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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 289-293, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131608

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Pharmacological pupillary dilation is performed in comprehensive ophthalmological examinations and before biometric measurements. So far, there is no consensus regarding its impact on biometric measurements. This study's aim was to investigate the effects of pharmacological pupillary dilation on ocular biometric measurements in healthy children. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, non-randomized study of children (4-18 years of age) who were admitted for routine ophthalmological examination. Biometric measurements were performed, using a non-contact optical biometry device, both before and after pharmacological pupillary dilation with cyclopentolate hydrochloride. Intraocular lens power calculations were performed using Hill-RBF, Barrett, Olsen, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/Theoretical, Holladay, and Hoffer Q formulas. Descriptive statistical analyses were also performed. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare measurements before and after pharmacological pupillary dilation. Relationships between variables were analyzed using the Spearman-Brown rank correlation coefficient. Results: The study included 116 eyes of 58 children (mean age, 8.4 ± 0.32 years; 34 girls). Significant changes were observed after pupillary dilation, compared with before pupillary dilation, in terms of anterior chamber depth, aqueous depth, and central corneal and lens thicknesses. No significant change was observed in axial length. Intraocular lens power calculations revealed no significant changes after pupillary dilation in most formulas except for the Olsen formula. The intraocular lens power was significantly inversely correlated with axial length and anterior chamber depth. Conclusions: Pharmacological pupillary dilation in children appeared to have no impact on axial length and intraocular lens power, but caused a significant increase in anterior chamber depth. The difference in anterior chamber depth measurements before and after pupillary dilation could be related to the optical biometry device model used. These outcomes should be considered in intraocular lens power calculations performed using anterior chamber depth parameters.


RESUMO Objetivo: A dilatação pupilar farmacológica é realizada em exames oftalmológicos abrangentes e antes das medições biométricas. Até o momento, não há consenso sobre seu impacto nas medições biométricas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da dilatação pupilar nas medidas biométricas oculares em crianças saudáveis. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, observacional e não randomizado de crianças (4-18 anos) que foram admitidas para exame oftalmológico de rotina. As medidas biométricas foram realizadas usando um dispositivo de biometria óptica sem contato, antes e após a dilatação pupilar farmacológica com cloridrato de ciclopentolato. Os cálculos de potência das lentes intraoculares foram realizados utilizando as fórmulas de Hill-RBF, Barrett, Olsen, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff/ Teórica, Holladay e Hoffer Q. Análises estatísticas descritivas também foram realizadas. O teste dos postos sinalizados de Wilcoxon foi usado para comparar as medidas antes e após a dilatação pupilar farmacológica. As relações entre as variáveis foram analisadas pelo coeficiente de correlação de Spearman-Brown. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 116 olhos de 58 crianças (idade média de 8,4 ± 0,32 anos; 34 meninas). Alterações significativas foram observadas após a dilatação pupilar, em termos de profundidade da câmara anterior, profundidade do humor aquoso e espessura central da córnea e do cristalino. Nenhuma mudança significativa ocorreu no comprimento axial. Os cálculos de potência da lente intraocular não revelaram alterações significativas após a dilatação pupilar na maioria das fórmulas, com exceção da fórmula Olsen. O poder da lente intraocular foi significativamente inversa correlacionada com o comprimento axial e a profundidade da câmara anterior. Conclusões: A dilatação pupilar farmacológica em crianças parece não ter impacto no comprimento axial e no poder da lente intraocular, mas causou um aumento significativo na profundidade da câmara anterior. A diferença nas medidas da profundidade da câmara anterior antes e após a dilatação pupilar pode estar relacionada ao modelo do dispositivo de biometria óptica utilizado. Tais resultados devem ser considerados nos cálculos de potência da lente intraocular realizados usando parâmetros de profundidade da câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Biometry , Dilatation , Axial Length, Eye/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Anterior Chamber/diagnostic imaging , Refraction, Ocular , Prospective Studies , Optics and Photonics , Lenses, Intraocular
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(1): 9-15, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839109

