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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e710, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351982

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El neuromonitoreo no invasivo en pacientes críticos representa una opción de primera línea para el manejo de complicaciones fatales derivadas del aumento de la presión intracraneal. En esta modalidad se incluye la ultrasonografía del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico, la cual representa una técnica rápida, fácil de realizar y disponible a la cabecera del paciente. Objetivos: Describir aspectos fundamentales y actualizados sobre el uso de la ultrasonografía en el monitoreo de la presión intracraneal a través de la medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico en los diferentes escenarios neuroclínicos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura publicada en bases de datos como: PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Google académico entre los meses mayo y julio de 2020. Se revisaron publicaciones en inglés y español. Se seleccionaron 46 bibliografías que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se describen aspectos fundamentales como la anatomía ecográfica del nervio óptico, descripción de la técnica y su uso en entidades neurocríticas como el traumatismo craneoencefálico, ictus, muerte encefálica, entre otros. Conclusiones: La ecografía de la vaina del nervio óptico representa una alternativa no invasiva ampliamente aceptada para la medición del incremento de la presión intracranial. Con un diámetro de 5,0 hasta 5,9 mm o más se puede asumir el diagnóstico de hipertensión intracraneal con alta sensibilidad y especificidad, aunque debe individualizarse su uso en cada patología neurocrítica. La curva de aprendizaje para la realización del proceder es de breve tiempo y satisface las habilidades necesarias(AU)


Introduction: Noninvasive neuromonitoring in critically ill patients is a first-line option for the management of fatal complications derived from increased intracranial pressure. This modality includes ultrasound of optic nerve sheath diameter, which is a quick technique, easy to perform and available at the bedside. Objectives: To describe significant and state-of-the-art aspects regarding the use of ultrasound for monitoring intracranial pressure through measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter in different neuroclinical settings. Methods: A review was carried out, between May and July 2020, of the literature published in databases such as PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Google Scholar. Publications in English and Spanish were reviewed. Forty-six bibliographic sources were chosen, as long as they met the inclusion criteria. Fundamental aspects are described, such as the ultrasound anatomy of the optic nerve, the technique procedures and its use in neurocritical entities such as head trauma, stroke and brain death, among others. Conclusions: Ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath is a widely accepted noninvasive choice for measurement of increased intracranial pressure. With a diameter of 5.0 to 5.9 mm or more, the diagnosis of intracranial hypertension can be assumed with high sensitivity and specificity, although its use should be individualized in each neurocritical pathology. The learning curve for carrying out the procedure is short and satisfies the necessary skills(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Critical Illness , Stroke , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Craniocerebral Trauma
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 209-213, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the lymphatic vessels in orbital specimens from human cadavers using light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. Methods: A postmortem study included 10 orbital specimens from 10 human cadavers. The orbital specimens were obtained no later than 12 hours after death. The orbital specimens were dissected into lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and oculomotor muscles. The histologic criteria to qualify as a lymphatic vessel were thin-walled channels of endothelium without a well-developed basal membrane and with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen. The immunohistochemical criteria were irregularly shaped, thin-walled vessels with an erythrocyte-free, irregular lumen and immunopositivity for podoplanin D2-40. Results: The lacrimal gland, optic nerve, fat tissue, and extraocular muscle sections were positively stained with podoplanin D2-40. Conclusions: This study demonstrated lymphatic vessels in the human orbit, more precisely, in the lacrimal gland, dura mater of the optic nerve, adipose tissue, and extrinsic oculomotor muscles via light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivos: Identificar vasos linfáticos em espécimes orbitários de cadáveres humanos através de microscopia óptica e análise imunohistoquímica. Métodos: Um estudo postmortem incluiu dez espécimes orbitários provenientes de dez cadáveres humanos. Todos os espécimes orbitários foram obtidos até 12 horas após a morte com uma técnica cirúrgica de exenteração orbitária e dissecados em glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, gordura órbitária e músculos extraoculares. Para classificar como um vaso linfático, os critérios histológicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única sem membrana basal bem desenvolvida, irregulares e lúmen sem hemácias, e os critérios imunohistoquímicos incluíram vasos endoteliais de parede única, com formato irregular e lúmen sem hemácias e reagentes a podoplanina D2-40. Resultados: As lâminas histológicas de glândula lacrimal, nervo óptico, tecido adiposo e músculos extraoculares reagiram positivamente a podoplanina D2-40. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou vasos linfáticos na órbita humana, mais exatamente, na glândula lacrimal, no nervo óptico, na gordura orbitária e nos músculos extrínsecos extraoculares via microscopia óptica e imunohistoquímica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Optic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Lymphatic Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Lacrimal Apparatus/anatomy & histology , Microscopy/instrumentation , Oculomotor Muscles/anatomy & histology
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 96-99, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280112

