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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762186


MicroRNAs (miRs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides. These molecules regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level; several of these are differentially expressed in asthma as well as in viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs), the main triggers of acute asthma exacerbations. In recent years, miRs have been studied in order to discover drug targets as well as biomarkers for diagnosis, disease severity and prognosis. We describe recent findings on miR expression and function in asthma and their role in the regulation of viral ARIs, according to cell tissue specificity and asthma severity. By combining the above information, we identify miRs that may be important in virus-induced asthma exacerbations. This is the first attempt to link miR profiles of asthmatic patients and ARI-induced miRs, addressing the question of whether there might be a specific miR deficit in asthmatic subjects that make them more susceptible and/or reactive to infection.

Humans , Asthma , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Gene Expression , Inflammation , MicroRNAs , Nucleotides , Organ Specificity , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections , RNA
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 30-37, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764286


PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate organ-specific recurrence or the metastatic pattern of breast cancer according to biological subtypes and clinical characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 168 patients with recurrent breast cancer who were diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and April 30, 2017. Four biological subtypes were classified according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 expression: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). To analyze recurrence patterns according to biological subtypes, we accessed clinical variables including age at diagnosis, TNM stage, type of surgery in the breast and axilla, histologic grade, nuclear grade, lymphatic, vascular, and neural invasion, Ki-67 expression and recurrence to distant organs. RESULTS: The biological subtypes of recurrent breast cancer comprised the following luminal A (n=33, 19.6%), luminal B (n=95, 56.5%), HER2 enriched (n=19, 11.3%), and TNBC (n=21, 12.5%). Luminal A (7.7%) and B (6.5%) subtypes were associated with the increased rate of local recurrence compared to HER2-enriched (2.4%) and TNBC subtypes (1.8%) (p=0.005). The bone (53.6%) was the most common metastatic organ, followed by the lung (34.5%), liver (29.8%), brain (17.9%), and other visceral organ (7.7%). Bone metastasis was commonly observed in individuals with luminal B (63.2%), HER2-enriched (57.9%), and luminal A (42.4%) subtypes (p=0.005). Most liver metastases occur in individuals with luminal B (40.0%) and HER2-enriched subtypes (31.6%) (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Luminal B subtype was commonly observed in individuals with recurrent breast cancer, and the bone is the most common target organ for breast cancer metastasis, followed by the lungs and liver.

Humans , Axilla , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Liver , Lung , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Organ Specificity , Phenobarbital , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776623


Although the foundations and evolution of Chinese medicine and Western medicine are very different, an increasing amount of research has revealed that those Eastern medicine principles practiced over thousands of years are confirmed by new technologies applied to the basic science of the human body. Recent scientific discoveries present enticing opportunities to reconcile Chinese medicine theories with Western biomedicine. Is there a trend toward the convergence of Eastern and Western medicine? Four studies which exemplify the potential for convergence are described in this article. The studies present findings in regard to mesentery, interstitium, a gut-lung axis, and lung-centered hematopoiesis, and were published recently in leading journals such as Science, Nature, and Lancet.

Humans , Hematopoiesis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians , Organ Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772996


The mA modification has been implicated as an important epitranscriptomic marker, which plays extensive roles in the regulation of transcript stability, splicing, translation, and localization. Nevertheless, only some genes are repeatedly modified across various conditions and the principle of mA regulation remains elusive. In this study, we performed a systems-level analysis of human genes frequently regulated by mA modification (mAfreq genes) and those occasionally regulated by mA modification (mAocca genes). Compared to the mAocca genes, the mAfreq genes exhibit gene importance-related features, such as lower dN/dS ratio, higher protein-protein interaction network degree, and reduced tissue expression specificity. Signaling network analysis indicates that the mAfreq genes are associated with downstream components of signaling cascades, high-linked signaling adaptors, and specific network motifs like incoherent feed forward loops. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis indicates significant overlaps between the mAfreq genes and genes involved in various layers of gene expression, such as being the microRNA targets and the regulators of RNA processing. Therefore, our findings suggest the potential interplay between mA epitranscriptomic regulation and other gene expression regulatory machineries.