ABSTRACT

Abstract The high irradiance and the different emission spectra from contemporary light curing units (LCU) may cause ocular damage. This study evaluated the ability of 15 eye protection filters: 2 glasses, 1 paddle design, and 12 dedicated filters to block out harmful light from a monowave (HP-3M ESPE) and a broad-spectrum (Valo, Ultradent) LED LCU. Using the anterior sensor in the MARC-Patient Simulator (BlueLight Analytics) the irradiance that was delivered through different eye protection filters was measured three times. The LCUs delivered a similar irradiance to the top of the filter. The mean values of the light that passed through the filters as percent of the original irradiance were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (a= 0.05). The emission spectra from the LCUs and through the filters were also obtained. Two-way ANOVA showed that the interaction between protective filters and LCUs significantly influenced the amount of light transmitted (p< 0.001). Tukey test showed that the amount of light transmitted through the protective filters when using the HP-3M-ESPE was significantly greater compared to when using the Valo, irrespective of the protective filter tested. When using the HP-3M-ESPE, the Glasses filter allowed significantly more light through, followed by XL 3000, ORTUS, Google Professional, Gnatus filters. The Valo filter was the most effective at blocking out the harmful light. Some protective filters were less effective at blocking the lower wavelengths of light (<420 nm). However, even in the worst scenario, the filters were able to block at least 97% of the irradiance.


Resumo A alta irradiância e diferentes espectros de luz emitidos por aparelhos fotopolimerizadores (Fp) podem causar danos oculares. Este estudo avaliou a capacidade de 15 filtros de proteção ocular em bloquear a luz prejudicial de um Fp convencional (HP-3M ESPE) e outro de largo espectro (Valo, Ultradent). Utilizando sensor anterior do equioamento MARC-Patient Simulator (BlueLight Analytics inc.) a irradiância que passou através dos diferentes filtros protetores foi mensuradas três vezes. Os valores médios da irradiância que passaram pelos filtros foram analisados usando Análise de variância fatorial e pelo teste de Tukey (a= 0.05). O espetro emitido dos Fps através dos filtros também foi obtido. A análise de variância mostrou que a interação entre os filtros protetores e Fps influenciou significantemente a quantidade de luz transmitida (p<0,001). O teste de Tukey mostrou que a quantidade que luz transmitida através dos protetores oculares quando usado o HP-3M ESPE foi significantemente maior quando comparado aos valores para o Valo, independentemente do filtro testado. Quando foi utilizado a fonte de luz HP-3M ESPE, o filtro de proteção ocular permitiu significativamente maior passagem de luz, seguido por XL 3000, ORTUS, Google Professional, e pelo filtro Gnatus. O filtro do Valo foi o mais eficiente ao bloquear a luz prejudicial. Alguns filtros foram menos eficazes ao bloquear menores comprimentos de onde (<420 nm). No entanto, mesmo no pior cenário dos resultados deste estudo, os filtros foram capazes de bloquear ao menos 97% da irradiância emitida pelas fontes de luz testadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Curing Lights, Dental/adverse effects , Eye Protective Devices/standards , Analysis of Variance , Optics and Photonics
3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 167-172, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parallel-polarized light (PPL) photography evaluates skin characteristics by analyzing light reflections from the skin surface. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the significance of quantitative analysis of PPL images in rosacea patients, and to provide a new objective evaluation method for use in clinical research and practice. METHODS: A total of 49 rosacea patients were enrolled. PPL images using green and white light emitting diodes (LEDs) were taken of the lesion and an adjacent normal area. The values from the PPL images were converted to CIELAB coordinates: L* corresponding to the brightness, a* to the red and green intensities, and b* to the yellow and blue intensities. RESULTS: A standard grading system showed negative correlations with L* (r=−0.67862, p=0.0108) and b* (r=−0.67862, p=0.0108), and a positive correlation with a* (r=0.64194, p=0.0180) with the green LEDs for papulopustular rosacea (PPR) types. The xerosis severity scale showed a positive correlation with L* (r=0.36709, p=0.0276) and a negative correlation with b* (r=−0.33068, p=0.0489) with the white LEDs for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) types. In the ETR types, there was brighter lesional and normal skin with white LEDs and a higher score on the xerosis severity scale than the PPR types. CONCLUSION: This technique using PPL images is applicable to the quantitative and objective assessment of rosacea in clinical settings. In addition, the two main subtypes of ETR and PPR are distinct entities visually and optically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Methods , Optics and Photonics , Photography , Rosacea , Skin
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243841

