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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021345, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355723

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a rare, sometimes severe fungal infection that has emerged as a possible complication of COVID-19. We report a case of a non-diabetic, apparently immunocompetent patient diagnosed with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis shortly after COVID-19 treatment with dexamethasone. The patient received optimized systemic antifungal therapy and extensive surgical treatment. So far, four months after the last hospital discharge, the patient has been in good general condition. This case is a dramatic reminder that beneficial corticosteroid therapy in general inevitably carries a risk of opportunistic infection, and corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19 risks orbital-rhinocerebral mucormycosis that clinicians should watch for with vigilance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Orbit/pathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Mucormycosis/complications , Opportunistic Infections , Immunocompetence
2.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(3): 50-55, set.-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1291673

ABSTRACT

A pandemia gerada pelo SARS-CoV-2 gerou uma série de estudos sobre essa nova doença. Este cenário proporcionou mudanças na odontologia, modificando a forma de atendimento e a rotina do consultório. O conhecimento sobre as implicações desse vírus no sistema estomatognático pode fornecer informações valiosas no conhecimento sobre o mecanismo dessa doença na cavidade oral. Dessa forma, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura, a fim de discutir os efeitos do COVID-19 na cavidade oral. No entanto, há poucas evidências na literatura sobre a correlação da COVID-19 e manifestações orais. Pode-se concluir que o vírus possui reflexo na cavidade oral, apresentando diferentes alterações, tais como: úlceras, periodontite, alterações do paladar, infecções oportunistas, dentre outras. Ainda se faz necessária a realização de mais estudos, para compreensão dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos da doença. Além disso, o trabalho ressalta a importância do cirurgião-dentista no ambiente hospitalar, para diagnóstico e conduta no tratamento dessas manifestações na cavidade oral(AU)


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spawned several studies on this new disease. This scenario provided changes in Dentistry by modifying the form of care and the routine of the office. The knowledge about the implications of this virus in the stomatognathic system can provide valuable information in the knowledge about the mechanism of this disease in the oral cavity. Thus, a literature review was carried out to discuss the effects of COVID-19 on the oral cavity. However, there is little evidence in the literature about the correlation between COVID-19 and oral manifestations. It can be concluded that the virus is reflected in the oral cavity, such as ulcers, periodontitis, changes in taste, opportunistic infections, among others. Further studies are still needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Besides, the work highlights the importance of the Dental Surgeon in the hospital environment for diagnosis and management in the treatment of these manifestations in the oral cavity(AU)


Subject(s)
Oral Manifestations , Dental Care , COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Ulcer , Opportunistic Infections , Stomatognathic System , Dentists , Mouth
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 127-130, 20210630.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348666

ABSTRACT

Até o presente momento, foram notificadas mais de 550 mil mortes causadas por COVID-19 no Brasil. Estimulada pelo SARS-Cov-2, a formação de um inflamassoma causa um processo inflamatório sistêmico, responsável pela progressão da enfermidade, e ainda favorece o surgimento de doenças oportunistas, como as parasitoses, que são excelentes moduladoras do sistema imunológico, induzindo uma tolerância do organismo através do equilíbrio entre as respostas pró-inflamatórias e anti-inflamatórias. A partir disso, um levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a possível relação imunomoduladora das infecções parasitárias na COVID-19. Há uma extensa discussão quanto à presença de parasitoses concomitantes a esta coronavirose, devido à possibilidade de modulação do sistema imunológico, que pode ser capaz de refrear ou intensificar a progressão da COVID-19, bem como interferir na soroconversão pós-vacina dos indivíduos afetados, uma vez que doenças diretamente relacionadas aos processos inflamatórios, como Diabetes mellitus do tipo 2, tornam estes indivíduos mais susceptíveis às formas mais graves desta pandemia. Sendo assim, ainda que alguns autores sugiram a possibilidade da helmintíase experimental como uma alternativa para a imunomodulação, trata-se de uma ideia controversa, que necessita de maiores estudos para avaliar se tal procedimento seria seguro e viável de ser aplicado ou não.