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness (RNFL) of amblyopic and normal fellow eyes. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. Methods: Forty patients age 12 to 41 years (mean 23.73 ± 6.42) with unilateral amblyopia were studied. Among them, 11(28.2%) patients had amblyopia secondary to strabismus and 29(71.8 %) had anisometropic amblyopia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the peripapillary RNFL thickness of amblyopic and fellow eyes was performed. RNFL thickness measurements were taken from the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants in the peripapillary region. Also, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results: Mean global RNFL thickness of the amblyopic and fellow eyes was 104.48 microns and 102.83 microns, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05%). The thicknesses of the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants of the retinal nerve fiber layer between the amblyopic and normal fellow eyes showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05%). However, the SFCT of amblyopic eye was 11 or more microns thicker than the fellow eye and this was statistically significant different (p<0.05%). Conclusions: This study demonstrated SFCT in amblyopic eyes was significantly thicker than the normal fellow eyes. The amblyopic process may involve the choroid, but not the prepapillary NFL.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar a espessura da coroide subfoveal (CSF) e da camada de fibra nervosa retinal (CFNR) de olhos amblíopes e normais. Design: série de casos prospectivos, transversais e observacionais. Métodos: Quarenta pacientes com idade entre 12 e 41 anos (média 23,73 ± 6,42) com ambliopia unilateral foram estudados. Entre eles, 11 (28,2%) pacientes apresentavam ambliopia secundária a estrabismo e 29 (71,8%) apresentavam ambliopia anisometrópica. Foi realizada tomografia de coerência óptica (TCO) da espessura da CFNR peripapilar do olho amblíope e do outro olho. As medidas de espessura da CFNR foram realizadas nos quadrantes superior, inferior, nasal e temporal na região peripapilar. Além disso, a espessura da coroide subfoveal (CSF) foi medida através de tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (TCO-DE). Resultados: A espessura média global da CFNR do olho amblíope e do outro olho foi de 104,48 mícrons e 102,83 mícrons, respectivamente. A diferença entre os dois grupos não foi estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05%). As espessuras dos quadrantes superior, inferior, nasal e temporal da camada de fibras nervosas da retina entre o olho amblíope e o normal não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05%). No entanto, a CSF do olho amblíope foi 11 mícrons mais espessa (ou mais) do que a do outro olho - essa diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05%). Conclusões: Este estudo demonstrou que a CSF dos olhos amblíopes foi significativamente mais espessa do que a dos olhos normais. O processo amblíope pode envolver a coroide, mas ele não envolve a CFNR peripapilar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Amblyopia/complications , Amblyopia/diagnostic imaging , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Disk/pathology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Organ Size , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Choroid/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Fovea Centralis/pathology
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0036, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341157

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ocular toxoplasmosis frequently presents as necrotizing retinochoroiditis and, less often, as peripapillary chorioretinitis and/or papillitis. The progression from papillitis to peripapillary retinochoroiditis has been rarely described. We report the case of a 52-year-old patient living in southern Brazil, who developed papillitis in the right eye and was treated with systemic corticosteroids (prednisone 0.6 mg/kg/day and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone 15 mg/kg/day, for 3 days). After 14 days, the patient developed peripapillary retinochoroiditis with vitritis and decreased visual acuity (20/60), and was immediately initiated on the classic oral treatment for toxoplasmosis, consisting of pyrimethamine (50 mg/day), sulfadiazine (4 g/day), folinic acid (15 mg every 3 days) and prednisone (0.6 mg/kg/day). The visual acuity of the right eye normalized after treatment (20/20), which lasted approximately 70 days, but scotomas were detected on visual field examination, especially in the lower nasal quadrant. Although two studies mentioned this presentation, our report emphasizes the possible manifestation of ocular toxoplasmosis as papillitis in the initial phase, with progression to peripapillary retinochoroiditis and permanent visual field defects, which justifies early treatment for toxoplasmosis in suspected cases, especially in endemic regions.


RESUMO A toxoplasmose ocular manifesta-se com maior frequência por um quadro de retinocoroidite necrotizante e, com menor frequência, por coriorretinite justapapilar e/ou papilite. A evolução de papilite para retinocoroidite justapapilar raramente foi descrita. Apresenta-se o relato de caso de uma paciente de 52 anos, habitante da Região Sul do Brasil, que iniciou com quadro de papilite em olho direito, sendo tratada com corticoides sistêmicos (prednisona 0,6/mg/kg ao dia e pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona 15mg/kg ao dia, por 3 dias), mas, após 14 dias, evoluiu para retinocoroidite justapapilar, com vitreíte e diminuição de acuidade visual (20/60), sendo imediatamente instituído o tratamento via oral clássico para toxoplasmose, com pirimetamina (50 mg ao dia), sulfadiazina (4 g ao dia) e ácido folínico (15 mg a cada 3 dias), e mantida a prednisona (0.6 mg/kg/dia). A acuidade visual do olho direito normalizou após o tratamento (20/20), que durou em torno de 70 dias, porém desenvolveu escotomas ao exame de campo visual, sobretudo de quadrante nasal inferior. Embora tenham sido encontrados dois trabalhos que mencionam essa forma de apresentação, o presente relato destaca-se por enfatizar a possibilidade de manifestação da toxoplasmose ocular por meio de papilite na fase inicial, que evolui com retinocoroidite justapapilar, causando defeito permanente de campo visual, justificando que se avalie a instituição de tratamento precoce para toxoplasmose dos casos suspeitos, sobretudo em região endêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Papilledema/etiology , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/complications , Chorioretinitis/etiology , Optic Nerve , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Angiography , Radiography , Visual Acuity , Papilledema/diagnostic imaging , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Chorioretinitis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Necrosis
5.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 161-170, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115481

ABSTRACT

Resumen El espectro de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD por su sigla en inglés) corresponde a un conjunto de manifestaciones clínicas derivadas de un proceso inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que causa lesiones primariamente en la médula espinal y nervios ópticos, pero también en otras regiones como tronco encefálico, diencéfalo o áreas cerebrales específicas. La mayoría de los pacientes con NMOSD son seropositivos para autoanticuerpos contra AQP4, el principal canal de agua de los astrocitos, sin embargo, existe un porcentaje no despreciable de pacientes, cercano al 25%, quienes son seronegativos para estos anticuerpos y en quienes la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra mielina (anti-MOG) podrían tener un rol patogénico, el cual a la fecha no ha sido bien dilucidado. La evidencia científica actual, ha permitido reconocer que AQP4-IgG es patogénico en NMOSD, probablemente por un mecanismo que involucra citotoxicidad celular dependiente de la activación del complemento, generando infiltración leucocitaria, liberación de citokinas y disrupción de la barrera hemato-encefálica, lo cual lleva a muerte de oligodendrocitos, pérdida de mielina y muerte neuronal. Este artículo presenta una revisión basada en la evidencia, la cual enfatiza los principales aspectos de la patogénesis de NMOSD.


Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) is a set of clinical manifestations derived from an inflammatory and demyelinating process of the central nervous system that causes lesions primarily in spinal cord and optic nerves but also in other regions such as brainstem, diencephalon or specific brain areas. Most patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against AQP4, the major water channel of astrocytes, however there is a non-negligible percentage of patients, close to 25%, who are seronegative for these antibodies and in whom the presence of antibodies directed against myelin (anti-MOG) could have a pathogenic role that to date has not been well elucidated. Current scientific evidence has allowed recognize that AQP4-IgG is pathogenic in NMOSD, probably by a mechanism involving complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity, causing leucocyte infiltration, cytokine release and blood-brain barrier disruption, which leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin loss and neuron death. This article presents an evidence-based review, which emphasizes the main aspects in NMOSD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Optic Nerve , Brain , Brain Stem , Central Nervous System , Neuromyelitis Optica
6.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 140-144, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123385

ABSTRACT

El glioma del nervio óptico es una entidad de muy baja incidencia en pacientes adultos, lo cual impide tener suficiente información sobre historia natural y conducta terapéutica en este grupo etario. En el presente artículo comunicamos el caso de un paciente de 27 años de edad con compromiso agudo del nervio óptico izquierdo debido a hemorragia intra tumoral, forma de presentación muy poco común en este tipo de tumores. Se realizó la resección mediante un abordaje endoscópico transesfenoidal extendido, con preservación funcional de la vía óptica contralateral. La anatomía patológica confirmó astrocitoma pilocítico positivo para el rearreglo KIAA 1549-BRAF. y negativo para la mutación BRAF V600E. Teniendo en cuenta la histopatología y biología molecular en este caso, la estabilidad visual contralateral y la resección quirúrgica amplia, se decidió no realizar tratamiento adyuvante con radioterapia o quimioterapia. El objetivo de esta conducta fue evitar lesiones adicionales sobre el quiasma, nervio óptico contralateral y/o hipotálamo. Dada la escasa información existente en la literatura médica, el reporte de este caso podría contribuir con información adicional en el manejo y conducta terapéutica de este tipo de lesiones.


The optic nerve glioma is a very uncommon entity in adult patients, with little information about its natural history and therapeutical management. We report the case of a 27-year-old patient with acute involvement of the left optic nerve due to intratumoral hemorrhage, a very uncommon form of presentation in this type of tumor. Resection was performed using an extended transsphenoidal endoscopic approach, with functional preservation of the contralateral optic pathway. The histopathology confirmed positive pilocytic astrocytoma with KIAA 1549-BRAF rearrangement and without BRAF V600E mutation. Considering the histopathology and molecular biology, the contralateral visual stability and the wide surgical resection, it was decided not to perform further treatment. The purpose of this decision was to avoid additional damage to the chiasm, contralateral optic nerve and/or hypothalamus. Given the limited data available in medical literature, the report of this case could contribute with additional information on the management and therapeutic approach of this type of tumors


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Optic Nerve Glioma , Optic Nerve , Endoscopy , Hemorrhage
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 66-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092650

ABSTRACT

Abstract The presence of retinal myelinated nerve fibers is not a rare finding during routine examinations, and it is usually a benign and isolated finding. However, in some rare cases, it can be associated with other ophthalmological conditions. We describe a case of a patient with the triad myelin nerve fibers, myopia and ambliopia, which configures the Straatsma Syndrome.


Resumo A presença de fibras de mielina é um achado comum durante exames oftalmológicos de rotina. Na maior parte das vezes, tem caráter beningno e é um achado isolado. No entanto, em alguns raros casos, a presença de mielinização pode estar associada a outras condições oftalmológicas. Descrevemos um caso de paciente com a tríade presença de fibras nervosas retinianas mielinizadas, miopia, e ambliopia, configurando a síndrome de Straatsma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Amblyopia/diagnosis , Myopia/diagnosis , Nerve Fibers, Myelinated/pathology , Ophthalmoscopy , Optic Nerve/abnormalities , Visual Acuity , Anisometropia , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Fundus Oculi , Myelin Sheath
8.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 53(1): 51-52, 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1128159

ABSTRACT

Paciente de 14 años remitida para valorar fondo de ojo por cefalea. Presenta agudeza visual de 8/10 en ambos ojos y en fundoscopia se visualizan papilas de contornos escasamente definidos. Se solicita Autofluorescencia identificando lesiones autofluorescentes compatibles con drusas (Figura 1A,B). La OCT de fibras revela afectación sectorial bilateral sin papiledema (Figura 1C,D) y el campo visual mostró una afectación del hemicampo nasal bilateral (Figura 1E,F). Las drusas en el nervio óptico representan habitualmente un hallazgo casual. Pueden progresar paulatinamente generando gran deterioro campimétrico. No existe un tratamiento eficaz. Solo en casos donde aparezca neovascularización asociada, puede estar indicado el tratamiento con fármacos antiangiogénicos.


Subject(s)
Optic Disk Drusen , Optic Nerve , Scotoma , Eye Diseases , Visual Field Tests , Optical Imaging
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811309

