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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10579, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249313

ABSTRACT

NOTCH pathway proteins, including the transcriptional factor HES1, play crucial roles in the development of the inner ear by means of the lateral inhibition mechanism, in which supporting cells have their phenotype preserved while they are prevented from becoming hair cells. Genetic manipulation of this pathway has been demonstrated to increase hair cell number. The present study aimed to investigate gene expression effects in hair cells and supporting cells after Hes1-shRNA lentivirus transduction in organotypic cultures of the organ of Corti from postnatal-day-3 mice. Forty-eight hours after in vitro knockdown, Hes1 gene expression was reduced at both mRNA and protein levels. Myo7a (hair cell marker) and Sox2 (progenitor cell marker) mRNA levels also significantly increased. The modulation of gene expression in the organ of Corti upon Hes1 knockdown is consistent with cell phenotypes related to lateral inhibition mechanism interference in the inner ear. The lentivirus-based expression of Hes1-shRNA is a valuable strategy for genetic interference in the organ of Corti and for future evaluation of its efficacy in protocols aiming at the regeneration of hair cells in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cochlea , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Organ of Corti , Cell Differentiation , Receptors, Notch , Transcription Factor HES-1/genetics , Hair Cells, Auditory
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(2): 222-227, March-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132576

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of electron microscopy in the study of the inner ear has allowed us to observe minute details of the hair cells, especially in ototoxicity studies; however, the preparation of this material is a difficult and delicate task. In an attempt to simplify the handling of these materials, two agents, toluidine blue and ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid were tested, in addition to the elimination of osmium tetroxide during the preparation of albino guinea pig cochleae. We also tested the applicability of these methodologies in an ototoxicity protocol. Objective: To verify the quality of the images obtained with and without the use of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, toluidine blue and osmium tetroxide in the preparation of cochleae of albino guinea pigs for the scanning electron microscopy. Methods: Three groups of cochleae were used. In Group 1, 10 cochleae were prepared with the usual methodology, dissecting the optical capsule without decalcification and using osmium tetroxide as a post-fixative agent. In Group 2, we prepared 10 cochleae decalcified with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, injecting toluidine blue in the endolymphatic space to facilitate the identification of the organ of Corti. In Group 3, we used 4 cochleae of guinea pigs that received 3 doses of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg, D1-D5-D6), two prepared according to the methodology used in Group 1 and two with that used in Group 2. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained from the organ of Corti region of the basal turn of each cochlea. Results: The organ of Corti was more easily identified with the use of toluidine blue. The dissection of the cochlea was more accurate in the decalcified cochleae. The quality of the images and the preservation of the organ of Corti obtained with the two methodologies were similar. Conclusion: The proposed modifications resulted in images of similar quality as those observed using the traditional methodology.