Until now, more than 550,000 deaths caused by COVID-19 have been reported in Brazil. Stimulated by Sars-Cov-2, the formation of an inflammasome causes a systemic inflammatory process, responsible for the progression of the disease, and favors the emergence of opportunistic diseases, such as parasitosis, which are excellent modulators of the immune system, inducing a tolerance of the organism through the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. From this, a bibliographical survey was carried out with the aim of evaluating the possible immunomodulatory relationship of parasitic infections in COVID-19. There is an extensive discussion regarding the presence of parasitic diseases concomitant to this coronavirus, due to the possibility of modulation of the immune system, which may be able to curb or intensify the progression of COVID-19, as well as interfere with the post-vaccine seroconversion of affected individuals, a since diseases directly related to inflammatory processes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, make these individuals more susceptible to the more severe forms of this pandemic. Thus, although some authors suggest the possibility of experimental helminthiasis as an alternative to immunomodulation. This is a controversial idea, which needs further studies to assess whether such a procedure would be safe and viable to apply or not.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Immunomodulation , COVID-19
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 196-199, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248739

ABSTRACT

Abstract The authors present seven cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated to diabetes mellitus, which is a disease with epidemic proportions affecting individuals worldwide, particularly in developing countries, and which poses significant morbidity and mortality. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection with high mortality and requires an invasive therapeutic approach to save the patient's life with significant morbidity and sequelae, thus prevention is crucial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Epidemics , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31406, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291372

ABSTRACT

A proteinose alveolar pulmonar (PAP) é rara e caracterizada por preenchimento alveolar com material lipoproteináceo. A proteinose alveolar é caracterizada por um alvéolo com material eosinofílico, acelular, finamente granular, com fendas de colesterol. Este relato de caso descreve um paciente do sexo masculino, 2 anos, portador de hipogamaglobulinemia. O paciente foi internado com quadro compatível com Stevens- Johnson após uso de amoxicilina e clavulanato para quadro de otite média aguda. Posteriormente, foi encaminhado à unidade de terapia intensiva devido à piora respiratória clínica e radiológica. Biópsia pulmonar: proteinose alveolar com alvéolos distendidos por material proteináceo, eosinofílico e grumoso com infiltrado linfo- histiocitário local. A proteinose alveolar pulmonar é rara e o diagnóstico correto deve ser realizado para que seja realizado tratamento adequado e acompanhamento da evolução. Deve-se atentar para complicações, especialmente infecções oportunistas.


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is rare and it is characterized by alveolar filling with lipoproteinaceous material. Alveolar proteinosis is characterized by an alveolus with eosinophilic, acellular, finely granular material, with cholesterol cracks. This case report describes a 2-yearold male patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient was hospitalized with Stevens-Johnson-compatible condition after use of amoxicillin and clavulanate for acute otitis media. Subsequently, he was referred to the intensive care unit due to worsening clinical and radiological breathing. Lung biopsy: alveolar proteinosis with alveoli distended by proteinaceous, eosinophilic and lumpy material with local lymphohistiocytic infiltrate. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is rare and the correct diagnosis must be made in order to carry out an appropriate treatment and follow-up of the evolution. Attention should be paid to complications, especially opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Male , Child, Preschool , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Opportunistic Infections , Dyspnea , Tachypnea , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Amoxicillin
6.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 545-550, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156339

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal comprende la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y la colitis ulcerativa (CU). Esta última es una patología crónica caracterizada por una inflamación difusa de la mucosa colónica, que afecta el recto y se extiende de forma proximal. Su curso clínico es intermitente, con exacerbaciones y remisiones. Su tratamiento, por lo general, es farmacológico, con corticoides, inmunomoduladores e inhibidor del factor de necrosis tumoral (anti tumor necrosis factor, TNF), los cuales causan un estado de inmunosupresión en el paciente, que puede asociarse en algunos casos a infecciones oportunistas. En la literatura se describe la aparición de la criptococosis pulmonar en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). En otros casos se asocia al tratamiento farmacológico de pacientes con EC, así como con otras infecciones oportunistas, tales como la tuberculosis y el herpes. Presentamos uno de los primeros casos de criptococosis pulmonar en un paciente con diagnóstico de colitis ulcerativa, quien recibió tratamiento escalonado con salicilatos, inmunomoduladores y terapia biológica. La infección fue documentada clínica, radiológica e histológicamente. El paciente recibió el tratamiento adecuado y presentó una evolución satisfactoria.


Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the latter being a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa that affects the rectum and extends proximally. Its clinical course is intermittent with exacerbations and remissions and its treatment is generally pharmacological, with steroids, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF), which cause the patient to be in a state of immunosuppression associated, in some cases, with opportunistic infections. The literature describes the occurrence of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in cases associated with drug treatment of patients with CD, as well as with other opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and herpes. This is one of the first cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis reported in a patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, who received step therapy with salicylates, immunomodulators, and biological therapy. The infection was documented clinically, radiologically, and histologically. The patient received the appropriate treatment and had a satisfactory evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Azathioprine , Therapeutics , Prednisolone , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cryptococcosis , Opportunistic Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Crohn Disease , HIV , Immunosuppression
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020164, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131820

ABSTRACT

Emphysematous gastritis (EG) is a rare and potentially lethal process caused by invasive, gas-producing bacteria leading to inflammation and gas dissection of the stomach. The most common etiologic agents are Clostridium infections, but other organisms, including enterobacteria, staphylococcus, and fungi have also been identified. We report the first case of EG due to Sarcina ventriculi in a solid organ transplant recipient, who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient had a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis and systemic diabetic complications, including severe gastroparesis. CT scan studies demonstrated EG with venous air, and endoscopy showed severe gastritis and ulcerations. In the gastric biopsies, abundant Sarcina ventriculi were noted in areas of mucosal/submucosal necrosis. Antibiotic treatment was instituted at admission, and subsequent endoscopy demonstrated the disappearance of Sarcina, with some improvement of the gastric inflammation; however, the patient developed septic shock with multiorgan failure and expired. This case highlights the need to consider other infectious etiologies in transplant patients, in addition to the well-known opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Transplant Recipients , Infections/etiology , Autopsy , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Cholestasis , Clostridium Infections , Liver Failure , Fatal Outcome , Gastroparesis/complications , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Graft Rejection
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 395-409, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089309

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the present paper we summarize the suggestions of a multidisciplinary group including experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases who reviewed the medical literature to elaborate a consensus document (CD) for the diagnosis and clinical management of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in children with hematologic cancer and those who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. All major multicenter studies designed to characterize the epidemiology of IFDs in children with cancer, as well as all randomized clinical trials addressing empirical and targeted antifungal therapy were reviewed. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, the best evidence available to support the recommendations were selected. Algorithms for early diagnosis and best clinical management of IFDs are also presented. This document summarizes practical recommendations that will certainly help pediatricians to best treat their patients suffering of invasive fungal diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/therapy , Opportunistic Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Consensus , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(4): 290-295, 2019/12/30.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103988

ABSTRACT

Os coccídios intestinais compreendem um grupo de protozoários emergentes e oportunistas. As manifestações clínicas causadas podem variar desde diarreia autolimitada até quadros crônicos associados a distúrbios eletrolíticos. Com a pandemia do HIV/ AIDS, essas infecções ganharam notoriedade devido ao quadro agressivo nesses pacientes. Segundo dados da literatura, em pacientes HIV positivos foram encontradas taxas de infecção média de 24%. Dentre os coccídios intestinais, Cryptosporidium sp. possui maior destaque devido ao seu caráter zoonótico. Há registros da recuperação frequente de oocistos em cães e gatos, tendo sido encontrados em 100% dos animais analisados em um hospital veterinário. Além disso, bovinos também podem atuar como reservatórios, com prevalências no Brasil variando de 0,6% a 72,13%. Atualmente, há variadas técnicas para diagnóstico desses coccídios, desde métodos microscópicos que apresentam limitações técnicas até moleculares com elevado custo associado. Além da importância médica, a prevalência de coccidioses intestinais é relevante como um indicador do status socioeconômico de determinada população e da intensidade de transmissão seja ela antroponótica ou zoonótica. Entretanto, ainda são necessárias melhorias no sentido de tornar mais acessíveis novas técnicas diagnósticas, para se detectarem com mais facilidade e confiabilidade os coccídios intestinais.


Intestinal coccidia comprise a group of emerging and opportunistic protozoa. The manifestations caused may range from diarrhea to chronic variables associated with electrolytic disturbances. With an HIV / AIDS pandemic, these infections can be reported because of the aggressive picture in patients. The data of the literature, in HIV positive patients were 24 mm of average of 24%. Among the intestinal coccidia, Cryptosporidium sp. is more prominent due to its zoonotic nature. Recovery records of dogs and cats were found in 100% of treated animals in a veterinary hospital. In addition, cattle may also act as reservoirs, with prevalences in Brazil varying from 0.6% to 72.13%. Currently, there are several methodologies for the diagnosis of these coccidians, from the microscopic methods that present the main techniques for the diagnosis of these coccidians. In addition to the medical importance, the prevalence of intestinal coccidioses is relevant as an indicator of the socioeconomic status of a given population and the intensity of energy is an anthropopathic or zoonotic. However, improvements are still needed to make new diagnostic techniques more accessible, in order to detect intestinal coccidia more easily and reliably.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Opportunistic Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , HIV , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Host-Parasite Interactions , Cryptosporidiosis
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 608-615, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058087