Humans , Adenosine , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , MicroRNAs , Metabolism , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772990


Sex differences are widely observed under various circumstances ranging from physiological processes to therapeutic responses, and a myriad of sex-biased genes have been identified. In recent years, transcriptomic datasets of microRNAs (miRNAs), an important class of non-coding RNAs, become increasingly accessible. However, comprehensive analysis of sex difference in miRNA expression has not been performed. Here, we identified the differentially-expressed miRNAs between males and females by examining the transcriptomic datasets available in public databases and conducted a systemic analysis of their biological characteristics. Consequently, we identified 73 female-biased miRNAs (FmiRs) and 163 male-biased miRNAs (MmiRs) across four tissues including brain, colorectal mucosa, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Our results suggest that compared to FmiRs, MmiRs tend to be clustered in the human genome and exhibit higher evolutionary rate, higher expression tissue specificity, and lower disease spectrum width. In addition, functional enrichment analysis of miRNAs show that FmiR genes are significantly associated with metabolism process and cell cycle process, whereas MmiR genes tend to be enriched for functions like histone modification and circadian rhythm. In all, the identification and analysis of sex-biased miRNAs together could provide new insights into the biological differences between females and males and facilitate the exploration of sex-biased disease susceptibility and therapy.

Female , Humans , Male , Biological Evolution , Genome, Human , MicroRNAs , Blood , Genetics , Organ Specificity , Sex Characteristics , Transcriptome
Immune Network ; : e5-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740204


Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX₃CL1, also known as fractalkine) and its receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX₃CR1) are widely expressed in immune cells and non-immune cells throughout organisms. However, their expression is mostly cell type-specific in each tissue. CX₃CR1 expression can be found in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interaction between CX3CL1 and CX₃CL1 can mediate chemotaxis of immune cells according to concentration gradient of ligands. CX₃CL1 expressing immune cells have a main role in either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory response depending on environmental condition. In a given tissue such as bone marrow, brain, lung, liver, gut, and cancer, CX₃CL1 expressing cells can maintain tissue homeostasis. Under pathologic conditions, however, CX₃CL1 expressing cells can play a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we discuss recent progresses of CX3CL1/CX₃CL1 in major tissues and their relationships with human diseases.

Humans , Bone Marrow , Brain , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Chemotaxis , Dendritic Cells , Homeostasis , Ligands , Liver , Lung , Macrophages , Monocytes , Organ Specificity , T-Lymphocytes
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 37(4): 301-304, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991271


Objetivo: Determinar si la localización y el tamaño de los adenomas de colon se asocian con la presencia de displasia de alto grado en los pacientes de un hospital peruano. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio trasversal mediante la revisión de informes de colonoscopías de los años 2014-2015 del Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, incluyéndose los pólipos de pacientes mayores de 18 años; y excluyéndose los de pacientes con cáncer de colon, antecedente de cirugía oncológica, enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y poliposis (6 o más). Se extrajeron los datos de localización (colon proximal y distal, división a partir del ángulo esplénico), tamaño (menos de 10 mm y 10 mm o más), forma (pediculados y sésiles) y grado de displasia (bajo y alto grado). Se calculó la fuerza de asociación mediante OR, se determinó si existía asociación a través de la prueba Chi cuadrado, con nivel de significancia menor a 0,05. Resultados: De un total de 1710 informes de colonoscopías revisadas, 378 personas tuvieron pólipos, calculando una tasa de detección de adenomas de 22,1%. De los 458 pólipos encontrados 254 fueron adenomas. Se demostró una asociación significativa entre la localización en colon distal y displasia de alto grado (OR 2,68 IC 1,12-6,42, p<0.05); asimismo, los adenomas mayores o iguales a 10 mm tuvieron más riesgo de displasia de alto grado (OR 7,75 IC 3,05-19,69, p<0.05). No se encontró asociación entre la forma de los adenomas y grado de displasia. Conclusión: Se concluye que el tamaño de 10 mm o más y la localización en colon distal se asocian a displasia de alto grado en los adenomas.