ABSTRACT

Optical cochlear implant has been occuring as a new cochlear implant which utilizes laser pulses to stimulate hearing. Compared to electronic cochlear implant, it has demonstrated higher spatial selectivity and less radiation scattering, which could lead to higher fidelity cochlear prostheses. At present, most investigations have focused on experiments in vivo. Although a lot of exciting results have been obtained, the mechanisms of laser stimulation is still open. In this paper, a brief review on the recent new findings of optical cochlear implant is given, and possible mechanisms are discussed. In the end, new experimental proposals are suggested which could help to explore the mechanisms of laser-cochlea stimulation.


Subject(s)
Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Hearing Loss , Rehabilitation , Humans , Lasers , Optics and Photonics
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 805-811, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of postoperative refractive outcomes of combined phacovitrectomy for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in comparison to cataract surgery alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine eyes that underwent combined phacovitrectomy with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for cataract and ERM (combined surgery group) and 39 eyes that received phacoemulsification for cataract (control group) were analyzed, retrospectively. The predicted preoperative refractive aim was compared with the results of postoperative refraction. RESULTS: In the combined surgery group, refractive prediction error by A-scan and IOLMaster were -0.305+/-0.717 diopters (D) and -0.356+/-0.639 D, respectively, compared to 0.215+/-0.541 and 0.077+/-0.529 in the control group, showing significantly more myopic change compared to the control group (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). Within each group, there was no statistically significant difference in refractive prediction error between A-scan and IOLMaster (all p>0.05). IOL power calculation using adjusted A-scan measurement of axial length based on the macular thickness of the normal contralateral eye still resulted in significant postoperative refractive error (all p<0.05). Postoperative refraction calculated with adjusted axial length based on actual postoperative central foveal thickness change showed the closest value to the actual postoperative achieved refraction (p=0.599). CONCLUSION: Combined phacovitrectomy for ERM resulted in significantly more myopic shift of postoperative refraction, compared to the cataract surgery alone, for both A-scan and IOLMaster. To improve the accuracy of IOL power estimation in eyes with cataract and ERM, sequential surgery for ERM and cataract may need to be considered.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biometry/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cataract Extraction , Epiretinal Membrane/surgery , Eye , Female , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Male , Optics and Photonics , Phacoemulsification/methods , Postoperative Period , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vision Tests , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy/methods
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262659

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the characteristics of light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian and its surrounding areas at human wrist by using optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An experiment was carried out to obtain the distribution of diffuse light on Pericardium Meridian line and its surrounding areas at the wrist, and then a simplified model based on the anatomical structure was proposed to simulate the light transportation within the same area by using Monte Carlo method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The experimental results showed strong accordance with the Monte Carlo simulation that the light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian had an advantage over its surrounding areas at the wrist.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The advantage of light transport along Pericardium Merdian line was related to components and structure of tissue, also the anatomical structure of the area that the Pericardium Meridian line runs.</p>


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Humans , Light , Meridians , Models, Theoretical , Monte Carlo Method , Optics and Photonics , Methods , Pericardium , Physiology , Wrist , Physiology
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 267-270, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728660

ABSTRACT

Some intriguing concepts of visual optics cannot be explained by ray tracing. However, they can be clarified using wavefront formalism. Its main advantage is in the use of the concept of vergence, which is very helpful in interpreting the optical phenomena involved in the neutralization of the ametropias. In this line of thinking, the major role of a lens is in the creation of a new light source (the image point) that orientates the refracted waves. Once the nature and position of this source is known, one can easily predict the behavior of the wavefronts. The formalism also allows for an easier understanding on how wavefronts relate to light rays and on how algebraic signs are assigned to optical distances.