ABSTRACT

Resumen La incorporación de terapias biológicas ha significado un gran avance en el manejo de diversas patologías de origen autoinmune, neoplásico u otros. Si bien su uso ha implicado mejoras significativas en el pronóstico de estas enfermedades, no está exento de complicaciones, entre estas, las infecciosas. El objetivo de este consenso fue evaluar el perfil de seguridad, desde la mirada infectológica, de las terapias biológicas de uso más frecuente y dar recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones en pacientes tratados con ellas, basándose en la evidencia de mayor calidad disponible para los biológicos seleccionados. El consenso cuenta de dos manuscritos. Esta primera parte detalla los riesgos de desarrollar complicaciones infecciosas dependiendo del tipo de biológico utilizado para determinada patología. La revisión incluyó búsqueda amplia en MEDLINE y Epistemonikos de revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis de estudios clínicos controlados y caso/control que examinaban infecciones posteriores al tratamiento con anti-TNF alfa, anti-CD20, anti-CD52, CTLA4-Ig y anti-integrinas. Esta búsqueda se complementó con revisión de cohortes multicéntricas de usuarios de biológicos, del MMWR del CDC, Atlanta, E.U.A. y de registros nacionales y/o de sociedades científicas en la que se hiciera mención a complicaciones infecciosas derivadas del uso de biológicos.


The use of biological therapies has meant a great improvement in the management of several conditions like autoimmune, neoplastic or others diseases. Although its use has implied significant improvements in the prognosis of these diseases, it is not exempt from complications: infectious diseases as one of them. The objective of this consensus was to evaluate, from an infectious viewpoint, the safeness of the most frequently used biological therapies and give recommendations for the prevention of infections in patients treated with these drugs. These recommendations were based on the highest quality evidence available for the selected biologics. The consensus counts of two manuscripts. This first part details the risks of developing infectious complications depending on the type of biological used for a certain pathology. This evaluation included a broad search in MEDLINE and Epistemonikos of systematic reviews and meta-analyzes of controlled clinical trials and casecontrol examining post-treatment infections with anti-TNF alpha, anti-CD20, anti-CD52, CTLA4-Ig and anti-integrins. The research was complemented by a review of: multicentre cohorts of biological users, the MMWR of the CDC, Atlanta, U.S.A., and national registers and scientific societies in which infectious complications derived from the use of biological therapies were mentioned.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Communicable Diseases/chemically induced , Consensus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Biological Therapy/standards , Opportunistic Infections/chemically induced , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Chile , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
11.
Infectio ; 23(3): 246-251, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002158

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Caracterizar de forma sociodemográfica y clínica pacientes con diagnóstico nuevo de VIH, que fueron hospitalizados en una Clínica Universitaria de alta complejidad entre el año 2010 - 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptico, de corte transversal por medio de revisión de historias clínicas, que incluyo pacientes ≥14 años, a quienes se les diagnosticó VIH durante la hospitalización y tuvieran al menos un conteo de linfocitos CD4. Resultados: La mediana para la edad fue 41 años (RIC 31 - 51), el 85,1% eran hombres. Los principales síntomas al ingreso fueron generales/sistémicos (70,2%). 99 pacientes (61,5%) tenían infecciones oportunistas siendo tuberculosis la más frecuente (34,3%). La mediana para el conteo de CD4 fue 88 células/mm3 RIC (27 - 327) y el 77% se clasificó como SIDA. 29 pacientes murieron (18%) encontrando como posible factor de riesgo tener conteo de CD4 fue 88 células/mm3 RIC (27 - 327) y el 77% se clasificó como SIDA. 29 pacientes murieron (18%) encontrando como posible factor de riesgo tener conteo de CD4<200 células/mm3 , no pertenecer al régimen contributivo, ingresar con síntomas respiratorios, tener diagnóstico de neumonía, criterios de falla multiorgánica o necesidad de UCI/UCE. Conclusión: Para nuestro caso la mayoría de pacientes con diagnóstico nuevo de VIH se encontraban en estados avanzados de inmunosupresión con alta carga de enfermedades definitorias de SIDA. Es importante fortalecer las políticas de salud pública para diagnosticar más temprano la infección por VIH.