Objective: To determine whether localization and size are related to the presence of high-grade dysplasia of colon adenomas in patients of a Peruvian hospital. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive transversal study. We checked colonoscopy reports of 2014-2015 years of Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrion, we included the polyps found in patients older than 18 years old, and excluded reports from patients with colorectal cancer, an antecedent of oncological surgery, inflammatory bowel disease and polyposis (6 or more). We used data based on localization (proximal and distal colon, based on the splenic angle), size (less than 10 mm and 10 mm or more), shape (pediculate and sessile) and grade of dysplasia (low and high-grade). We calculated the strength of association by OR, and we determined whether there was association by Chi-square test with a significance value less than 0.05. Results: We reviewed a total of 1710 of colonoscopy reports, 378 patients had polyps, so the adenoma detection rate was 22.1%. There were 458 polyps, from which 254 were adenomas. From these adenomas, we found an association between distal colon localization and high-grade dysplasia (OR 2.68 IC 1.12-6.42, p<0.05); likewise, there was an association between the size of the adenomas and high-grade dysplasia (OR 7.75 IC 3.05-19.69, p<0.05). We did not find any association between the shape and grade of dysplasia. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is an association between the size of 10 mm or more and localization in the distal colon with high-grade dysplasia of adenomas.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adenoma/pathology , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Organ Specificity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colonoscopy , Intestinal Polyposis/pathology , Tumor Burden , Hyperplasia/pathology , Inflammation
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(4): e68716, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-960780


Resumo OBJETIVO Mapear a produção de conhecimento acerca das complicações do acesso vascular em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos percutâneos em Laboratório de Hemodinâmica. MÉTODOS Estudo do tipo revisão de escopo. Elaborou-se estratégia de busca em três etapas, considerando o período entre julho de 2005 e 2015, nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus e LILACS. Os dados extraídos foram analisados e sintetizados de forma narrativa. RESULTADOS Foram incluídas 128 publicações que permitiram mapear os contextos de estudo das complicações, a ocorrência de acordo com as vias, bem como a compreensão do diagnóstico e manejo clínico. Como síntese da análise identificou-se três categorias temáticas: Complicações; Fatores preditores; e Diagnóstico/tratamento. CONCLUSÃO As complicações no local do acesso vascular são de ocorrência variável conforme a via de acesso utilizada. O conhecimento dos fatores que permeiam a ocorrência destes eventos podem auxiliar no reconhecimento precoce, planejamento e monitorização dos cuidados implementados.

Resumen OBJETIVO Mapear la producción de conocimiento acerca de las complicaciones del acceso vascular en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos percutâneos en el Laboratorio de Hemodinamia. MÉTODOS Estudio de tipo revisión de escopo. Se elaboró la estrategia de búsqueda en tres etapas, considerando el período comprendido entre julio 2005 y 2015, en las bases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus y LILACS. Los datos extraídos fueron analizados y sintetizados de forma narrativa. RESULTADOS Fueron incluidas 128 publicaciones que permitieron mapear los contextos de estudio de las complicaciones, la ocurrencia de acuerdo con las vías, así como la comprensión del diagnóstico y manejo clínico. Como síntesis del análisis se identificó tres categorías temáticas: Complicaciones, Factores predictores y Diagnóstico/tratamiento. CONCLUSIÓN Las complicaciones en el sitio del acceso vascular son de ocurrencia variable de acuerdo con la vía de acceso utilizada. El conocimiento de los factores que están presentes en la ocurrencia de estos eventos puede auxiliar en el reconocimiento temprano, planeamiento y control de la atención implementados.

Abstract OBJECTIVE To map the production of knowledge on vascular access complications in patients undergoing percutaneous procedures in hemodynamic laboratories. METHODS Scoping review study. The search strategy was developed in three stages, considering the period from July 2005 to July 2015 in the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases. The collected data were analyzed and summarized in a narrative form. RESULTS One-hundred twenty-eight publications that made it possible to map the contexts of study of complications, occurrence according to access routes, as well as an understanding of diagnosis and clinical management, were included. Three theme categories were identified: complications; predictive factors; and diagnosis/treatment. CONCLUSION Vascular access site complications range according to the access route used. Knowledge of factors that permeate the occurrence of these events may contribute to early detection, planning, and monitoring of the care implemented.