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the long-term longitudinal changes in axial length (AL), mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP), and choroidal thickness (CT) according to the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma surgery. The potential variables associated with CT changes were also evaluated.METHODS: This was a prospective study for 1 year after glaucoma surgery, which included 71 eyes of 71 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. The subfoveal CT (SFCT) and peripapillary CT (PPCT) were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography preoperatively and 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. MOPP was calculated from the IOP and blood pressure. The AL was measured using partial coherence interferometry. Regression analysis was conducted to assess the possible association of variables.RESULTS: The AL decreased and the MOPP, SFCT, and PPCT increased significantly with IOP reduction at 1 year post-operatively (all, p < 0.001). The changes in SFCT and PPCT were significantly associated with IOP reduction at 1 year postoperatively (r = −0.519 and r = −0.528, respectively). Importantly, greater increases in SFCT and PPCT were found in patients with IOP reduction more than 30% from baseline, when compared with those with less than 30% reduction (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). The SFCT increased more significantly in patients with AL ≤ 24 mm, compared with patients with AL > 24 mm (p = 0.044).CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in the IOP, increase in the MOPP, decrease in the AL, and increase in the CT after glaucoma surgery persisted for 1 year during a long-term follow-up. These results suggested that glaucoma surgery reduced mechanical compression on the optic nerve fiber and increased intraocular blood flow.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Choroid , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Interferometry , Intraocular Pressure , Optic Nerve , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the ability of readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in assessing the microstructural change of extraocular muscles (EOMs) and optic nerves in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) as well as in evaluating disease activity.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 35 TAO patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs) who underwent pre-treatment rs-EPI-based DTI. Mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, and RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the medial and lateral EOMs and optic nerve for each orbit were calculated and compared between TAO and HC groups and between active and inactive TAO groups. Factors such as age, sex, disease duration, mediation, and smoking history between groups were also compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of significant variables for disease activity.RESULTS: Disease duration was significantly shorter in active TAOs than in inactive ones (p < 0.001). TAO patients showed significantly lower FA and higher MD, AD, and RD than HCs for both medial and lateral EOMs (p < 0.001), but not the AD value of lateral EOMs (p = 0.619). Active patients had significantly higher FA, MD, and AD than inactive patients for medial EOMs (p < 0.005), whereas only FA differed significantly in the lateral EOMs (p = 0.018). The MD, AD, and RD of optic nerves were significantly lower in TAO patients than HCs (p < 0.05), except for FA (p = 0.129). Multivariate analysis showed that the MD of medial EOMs and disease duration were significant predictors for disease activity. The combination of these two parameters showed optimal diagnostic efficiency for disease activity (area under the curve, 0.855; sensitivity, 68.4%; specificity, 96.9%).CONCLUSION: rs-EPI-based DTI is promising in assessing microstructural changes of EOMs and optic nerves and can help to indicate the disease activity of TAO, especially through the MD of medial EOMs.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Muscles , Negotiating , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smoke , Smoking , Troleandomycin
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 355-363, nov.-dez. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057917

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Verificar a presença das células-tronco mesenquimais (MSC) na área próxima ao nervo óptico de coelhos previamente lesado com álcool absoluto. Métodos: Os 12 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia foram distribuídos em 2 lotes. Após sedação, cada olho do animal recebeu uma injeção retrobulbar de 1 ml de álcool absoluto em um dos olhos e de 1 ml de solução fisiológica 0,9% (SF) no olho contralateral. Após 15 dias deste procedimento inicial todos os olhos dos animais pertencentes ao lote A, receberam via retrobulbar, uma solução contendo MSC de tecido adiposo humano e previamente marcadas com Qdots,. Todos os olhos dos animais do lote B receberam solução PBS. Resultados: Após 15 dias desta última aplicação os animais foram sacrificados e as lâminas foram analisadas. A presença das MSC foi observada em 100% dos olhos dos animais do lote A. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que a marcação prévia das MSC com Qdots permitiu o acompanhamento das mesmas na região aplicada e em áreas mais internas do nervo óptico. A permanência de MSC após 15 dias de aplicação ao redor do nervo óptico sugere a viabilidade e possível participação das mesmas no processo de regeneração do tecido lesado. Nas condições deste estudo, a via de aplicação retrobulbar permitiu a mobilização das células tronco do local de aplicação até áreas centrais dos nervos ópticos nos animais do lote A, sugerindo que esta poderá ser uma via de acesso eficaz para as MSC no processo de regeneração de neuropatias ópticas.


Abstract Obtective: To verify the presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the area close to the optic nerve of previously injured with absolute alcohol. Methods: Twelve New Zealand breed rabbits were divided into two groups, and after sedation, each eye of the animal received a retrobulbar injection of 1 ml of absolute ethanol in one eye, and 1 ml of physiological solution 0.9 % (PS) in the contralateral eye. After 15 days all eyes of animals belonging to group A, received via retrobulbar a solution containing MSCs from human adipose tissue (AT) and previously marked with Qdots, while all eyes of animals from group B received solution containing PBS. Results: The presence of MSC was observed in 100% of the eyes of the animals of group A and the more central areas near and into the optic nerve. Conclusion: The results suggest that the appointment of MSC with Qdots allowed their follow-up applied in the region and in the inner areas of the optic nerve. The MSC permanence after 15 days of application around the optic nerve suggests the feasibility and possible involvement of the same during the damaged tissue regeneration process. Under the conditions of this study, the route of retrobulbar application and the presence of the stem cells to the central areas of the optic nerves in animals of group A, suggests that this might be an effective approach for MSCs in regeneration process of optic neuropathies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Optic Nerve Diseases/therapy , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipocytes , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nerve Regeneration , Optic Nerve/cytology , Semiconductors , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Optic Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Double-Blind Method , Quantum Dots , Injections, Intraocular
12.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 107-111, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008961

ABSTRACT

Los meningiomas de nervio óptico y de seno cavernoso son patologías poco frecuentes, y hasta el momento no ha habido ningún reporte de que se presenten ambos en un mismo paciente. Cabe resaltar que cuando llega un paciente a consulta diagnosticado con alguna patología, asumimos que este diagnóstico es adecuado y pertinente. Pero en nuestro caso, el paciente presentó signos y síntomas de etiología desconocida que hicieron que se re-evaluarán los diagnósticos oftalmológicos que traía la paciente, encontrando que había sido tratada por un diagnóstico que no le correspondía y a su vez este hallazgo nos ayudó a encontrar la verdadera causa(AU)