Abstract Purposes: To characterize sociodemographic and clinical aspects in newly diagnosed HIV patients that were hospitalized at a university health center between 2010 - 2016. Methods: We made an observational descriptive cross - sectional study reviewing clinical records, including patients older than 14 years old, who were diagnosed with HIV infection during hospitalization and at least a CD4 count. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 41 years old (IQR 31 - 51), 85% were men. The main symptoms were general/systemic (70.2%). 99 patients (61.5%) had opportunist infections, being tuberculosis the most frequent (34.3%). The median CD4 were 88 cells/mm3 (IQR 27 - 327) and 77% were classified as AIDS. 29 patients died (18%), finding as a risk factor for mortality don't having a good health care insurance, low CD4 count, having respiratory symptoms, pneumonia diagnosis, multiple organic failure's criteria and ICU admission. Conclusion: In our case, the majority of patients with a new diagnosis of HIV were in advanced stages of immunosuppression with a high burden of AIDS defining diseases. It is important to strengthen public health policies to diagnose HIV infection earlier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Demographic Data , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Opportunistic Infections , Demography/classification , Data Collection , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Diagnosis , Hospitalization
12.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(3)jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025721

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da tuberculose em indivíduos HIV+ no estado de Alagoas. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal e retrospectivo que analisou as notificações de coinfecção TB-HIV no período de 2001 a 2016 no estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Para elaboração de perfil da coinfecção foram empregadas variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas dos casos novos de TB-HIV obtidas junto à Superintendência de Vigilância em Saúde do Estado de Alagoas. Resultados: Houve ascensão do número de coinfectados no período de 2001 a 2016. Os pacientes soropositivos residentes no Estado apresentaram-se como sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (74,2%), em idade economicamente produtiva (93,7%), com baixa escolaridade e de cor negra (92,5%). A tuberculose pulmonar foi a forma clínica mais presente (77,3%), seguida do subtipo extrapulmonar ganglionar periférico (7,5%). A estratégia diagnóstica mais elucidativa para o raciocínio clínico foi o exame radiográfico do tórax (72,5%). Houve óbito por tuberculose em 9,5% das investigações. O percentual de cura de casos novos de tuberculose em indivíduos HIV+ no estado de Alagoas ficou abaixo da meta de 85% pactuada pela OMS. Conclusão: Os resultados evidenciam a relevância epidemiológica da tuberculose como uma comorbidade de grande impacto na saúde dos indivíduos soropositivos para o HIV+ no âmbito estadual (AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, the objective was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in HIV+ individuals in the State of Alagoas. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study that analyz-ed the reports of TB-HIV co-infection between 2001 and 2016 in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To develop a profile of co-infection, clinical and epidemiological variables were used for new cases of HIV-TB obtained together with the Superintendence of Health Surveillance of the State of Alagoas. Results: There was a rise in the number of co-infected patients from 2001 to 2016. Seropositive patients living in the State were the majority male (74.2%), of economically productive age (93.7%), with low educational level and black (92.5%). Pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common clinical form (77.3%), followed by the peripheral ganglion extrapulmonary subtype (7.5%). The most diagnostic strategy for clinical reasoning was the radiographic examination of the thorax (72.5%). There was a TB death in 9.5% of the investigations. The percentage of cure of new cases of tuberculosis in HIV+ individuals in the state of Alagoas was below the 85% goal agreed by the WHO. Conclusion: The results evidenced the epide-miological relevance of tuberculosis as a comorbidity with a great impact on the health of seropositive individuals at the state level. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , Health Profile , Opportunistic Infections , Morbidity , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 84-92, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041820

ABSTRACT

El complejo Burkholderia cepacia está formado por 22 especies conocidas como patógenos oportunistas en personas inmunocomprometidas, especialmente en aquellas con fibrosis quística. También se aíslan de infecciones nosocomiales y son difíciles de erradicar debido a su capacidad intrínseca para resistir una gran variedad de antibióticos. En general, estas especies presentan genomas de gran tamaño (hasta 9 Mpb) divididos en 2-5 replicones. Esta característica aporta una gran versatilidad metabólica, que se considera importante para habitar el suelo, el agua, las plantas, incluso los nódulos en leguminosas. Algunas especies del complejo B. cepacia exhiben actividades benéficas, como biorremediación, biocontrol y promoción del crecimiento vegetal. No obstante, debido a su papel en infecciones de humanos, su uso en la agricultura está restringido. El complejo B. cepacia es un tema constante de estudio debido a su impacto en el sector salud y su potencial en la agricultura. En este trabajo se examina la historia del complejo B. cepacia y se revisa la información reciente relacionada con este grupo de bacterias.


