vitelline cells of the mature parasite. Recombinant OvCALR showed an in vitro suppressive effect on the thermal aggregation of citrate synthase. The recombinant OvCALR C-domain showed a mobility shift in native gel electrophoresis in the presence of calcium. The results imply that OvCALR has comparable function to the mammalian homolog as a calcium-binding molecular chaperone. Inferred from the observed strong immunostaining of the reproductive tissues, OvCALR should be important for reproduction and might be an interesting target to disrupt parasite fecundity. Transacetylase activity of OvCALR as reported for calreticulin of Haemonchus contortus could not be observed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Calcium , Calreticulin , Cell Adhesion , Cell Body , Citrate (si)-Synthase , Eggs , Electrophoresis , Female , Fertility , Haemonchus , Homeostasis , In Vitro Techniques , Mammals , Molecular Chaperones , Opisthorchis , Ovary , Ovum , Parasites , Prostate , Reproduction , RNA, Messenger , Testis , Vitellins
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 471-477, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787023

ABSTRACT

By utilizing the antibody for rat DGKz a substantial number of immunopositive cells were found in the OV (Opisthorchis viverrini). The immunopositive cells appeared solitarily and they were distributed rather symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of the OV. Some of them were located in close proximity to internal organs such as uterus, ovary, testes, vitelline glands and guts. The immunostained cells extended tapering processes horizontally or obliquely to the OV longitudinal axis. In immuno-electron microscopy, the immunopositive cells were characterized by intensely immunostained mitochondria and weakly immunostained cytoplasm and immunonegative chromatin-poor nucleus. Vacuoles of various sizes without the immunoreactivity were also contained in the cells. Thin cellular processes without the immunoreactivity were found to enclose thinly the entire surfaces of the immunostained cells and processes, and they were in continuity with the interstitial partition-like processes which contained nuclei and aggregation of microfibrils at some distance from the cytoplasmic envelopes. The present finding suggests the possibility that the immunostained cells were peripheral neurons enveloped by peripheral glia and that the glia are of mesenchymal origin because of their cytoplasmic continuity to the interstitial partition-like processes. The motor or sensory nature of the neurons remains to be elucidated.


Mediante el uso del anticuerpos DGK para rata se determinó un número considerable de células inmunopositivas en el Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Las células inmunopositivas aparecían solitarias y se distribuían simétricamente al eje longitudinal de la OV. Algunas estaban ubicadas en las proximidades de los órganos internos como el útero, ovarios, testículos, glándulas vitelinas e intestino. Las células inmunoteñidas extendían sus procesos horizontalmente u oblicuamente al eje longitudinal de la OV. Por microscopía inmunoelectrónica, las células inmunopositivas se caracterizaron por presentar mitocondrias intensamente teñidas, citoplasma con tinción débil e inmunonegatividad en núcleos pobres en cromatina. También se observó en las células, vacuolas de diversos tamaños sin inmunorreactividad. Se encontraron procesos celulares sin inmunorreactividad para cerrar finamente todas las superficies de las células y procesos, y se continuaron con los procesos de partición intersticiales que contenían núcleos y agregación de microfibrillas a cierta distancia de las envolturas citoplásmicas. El presente hallazgo sugiere la posibilidad de que las células inmunoteñidas son neuronas periféricas envueltas por glia periférica y que la glía presenta origen mesenquimal debido a su continuidad citoplasmática con los procesos de partición intersticiales. La naturaleza motora o sensorial de las neuronas aún no se ha dilucidado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diacylglycerol Kinase/metabolism , Neurons/ultrastructure , Opisthorchis/ultrastructure , Peripheral Nerves/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Opisthorchis/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166320

ABSTRACT

Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Ducks , Genotype , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Liver , Opisthorchis , Parasites , Prevalence , Trematoda , Urinary Bladder , Vietnam
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 974-980, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769834

ABSTRACT

We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, Medieval , Humans , Infant , Cemeteries/history , Foodborne Diseases/history , Mummies/parasitology , Opisthorchiasis/history , Raw Foods/parasitology , Feeding Behavior , Fishes/parasitology , Food Parasitology/history , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification , Parasite Egg Count/history , Siberia/ethnology , Zygote
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124051

ABSTRACT

Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Gene Expression Profiling , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Iron/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Macrophages/immunology , Mesocricetus , Opisthorchiasis/complications , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197171

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4+/-0.09degrees C and 85.9+/-0.08degrees C for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia , Clonorchis sinensis/classification , Feces/parasitology , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Opisthorchis/classification , Parasitology/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transition Temperature , Zygote
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197170

