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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of a 48-week course of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) plus Chinese medicine (CM) therapy, namely Tiaogan Jianpi Hexue () and Tiaogan Jiedu Huashi () fomulae, in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive Chinese patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 605 HBeAg-positive Chinese CHB patients were screened and 590 eligible participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups in 1:1 ratio including experimental group (EG, received ADV plus CM) and control group (CG, received ADV plus CM-placebo) for 48 weeks. The major study outcomes were the rates of HBeAg and HBV-DNA loss on week 12, 24, 36, 48, respectively. Secondary endpoints including liver functions (enzymes and bilirubin readings) were evaluated every 4 weeks at the beginning of week 24, 36, and 48. Routine blood, urine, and stool analyses in addition to electrocardiogram and abdominal B scan were monitored as safety evaluations. Adverse events (AEs) were documented.@*RESULTS@#The combination therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg loss at 48 weeks, without additional AEs. The full analysis population was 560 and 280 in each group. In the EG, population achieved HBeAg loss on week 12, 24, 36, and 48 were 25 (8.90%), 34 (12.14%), 52 (18.57%), and 83 (29.64%), respectively; the equivalent numbers in the CG were 20 (7.14%), 41 (14.64%), 54 (19.29%), and 50 (17.86%), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these group values on week 48 (P<0.01). No additional AEs were found in EG. Subgroup analysis suggested different outcomes among treatment patterns.@*CONCLUSION@#Combination of CM and ADV therapy demonstrated superior HBeAg clearance compared with ADV monotherapy. The finding indicates that this combination therapy may provide an improved therapeutic effect and safety profile (ChiCTR-TRC-11001263).


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Young Adult
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328266

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore clinical efficacy of Yiguanjian Decoction (YD) combined Adefovir Dipivoxil Tablet (ADT) in treating HBeAg negative chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB) active compensated liver cirrhosis (LC) patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 68 HBeAg negative CVHB active compensated LC patients initially treated were assigned to the treatment group and the control group using random digit table, 34 in each group. Patients in the control group took ADT alone, 10 mg each time, once per day. Those in the treatment group additionally took YD, one dose per day. The therapeutic course for all was 48 weeks. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) were detected once in every two weeks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA and four items of serum liver fibrosis [procollagen type I (PCN), hyaluronidase (HA), procollagen III peptide (PCIII), laminin (LN)] were detected once per every 4 weeks. Abdominal ultrasound B was performed before and after treatment. The inner diameter of the portal vein and the size of spleen were recorded. The fibrosis degree of liver was evaluated using Fibroscan. Efficacy of Chinese medicine (CM) was evaluated between the two groups before and after treatment using CM syndrome integrals. Efficacy of Western medicine (WM) was also evaluated between the two groups using Child-Pugh grading. Results Compared with before treatment in the same group, ALT and AST levels restored to normal levels, HBV-DNA turned negative (HBV-DNA < or = 1 x 10(2)) in the two groups after 48-week treatment. Besides, levels of TBil, ALB, PCIV, HA, PCIII, and LN obviously decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Results of ultrasound B showed the inner diameter of the portal vein and the size of spleen decreased. Fibroscan results showed that the elasticity value of the liver obviously decreased (P < 0.05). Besides, post-treatment levels of PCIV, HA, PCEJ, and LN, and the elasticity value of the liver decreased more obviously in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference in post-treatment levels of ALT, AST, TBil, ALB, inner diameter of the portal vein, or the size of spleen between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with before treatment in the same group, scores of Chinese medical syndrome and Child-Pugh scores decreased in the two groups after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Besides, scores of Chinese medical syndrome decreased more obviously in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The effective rate was 8824% (30/34) in the treatment group, higher than that of the control group [67.65% (23/34)] with statistical difference (P <0.05). Conclusion Combined treatment of YD and ADT could significantly improve symptoms of CM and fibrosis degree of liver of HBeAg negative CVHB active compensated LC patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bilirubin , Blood , DNA, Viral , Blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Virology , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Tablets
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It remains to be determined whether switching from adefovir (ADV) to tenofovir (TDF) provides better virological outcomes in patients exhibiting suboptimal responses to ADV plus nucleoside analogue (ADV+NA) therapy for NA-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: In this prospective trial, patients who showed partial responses (defined as serum hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA >60 IU/mL) to ADV+NA therapy for NA resistance were randomly allocated to receive TDF plus NA (TDF+NA group, n=16) or to continue their current therapy (ADV+NA group, n=16). The primary end point was the proportion of patients with complete virological response (CVR, defined as serum HBV DNA 2log10 IU/mL was more likely in the TDF+NA group at both 24 and 48 weeks (68.8% vs. 56.3%, P=0.014 vs. 81.3% vs. 56.3%, P=0.001, respectively). During the follow-up, the rate of HBeAg seroconversion was higher in the TDF+NA group than the ADV+NA group (12.5% vs. 6.25%, P=0.640), as was that for the hepatitis B surface antigen (6.25% vs. 0%, P=0.080). No serious adverse events due to antiviral agents occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In patients exhibiting suboptimal responses to ADV+NA therapy for NA-resistant CHB, switching from ADV to TDF might provide better virological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/blood , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genotype , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. RESULTS: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze the effects of preexisting lamivudine (LAM) resistance and applying antiviral treatment (adefovir [ADV] add-on LAM combination treatment) on long-term treatment outcomes, and comparing the clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients receiving entecavir (ETV) monotherapy. METHODS: This study enrolled 73 antiviral-naïve patients who received 0.5-mg ETV as an initial therapy and 54 patients who received ADV add-on LAM combination treatment as a rescue therapy from July 2006 to July 2010. RESULTS: During 24-month treatments, the decreases in serum log10HBV-DNA values (copies/mL) were significantly greater in the antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV than the patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment. The biochemical response rates for alanine aminotransferase normalization at 6 months (ETV) and 12 months (ADV add-on LAM) were 90.4% (66/73) and 77.8% (42/54), respectively (P=0.048). A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the rates of serologic response, viral breakthrough, and emergence of genotypic resistance did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. There were also no significant intergroup differences in the rates of disease progression (PD) and new development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CONCLUSION: The long-term clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV and LAM-resistant patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment were comparable in terms of the emergence of HCC and disease progression.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/blood , Disease Progression , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 279-282, ago. 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764085