Alguns conceitos intrigantes da óptica visual não podem ser explicados pelo traçado dos raios luminosos. Entretanto, eles podem ser esclarecidos através do formalismo da frente de onda. A vantagem do mesmo está no uso do conceito de vergência, que facilita o entendimento dos fenômenos ópticos envolvidos na neutralização das ametropias. Nessa linha de raciocínio, a principal função de uma lente é o de criar de uma nova fonte de luz - o ponto de imagem - que orienta as ondas refratadas. Conhecendo-se a natureza e a posição dessa fonte pode-se facilmente prever o comportamento das frentes de onda. Este formalismo também ajuda a compreensão de como as frentes de onda se relacionam com os raios de luz e como os sinais algébricos são atribuídos às distâncias ópticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Models, Theoretical , Optics and Photonics
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226808

ABSTRACT

In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Ophthalmology/history , Optics and Photonics/history , Optometry/history , Physics/history , United States
9.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1229-1232, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-234425

ABSTRACT

Dental impressions are widely used in the field of oral restoration. The materials are used for making impression in oral cavity. In order to measure the thickness of impression for reference in clinic, the real impressions are taken as the object for studying. Through optical method, charge-coupled device (CCD) is used for collecting the grey image of cutting section of the impressions which are located in the same plane with steel dividing ruler. According to convert relationship between dividing ruler and pixels collecting grey image, the thickness of impression specimens can be obtained. The results show that the optical method used for measuring thickness is feasible to the task and the precision can reach micro dimension. The experiment method and technique can also be provided for measuring thickness of similar tissue engineering materials.


Subject(s)
Dental Impression Materials , Dental Models , Humans , Materials Testing , Optics and Photonics
10.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1209-1212, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259738

ABSTRACT

In order to study the light propagation in biological tissue, we analyzed the divergent beam propagation in turbid medium. We set up a Monte Carlo simulation model for simulating the divergent beam propagation in a semi-infinite bio-tissue. Using this model, we studied the absorbed photon density with different tissue parameters in the case of a divergent beam injecting the tissue. The simulation results showed that the rules of optical propagation in the tissue were found and further the results also suggested that the diagnosis and treatment of the light could refer to the rules of optical propagation.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Light , Models, Biological , Monte Carlo Method , Optics and Photonics , Scattering, Radiation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas in eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma (ACG). METHODS: This retrospective study compared the refractive outcomes of 63 eyes with primary ACG with the results of 93 eyes with normal open angles undergoing uneventful cataract surgery. Anterior segment biometry including anterior chamber depth, axial length, and anterior chamber depth to axial length ratio were compared by the IOL Master. Third generation formulas (Hoffer Q and SRK/T) and a fourth generation formula (Haigis) were used to predict IOL powers in both groups. The predictive accuracy of the formulas was analyzed by comparison of the mean error and the mean absolute error (MAE). RESULTS: In ACG patients, anterior chamber depth and the anterior chamber depth to axial length ratio were smaller than normal controls (all p < 0.05). The MAEs from the ACG group were larger than that from the control group in the Haigis formula. The mean absolute error from the Haigis formula was the largest and the mean absolute error from the Hoffer Q formula was the smallest. CONCLUSIONS: IOL power prediction may be inaccurate in ACG patients. The Haigis formula produced more inaccurate results in ACG patients, and it is more appropriate to use the Hoffer Q formula to predict IOL powers in eyes with primary ACG.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biometry , Cataract Extraction , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/complications , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/complications , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Middle Aged , Optics and Photonics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictability of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations using the IOLMaster and four different IOL power calculation formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q, SRK II, and SRK/T) for cataract surgery in eyes with a short axial length (AL). METHODS: The present study was a retrospective comparative analysis which included 25 eyes with an AL shorter than 22.0 mm that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification with IOL implantation from July 2007 to December 2008 at Seoul National University Boramae Hospital. Preoperative AL and keratometric power were measured by the IOLMaster, and power of the implanted IOL was determined using Haigis, Hoffer Q, SRK II, and SRK/T formulas. Postoperative refractive errors two months after surgery were measured using automatic refracto-keratometry (Nidek) and were compared with the predicted postoperative power. The mean absolute error (MAE) was defined as the average of the absolute value of the difference between actual and predicted spherical equivalences of postoperative refractive error. RESULTS: The MAE was smallest with the Haigis formula (0.37 +/- 0.26 diopter [D]), followed by those of SRK/T (0.53 +/- 0.25 D), SRK II (0.56 +/- 0.20 D), and Hoffer Q (0.62 +/- 0.16 D) in 25 eyes with an AL shorter than 22.0 mm. The proportion with an absolute error (AE) of less than 1 D was greatest in the Haigis formula (96%), followed by those in the SRK II (88%), SRK-T (84%), and Hoffer Q (80%). CONCLUSIONS: The MAE was less than 0.7 D and the proportion of AE less than 1 D was more than 80% in all formulas. The IOL power calculation using the Haigis formula showed the best results for postoperative power prediction in short eyes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Male , Middle Aged , Optics and Photonics , Phacoemulsification , Postoperative Period , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341659