Optic nerve and cavernous sinus meningiomas are uncommon pathologies, and so far there have not been previously reported to occur in the same patient. It should be emphasized that when a patient arrives at a doctor's office diagnosed with pathology, we assume that this diagnosis is appropriate and pertinent. But in our case, the patient presented signs and symptoms of unknown etiology that led to a re-evaluation of the previous ophthalmological diagnoses that the patient brought, finding that she had been treated for a diagnosis that did not match with all her clinical sign and symptoms and this helped us to find the real cause(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cavernous Sinus/pathology , Optic Nerve Neoplasms/diagnosis , Meningioma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Cavernous Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Eye Movement Measurements , Fundus Oculi
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 302-309, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and types of optic nerve involvement in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Methods: For this retrospective cross-sectional study, we examined all patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis referred to our Uveitis Section during the last 12 years, and we included patients with optic nerve involvement in the study. The primary outcome was the prevalence of optic nerve involvement, and secondary outcomes included the types of optic nerve involvement and the final best-corrected visual acuity after treatment. Results: The prevalence of optic nerve involvement was 14.4%, with the leading cause being the activation of a juxtapapillary lesion (70.5%). We found papillitis in two eyes and neuroretinitis in two eyes (11.7% for each). We only detected one optic nerve involvement secondary to a distant active lesion (5.8%). Sixteen patients (94.1%) had unilateral ocular toxoplasmosis. The overall final best-corrected visual acuity after treatment was 10/10 (LogMAR = 0.0) excluding the three patients with a juxtapapillary scar involving the macula. Conclusions: Optic nerve involvement was common in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. The main type of optic nerve involvement was caused by activation of an old juxtapapillary lesion. Treatment was quickly effective, but the best-corrected visual acuity was dependent on the presence of a scar in the papillomacular bundle.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência, características clínicas e tipos de acometimento do nervo óptico em pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular. Métodos: Para este estudo retrospectivo transversal, examinamos todos os pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular ativa encaminhados ao nosso Setor de Uveíte nos últimos 12 anos, e incluímos pacientes com comprometimento do nervo óptico no estudo. O resultado primário foi a prevalência do envolvimento do nervo óptico, e os resultados secundários incluíram os tipos de envolvimento do nervo óptico e a acuidade visual final melhor corrigida após o tratamento. Resultados: A prevalência de acometimento do nervo óptico foi 14,4%, sendo a principal causa a ativação de uma lesão justapapilar (70,5%). Encontramos papilite em dois olhos e neuroretinite em dois olhos (11,7% para cada um). Apenas detectamos um comprometimento do nervo óptico secundário a uma lesão ativa distante (5,8%). Dezesseis pacientes (94,1%) apresentavam toxoplasmose ocular unilateral. A acuidade visual final com melhor correção após o tratamento foi 10/10 (LogMAR= 0,0) excluindo os três pacientes com uma cicatriz justapapilar envolvendo a mácula. Conclusões: O comprometimento do nervo óptico foi comum em pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular. O principal tipo de comprometimento do nervo óptico foi causado pela ativação de uma lesão justapapilar antiga. O tratamento foi rapidamente eficaz, mas a acuidade visual final com melhor correção foi dependente da presença de uma cicatriz no feixe papilomacular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Optic Nerve Diseases/parasitology , Optic Nerve Diseases/pathology , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/pathology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Retinitis/parasitology , Retinitis/pathology , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Visual Acuity , Optic Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Optic Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Papilledema/parasitology , Papilledema/pathology , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 295-301, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the effect of panretinal photocoagulation on optic disk topographic parameters in non-glaucomatous patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center, observational study. Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients with diabetes underwent panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Stereoscopic disk photographs and optic nerve head parameters were evaluated using the Zeiss fundus camera and the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph), respectively, at baseline and 12 months after the completion of panretinal photocoagulation. Results: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients (15 female) with a mean age of 53.7 (range 26-74) years were recruited. No significant difference was found between the stereo photography determined mean horizontal and vertical cup-to-disk ratio before and after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (p=0.461 and 0.839, respectively). The global values of the optic nerve head parameters analyzed with the HRT3 showed no significant change from baseline to 12 months, including the disk area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, cup-to-disk area ratio, linear cup-to-disk ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cross-sectional area. Conclusion: Our results suggest that panretinal photocoagulation does not cause morphological optic disk changes in patients with diabetic proliferative retinopathy after 1 year of follow-up.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da panfotocoagulação retiniana nos parâmetros topográficos do disco óptico em pacientes não glaucomatosos com retinopatia diabética proliferativa. Métodos: Este é um estudo observacional pros­pectivo e unicêntrico. Trinta e oito olhos de 26 pacientes dia­béticos foram submetidos à panfotocoagulação retiniana para retinopatia diabética proliferativa. As estereofotografias e os parâmetros do disco óptico foram avaliados usando o retinógrafo Visucam da Zeiss e o oftalmoscópio confocal de varredura a laser (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph), respectivamente, no início e 12 meses após a conclusão da panfotocoagulação. Resultados: Trinta e oito olhos de 26 pacientes (15 mulheres) com média de idade de 53,7 anos (intervalo de 26-74) foram recrutados. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre a média horizontal e vertical para relação escavação/disco óptico determinadas pelas estereo­fotografias antes e após o tratamento com panfotocoagulação retiniana (p=0,461 e 0,839, respectivamente). Os valores globais dos parâmetros do disco óptico analisados com a tomografia de varredura a laser não mostraram nenhuma mudança significativa entre o início até os 12 meses, incluindo disk area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, C/D area ratio, linear C/D ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness e cross-sectional area. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que a panfotocoagulação retiniana não causa alterações morfológicas no disco óptico em pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa após um ano de seguimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Optic Disk/pathology , Laser Coagulation/methods , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Optic Disk/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve/pathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Scanning Laser Polarimetry
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(2): 116-118, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177750