Resumo Introdução: O emprego da microscopia eletrônica no estudo da orelha interna permitiu observar detalhes minuciosos das células ciliadas especialmente em estudos de ototoxicidade. Entretanto, o preparo desse material é trabalhoso e delicado. Para simplificar a manipulação desses materiais, testou-se o uso de dois agentes, azul de toluidina e ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, além da retirada do tetróxido de ósmio na preparação de cócleas de cobaias albinas. Testamos também a aplicabilidade dessas metodologias em um protocolo de ototoxicidade. Objetivo: Verificar a qualidade das imagens obtidas com e sem o uso de ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, azul de toluidina e tetróxido de ósmio na preparação de cócleas de cobaias albinas para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Método: Foram utilizados três grupos de cócleas. No Grupo 1 preparou-se 10 cócleas com a metodologia usual, dissecando a cápsula ótica sem descalcificac¸ão e utilizando tetróxido de ósmio como pós-fixador. No Grupo 2 preparamos 10 cócleas descalcificadas com ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, injetando azul de toluidina no espac¸o endolinfático para facilitar a identificação do órgão de Corti. No Grupo 3 utilizamos 4 cócleas de cobaias que receberam 3 doses de cisplatina (7,5 mg/kg, D1-D5-D6), duas preparadas com a metodologia do Grupo 1 e duas com a do Grupo 2. Foram obtidas imagens da microscopia eletrônica de varredura da região do órgão de Corti do giro basal de cada cóclea. Resultados: O órgão de Corti foi mais facilmente identificado com o azul de touidina. A dissecção da cóclea foi mais precisa nas cócleas descalcificadas A qualidade das imagens e a preservac¸ão do órgão de Corti obtidas com as duas metodologias foi similar. Conclusão: As modificações propostas resultaram em imagens de qualidade similar as observadas com o uso da metodologia tradicional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cochlea/drug effects , Cochlea/ultrastructure , Organ of Corti/drug effects , Organ of Corti/ultrastructure , Osmium Tetroxide/administration & dosage , Tolonium Chloride/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Guinea Pigs , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , Hair Cells, Auditory/ultrastructure
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children is associated with neurocognitive morbidity. The cause of SNHL is a loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti. There are currently no reparative treatments for SNHL. Numerous studies suggest that cord blood mononuclear cells (human umbilical cord blood, hUCB) allow at least partial restoration of SNHL by enabling repair of a damaged organ of Corti. Our objective is to determine if hUCB is a safe treatment for moderate to severe acquired SNHL in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eleven children aged 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe acquired SNHL were treated with intravenous autologous hUCB. The cell dose ranged from 8 to 30 million cells/kg body weight. Safety was assessed by measuring systemic hemodynamics during hUCB infusion. Infusion-related toxicity was evaluated by measuring neurologic, hepatic, renal and pulmonary function before and after infusion. Auditory function, auditory verbal language assessments and MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained before and after treatment. RESULTS: All patients survived, and there were no adverse events. No infusionrelated changes in hemodynamics occurred. No infusion-related toxicity was recorded. Five subjects experienced a reduction in auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds. Four of those 5 subjects also experienced an improvement in cochlear nerve latencies. Comparison of MRI with DTI sequences obtained before and after treatment revealed increased fractional anisotropy in the primary auditory cortex in three of five subjects with reduced ABR thresholds. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in ABR thresholds were identified. CONCLUSIONS: TIntravenous hUCB is feasible and safe in children with SNHL.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Auditory Cortex , Body Weight , Child , Cochlear Nerve , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Fetal Blood , Hair , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hemodynamics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Organ of Corti , Umbilical Cord
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endolymphatic hydrops has been considered as an important histologic substrate of Meniere's disease. A permanent displacement of basilar membrane (BM) by increased endolymphatic pressure has been thought to be an explanation for hearing change. Direct observation of histological sections of temporal bones, however, suggested that stereocilia and tectorial membrane decoupling is more associated with pressure induced by mechanical deformation of the organ of Corti rather than with the displacement of BM. METERIALS AND METHOD: 26 cochleae from 13 female pigmented ginea pigs were harvested. One cochlea per each animal was injected with artificial perilymph. The other one was used as control. After fixation, followed by embedding and mid-modiolar sectionning, specimens were observed with a microscope. Morphometric parameters of each row and turn of the organ of Corti were measured and quantified. RESULTS: The average area and height of the organ of Corti were significantly smaller in the apical turn of the experimental group (p<0.05). The lengths of outer hair cell and Deiters cell in the apical turn were also significantly reduced in the experimental group (p<0.05). The angle between the outer hair cell and Deiters cell was smaller in the apex and in the 3rd turn of the experimental group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Results show that compression and deformation of the organ of Corti, especially in the apical turn, is a prominent feature in the acute endolymphatic hydrops model. We suggest that the deformation of organ of Corti is the primary cause of hydrops that induce the decoupling of tectorial membrane and stereocilia rather than the displacement of BM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Basilar Membrane , Cochlea , Edema , Endolymphatic Hydrops , Female , Guinea Pigs , Hair , Hearing , Humans , Meniere Disease , Organ of Corti , Perilymph , Stereocilia , Swine , Tectorial Membrane , Temporal Bone
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(4): e5064, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951670

ABSTRACT

In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Organ of Corti/surgery , Stem Cells , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/transplantation , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Auditory Threshold , Immunohistochemistry , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors , Neomycin , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Treatment Outcome , Guinea Pigs , Mice, Inbred BALB C
6.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 93-95, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741535