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini infection causes inflammation and liver injury leading to periductal fibrosis. Little is known about the pathological alterations in bile canaliculi in opisthorchiasis. This study aimed to investigate bile canalicular alterations in O. viverrini-infected hamsters and to examine the chemopreventive effects of curcumin on such changes. Hamsters were infected with O. viverrini and one group of animals was fed with 1% dietary curcumin supplement. Animals were examined during the acute infection phase, days 21 and 30 post-infection (PI) and chronic infection phase (day 90 PI). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that in the infected group fed with a normal diet, bile canaliculi became slightly tortuous by 30 day PI and more tortuous at day 90 PI. Transmission electron microscopy showed a reduction in microvilli density of canaliculi starting at day 30 PI, with a marked loss of microvilli at day 90 PI. These ultrastructral changes were slightly seen at day 21 PI, which was similar to that found in infected animals fed with 1% curcumin-supplemented diet. Notably, curcumin treatment prevented the reduction of microvilli density, reduced the dilation of bile canaliculi, and decreased the tortuosity of the bile canaliculi relative to non-infected animals on a normal diet at days 30 and 90 PI. These results suggest that curcumin reduces alteration of bile canaliculi and may be a promising agent to prevent the onset of bile duct abnormalities induced by O. viverrini infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Bile Canaliculi/pathology , Chemoprevention/methods , Cricetinae , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Electrons , Liver/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Opisthorchiasis/parasitology , Opisthorchis/growth & development
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197169

ABSTRACT

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyprinidae/parasitology , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Metacercariae/isolation & purification , Microscopy , Opisthorchiasis/epidemiology , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification , Parasitology/methods , Prevalence , Thailand
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146174

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Opisthorchiasis/epidemiology , Opisthorchis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Rural Population , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149241

ABSTRACT

Feline parasites were investigated in the area of Suwon in Korea from September to October, 2003. Wild cat had spread to zoonotic parasites, these parasites could cause infection with a person. People have a lot of interest in parasite infection of wild cat. This article reviews rate of infection of a parasites and kind of a parasite of wild cats. We will report the critical characteristic features of parasites to a better understanding of the disease. The incidence rates of Toxocara cati, Trichuris felis, Ancylostoma braziliense and Capillaria sp were 37.0, 4.3, 1.1 and 1.1% in nematodes. Those of Taenia taeniaformis and Opisthorchis sp were 2.2 and 1.1% in cestode and trematode. Those of Isospora felis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis sp were 8.7, 9.8, and 2.2% in protozoa. Almost of these were zoonotic parasites without Isospora felis.


Subject(s)
Ancylostoma , Animals , Capillaria , Cats , Cestoda , Felis , Humans , Incidence , Isospora , Korea , Opisthorchis , Parasites , Prevalence , Sarcocystis , Taenia , Toxocara , Toxoplasma , Trichuris
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 273-279, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23786

ABSTRACT

It has been clarified that chronic infection with viruses such as hepatitis B virus, bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and parasites contribute to carcinogenesis in human. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group I carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with urinary bladder cancer and liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Opisthorchis viverrini which has been extensively studied the association with cholangiocarcinoma is endemic in Southeast Asian countries including Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. Clonorchis sinensis infection which is common in rural areas of Korea and China has also been reported its definite association with cholangiocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis associated with liver flukes infections is a complex process hard to be studied because of long latency period and numerous other factors can play a role although chronic inflammation has been known as a key feature. Mechanical injury from the activities of migrating and sucking flukes contributes to biliary damage and chronic inflammation. The liver fluke also secretes or excretes metabolic products, some of which are highly immunogenic, toxic and promoting biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Host immune responses and immunopathological processes are also likely associated with chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Escape from host anti-tumor immune response and shift to Th2 response of Th1-Th2 balance are related with carcinogenesis. Biliary cell and its DNA damage can be induced by oxygen free radicals such as nitric oxide released from effector cells activated by inflammatory cytokines. Exogenous carcinogen suchas nitrosamine seemed also closely related with cholangiocarcinoma development in liver fluke infected individuals. In this paper, various and stepwise mechanisms of carcinogenesis by liver flukes and its potential targets can be intervene were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Asians , Bacteria , Cambodia , China , Cholangiocarcinoma , Clonorchis sinensis , Cytokines , DNA Damage , Epithelial Cells , Fasciola hepatica , Free Radicals , Helicobacter pylori , Helminths , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Inflammation , Korea , Latency Period, Psychological , Liver , Nitric Oxide , Opisthorchis , Oxygen , Parasites , Schistosoma haematobium , Th1-Th2 Balance , Thailand , Trematoda , United Nations , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Vietnam
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225546

ABSTRACT

Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/parasitology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnosis , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Clonorchiasis/complications , Clonorchis sinensis , Humans , Incidence , Opisthorchiasis/complications , Opisthorchis
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