The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of 22 species, which are known as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised people, especially those suffering from cystic fibrosis. It is also found in nosocomial infections and is difficult to eradicate due to intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics. The species have large genomes (up to 9 Mbp), distributed into 2-5 replicons. These features significantly contribute to genome plasticity, which makes them thrive in different environments like soil, water, plants or even producing nodules in legume plants. Some B. cepacia complex species are beneficial in bioremediation, biocontrol and plant-growth promotion. However, because the B. cepacia complex is involved in human infection, its use in agriculture is restricted. B. cepacia complex is being constantly studied due to the health problems that it causes and because of its agricultural potential. In this review, the history of B. cepacia complex and the most recently published information related to this complex are revised.


Subject(s)
Burkholderia cepacia complex/classification , Burkholderia cepacia complex/pathogenicity , Genetic Profile , Phenotype , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Burkholderia Infections/epidemiology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180566, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Opportunistic pathogenic yeast species are frequently associated with water habitats that have pollution sources of human or animal origin. Candida albicans has already been suggested as a faecal indicator microorganism for aquatic environments. OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. albicans and other opportunistic yeasts in sand and seawater samples from beaches in Brazil to assess their correlation with Escherichia coli, and to characterise the pathogenic potential of the yeast isolates. METHODS Opportunistic species (yeasts that grow at 37ºC) were isolated from sand and seawater samples from eight beaches in Brazil during the summer and the winter. Opportunistic yeast species were evaluated for their susceptibility to antifungal drugs, virulence factors, and the in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation. Strains were selected to carry out virulence tests using BALB/c mice. FINDINGS Several water samples could be classified as inappropriate for primary contact recreation in relation to E. coli densities. C. albicans was isolated in low densities. Of the 144 opportunistic yeasts evaluated, 61% displayed resistance or dose-dependent sensitivity to at least one tested drug, and 40% produced proteinase. Strains of C. albicans and Kodamaea ohmeri exhibited the highest rates of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells. All the C. albicans strains that were tested were able to undergo morphogenesis and form a biofilm on catheter fragments in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. It was possible to confirm the pathogenic potential of three of these strains during the disseminated infection test. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The identification of opportunistic yeast species in seawater and sand samples from Brazilian beaches suggest a potential risk to the health of people who use these environments for recreational purposes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Opportunistic Infections , Candida albicans , Infection Control , Escherichia coli
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 20190000. 90 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049997