ABSTRACT

Introduction Schwannoma of the olfactory groove is an extremely rare tumor that can share a differential diagnosis with meningioma or neuroblastoma. Objectives The authors present a case of giant schwannoma involving the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid sinuses. Case Report The patient presented with a 30-month history of left nasal obstruction, anosmia, and sporadic ipsilateral bleeding. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed expansive lesion on the left nasal cavity extending to nasopharynx up to ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses bilaterally with intraorbital and parasellar extension to the skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed the expansive tumor without dural penetration. Biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy and probable neural cell. Bifrontal craniotomy was performed combined with lateral rhinotomy (Weber-Ferguson approach), and the lesion was totally removed. The tumor measured 8.0 4.3 3.7 cm and microscopically appeared as a schwannoma composed of interwoven bundles of elongated cells (Antoni A regions)mixed with less cellular regions (Antoni B). Immunohistochemical study stained intensively for vimentin and S-100. Conclusion Schwannomas of the olfactory groove are extremely rare, and the findings of origin of this tumor is still uncertain but recent studies point most probably to the meningeal branches of trigeminal nerve or anterior ethmoidal nerves. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Cell Membrane Permeability/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory/physiology , Ion Channels/physiology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/physiology , Animals, Newborn , Cadherins/genetics , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate/pharmacology , Embryo, Mammalian , Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Egtazic Acid/pharmacology , Hair Cells, Auditory/cytology , Hair Cells, Auditory/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels/drug effects , Mice, Transgenic , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/drug effects , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/genetics , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Organ of Corti/cytology , Protein Precursors/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218805

ABSTRACT

The primary site of lesion induced by noise exposure is the hair cells in the organ of Corti and the primary neural degeneration occurs in synaptic terminals of cochlear nerve fibers and spiral ganglion cells. The cellular basis of noise-induced hearing loss is oxidative stress, which refers to a severe disruption in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense system in the cochlea by excessive production of free radicals induced by noise exposure. Oxidative stress has been identified by a variety of biomarkers to label free radical activity which include four-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome-C, and cascade-3, 8, 9. Furthermore, oxidative stress is contributing to the necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths in the cochlea. To counteract the known mechanisms of pathogenesis and oxidative stress induced by noise exposure, a variety of antioxidant drugs including oxygen-based antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cystein and acetyl-L-carnitine and nitrone-based antioxidants such as phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), disufenton sodium, 4-hydroxy PBN, and 2, 4-disulfonyl PBN have been used in our laboratory. These antioxidant drugs were effective in preventing or treating noise-induced hearing loss. In combination with other antioxidants, antioxidant drugs showed a strong synergistic effect. Furthermore, successful use of antioxidant drugs depends on the optimal timing of treatment and the duration of treatment, which are highly related to the time window of free radical formation induced by noise exposure.