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La rabdomiólisis es una enfermedad poco frecuente en pediatría. El objetivo es presentar un paciente en el que se desarrolló secundario a una deshidratación hipernatrémica grave tras una diarrea aguda. Caso clínico: Lactante de 11 meses que consultó por fiebre, vómitos, diarrea y anuria. Presentó convulsión tónico-clónica autolimitada. Ingresó en mal estado general, severamente deshidratado, con escasa reactividad. En las pruebas complementarias destacó acidosis metabólica grave, hipernatremia e insuficiencia renal prerrenal. Al tercer día apreció leve hipotonía axial y elevación de creatín fosfokinasa 75.076 UI/l, interpretado como rabdomiólisis. Se inició hiperhidratación y alcalinización sistémica, con buena respuesta clínica y bioquímica, siendo dado de alta sin secuelas motoras. Conclusiones: La hipernatremia grave está descrita como causa rara de rabdomiólisis e insuficiencia renal. En pacientes críticos es importante un alto índice de sospecha de rabdomiólisis y determinación seriada de la creatín fosfokinasa para su detección y tratamiento precoz.


Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Case report: Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Conclusions: Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rabbits , Cytosine/analogs & derivatives , Delayed-Action Preparations/administration & dosage , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Organophosphonates/administration & dosage , Organophosphonates/chemistry , Vitreous Body/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cytosine/administration & dosage , Cytosine/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Half-Life , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Micelles , Prodrugs/administration & dosage , Prodrugs/chemistry , Retina/drug effects , Retina/virology , Vitreous Body/virology
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(3): 291-295, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751886

ABSTRACT

Background: Research has shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes are closely linked to the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of the disease. Objective: To study the association between genotype and drug-resistant HBV mutations in 620 Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection. Methods: HBV DNA levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR in plasma samples. Microarrays were performed for the simultaneous detection of HBV genotypes (HBV/B, C, and D) and drug-resistance-related hotspot mutations. A portion of the samples analyzed using microarrays was selected randomly and the data were confirmed using direct DNA sequencing. Results: Most samples were genotype C (471/620; 76.0%), followed by genotype B (149/620; 24.0%). Among the 620 patient samples, 17 (2.7%) had nucleotide analogs (NA) resistance-related mutations. Of these, nine and eight patients carried lamivudine (LAM)-/telbivudine (LdT)-resistance mutations (rtL180M, rtM204I/V) and adefovir (ADV)-resistance mutations (rtA181T/V, rtN236T), respectively. No patients had both lamivudine (LAM)- and either ade-fovir (ADV) or entecavir (ETV) resistance mutations. Additionally, out of the 620 patient samples, 64.0% (397/620) were also detected with the precore stop-codon mutation (G1896A) by microarray assay. Conclusion: The results of the current study revealed that the prevalence of nucleotide analogs (NA)-resistance in Chinese hospitalized HBV-positive patients was so low that intensive nucleotide analogs (NA)-resistance testing before nucleotide analog (NA) treatment might not be required. In addition, the present study suggests that chronic HBV patients with genotype C were infected with fitter viruses and had an increased prevalence of nucleotide analogs (NA)-resistance mutations compared to genotype B virus. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Mutation , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Adenine/administration & dosage , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Guanine/administration & dosage , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Lamivudine/administration & dosage , Microarray Analysis , Organophosphonates/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thymidine/administration & dosage , Thymidine/analogs & derivatives
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 464-468, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251756