ABSTRACT

This project was aimed to develop a simple, convenient and reliable computer image processing software for the measurement of lens dimensions, including the radius of curvature of anterior lens surface (RCALS), the radius of curvature of posterior lens surface (RCPLS) and the lens volume (LV). On the basis of lens images captured by B ultrasound, our computer software was designed to calculate the three parameters of lens in accordance to geometry principle. This software comprises Program I and Program II, and they both possess different calculation methods. Then they were used in a group of normal volunteers who were recruited via randomization and the outcomes were compared. The results showed that the two programs were developed successfully, and the outcomes of RCALS, RCPLS and LV calculated by the two programs were similar. The standard deviation of Program II is smaller than that of Program I. The computer software for calculating RCALS, RCPLS and LV was characterized by scientific design and easy-to-use. In respect of calculating repetition, Program II was better than Program I, and it possesses prosperous prospect in terms of clinical research and application.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Methods , Lens, Crystalline , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Mathematical Computing , Middle Aged , Optics and Photonics , Refraction, Ocular , Software , Ultrasonography
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341635

ABSTRACT

In order to overcome the existing shortcomings of the non-invasive blood glucose polarized light measurement methods of optical heterodyne detection and direct detection, we present in this paper a new orthogonal twin-polarized light (OTPL) non-invasive blood glucose measurement method, which converts the micro-angle rotated by an optical active substance such as glucose to the energy difference of OTPL, amplifies the signals by the high-sensitivity lock-in amplifier made of relevant principle, controls Faraday coil current to compensate the changes in deflection angle caused by blood glucose, and makes use of the linear relationship between blood glucose concentration and Faraday coil current to calculate blood glucose concentration. In our comparative experiment using the data measured by LX-20 automatic biochemical analyzer as a standard, a 0.9777 correlation coefficient is obtained in glucose concentration experiment, and a 0.952 in serum experiment. The result shows that this method has higher detection sensitivity and accuracy and lays a foundation for the development of practical new type of non-invasive blood glucose tester for diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood , Humans , Optical Rotation , Optics and Photonics , Pilot Projects , Polarography , Rabbits
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230811

ABSTRACT

Biotic tissues are a kind of highly scattering random media; studies on laser light propagation in biotic tissues play an important role in bio-medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The propagation and distribution of infinitely narrow photon beam in tissues are simulated by Monte Carlo method in this paper. Also presented are the energy distribution with regard to depths, light distribution in tissues, reflection and transmittance on the upper and lower surface. The optical parameters adopted in this study are g, albedo and microa, which have influence on energy distribution. The results show: The energy distribution decreases more quickly with the increase of depths and reveals a peak value close to the surface; g factor plays an important part in the lost energy on the upper surface and lower surface; the decrease of g factor causes weaking of the forward moving ability, so the penetration depth becomes smaller and the energy becomes dispersives variation of albedo has distinct effect on the shallow and deep tissues.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Energy Transfer , Light , Models, Biological , Monte Carlo Method , Optics and Photonics , Photochemotherapy , Methods , Scattering, Radiation
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 137(4): 567-574, abr. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518593

ABSTRACT

Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek are among the greatest geniuses in Art and Science respectively. During the seventeenth century, they achieved innovative advances. Vermeer, in painting, created a new intímate view of people specially women, developing the treatment of light and details. Leeuwenhoek, friend of Vermeer, influenced him in the use of the obscure camera in his works. In spite of having no formal academic education, he made extremely relevant discoveries with the use of microscope. He showed for first time human spermatozoids, red blood cells, brain, nerve and muscle structures and described many living animals. These two brilliant contemporary Dutch men made a great contribution to our civilization.