Humans , Vascular Access Devices/adverse effects , Hemodynamics , Organ Specificity , Wound Infection , Punctures/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Aneurysm, False/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 547-555, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950920


Resumen Introducción. En Colombia existe escasa información sobre los años de vida perdidos por cáncer. Objetivo. Determinar los años de vida perdidos por cáncer en Colombia y sus cambios entre 1997 y 2012. Materiales y métodos. La información por sexo y edad de la mortalidad por cáncer y la expectativa de vida en Colombia se obtuvo del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE. El cálculo de los años de vida perdidos por cáncer se basó en la edad de cada individuo al momento de morir y el número de años de vida esperados en esta edad. El promedio de años de vida perdidos se obtuvo dividiendo los años de vida perdidos por el número de muertes a causa de cánceres específicos. Resultados. Entre 1997 y 2012, el número de muertes por cáncer aumentó 33 %: 15 % en hombres y 20 % en mujeres. En el mismo periodo, el total de años de vida perdidos por cáncer se incrementó en 25,1 % en hombres y 31,1 % en mujeres. Los mayores incrementos (>40 %) se dieron en los cánceres de colon y recto, páncreas y riñón en ambos sexos, en los hombres, en el melanoma y el cáncer de vejiga, y en mujeres, en los cánceres de mama y ovario. El promedio de años de vida perdidos fue estable en el tiempo; 40 a 50 % de los años de vida perdidos por cáncer en niños se debió a leucemias. Conclusiones. La carga de cáncer está aumentando en Colombia. El elevado promedio de años de vida perdidos demuestra que el pronóstico de la enfermedad es malo. La prevención primaria, la detección temprana, y el tratamiento adecuado y oportuno son necesarios para mejorar esta situación.

Abstract Introduction: There is hardly any information regarding years of life lost due to cancer in Colombia. Objective: To quantify total and average years of life lost due to cancer in Colombia, and to investigate changes in this burden between 1997 and 2012. Materials and methods: We obtained sex-specific data on age distribution, remaining life expectancy, deaths due to specific cancers and total number of deaths from the Colombian Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas. We calculated years of life lost based on each individual´s age at death and the remaining life expectancy at that age; as for average years of life, we divided these by the number of deaths due to specific cancers. Results: The total number of cancer deaths increased by 33% between 1997 and 2012, comprising 15% of male and 20% of female deaths in the period 2010-2012. Total years of life lost due to cancer increased by 25.1% for males and 31.1% for females over the study period. The highest increases (>40%) were observed for colorectal, pancreas and kidney cancers in both sexes, for melanomas and bladder cancer in men, and for breast and ovarian cancer in women. Trends in average years of life lost were stable. Almost half (48-50%) of the years of life lost due to childhood cancers were due to leukemia. Conclusion: Cancer is an increasing health burden in Colombia. The high average years of life lost illustrate the poor prognosis of the disease compared to other countries. Primary prevention, early detection, and adequate and timely treatments are needed to change this situation.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Life Expectancy , Neoplasms/mortality , Organ Specificity , Cost of Illness , Colombia/epidemiology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(2): 154-160, jun. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843159


Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1 cm² pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests.

Los hongos endófitos son ubicuos y se encuentran en el interior de los tejidos de las plantas de manera asintomática. Se sabe muy poco acerca de la diversidad y la función de estos hongos, particularmente en especies de importancia económica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la diversidad y la frecuencia de colonización de hongos endófitos en raíces, tallos y hojas de 2 variedades de maíz y de 4 variedades de soja; las muestras se tomaron de 6 áreas diferentes ubicadas en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos (Argentina). Con un bisturí estéril se obtuvieron porciones de 1 cm² de raíz, tallo y hoja, que fueron colocados en placas con agar papa dextrosa más antibiótico. Las especies de hongos fueron identificadas a partir de características morfológicas y moleculares. La colonización de hongos endófitos en soja estuvo influenciada por la variedad y por el tipo de tejido, en tanto que en el maíz solo hubo influencia del tipo de tejido. El mayor número de endófitos se encontró en los tallos de ambas especies. El aislamiento más frecuente en todas las variedades de soja fue Fusarium graminearum y el menos frecuente Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. En ambas variedades de maíz la especie con mayor frecuencia de aislamiento fue Aspergillus terreus y la de menor fue Aspergillus flavus. Estos resultados son relevantes para la búsqueda de especies de hongos endófitos que podrían ser de interés en el control de plagas agrícolas.