ABSTRACT

According to the super-position principle of the reinforcement of biological activities, a series of novel E-substituted 2, 3-diaryl propenoic acyloxy phosphonate derivatives were designed and synthesized. And the structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Furthermore, the cytotoxicities of all compounds on A-549, SGC-7901 and EC-109 in vitro were evaluated by MTT assay, and some of them showed good antitumor activity. Among the active compounds, especially, the IC50 value of compound 3e was (12.7 ± 1.9) μmol x L(-1) against A-549 cells, similar to cisplatin [IC50 = (8.0 ± 1.5) μmol x L(-1)], compounds 3g and 3k had better inhibition effect on EC-109 cells growth, with the IC50 values of (9.5 ± 1.8) μmol x L(-1) and (11.5 ± 0.9) μmol x L(-1) respectively, and compounds 3i and 3k exhibited good cytotoxic property on A-549, SGC-7901 and EC-109, which were worth further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Design , Humans , Organophosphonates , Pharmacology
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 509-515, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251749

ABSTRACT

Besides 36 (28 single-tablets and 8 fixed-dose combinations) used antiretroviral drugs clinically, there are a number of investigational antiretroviral agents currently in phase 2-3 clinical trial. Tenofoviralafenamidefumarate (TAF) is a novel nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is potent and less toxicity than tenofovir (TDF). Doravirine is a non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that demonstrates activity against NNRTI-resistant viral strains. GSK744 is an integrase inhibitor with a long acting preparation. In addition, several drugs with new mechanisms are also noted, for example, BMS-663 068 is a small molecule CD4 attachment inhibitors and cenicriviroc is a novel CCR5/CCR2 antagonist with antiretroviral activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Several drug classes that target known pathways in HIV latency have being developed, and leading the list are histone deacetylase inhibitors. Other agents include protein kinase C activators, positive transcription elongation factor activators, DNA methyl-transferase inhibitors and histone methyl-transferase inhibitors and so on. This review is focused on the above-mentioned drug candidates that may be used in clinical in next couple of years and those compounds that can reverse latent HIV infections.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-HIV Agents , Therapeutic Uses , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Humans , Organophosphates , Therapeutic Uses , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Piperazines , Therapeutic Uses , Pyridones , Therapeutic Uses , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Tenofovir
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264599

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship between HBV DNA and the clinical manifestations, pathological types, injury severity, and prognosis with HBV-GN.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>102 patients with HBV-GN were divided into 3 groups, according to the serum titer of the HBV DNA. 24-h urine protein excretion, and other parameters were measured. Renal biopsy were performed. The association between HBV DNA and the pathological stage of membranous nephropathy was analyzed in 78 patients with HBV-MN. 24-h urine protein excretion was used for the evaluation of the prognosis, and the relationship between HBV DNA and prognosis were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Several findings were demonstrated with the increase of serum HBV DNA: 24-h urine protein excretion, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides increased significantly (P%lt;0.05), while the plasma level of albumin decreased significantly (P%lt;0.05); The changes of serum creatinine, C3 and C4 were found but no statistical significance. Glomerular deposition of HBVAg increased, and the pathological injury was more severe. The clinical remission rate was lower in the high replication group after treatment as compared with the low replication group (P%lt;0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>With the increase of serum HBV DNA, the urine protein excretion and the kidney injury were more severe, and the clinical remission rate was decreased.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , DNA Replication , DNA, Viral , Blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glomerulonephritis , Hepatitis B , Drug Therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Humans , Lamivudine , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Young Adult
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 250-253, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290465