ABSTRACT

A cavidade oral constitui um reservatório de microrganismos patogênicos que podem impactar negativamente nas condições sistêmicas de pacientes internados na UTI. Alterações salivares e modificações da microbiota oral podem expor o paciente a infecções nosocomiais, as quais podem ter alta morbidade e mortalidade. Apesar do conhecimento da existência dessas alterações, não existem dados conclusivos acerca da frequência de alterações salivares e de lesões infecciosas oportunistas orais em pacientes internados em UTI, particularmente de pacientes idosos. O impacto de cuidados orais padronizados no ambiente da UTI também é pouco conhecido no tocante a essas condições na cavidade oral. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar a frequência e os fatores de risco para infecções oportunistas não-odontogênicas e para desidratação na cavidade oral em pacientes adultos e idosos internados em UTI, antes e após a instauração de cuidados orais padronizados. Para tanto, foram coletadas retrospectivamente informações de prontuários de 254 pacientes adultos e idosos, internados na UTI Geral do Hospital Vila Lobos, São Paulo, SP, referentes a: motivo de internação na UTI, índice de comorbidade, medicamentos em uso, desenvolvimento de sepse durante a internação, grau de consciência do paciente e duração da internação. Foram também coletadas informações quanto às condições da cavidade oral no tocante a: lesões orais sugestivas de infecções bacterianas, fúngicas ou virais oportunistas, aspecto clínico de boca seca (desidratação da mucosa oral), dados acerca da existência ou não de função de deglutição, e uso de próteses na UTI. Os prontuários selecionados foram referentes a dois períodos distintos do setor da UTI, um no qual não havia a instituição de protocolos orais padronizados e realizados por cirurgião-dentista (n=127), e outro em que esses protocolos já tinham sido instituídos (n=127). Os prontuários selecionados foram principalmente de pacientes idosos (mediana de 79 anos de idade), internados principalmente devido a doenças do trato respiratório, com alto índice de morbidade (mediana igual a 5 do índice de Charlson) e com alta frequência de polifármacia (72,8%). Esses pacientes exibiram uma frequência de 58,3% e 74,0% (p=0.024) de desidratação na mucosa oral, respectivamente para os períodos sem e com protocolos orais padronizados. Os fatores associados à desidratação na mucosa oral foram idade maior que 79 anos, índice de Charlson maior que 5, o fato de o paciente não estar contactuante na UTI, ter sido internado por distúrbios cardiocirculatórios e estar sob medicação com anti-hipertensivos. Em 28,3% dos pacientes do período sem cuidados orais padronizados e em 7,87% dos pacientes nos quais foram realizados esses cuidados, foram detectadas lesões compatíveis com infecções fúngicas e virais, havendo diferenças significativas entre os dois períodos (p<0.001), e redução do risco das mesmas em 19,9% após a instituição dos cuidados orais. Os fatores de risco para as infecções oportunistas foram internação devido a distúrbios cardiocirculatórios e estar sob uso de seis ou mais medicações. Concluiu-se que os fatores de risco para a desidratação na mucosa oral e para infecções oportunistas estão mais relacionados a uso de medicamentos e a condições de morbidade do paciente, do que propriamente dependentes da existência ou não de próteses dentárias e da função de deglutição. Além disso, o protocolo de cuidados orais padronizados reduziu significativamente o risco de infecções fúngicas na cavidade oral, em um contexto em que predominaram alta comorbidade e pacientes idosos internados por longo tempo na UTI.


Subject(s)
Opportunistic Infections , Aged , Intensive Care Units
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786609

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract is a vast reservoir for internal microbiota; it is exposed directly to various externally introduced microbes, including bacteria, viruses, parasites and others. In immune-compromised conditions, the gastrointestinal tract is frequently affected by infectious diseases that seldom manifest clinically in immune-competent hosts. Immune-compromised conditions result from a variety of reasons, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, anti-cancer chemo-radiotherapy, immune suppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases, and organ transplantations. The stomach is a relatively rare site for opportunistic infections in immune-compromised patients compared to the esophagus and colon, where esophagitis and colitis develop frequently and cause significant clinical consequences. Helicobacter pylori infection is majorly involved in gastric malfunctioning in immune-compromised patients, followed by cytomegalovirus infection. Infections by Cryptosporidium, Mycobacterium avium complex, histoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, aspergillosis, or treponema, have been reported; however, gastric involvement of these agents is extremely rare. This review discusses the general aspects and recent reports on gastric infection in immune-compromised patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Bacteria , Colitis , Colon , Communicable Diseases , Cryptosporidium , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Gastrointestinal Tract , Helicobacter pylori , Histoplasmosis , HIV , Humans , Leishmaniasis , Microbiota , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Opportunistic Infections , Organ Transplantation , Parasites , Stomach , Transplants , Treponema
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels for different periods after kidney transplantation (KT) has not been definitely established. This study aimed to investigate transplant outcomes of low-level (LL) and standard-level (SL) TAC according to post-transplant period. METHODS: A total of 278 consecutive kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving TAC-based immunosuppression were divided into LL and SL-TAC groups (4–7 and 7–12 ng/mL for 0–2 months, 3–6 and 6–10 ng/mL for 3–6 months, 2–5 and 5–8 ng/mL for 7–12 months, respectively) according to TAC trough level at each period. We compared estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity, opportunistic infection, and allograft survival. RESULTS: SL-TAC group showed significantly higher mean eGFR at 0–2 months than LL-TAC group (72.1 ± 20.3 vs. 64.2 ± 22.7 mL/min/1.73m2; P = 0.003). Incidence of BPAR at 7–12 months was significantly lower in SL-TAC group than in LL-TAC group (0.0% vs. 3.9%; P = 0.039). Patients with persistent SL-TAC lasting 12 months showed higher eGFR at 7–12 months than those with persistent LL-TAC (65.5 ± 13.0 vs. 57.9 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73m2; P = 0.007). No significant differences in dnDSA, CNI toxicity, serious infections, or allograft survival were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance of proper TAC trough level after 6 months could reduce BPAR without adverse drug toxicities in KTRs. Moreover, persistent SL-TAC during the first year after KT might have a beneficial effect on a trend for a lower incidence of dnDSA and better renal allograft function.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Calcineurin , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Immunosuppression , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Opportunistic Infections , Tacrolimus , Transplant Recipients
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770027