Soybeans/microbiology , Zea mays/microbiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Organ Specificity , Argentina , Species Specificity , Sampling Studies , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Biodiversity , Farms
Salud pública Méx ; 58(2): 132-141, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793007


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the disease burden of cancer in the affiliate population of the Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in 2010 by delegation. Materials and methods: The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature mortality and Years Lived with Disability/Disease (YLD) for 21 specific cancers and a subgroup of other malignant neoplasms were calculated based on the methodology of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for each of the 35 delegations of the IMSS. Results: In 2010, cancer represented the fifth overall leading cause of disease burden in IMSS affiliates (16.72 DALYs/1000 affiliates). A total of 75% of the cancer disease burden in each delegation is due to ten specific cancers, particularly breast cancer, which ranks first in 82% of the delegations. Prostate cancer; tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers; leukemia, and colorectal and stomach cancers occupy the second to fourth positions in each delegation. With the exception of breast and prostate cancer, for which the contribution of YLD to the DALYs was higher than 50%, the greatest contribution to the DALYs of the other cancers was premature mortality, which accounted for more than 90% of the DALYs in some cases. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study allow for the identification of intervention priorities with regard to cancer at the institutional level and also for the focus at the delegation level to be placed on cancers ranking in the top positions for disease burden.

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar, por delegación, la carga de enfermedad debida al cáncer en la población derechohabiente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) para el año 2010. Material y métodos: Se calcularon los años de vida perdidos ajustados por discapacidad (AVISA), los años perdidos por muerte prematura (APMP) y los años vividos con discapacidad (AVD) para 21 cánceres específicos y un subgrupo de otras neoplasias malignas, con base en la metodología del Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) para cada una de las 35 delegaciones en las que se divide el IMSS al interior del país. Resultados: En el año 2010, el cáncer representó la quinta causa de carga de enfermedad en derechohabientes del IMSS (16.72 AVISA/1000 derechohabientes). El 75% de la carga de enfermedad por cáncer en cada delegación se debe a diez cánceres específicos entre los que destaca el cáncer de mama, que ocupa el primer lugar de importancia en 82% de las delegaciones. Los cánceres de próstata, tráquea, bronquios y pulmón, leucemias, de colon y recto, así como el de estómago, se ubican entre las segundas y cuartas posiciones en cada delegación. Con excepción del cáncer de mama y de próstata, cuya contribución de los AVD a los AVISA fue superior a 50%, en los demás cánceres la mayor contribución fue debida a la mortalidad prematura, en algunos superior a 90% de los AVISA. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio permiten identificar las prioridades de intervención en materia de cáncer a nivel institucional y focalizarlas a nivel delegacional para los cánceres que ocupan los primeros lugares de carga de enfermedad.

Humans , Male , Female , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Organ Specificity , Prevalence , Life Expectancy , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Geography, Medical , Mexico/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Neoplasms/economics , Neoplasms/mortality
Salud pública Méx ; 58(2): 118-131, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792996


Abstract: Objective: To analyze mortality and incidence for 28 cancers by deprivation status, age and sex from 1990 to 2013. Materials and methods: The data and methodological approaches provided by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2013) were used. Results: Trends from 1990 to 2013 show important changes in cancer epidemiology in Mexico. While some cancers show a decreasing trend in incidence and mortality (lung, cervical) others emerge as relevant health priorities (prostate, breast, stomach, colorectal and liver cancer). Age standardized incidence and mortality rates for all cancers are higher in the northern states while the central states show a decreasing trend in the mortality rate. The analysis show that infection related cancers like cervical or liver cancer play a bigger role in more deprived states and that cancers with risk factors related to lifestyle like colorectal cancer are more common in less marginalized states. Conclusions: The burden of cancer in Mexico shows complex regional patterns by age, sex, types of cancer and deprivation status. Creation of a national cancer registry is crucial.