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the efficacy of telbivudine monotherapy and telbivudine combination therapy with adefovir in patients with nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B, high-level hepatitis B virus (HBV) load and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positivity, and to explore the relationship between treatment regimen adherence and treatment outcomes.</p><p><b>METODS</b>A retrospective study was performed with 123 HBeAg-positive, high-level viral load (HBV DNA≥10(7) copies/ml), nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. Fifty-three of the patients received combination therapy with telbivudine and adefovir dipivoxil,while 70 patients received the telbivudine monotherapy. All patients were tested for rates of conversion to HBV DNA-negative status,alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization, HBeAg seroconversion, drug resistance, and side effects at treatment weeks 12, 24, and 48. Treatment regimen adherence was assessed through self-reporting, and interviews were used to explore the relationships to treatment outcomes. The chisquare test, t test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rates of HBV DNA negative conversion in the combination group at treatment weeks 12, 24 and 48 were 62.3% (33/53), 88.7% (47/53) and 94.3% (50/53) and were significantly different from those in the monotherapy group at weeks 12 and 24.The rates of ALT normalization were significantly different between the two groups at treatment week 12 (94.3% vs. 77.1%). The rate of HBeAg seroconversion in the combination group at treatment week 48 was 39.6%, and significantly different than that of the monotherapy group. The rates of drug-resistance in the combination and monotherapy groups at treatment week 48 were 3.8% and 11.4%, and the proportion of non-adherence to the treatment regimen was 53.3%, which significantly affected treatment outcome. No side effects occurred in either treatment group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Telbivudine combination treatment with adefovir was more effective than telbivudine monotherapy and elicited a low drug resistance rate in nucleos(t)idenaive chronic hepatitis B patients with high-level HBV load and HBeAg-positivity. Adherence to the therapy regimen was a key factor influencing treatment outcomes.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Alanine Transaminase , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Organophosphonates , Retrospective Studies , Thymidine , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 590-593, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290395

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) on blood phosphorus metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive CHB were treated with ADV alone, ADV combined with interferon (IFN), or ADV combined with lamivudine (LAM). Changes in levels of calcium, phosphate, urea, and creatinine were assessed at treatment weeks 4, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS 16 software; influential factors were analyzed by ANOVA and non-conditional logistic regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>During the course of treatments, 32 (42.6%) of the patients presented with low phosphorus. The highest incidence of low phosphorus was found to have occurred at treatment week 24 (25.0%, 27.5% and 36.4% respectively, with no statistical difference between three groups, x2=0.225, P>0.225). Patients with hypophosphatemia did not show a significant difference in serum phosphorus levels from the other patients (F=1.853, P=0.169). Logistic regression showed a correlation between low phosphorus and sex (x2=7.876, P<0.05), age (t=2.479, P<0.05), and serum creatinine (t =-2.256, P<0.05), but not with blood urea nitrogen or blood calcium (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ADV antiviral treatment can decrease the blood phosphorous levels of CHB patients, particularly over extended time of treatment, and the occurrence of low phosphorus is more common than of mild phosphorus decrease.Male and elderly patients may be at greater risk of this complication. The incidence and severity of low phosphorus is not significantly different for the different ADV-based treatment regimens.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Aged , Antiviral Agents , Creatinine , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Interferons , Lamivudine , Male , Organophosphonates , Phosphorus
15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 733-737, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303259

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the efficacies ofentecavir and adefovir in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and cirrhosis when administered as monotherapies using a 240-week course.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety patients diagnosed with CHB and cirrhosis (compensated or decompensated) were randomly divided into two treatment groups for administration of either entecavir (0.5 mg/day, oral; n =38) or adefovir (10 mg/day, oral; n =52) for 240 weeks. All participants underwent B-ultrasound and were tested for levels of HBV-DNA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and various serological markers of the hepatitis B virus at baseline and at treatment weeks 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, and 240. Instances of drug-related complications and adverse reactions were recorded. Patients who did not achieve complete virological response by treatment week 48 or who experienced virological breakthrough at any time during the study course were recorded and started on an appropriate combination therapy regimen. Statistical analyses were carried out using the t-test, chi-square test, and Cox regression modeling.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The dropout rate in the entecavir group was 2.6% and in the adefovir group was 13.5%. At treatment week 240, significantly more patients in the entecavir group had undetectable serum HBV-DNA (91.9% vs. adefovir group: 57.8%; x2=10.362, P=0.001), a negative conversion rate of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (46.2% vs. adefovir group: 24%; x2=5.055, P=0.025), and rate of HBeAg seroconversion (23.1% vs. adefovir group: 8%, P=0.047).The entecavir group and the adefovir group showed no significant differences upon per-protocol analysis and intention-to-treat analysis, nor in the rates of hepatocellular carcinoma development (entecavir group: 8.1% vs. adefovir group: 6.7%; x2=0.000, P=1.000) or mortality (entecavir group: 8.1% vs. adefovir group: 4.4%; x2=0.051, P=0.821). The possibility of achieving undetectable serum HBV-DNA was 2.761 times higher in the entecavir group than in the adefovir group (95.0% CI: 1.630 to 4.679). The possibility of HBeAg seroconversion was 0.192 times higher for males than for females (95.0% CI: 0.046 to 0.806).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compared to adefovir, entecavir provides high efficiency and rapid viral suppression as a monotherapy for CHB patients when administered in a 240-week course.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Female , Guanine , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Male , Organophosphonates , Time Factors , alpha-Fetoproteins
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 821-825, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303224