Subject(s)
Acetylcarnitine , Antioxidants , Biomarkers , Cell Death , Cochlea , Cochlear Nerve , Free Radicals , Hair , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Malondialdehyde , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Noise , Organ of Corti , Oxidative Stress , Presynaptic Terminals , Sodium , Spiral Ganglion
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In mammals, cochlear hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in a permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Secondary to this hair cell loss, a progressive loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is presented. In this study, we have investigated the effects of neural-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (NI-hMSCs) from human bone marrow on sensory neuronal regeneration from neomycin treated deafened guinea pig cochleae. METHODS: HMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow which was obtained from the mastoid process during mastoidectomy for ear surgery. Following neural induction with basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin, we studied the several neural marker and performed electrophysiological analysis. NI-hMSCs were transplanted into the neomycin treated deafened guinea pig cochlea. Engraftment of NI-hMSCs was evaluated immunohistologically at 8 weeks after transplantation. RESULTS: Following neural differentiation, hMSCs expressed high levels of neural markers, ionic channel markers, which are important in neural function, and tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent sodium currents. After transplantation into the scala tympani of damaged cochlea, NI-hMSCs-injected animals exhibited a significant increase in the number of SGNs compared to Hanks balanced salt solution-injected animals. Transplanted NI-hMSCs were found within the perilymphatic space, the organ of Corti, along the cochlear nerve fibers, and in the spiral ganglion. Furthermore, the grafted NI-hMSCs migrated into the spiral ganglion where they expressed the neuron-specific marker, NeuN. CONCLUSION: The results show the potential of NI-hMSCs to give rise to replace the lost cochlear cells in hearing loss mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Cell Differentiation , Cochlea , Cochlear Nerve , Colforsin , Ear , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Guinea Pigs , Hair , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Ion Channels , Mammals , Mastoid , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neomycin , Neurons , Organ of Corti , Regeneration , Scala Tympani , Sensory Receptor Cells , Sodium , Spiral Ganglion , Transplantation , Transplants
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The utilization of the stem cells is widely used in the last few years in different fields of medicine, either by external transplantation or endogenous mobilization, most of these studies still experimental on animals; few were tried on human as in the spinal cord injury or myocardial infarction. As regard its use in the inner ear, stem cell transplantation was examined in many previous studies, while the mobilization idea is a new method to be experimented in inner ear hair cell regeneration. The present work assessed the possibility of mobilizing endogenous bone marrow derived stem cells (SCs) in rats using granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to induce regeneration and repair to experimentally damaged inner ear hair cells by Amikacin injection. METHODS: The study included thirty adult Sprague Dawley male rats. Experimental induction of inner ear damage was done by repeated intratympanic injection of amikacin sulfate. Mobilization of bone marrow SCs was provoked by subcutaneous injection of GCSF. Cochlear integrity, induction of hearing loss and functional recovery of sensory hearing loss were assessed using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs). The morphological alteration and recovery of the organ of Corti was assessed histologically using the light and scanning electron microscopes. RESULTS: After six month duration, there was improvement in 50% of the sensorineural DPOAE results. Functional recovery coincided with the repair of structural components of organ of Corti. CONCLUSIONS: SCs mobilization by G-CSF is a promising alternative method for replacement therapy in sensorineural hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amikacin , Animals , Bone Marrow , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Ear, Inner , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Hair , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Organ of Corti , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42471

ABSTRACT

Bucillamine is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigated the protective effects of bucillamine against cisplatin-induced damage in auditory cells, the organ of Corti from postnatal rats (P2) and adult Balb/C mice. Cisplatin increases the catalytic activity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 proteases and the production of free radicals, which were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine. Bucillamine induces the intranuclear translocation of Nrf2 and thereby increases the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GSS), which further induces intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). However, knockdown studies of HO-1 and SOD2 suggest that the protective effect of bucillamine against cisplatin is independent of the enzymatic activity of HO-1 and SOD. Furthermore, pretreatment with bucillamine protects sensory hair cells on organ of Corti explants from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity concomitantly with inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The auditory-brainstem-evoked response of cisplatin-injected mice shows marked increases in hearing threshold shifts, which was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with bucillamine in vivo. Taken together, bucillamine protects sensory hair cells from cisplatin through a scavenging effect on itself, as well as the induction of intracellular GSH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Line , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cysteine/analogs & derivatives , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glutathione/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II/genetics , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Organ of Corti/drug effects , RNA Interference , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651247

ABSTRACT

Noise-induced hearing loss could be caused by mechanical destruction of the delicate membranes of the inner ear, hair cells and supporting structures of the organ of Corti, and by intense metabolic activity, which increases free radical formation in the cochlea. When exposure is continuous, injury is a consequence of the total amount of energy to which cochlear tissues are exposed and a hearing conservation program is essential including hearing protection devices. Several therapeutic trials including antioxidant agents have been shown at least partially effective in prevention of hearing loss and hair cell death.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cochlea , Ear, Inner , Hair , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Membranes , Noise , Organ of Corti
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232728