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los aneurismas carótido-oftálmicos generalmente causan problemas visuales, y su tratamiento quirúrgico sigue siendo un reto debido al objetivo de preservar y/o mejorar la función visual. Descripción del caso: Presentamos caso de intervención quirúrgica de aneurisma carotídeo-oftálmico superior. Masculino de 64 años de edad con déficit de campo visual inferior izquierdo y cefalea. La reconstrucción angio-TC mostró un aneurisma carotídeo-oftálmico superior izquierdo no roto (4x5 mm). Paciente colocado en posición supina, con la cabeza fija en cabezal Sugita de 4 puntos, con una rotación de 15° hacia el lado contralateral. Una craneotomía pterional clásica con fresado del ala esfenoidal, con apertura de la fisura silviana y carotidea se realizaron bajo el microscopio. Se realiza una incisión dural circunferencial sobre el canal óptico. El techo óseo del canal óptico, así como sus paredes medial y lateral, se eliminan cuidadosamente con una fresa diamantada de 3mm con drill de alta velocidad con irrigación constante para evitar daños térmicos sobre el nervio óptico. El nervio óptico con un disector de Penfield N° 7 se eleva suavemente, lejos de la arteria carótida, para facilitar la exposición del cuello aneurismático para el clipado. Resultados: La apertura extensa del canal óptico y la vaina del nervio óptico se logró con éxito en el paciente, lo que permitió un ángulo de trabajo con la arteria carótida para la correcta visualización del aneurisma. Se logró el correcto clipado en el control de AngioCT postoperatoria. Conclusión: La foraminotomía óptica es una técnica fácil y recomendada para exponer y tratar aneurismas carotídeos-oftálmicos superiores y, además, permitir la descompresión del nervio óptico.


Introduction: Carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms usually cause visual problems, and its surgical treatment remains challenging due to the goal of preserving and/or improving the visual outcome. Case description: We present a surgical intervention of superior carotid-ophtalmic aneurysm. A 64-year-old man with a left inferior visual field deficit and headache. The angio CT reconstruction showed a left incidental superior carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm (4x5mm). Patient positioned in supine, with the head fixed in a 4 pin Sugita headholder with a 15° rotation to the contralateral side. A pterional craniotomy and flattening of sphenoid ridge with the usual drilling procedure with the opening of the Sylvian fissure to the carotid cistern were done under the microscope. A circumferential dural incision is made above the optic canal. The bony roof of the optic canal as well as its medial and lateral walls are carefully removed with a 3mm diamond high speed drill under constant irrigation to avoid thermal damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve becomes gently retractable with a N° 7 Penfield dissector to some extent away from the carotid artery, to facilitate the aneurysmal neck exposure for clipping. Results: Extensive opening of the optic canal and optic nerve sheath was successfully achieved in the patient allowing a working angle with the carotid artery for correct visualization of the aneurysm. The correct clipping was observed in the postoperative AngioCT control. Conclusion: Optic foraminotomy is an easy and recommended technique for exposing and treating superior carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms and moreover allowing optic nerve decompression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Foraminotomy , Optic Nerve , Craniotomy , Aneurysm
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 183-188, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To test the hypothesis that Chagas disease predisposes to optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer alterations. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 41 patients diagnosed with Chagas disease and 41 controls, paired by sex and age. The patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations, including intraocular pressure measurements, optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer screening with retinography, optical coherence tomography, and standard automated perimetry. Results: All of the patients with Chagas disease had a recent cardiologic study; 15 (36.6%) had heart failure, 14 (34.1%) had cardiac form without left ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (29.3%) had indeterminate form. Optic nerve/retinal nerve fiber layer alterations were observed in 24 patients (58.5%) in the Chagas disease group and 7 controls (17.1%) (p£0.01). Among these, optic nerve pallor, optic nerve alterations suggestive of glaucoma, notch, peripapillary hemorrhage, and localized retinal nerve fiber layer defect were detected. Alterations were more prominent in patients with Chagas disease and heart failure (11 patients), although they also occurred in those with Chagas disease without left ventricular dysfunction (7 patients) and those with indeterminate form (6 patients). Optical coherence tomography showed that themean of the average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured 89 ± 9.7 mm, and the mean of retinal nerve fiber layer superior and inferior thickness measured 109 ± 17.5 and 113 ± 16.8 mm, respectively were lower in patients with Chagas disease. In controls, these values were 94 ± 10.6 (p=0.02); 117 ± 18.1 (p=0.04), and 122 ± 18.4 mm (p=0.03). Conclusion: Changes in optic nerve/ retinal nerve fiber layer were more prevalent in patients with Chagas disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Testar a hipótese de que a doença de Chagas predispõe a alterações no nervo óptico e camada de fibras nervosas peripapilar. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 41 pacientes diagnosticados com doença de Chagas e 41 controles, pareados por sexo e idade. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos, incluindo medida da pressão intraocular, avaliação do nervo óptico e camada de fibras nervosas através de retinografia, tomografia de coerência óptica e perimetria automatizada padrão. Resultados: Todos os pacientes com doença de Chagas apresentavam estudo cardiológico recente; 15 pacientes (36,6%) apresentavam insuficiência cardíaca; 14 (34,1%) forma cardíaca sem disfunção de ventrículo esquerdo e 12 (29,3%), forma indeterminada. Alterações do nervo óptico/camada de fibras nervosas foram observadas em 24 pacientes (58,5%) do grupo com doença de Chagas e 07 controles (17,1%) (p£0,01). Dentre estas, palidez do nervo óptico, alterações do nervo óptico sugestivas de glaucoma, entalhe, hemorragia peripapilar e defeito da camada de fibras localizado foram detectados. As alterações foram mais proeminentes nos pacientes com doença de Chagas e insuficiência cardíaca (11 pacientes) embora também ocorressem naqueles com doença de Chagas sem disfunção de ventrículo esquerdo (7 pacientes) e com forma indeterminada (6 pacientes). A tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou que a média da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina mediu 89 ± 9,7 mm), e a média da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas superior e inferior mediu 109 ± 17,5 e 113 ± 16,8 mm, respectivamente, foi menor em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Nos controles, esses valores foram de 94 ± 10,6 mm (p=0,02); 117 ± 18,1 (p=0,04) e 122 ± 18,4 mm (p=0,03). Conclusão: Alterações do nervo óptico/camada de fibras nervosas da retina foram mais prevalentes nos pacientes com doença de Chagas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Optic Nerve/pathology , Retina/pathology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Nerve/physiopathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Optic Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Optic Nerve Diseases/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Field Tests , Intraocular Pressure
17.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 58-62, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de la ventana ocular puede ser un método no invasivo para la detección de hipertensión endocraneana. OBJETIVO. De este trabajo fue validar una fórmula de cuantificación de la presión intracraneana a partir de la evaluación por ultrasonido de la vaina del nervio óptico en una ciudad de gran altitud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio prospectivo de 27 pacientes con trauma craneoencefalico grave en quienes se les colocó un sensor de presión intracraneana intraventricular y se realizó el cálculo de la PIC no invasiva mediante correlación utilizando la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de ultrasonido y aplicando una fórmula de cálculo. RESULTADOS. Correlación positiva débil con significancia estadística. CONCLUSIÓN. La cuantificación de la presión intracraneana no invasiva a través de la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico por ultrasonido podría ser una herramienta útil en ciudades de gran altitud sobre el nivel del mar.