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la incidencia y la mortalidad de 28 tipos de cáncer por nivel de marginación, grupos de edad y sexo, de 1990 a 2013. Material y métodos: Los datos utilizados provienen del estudio de la Carga Global de Enfermedades (2013). Las entidades federativas se clasificaron de acuerdo con el índice de marginación del Consejo Nacional de Población. Resultados: Los datos muestran una tendencia decreciente para algunos cánceres (pulmón y cervical), mientras otros aparecen como prioritarios y relevantes (próstata, mama, estómago, colon e hígado). En el norte se observan incrementos regionales mayores en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad estandarizadas por edad, mientras que en los estados del centro se observa una tendencia decreciente de la tasa de mortalidad. Conclusiones: La epidemiología del cáncer en México (en su mayoría basada en datos de mortalidad) presentan patrones regionales complejos por edad, sexo, tipo de cáncer e índice de marginación. Es vital la creación de un registro nacional para mejorar el seguimiento y evaluación de intervenciones preventivas y curativas.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Organ Specificity , Risk Factors , Morbidity/trends , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Social Marginalization , Geography, Medical , Mexico/epidemiology
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 278-285, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781333


PURPOSE: To investigate gender differences in the evolution of the inflammatory process in rats subjected to brain death (BD). METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: female; ovariectomized female; and male rats. BD was induced using intracranial balloon inflation and confirmed by maximal pupil dilatation, apnea, absence of reflex, and drop of mean arterial pressure. Six hours after BD, histological evaluation was performed in lungs, heart, liver and kidneys, and levels of inflammatory proteins, estrogen, progesterone, and corticosterone were determined in plasma. RESULTS: In the lungs, females presented more leukocyte infiltration compared to males (p<0.01). Ovariectomized female rat lungs were more hemorrhagic compared to other groups (p<0.001). In the heart, females had higher leukocyte infiltration and tissue edema compared to males (p<0.05). In the liver and kidneys, there were no differences among groups. In female group estradiol and progesterone were sharply reduced 6 hours after BD (p<0.001) to values observed in ovariectomized females and males. Corticosterone levels were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Sex hormones influence the development of inflammation and the status of organs. The increased inflammation in lungs and heart of female rats might be associated with the acute reduction in female hormones triggered by BD.

Animals , Male , Female , Brain Death/pathology , Sex Characteristics , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Organ Specificity , Progesterone/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ovariectomy , Sex Factors , Rats, Wistar , Edema/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Chemokine CXCL1/analysis , Chemokine CXCL2/analysis , Inflammation/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110500


Claudins, which are known as transmembrane proteins play an essential role in tight junctions (TJs) to form physical barriers and regulate paracellular transportation. To understand equine diseases, it is helpful to measure the tissue-specific expression of TJs in horses. Major equine diseases such as colic and West Nile cause damage to TJs. In this study, the expression level and distribution of claudin-1, -2, -4, and -5 in eight tissues were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods. Claudin-1 was primarily identified in the lung, duodenum, and uterus, claudin-2 was evenly observed in equine tissues, claudin-4 was abundantly detected in the liver, kidney and uterus, and claudin-5 was strongly expressed in the lung, duodenum, ovary, and uterus, as determined by Western blotting method. The localization of equine claudins was observed by immunohistochemistry methods. These findings provide knowledge regarding the expression patterns and localization of equine claudins, as well as valuable information to understand tight junction-related diseases according to tissue specificity and function of claudins in horses.