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA and Fas protein expressions and cochlear ischemia reperfusion injury and investigate the protective mechanism of PPTA against cochlear reperfusion injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-four guinea pigs were randomly divided into normal control group, blank control group, ischemia/reperfusion (by clamping the bilateral vertebral artery and right common carotid artery for 1 h) control group, and ischemia/reperfusion with PPTA treatment group. In PPTA group, PPTA was injected via the femoral vein immediately after reperfusion, and ischemia/reperfusion control group received saline injection. In 6 guinea pigs from each group, the cochlear tissues were removed after 24 h of reperfusion for examination of expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA by real-time PCR, and the rest animals were used for immunohistochemical detection of Fas protein.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those of normal group and blank control group, the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-β mRNA increased significantly after cochlear ischemia/reperfusion (P<0.001), but were lowered significantly by PPTA (P<0.001). Positive expression of Fas protein expression was detected in the Corti organ, spiral ganglion and stria vascularis in ischemia/reperfusion control group with significantly higher IOD values than those of the other 3 groups (P<0.05). The IOD value showed no significant difference between PPTA-treated group, normal control group, and blank control group (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PPTA can suppress the expression of Fas protein and IL-1β and TNF-β mRNAs in the cochlea of guinea pigs with cochlear ischemia/reperfusion. The protective effect of PPTA against cochlear ischemia/reperfusion is mediated probably by inhibition of inflammatory responses and cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine , Pharmacology , Animals , Cochlea , Metabolism , Pathology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Organ of Corti , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism , Spiral Ganglion , Metabolism , Stria Vascularis , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Metabolism , fas Receptor , Metabolism
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2923-2927, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263556

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Modern research has provided new insights into the biological mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss, and a number of studies showed the appearance of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during and after noise exposure. This study was designed to investigate the noise exposure induced nitrotyrosine change and the mechanism of outer hair cells death in guinea pig cochlea.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Thirty guinea pigs were used in this study. The experimental animals were either exposed for 4 hours per day to broadband noise at 122 dB SPL (A-weighted) for 2 consecutive days or perfused cochleae with 5 mg/ml of the SIN1 solutions, an exogenous NO and superoxide donor, for 30 minutes. Then the cochleae of the animals were dissected. Propidium iodide (PI), a DNA intercalating fluorescent probe, was used to trace morphological changes in OHC nuclei. The distribution of nitrotyrosine (NT) in the organ of Corti and the cochlear lateral wall tissue from the guinea pigs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry method. Whole mounts of organ of Corti were prepared. Morphological and fluorescent changes were examined under a confocal microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Either after noise exposure or after SIN1 perfusion, outer hair cells (OHCs) death with characteristics of both apoptotic and necrotic degradation appeared. Nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed in the OHCs from the control animals. After noise exposure, NT immunostaining became much greater than the control animals in OHCs. The apoptotic OHC has significant increase of nitrotyrosine in and around the nucleus following noise exposure. In the normal later wall of cochleae, relatively weak nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed. After noise exposure, nitrotyrosine immunoactivity became stronger in stria vascularis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Noise exposure induced increase of nitrotyrosine production is associated with OHCs death suggesting reactive nitrogen species participation in the cochlear pathophysiology of noise-induced hearing loss.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Cochlea , Chemistry , Pathology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer , Pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Noise , Organ of Corti , Chemistry , Pathology , Tyrosine
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727604

ABSTRACT

Deiters' cells are the supporting cells in organ of Corti and are suggested to play an important role in biochemical and mechanical modulation of outer hair cells. We successfully isolated functionally different K+ currents from Deiters' cells of guinea pig using whole cell patch clamp technique. With high K+ pipette solution, depolarizing step pulses activated strongly outward rectifying currents which were dose-dependently blocked by clofilium, a class III anti-arrhythmic K+ channel blocker. The remaining outward current was transient in time course whereas the clofilium-sensitive outward current showed slow inactivation and delayed rectification. Addition of 5 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) further blocked the remaining current leaving a very fast inactivating transient outward current. Therefore, at least three different types of K+ current were identified in Deiters' cells, such as fast activating and fast inactivating current, fast activating slow inactivating current, and very fast inactivating transient outward current. Physiological role of them needs to be established.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ear, Inner , Guinea Pigs , Guinea , Hair , Hearing , Organ of Corti , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Potassium , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Tetraethylammonium
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648596