INTRODUCTION. Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath through the eye window can be a non-invasive method for the detection of endocranial hypertension. OBJECTIVE. This work was to validate a formula for quantifying intracranial pressure from the ultrasound evaluation of the optic nerve sheath in a high-altitude city. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Prospective study of 27 patients with severe cranioencephalic trauma in whom an intraventricular intracranial pressure sensor was placed and the calculation of non-invasive ICP was performed by correlation using the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath through ultrasound and applying a formula of calculation. RESULTS. Weak positive correlation with statistical significance. CONCLUSION. Quantification of non-invasive intracranial pressure through the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath by ultrasound could be a useful tool in high altitude cities above sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Optic Nerve , Ultrasonic Therapy , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ecuador
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 157-161, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic orbital surgery is a nascent field and new tools are required to assist with surgical planning and to ascertain the limits of the tumor resectability. Objective: We purpose to utilize three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction to define the theoretical lateral limit of endoscopic resectability of primary orbital tumors and to apply these boundary conditions to surgical cases. Methods: A three-dimensional orbital model was rendered in 4 representative patients presenting with primary orbital tumors using OsiriX open source imaging software. A 2-Dimensional plane was propagated between the contralateral nare and a line tangential to the long axis of the optic nerve reflecting the trajectory of a trans-septal approach. Any tumor volume falling medial to the optic nerve and/or within the space inferior to this plane of resectability was considered theoretically resectable regardless of how far it extended lateral to the optic nerve as nerve retraction would be unnecessary. Actual tumor volumes were then superimposed over this plan and correlated with surgical outcomes. Results: Among the 4 lesions analyzed, two were fully medial to the optic nerve, one extended lateral to the optic nerve but remained inferior to the plane of resectability, and one extended both lateral to the optic nerve and superior to the plane of resectability. As predicted by the three-dimensional modeling, a complete resection was achieved in all lesions except one that transgressed the plane of resectability. No new diplopia or vision loss was observed in any patient. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction enhances preoperative planning for endoscopic orbital surgery. Tumors that extend lateral to the optic nerve may still be candidates for a purely endoscopic resection as long as they do not extend above the plane of resectability described herein.


Resumo Introdução: A cirurgia orbital endoscópica é um campo emergente e são necessárias novas ferramentas para auxiliar no planejamento cirúrgico e determinar os limites da ressecabilidade tumoral. Objetivo: Usar a reconstrução radiográfica tridimensional para definir o limite lateral teórico de ressecabilidade endoscópica de tumores orbitais primários e aplicar essas condições de limites a casos cirúrgicos. Método: Um modelo orbital tridimensional foi aplicado a quatro pacientes representativos com tumores orbitais primários utilizando o software de imagem de fonte aberta OsiriX. Um plano bidimensional foi propagado entre a narina contralateral e uma linha tangencial ao eixo longo do nervo óptico que reflete a trajetória de uma abordagem transeptal. Qualquer volume de tumor situado medialmente ao nervo óptico e/ou dentro do espaço inferior a esse plano de ressecabilidade foi teoricamente considerado ressecável, independentemente de quão longe ele se estendia até o nervo óptico, pois a retração do nervo seria desnecessária. Os volumes reais do tumor foram então sobrepostos sobre esse plano e correlacionados com os resultados cirúrgicos. Resultados: Entre as quatro lesões analisadas, duas eram totalmente mediais ao nervo óptico, uma se estendia lateralmente ao nervo óptico, mas permaneceu inferior ao plano de ressecabilidade, e uma se estendia lateralmente ao nervo óptico e superior ao plano de ressecabilidade. Conforme previsto pelo modelo tridimensional, uma ressecção completa foi obtida em todas as lesões, exceto uma, que transgrediu o plano de ressecabilidade. Nenhuma nova diplopia ou perda de visão foi observada em qualquer paciente. Conclusão: A reconstrução tridimensional melhora o planejamento pré-operatório para a cirurgia orbital endoscópica. Os tumores que se estendem lateralmente ao nervo óptico podem ainda ser candidatos à ressecção puramente endoscópica, desde que não se estendam além do plano de ressecabilidade aqui descrito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Neoplasms/surgery , Orbital Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Optic Nerve/surgery , Software , Orbital Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden , Preoperative Period
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 122-126, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003567