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the clinical efficacy of combination therapy with peg-IFNalpha and adefovir (CPIA) in women who were hepatfis B virus (HBV) carriers and had just given birth and received telbivudine (LdT) during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One-hundred-and-fifty third trimester-pregnant women who were HBV carriers with highly-viremic were treated with LdT until time of birth. After delivery, those women with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level exceeding two times the upper limit of normal and HBV DNA level that had decreased more than 31 gIU/mL or hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titer that had decreased more than 50% were switched to CPIA for 96 weeks.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Following delivery, 45 of the women were switched to the CPIA treatment, of which 91.1% (41/45) achieved virological response, 55.6% (25/45) achieved HBeAg clearance or seroconversion, and 26.7% (12/45) achieved hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance or seroconversion.The immediate post-delivery (and pre-CPIA) levels of HBeAg and HBV DNA were negatively associated with HBeAg clearance. Ninety-eight of the total study participants stopped the LdT treatment and there were no cases of significant deterioration of liver function.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Pregnant women who are HBV carriers and receive LdT for protection against mother-to-child transmission, and who show significant ALT elevation and decreased HBeAg titer and/or reduced HBV DNA after delivery, may be good candidates for the CPIA therapy following delivery.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Carrier State , Virology , DNA, Viral , Blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Interferon-alpha , Therapeutic Uses , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Polyethylene Glycols , Therapeutic Uses , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Drug Therapy , Virology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Recombinant Proteins , Therapeutic Uses , Thymidine , Therapeutic Uses
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355279

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4 treatment options for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients following a suboptimal response to 24-week interferon monotherapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The data of 193 HBeAg-positive CHB patients with suboptimal response to 24-week interferon monotherapy were collected from Nanfang Hospital between September, 2010 and January, 2013. According to the subsequent treatments, the patients were divided into group A with additional entecavir or adefovir, group B with further interferon monotherapy, group C with conversion to NAs therapy, and group D with direct therapy withdrawal, and the biochemical and virological results at weeks 24, 48 and 72 were analyzed in the 4 groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At week 48, the HBV DNA negative rates and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization rates were both significantly higher in group A and C than in group B (P<0.05); in group A, ETV therapy subgroup had a significantly higher HBV DNA negative rate than ADV therapy subgroup at week 48 (90.3% vs 59.5%, Χ=8.255, P=0.004). At week 72, 39.7%(27/68) of the patients in group A achieved HBeAg seroconversion, a rate significantly higher than those in groups B (Χ=4.238, P=0.040) and C (Χ=7.681, P=0.006); the HBV DNA negative rate and ALT normalization rate in group A were 85.3%(58/68) and 86.8%(59/68), respectively, both significantly higher than those in group B (Χ=23.018, P<0.001; Χ=5.987, P=0.014) but comparable to those in group C (P>0.05). In the two subgroups in group A, the HBV DNA negative rate and HBeAg seroconversion rate were both significantly higher in ETV subgroup (Χ=9.823, P=0.002; Χ=5.450, P=0.020). In group D, all the patients remained HBeAg-positive with abnormal ALT levels and high level of HBV DNA.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>For HBeAg-positive CHB patients with suboptimal response to 24-week interferon monotherapy, combined treatment with NAs (especially ETV) and extension of the treatment course can significantly improve the HBeAg seroconversion rates, HBV DNA negative rates, and ALT normalization rates.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , DNA, Viral , Blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Guanine , Therapeutic Uses , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Humans , Interferons , Therapeutic Uses , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 23-27, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337055