Animals , Female , Architectural Accessibility , Blotting, Western , Claudin-1 , Claudin-2 , Claudin-4 , Claudin-5 , Claudins , Colic , Duodenum , Horse Diseases , Horses , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney , Liver , Lung , Methods , Organ Specificity , Ovary , Tight Junctions , Transportation , Uterus
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263993


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the expression patterns of short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) gene in human tissues.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In situ hybridization was used to detect the expression of SPLUNC1 gene in 37 different human tissues.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We found that SPLUNC1 gene was not expressed in squamous epithelial cells of the palate, epidermis, esophagus, or the esophagus-cardia junction, metaplastic squamous cells in the nasopharynx, trachea, or uterus cervix, or tumor cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or lung squamous cell carcinoma. SPLUNC1 gene was not expressed in the single layer columnar epithelia cells in the stomach, gallbladder, jejunum, colon, endometrium, or uterus cervix. SPLUNC1 expression was detected mainly in pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells in the nasopharynx, trachea and bronchi, and was gradually down-regulated from the upper to lower end of the respiratory tract, but was not detected in the lung tissues. SPLUNC1 expression was detected not only in the duct and serous gland cells in the parotid and submandibular glands, but also in cells of submucosal serous glands in the nasopharynx and lung, but not in the cells of the mucosal glands. The parietal cells of the gastric submucosa and epithelial cells of the lobula and ducts of the mammary glands expressed SPLUNC1. The adenocarcinoma cells in the lung, stomach, colon, mammary gland, uterus endometrium and cervix showed strong expressions of SPLUNC1 gene.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SPLUNC1 expression is highly cell-specific in association with the cell functions.</p>

Humans , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Glycoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Organ Specificity , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 175-179, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304730


The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), was identified in the recent years as a functional membrane receptor different from the classical nuclear estrogen receptors. This receptor is widely expressed in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, heart, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and the urogenital system. It is responsible for the mediation of nongenomic effects associated with estrogen and its derivatives, participating in the physiological activities of the body. The present study reviews the molecular structure, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, distribution, and function of GPER in the male reproductive system.

Humans , Male , Estrogens , Metabolism , Genitalia, Male , Metabolism , Molecular Structure , Organ Specificity , Receptors, Estrogen , Chemistry , Physiology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Chemistry , Physiology , Reproduction , Physiology , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287176


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of Radix Astragali Injection on multiple organs of rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 180 rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated, model control and treated groups (60 in each group). On 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after operation, the serum contents of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (r-GT), total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CREA) were determined. And the pathological changes of livers, kidneys and lungs, and protein expressions of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) of livers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of lungs, Bax and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as apoptotic indexes of multiple organs were observed, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The pathological severity scores of multiple organs (including livers on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, kidneys on 14 and 28 days, and lungs on 14 days), serum contents of ALT (14 and 21 days), AST (14 days), TBil (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), DBil (14 and 21 days), BUN (28 days), protein expressions of TLR-4 (in livers, 28 days), Bax (in livers and kidneys, 21 days), and apoptotic indexes in livers (7 and 21 days) in the treated group were significantly lower than those in the model control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Radix Astragali Injection exerts protective effects on multiple organs of OJ rats by improving the pathological changes of lung, liver and kidney, decreasing the serum index of hepatic and renal function as well as inhibiting the protein expression of TLR-4 and Bax in the livers and Bax in the kidneys.</p>

Animals , Male , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Apoptosis , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bilirubin , Blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine , Blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Immunohistochemistry , Injections , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Metabolism , Jaundice, Obstructive , Blood , Drug Therapy , Kidney , Pathology , Liver , Pathology , Lung , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Organ Specificity , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287104