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar parâmetros oftalmoscópicos e cardiovasculares em pacientes com diagnóstico de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER) e avaliar a associação entre ICFER e alterações do nervo óptico sugestivas de glaucoma. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, observacional, prospectivo, composto por amostra 30 pacientes com diagnóstico de ICFER. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao exame oftalmológico, que incluiu biomicroscopia, avaliação da acuidade visual, aferição da PIO (pressão intraocular), gonioscopia e medida de ECC (espessura central corneana). A avaliação de parâmetros cardiovasculares, como PAM (pressão arterial média), FEVE (fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo), comorbidades e tempo de diagnóstico de IC foi realizada a partir de revisão de prontuário médico. Arbitrariamente foi escolhido o olho esquerdo para análise estatística dos dados. A correlação estatística foi realizada através do teste de Spearman, e a comparação através do teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Observou-se uma alta prevalência de atrofia peripapilar (73,3%), além de uma correlação positiva, moderada e estatisticamente significativa entre FEVE e PPO (pressão de perfusão ocular) (r = 0,517; p = 0,004). Apesar da ausência de significância das comparações pelo Teste U de Mann-Whitney, evidenciou-se uma maior prevalência de atrofia peripapilar nos pacientes que apresentavam uma menor PAM, menor FEVE e menor PPO. Conclusão: A ICFER pode ser um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de alterações glaucomatosas no disco do nervo óptico. A atrofia peripapilar e a baixa pressão de perfusão ocular resultantes do déficit contrátil cardíaco podem estar relacionadas com a teoria vascular do desenvolvimento do glaucoma de pressão.


Abstract Objectives: To correlate ophthalmoscopic and cardiovascular parameters in patients diagnosed with low-output heart failure (HFrEF) and to evaluate the association between HFrEF and glaucoma-suggestive alterations in the optic nerve. Methods: Descriptive, observational and prospective study, composed of 30 patients diagnosed with HFrEF. The patients were submitted to ophthalmologic examination, which included biomicroscopy, visual acuity, gonioscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Their cardiovascular parameters evaluation, such as mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), comorbidities and diagnosis time of HFrEF was performed upon a review over their medical chart. The left eye was arbitrarily chosen for statistical analysis of the data. Statistical correlation was performed using the Spearman test, while the comparison was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: A high prevalence of peripapillary atrophy (73.3%) was observed, as well as a positive, moderate and statistically significant correlation between LVEF and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) (r = 0.517; p = 0.004). Despite the lack of significance of the Mann-Whitney U-Test comparisons, a higher prevalence of peripapillary atrophy was found in patients with lower MAP, lower LVEF and lower OPP. Conclusion: HFrEF may be a risk factor for the development of glaucomatous changes in the optic nerve disc. The resulting peripapillary atrophy and low OPP from the contractile deficit may be related to the vascular theory about normal-tension glaucoma development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/etiology , Heart Failure/complications , Optic Nerve , Stroke Volume , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Arterial Pressure , Observational Study , Intraocular Pressure/physiology
20.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(1): 24-25, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177882

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los meningiomas constituyen aproximadamente el 10-15%1 de las neoplasias cerebrales, y el 7% de ellos presentan una inserción supraselar. Los meningiomas del tubérculo selar presentan adherencia en este, en el surco quiasmático o en el limbo esfenoidal2,3. Descripción del caso: Mujer de 45 años que consulta por cefalea y déficit severo de la visión del ojo izquierdo, constatado por campimetría visual. En RM se observa imagen extraaxial, en relación al tubérculo selar, con lateralización hacia la izquierda, ingresando al conducto óptico de ese lado. Se realizó abordaje pterional izquierdo, con acceso transsilviano a las cisternas óptica y carotídea izquierdas. Se individualiza la lesión color parduzca en el espacio interóptico, que desplaza hacia lateral y superior el nervio óptico izquierdo. Se retira duramadre que cubre el techo del conducto óptico y luego con fresa diamantada se descomprime4 el mismo de modo precoz, antes de la disección microquirúrgica del meningioma. Con aspirador ultrasónico se lleva a cabo el vaciamiento intratumoral, y luego separamos la capsula tumoral de la aracnoides y las estructuras neurales y vasculares. Luego de la exéresis completa de la lesión, se retira duramadre del tubérculo selar y se realiza fresado del mismo para evitar recurrencias en el sitio de implantación. Resultados: En RM postoperatoria se observa resección completa de la lesión; además la paciente refiere mejoría notoria de su visión que se constata en examen físico. Se confirma dicha mejoría en campimetría visual a los 3 meses postoperatorios. Conclusión: La descompresión precoz del conducto óptico en los meningiomas del tubérculo selar es una maniobra quirúrgica útil para prevenir una mayor lesión del nervio durante la extirpación del tumor; además permite resecar fragmentos intracanaliculares.


Introduction: Meningiomas constitute approximately 10-15%1 of the brain neoplasms and 7% of them present a suprasellar insertion. The meningiomas of the sellar tubercle present adherence in its, in the chiasmatic sulcus or sphenoid limbus2,3. Case description: A 45-year-old woman consulted for headache and severe vision deficit of the left eye, confirmed by visual field campimetry. In MRI an extraaxial image is observed, in relation to the sellar tubercle with lateralization to the left, entering the optic canal. A left pterional approach was performed, with transsylvian access to the left optic and carotid cisterns. The brownish lesion is individualized in the interoptic space, which displaces laterally and superiorly the optic nerve. The dura mater that covers the roof of the optic canal is removed at the beginning of the surgery, and then, with a diamond bur, the optic canal is decompressed4, before the microsurgical dissection of the meningioma. With an ultrasonic aspirator, the tumor debulking is carried out, and then the tumor capsule was separated from the arachnoid and the neural and vascular structures. Finally, the duramater of the tuberculum sellae was removed and the tubercle was drilled to avoid recurrences at the implantation site. Results: In a postoperative MRI, complete resection of the lesion was observed. The patient reported a noticeable improvement in her vision that was confirmed by a physical examination. Confirming this improvement in visual field campimetry was done 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Early decompression of the optic canal is essential to avoid further injury during tumor removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma, as well as allowing the resection of intracanalicular fragments.


Subject(s)
Meningioma , Optic Nerve , Vision, Ocular , Visual Fields , Foraminotomy , Headache
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