ABSTRACT

Candida vertebral osteomyelitis (CVO) is a rare disease that is a complication of intravenous drug use, but recently it has been recognized as mostly an opportunistic infection. Because CVO appears to mimic pyogenic spondylodiscitis in terms of the clinical and radiologic presentations, it is often neglected in a usual clinical setting. The clinical, radiological, and biological characteristics of CVO are often used to make a differential diagnosis with vertebral osteomyelitis from other etiologies. Once an initial proper diagnosis was performed, the treatment relies on the prompt initiation of appropriate pharmacotherapy and serial monitoring of the clinical progress. This paper report late-onset CVO in two young patients who underwent a heart transplant surgery and had postoperative systemic candidiasis. These two cases are a good reminder of the potential of CVO in immunosuppressive patients treated with anti-fungal agents. This paper presents these two cases with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Candida , Candidiasis , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Discitis , Drug Therapy , Heart Transplantation , Heart , Humans , Opportunistic Infections , Osteomyelitis , Population Characteristics , Rare Diseases
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants and haplotypes of the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene have been shown to affect clinical outcomes, including the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs), in HIV-infected patients. This study investigated the effect of IL10 gene variants on susceptibility to OIs in HIV-infected Korean patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Eighty-five HIV-infected patients receiving HAART were enrolled in the study. OIs were diagnosed based on the published criteria of the Korean Society for AIDS. Three promoter SNPs and four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) of IL10 were selected and genotyped. The haplotypes were reconstructed according to the genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium (LD) status of these SNPs. RESULTS: During the study, 38 OIs developed in 23 of the 85 patients (27.1%), at a rate of 1.7 episodes/patient. Carrying the minor alleles at the rs1518111, rs3024490, and rs1800871 SNPs had a protective effect against OIs (adjusted P=0.035). Among the seven assessed variants, only three possible haplotypes were observed. The second most common haplotype, which was composed of the rs1518111 minor allele and the rs3021094 major allele showed a protective effect against OIs (P=0.0153). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that some IL10 genetic variants and haplotypes are associated with protective effects against OIs in the era of HAART. These data suggest the potential of two htSNPs, rs1518111 and rs3021094, as markers revealing the genetic association of IL10 in Koreans. This is the first report on the association of IL10 with OIs in HIV-infected Korean patients in the era of HAART.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Haplotypes , HIV , Humans , Incidence , Interleukin-10 , Korea , Linkage Disequilibrium , Opportunistic Infections , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766607

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the status of common parasitic disease in Korea in 2019. Twelve parasitic diseases were selected: toxocariasis, anisakiasis, paragonimiasis, sparganosis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, clonorchiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, trichomoniasis, cryptosporidiosis, and malaria. Their biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated. Of the parasitic diseases, toxocariasis was the most prevalent according to serological results. Anisakiasis should be considered when acute gastrointestinal symptoms occur with a recent past history of raw seafood ingestion. Paragonimiasis, sparganosis, and cysticercosis can be diagnosed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay needs to be performed for suspected cases. Toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis are opportunistic infections. The symptoms and signs are aggravated under immunocompromised conditions. Although the egg positivity rate of Clonorchis sinensis is higher than that of other intestinal parasitic diseases, encountering patients with complaints of symptoms caused by clonorchiasis is rare because the worm burden is low. Trichomoniasis is usually managed by gynecologists; therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnoses of vaginal diseases. The annual number of malaria cases has decreased, although it remains at approximately 500 cases per year. Malaria should be suspected when symptoms such as intermittent fever, headache, and splenomegaly are noted especially when the patients reside near demilitarized zones. Although the prevalence and number of reported cases of parasitic diseases have decreased in Korea, we should consider parasitic diseases in the list of differential diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis , Biology , Clonorchiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Cryptosporidiosis , Cysticercosis , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eating , Enterobiasis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epidemiology , Fever , Headache , Humans , Korea , Malaria , Opportunistic Infections , Ovum , Paragonimiasis , Parasitic Diseases , Prevalence , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Seafood , Sparganosis , Splenomegaly , Toxocariasis , Toxoplasmosis , Trichuriasis , Vaginal Diseases
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