ABSTRACT

Basically stem cells have characteristics of multi-potency, differentiation into multiple tissue types, and self-renew through proliferation. Recent advances in stem cell biology can make identifying the stem-cell like cells in various mammalian tissues. Stem cells in various tissues can restore damaged tissue. Stem cells from the adult nervous system proliferate to form clonal floating colonies called spheres in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated sphere formation by cells in the tympanic membrane, vestibular system, spiral ganglion, and partly in the organ of Corti. The presence of stem cells in the ear raises the possibilities for the regeneration of the tympanic membrane & inner ear hair cells & neurons. But the gradual loss of stem cells postnatally in the organ of Corti may correlate with the loss of regenerative capacity and limited hearing restoration. Future strategies using endogenous stem cells in the ear can be the another treatment modality for the patients with intractable inner ear diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adult Stem Cells , Biology , Ear , Ear, Inner , Hair , Hearing , Humans , Labyrinth Diseases , Nervous System , Neurons , Organ of Corti , Regeneration , Spiral Ganglion , Stem Cells , Tympanic Membrane
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Apoptosis may play an important role in the mechanism underlying the GJB2 gene conditional knockout (cCx26) mice cochlear cell death. The objective of this study was to explore the the damage mode of the outer hair cells (OHCs) and its real time point of apoptosis and provide information to further explore the role of apoptosis in the happening of hearing loss in cCx26 mice. METHODS: Cochleae from mice at various developmental stages (P8, P12, and P21) were dissected out and first used to be observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Basilar membranes from mice at P8, P14, P18, and P21 were stained by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated phalloidin and propidium iodide (PI) and examined under confocal microscope. RESULTS: The loss of OHCs of cCx26 knockout mice was first set between P12 and P21 under SEM. Whole mount phalloidin and PI staining revealed that obvious apoptotic appearance of the OHCs surface morphology was observed at P18. CONCLUSION: Typical apoptotic morphology was found in the OHCs in the organ of Corti of the cCx26 mice at P18. This may provide information to further study the role of apoptosis in the occurrence of hearing loss of cCx26 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Basilar Membrane , Cell Death , Cochlea , Connexins , Electrons , Fluorescein , Hair , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Organ of Corti , Phalloidine , Propidium
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-650585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) enhances cell survival in various organs. GBE protects nerve cells in the central nervous system and is clinically applied in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. GBE can protect ototoxicity caused by cisplantin and gentamycin through rescue of hair cells in Organ of Corti and is accepted as one of the therapeutic agents for sudden deafness and tinnitus. The experimental study on GBE for the inner ear is confined to the hair cells, not to the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) which is the stimulated part by the electrode of cochlear implant. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of GBE on the survival of SGNs after hair cell loss in rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats aged 50 days (P50) were deafened with kanamycin sulfate. GBE (EGb 761) was injected into the right cochlea and artificial perilymph was injected into the left side. The number and size of SGNs were compared after immunohistochemical statin in both groups. The expression of pJun, which is well-known as a proapoptotic transcription factor in the cochlea, was also compared. RESULTS: The number of SGNs was significantly larger in the GBE group than the control. The expression of pJun activity was significantly decreased in GBE group than the control. The size of SGNs in both groups was similar. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GBE can protect SGNs death by inhibiting the pJun-C-jun N-terminal kinase pathway. GBE might be a potential drug for the patients with total deafness before or after cochlear implantation surgery for better hearing results.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Cell Survival , Central Nervous System , Cochlea , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Deafness , Ear, Inner , Electrodes , Gentamicins , Ginkgo biloba , Hair , Hearing , Hearing Loss, Sudden , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Kanamycin , Neurons , Organ of Corti , Perilymph , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spiral Ganglion , Tinnitus , Transcription Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308767