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of intravenously administered tetrandrine (TET) in female BALB/c mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The median lethal dose (LD) of intravenously administered TET was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method. In the acute toxicity study, mice were intravenously administered with TET at a single dose of 20, 100, 180, 260 and 340 mg/kg, respectively and were evaluated at 14 days after administration. In the sub-acute toxicity study, mice were intravenously administered various doses of TET (30, 90 and 150 mg/kg) each day for 14 consecutive days. Clinical symptoms, mortality, body weight, serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined at the end of the experiment, as well as after a 1-week recovery period.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>LDwas found to be 444.67±35.76 mg/kg. In the acute toxicity study, no statistically signifificant differences in body weight, blood biochemistry, or organ histology were observed between the administration and control groups when mice were intravenously administered with single dose at 20, 100, 180, 260 and 340 mg/kg of TET (P >0.05). In the sub-acute toxicity study, no signifificant changes in body weight, biochemistry and organ histology were observed with up to 90 mg/kg of TET compared with the control group (P >0.05), however, in the 150 mg/kg administered group, TET induced transient toxicity to liver, lungs and kidneys, but withdrawal of TET can lead to reversal of the pathological conditions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The overall fifindings of this study indicate that TET is relatively non-toxic from a single dose of 20, 100, 180, 260 or 340 mg/kg, and that up to 90 mg/kg daily for 14 consecutive days can be considered a safe application dose.</p>

Animals , Female , Administration, Intravenous , Benzylisoquinolines , Toxicity , Body Weight , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Organ Specificity , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 372-378, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765466


Introduction: Four species of triatomines have been reported in Nuevo León, northeast (NE) México, but Triatoma gerstaeckeri has only been recorded from a peridomestic dwelling. Objectives: To assess the natural infection index (NII) of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomines and the infestation index (II) of T. gerstaeckeri collected in a suburban locality, and to collect histopathological data to understand tissue tropism of the regional T. cruzi strain (strain NE) obtained from the vectors collected after an experimental inoculation in Mus musculus . Materials and methods: Triatomines were collected from 85 houses and peridomiciles in Allende, Nuevo León. Stool samples were obtained to determine the T. cruzi NII and were used in an experimental mice infection. Results: A total of 118 T . gerstaeckeri were captured, and 46 (adults and nymphs) were collected inside the same house (II=1.17%). Thirty-seven reduvids were infected with T. cruzi (NII=31.3%). Tissue tropism of the T. cruzi NE strain was progressive in skeletal muscle, myocardial, and adipose tissues and was characterized by the presence of intracellular amastigotes and destruction of cardiac myocells. Conclusions: The presence of naturally infected domiciliary vectors is an important risk factor for public health in the region considering that these vectors are the principal transmission mechanism of the parasite. The T. cruzi NE strain has similar virulence to that of other Mexican and Texan strains and caused chagasic infections in 11 of 12 mice.

Introducción. En Nuevo León, localizado en el noreste de México, existen cuatro especies de triatominos, de las cuales Triatoma gerstaeckeri ha sido la única reportada en peridomicilios. Objetivos. Evaluar el índice de infección natural de Trypanosoma cruzi en los triatominos y el índice de infestación de T. gerstaeckeri en una localidad suburbana, y obtener datos histopatológicos para comprender el tropismo tisular de la cepa regional (cepa NE) de T. cruzi obtenida de los vectores recolectados después de la infección experimental en Mus musculus. Materiales y métodos. La recolección de triatominos se llevó a cabo en 85 casas y peridomicilios de Allende, Nuevo León, México. Se obtuvieron muestras de las deyecciones para conocer el índice de infección natural por T. cruzi y, con estas, se hicieron inoculaciones experimentales en ratones. Resultados. Se capturaron 118 especímenes de T. gerstaeckeri , 46 (adultos y ninfas) en el mismo domicilio (índice de infestación=1,17 %). Treinta y siete redúvidos estaban infectados con T. cruzi (índice de infección natural, 31,3). El tropismo tisular de la cepa NE de T. cruzi fue progresivo en músculo esquelético, miocardio y tejido adiposo, y se caracterizó por la presencia de amastigotes intracelulares con destrucción de células cardiacas. Conclusiones. La presencia de vectores domiciliarios naturalmente infectados con T. cruzi , es un factor de riesgo importante para la salud pública de la región, considerando que este es el principal mecanismo de la transmisión del parásito y que la cepa NE de T. cruzi tiene una virulencia similar a la de otras cepas mexicanas y texanas, y causó infección chagásica en 11 de los 12 ratones inoculados.

Animals , Male , Mice , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Organ Specificity , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Virulence , Disease Reservoirs , Adipose Tissue/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Muscle, Skeletal/parasitology , Heart/parasitology , Housing , Mexico