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the mutational profile and clinical implications of the viral reverse-transcriptase (rt)A 181T mutation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) through population-based analysis of clinical samples.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Serum samples from 3, 013 patients who visited The 302 Hospital (Beijing, China) were investigated.HBV DNA was extracted and HBV mutations and genotypes were determined by direct sequencing.Recombinant plasmids harboring the rtA181T/sW172* mutant or wild type sequence were constructed and transfected into the HepG2 cell line. The levels of HBsAg in culture supernatants were compared and statistically analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence of rtA181T across the study population was 4.1% (165/3, 013), and most of the rtAl 81T-positive patients had received adefovir and/or lamivudine.Forty percent (66/165) of the rtA 181T cases were single mutants and treatment responsive, 46.1% (76/165) included the adefovir-resistant mutation rtA 181 V/N236T, 12.1% (20/165) included the lamivudine-resistant mutation rtM204V/rtM2041, and 1.8% (3/165) included multidrug-resistant mutations.Interestingly, 73.9% (122/165) of the rtA181T-positive samples were detected with co-existing wild-type nucleotides at the site. The rates of HBV/C to HBV/B were 92.1% to 7.9% in the rtA181T-positive patients, but 82.1% to 17.9% in the rtA181T-negative paticnts (P less than 0.01).Almost all (98.2%; 129/165) of the rtA181T led to sW172*, while only 1.8% of the rtA181T (3/165) led to sW172L or sW172S.HBsAg secretion in vitro was reduced from the rtA181T/ sW172* strain, but there was no significant difference observed in the average serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels of patients who carried or did not carry the mutant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The HBV rtA181T mutation is closely associated with adefovir and lamivudine exposure.rtA181T may led to sW172*, culminating in suppression of HBsAg secretion.However, co-existence of the mutant with wild-type sequences was common among our patient population, suggesting that the mutation had little impact on serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels across the clinical study population.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Antiviral Agents , China , Genotype , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Lamivudine , Mutation , Organophosphonates
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 28-33, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate long-term cost-effectiveness of nucleoside analogues and peg-interferon alfa-2a (peg-IFNa2a) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A multi-health slate Markov model was developed based on the disease progression pattern to estimate the long-term effect and medical expense of different treatments for HBeAg-negative CHB.Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was then carried out.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In comparison with no antiretroviral treatment, all of the antiretroviral treatments were capable of prolonging CHB patients' life years.In particular, entecavir plus adefovir dipivoxil combination therapy showed the best 2 year survival, with expected life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) being 19.59 years and 10.12 years, respectively, which were 1.46 years and 1.12 years better than with no antiretroviral treatment. The most cost-effective treatment for HBeAg-negative CHB was lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil rescue therapy, as it prolonged survival by 0.95 QALYs with an additional 15459 yuan; the incremental medical cost for gaining 1 QALY was 16273 yuan.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among the antiretroviral medicines applied as therapy for HBeAg-negative CHB in China, the most effective treatment is entecavir plus adefovir dipivoxil rescue therapy and the most cost-effective treatment is lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil rescue therapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Antiviral Agents , China , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Guanine , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Lamivudine , Organophosphonates , Polyethylene Glycols , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Recombinant Proteins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: BK virus (BKV) has been associated with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Cidofovir has been used at higher doses (3 to 5 mg/kg/wk) with probenecid prophylaxis; however, cidofovir may result in nephrotoxicity or cytopenia at high doses. METHODS: Allogeneic HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC are treated with 1 mg/kg intravenous cidofovir weekly at our institution. A microbiological response was defined as at least a one log reduction in urinary BKV viral load, and a clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms and stability or reduction in cystitis grade. RESULTS: Eight patients received a median of 4 weekly (range, 2 to 11) doses of cidofovir. HC occurred a median 69 days (range, 16 to 311) after allogeneic HSCT. A clinical response was detected in 7/8 patients (86%), and 4/5 (80%) had a measurable microbiological response. One patient died of uncontrolled graft-versus-host disease; therefore, we could not measure the clinical response to HC treatment. One microbiological non-responder had a stable BKV viral load with clinical improvement. Only three patients showed transient grade 2 serum creatinine toxicities, which resolved after completion of concomitant calcineurin inhibitor treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Weekly intravenous low-dose cidofovir without probenecid appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with BKV-associated HC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , BK Virus/drug effects , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cytosine/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Organophosphonates/administration & dosage , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Virus Infections/diagnosis , Viral Load
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