Subject(s)
History, 17th Century , Famous Persons , Optics and Photonics/history , Paintings/history , Microscopy/history , Netherlands
17.
GJMS-Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 7 (1): 22-26
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91073

ABSTRACT

According to Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey, cataract accounts for 51.5% of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. In most of the camp and primary level facilities intra-ocular lenses are implanted without proper estimation. The purpose of this study was to know the common keratometric, axial length values, IOL powers and whether or not it is advisable to implant intraocular lenses without proper pre-operative assessment. It was a retrospective study conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, DHQ Teaching Hospital, D.I.Khan. Review of estimated power of IOL of 1000 admitted patients was done. Out of 1000 patients, 473[47.3%] were males and 527[52.7%] females. The youngest patient was 10 years while the oldest was 80. Maximum patients presented in 51-60 years age group. Only 25[2.5%] patients were below 20 years. The range of axial length was 19.50-28.0mm. 581[58.1%] patients were having axial length 22-23.50mm. Ten [1.0%] had axial length >/= 26mm and 6[0.6%] <20.0mm. The range of estimated IOL power by SRK II formula with 118.0A constant was 10-33D. Maximum patients, 140[14.0%] were having IOL power of 20.50D. 522[52.2%] patients were having IOL power 20-22.0D. Only 26[2.6%] patients had IOL power of /= 25D. The estimated power of IOL differs from patient to patient with a wide range of 10D to 33D. Therefore assessment of IOL power by proper keratomery and biometry is desirable for good post-operative vision


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Phacoemulsification , Cataract , Retrospective Studies , Corneal Topography , Optics and Photonics , Predictive Value of Tests
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy for spatial resolution and radiation dose of a small-field digital mammographic imaging system using parabolic polycapillary optics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a small-field digital mammographic imaging system composed of a CCD (charge coupled device) detector and an X-ray source coupled with parabolic polycapillary optics. The spatial resolution and radiation dose according to various filters were evaluated for a small-field digital mammographic imaging system. The images of a test standard phantom and breast cancer tissue sample were obtained. RESULTS: The small-field digital mammographic imaging system had spatial resolutions of 12 lp/mm with molybdenum and rhodium filters with a 25-micrometer thickness. With a thicker molybdenum filter (100 micrometer thick), the system had a higher spatial resolution of 11 lp/mm and contrast of 0.48. The radiation dose for a rhodium filter with a 25-micrometer thickness was 0.13 mGy within a 10-mm-diameter local field. A larger field image greater than 10 mm in diameter could be obtained by scanning an object. On the small-field mammographic imaging system, microcalcifications of breast cancer tissue were clearly observed. CONCLUSION: A small-field digital mammographic imaging system with parabolic polycapillary optics may be a useful diagnostic tool for providing high-resolution imaging with a low radiation dose for examination of local volumes of breast tissue.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design , Humans , Mammography/instrumentation , Molybdenum , Optics and Photonics/instrumentation , Phantoms, Imaging , Radiographic Image Enhancement/instrumentation , Rhodium
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 71(2): 234-237, mar.-abr. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-483032