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of Erlong Zuoci Pill (, ELZCP) and its disassembled: prescriptions on gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxicity model in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>After the spiral organ of cochleae: of newborn mice (postnatal days: 2-3) cultured for 24 h, GM alone or combined with water extracting-alcohol precipitating solution of ELZCP or with its disassembled prescriptions was added. Hair cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope after TRITC-phalloidin staining, and the cochlear hair cell loss rate was calculated by counting the whole cochlear hair cells and analyzed by whole cochlear hair cells analyzing software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>GM induced cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) injuries in a dose-dependent manner, and they were significantly different as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). ELZCP at the concentration of 0.003-3 mg/mL could decrease the hair cells loss induced by the 0.3 mmol/L GM (P<0.05, P<0.01), the effects was in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentration of 0.3 mg/mL showed the optimal protective effect. For the ELZCP disassembled prescriptions, Liuwei-Dihuang could decrease OHC loss rate than that in the 0.3 mmol/L GM model group (P<0.05), but the OHC loss rate was still higher than that in the ELZCP group (P<0.01), which indicated that the protective effect of hair cells by Liuwei-Dihuang was not better than that of ELZCP. Poria decreased OHC loss rate from 72.1 % +/-3.7 % to 58.8 %+/- 8.2 % (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ELZCP could play a role in antagonizing the injury of cochlear hair cells induced by GM ototoxicity,: and its disassembled prescriptions, Liuwei-Dihuang was the main component to protect the cochlear hair cells from GM-induced ototoxicity, and Magnetitum combined with Radix Bupleurui could strengthen the action of the whole prescription; Poria could reduce GM-induced OHC loss.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gentamicins , Toxicity , Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner , Pathology , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer , Pathology , Mice , Organ of Corti , Pathology , Prescriptions , Tablets
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Morphological studies on presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, have been performed in several different strains of mice that demonstrate hearing loss with auditory pathology. The C57BL/6 (C57) mouse is a known model of early onset presbycusis, while the CBA mouse is characterized by relatively late onset hearing loss. We performed this study to further understand how early onset hearing loss is related with the aging process of the cochlea. METHODS: We compared C57 cochlear pathology and its accompanying apoptotic processes to those in CBA mice. Hearing thresholds and outer hair cell functions have been evaluated by auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). RESULTS: ABR recordings and DPOAE studies demonstrated high frequency hearing loss in C57 mice at P3mo of age. Cochlear morphologic studies of P1mo C57 and CBA mice did not show differences in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, or stria vascularis. However, from P3mo and onwards, a predominant early outer hair cell degeneration at the basal turn of the cochlea in C57 mice without definitive degeneration of spiral ganglion cells and stria vascularis/spiral ligament, compared with CBA mice, was observed. Additionally, apoptotic processes in the C57 mice also demonstrated an earlier progression. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the C57 mouse could be an excellent animal model for early onset 'sensory' presbycusis in their young age until P6mo. Further studies to investigate the intrinsic or extrinsic etiologic factors that lead to the early degeneration of organ of Corti, especially in the high frequency region, in C57 mice may provide a possible pathological mechanism of early onset hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Apoptosis , Cochlea , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hair , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Ligaments , Mice , Mice, Inbred CBA , Models, Animal , Organ of Corti , Presbycusis , Spiral Ganglion , Stria Vascularis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643837

ABSTRACT

Inner ear is an important organ that is responsible for balance and hearing. It is composed of two complicated major subunits, vestibular organ and cochlea. During development, both functional units require complex genetic interactions to achieve proper patterning and morphology as its purpose. This review comprises three parts. In the first part, general information about technical tools in studying mouse ear development is introduced. In the second part, it is shown how semicircular canals are formed and what genetic interaction is involved in canal formation. In the last part, genetic interactions required for proper development of cochlea are elaborated, focusing on the length of cochlea and morphology of organ of Corti. The study about development of mutant mice provides us useful information about genetic interaction involved in the formation of structures for hearing and balance. The data acquired in the development field could provide a breakthrough to hair cell regeneration and stem cell therapy fields in stuck, which are directly applicable to human.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cochlea , Ear , Ear, Inner , Hair , Hearing , Humans , Mice , Organ of Corti , Regeneration , Semicircular Canals , Stem Cells
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