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop in an interdisciplinary approach between ophthalmology and design areas an ergonomic +22-diopter 50-mm aspheric hand magnifier for low vision. METHODS: An aluminum cylinder was cut, processed using a lathe and carved to produce a ring that accommodated a 50-mm aspheric lens, with an external depression not to slide from the holder's fingers. A cylindrical steel bar was cut, processed using a lathe and carved in order to form an externally turned ring to be screwed into the internal thread of the aluminum ring, to maintain the lens in a steady position. Both rings were submitted to electrostatic painting with a dull black electrostatic Epoxi ink, except the lower border of the external ring, to indicate the correct side of the magnifier to face the material to be read. RESULTS: A 22-diopter 50-mm diameter aspheric lens magnifier with a black ring to be hold at its external circular depression was obtained in order to safely search the adequate reading focus with an inferior aluminum colored ring to face the object to be read and allow a less distorted reading. This is the first Brazilian high-magnification great-diameter magnifier for low vision that permits basically the focusing on an entire word, not only syllables, in order to allow a faster and more comfortable reading. CONCLUSIONS: By an interdisciplinary approach a 22-diopter 50-mm aspheric lens magnifier was developed with image and ergonomic characteristics such as to permit comfortable and adequate reading performance in cases of low vision.


OBJETIVO: Desenvolver de modo interdisciplinar entre as áreas de oftalmologia e design uma lupa de mão ergonômica de +22 dioptrias de 50 mm de diâmetro asférica para baixa visão. MÉTODOS: Um cilindro de alumínio foi cortado, torneado e teve feita internamente uma rosca a fim de produzir um anel para acomodar uma lente asférica de 50 mm de diâmetro com uma depressão externa para não escorregar dos dedos do portador. Uma barra de aço cilíndrica foi cortada, torneada e teve uma rosca feita para formar um anel com fio de rosca externo para ser rosqueado na parte interna do anel de alumínio, para manter a lente em posição estável. Ambos anéis foram submetidos a pintura eletrostática preta fosca exceto a borda inferior do anel externo para sinalizar o lado correto da lupa a ficar voltado para o material a ser lido. RESULTADOS: Foi obtida uma lupa de 22 dioptrias de 50 mm de diâmetro com um anel preto para ser segurado pela sua depressão circular externa a fim de procurar com segurança o foco adequado de leitura e com um anel inferior aluminizado para apontar para o objeto de leitura e permitir uma leitura menos distorcida. Esta é a primeira lupa brasileira de grande diâmetro e grande aumento para baixa visão, asférica, permitindo a focalização de uma palavra inteira, não apenas sílabas, proporcionando leitura mais rápida e confortável. CONCLUSÃO: Foi desenvolvida de modo interdisciplinar uma lupa de +22 dioptrias, de 50 mm de diâmetro, asférica, com tal qualidade de imagem e características ergonômicas para permitir leitura de desempenho adequado e confortável em casos de baixa visão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lenses , Vision, Low/rehabilitation , Aluminum , Brazil , Equipment Design , Ergonomics , Ophthalmology , Optics and Photonics , Optometry , Reading
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this paper is to present the design and performance of a position encoding circuit for 16 x 16 array of position sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube for small animal PET scanners. This circuit which reduces the number of readout channels from 256 to 4 channels is based on a charge division method utilizing a resistor array. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The position encoding circuit was simulated with PSpice before fabrication. The position encoding circuit reads out the signals from H9500 flat panel PMTs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Japan) on which 1.5 x 1.5 x 7.0 mm3 L0.9GSO (Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce) crystals were mounted. For coincidence detection, two different PET modules were used. One PET module consisted of a 29 x 29 L0.9GSO crystal layer, and the other PET module two 28 x 28 and 29 x 29 L0.9GSO crystal layers which have relative offsets by half a crystal pitch in x- and y-directions. The crystal mapping algorithm was also developed to identify crystals. RESULTS: Each crystal was clearly visible in flood images. The crystal identification capability was enhanced further by changing the values of resistors near the edge of the resistor array. Energy resolutions of individual crystal were about 11.6%(SD 1.6). The flood images were segmented well with the proposed crystal mapping algorithm. CONCLUSION: The position encoding circuit resulted in a clear separation of crystals and sufficient energy resolutions with H9500 flat-panel PMT and L0.9GSO crystals. This circuit is good enough for use in small animal PET scanners.


Subject(s)
Animals , Estrenes , Fees and Charges , Optics and Photonics , Pyridinium Compounds
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