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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 99-107, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153067


This study evaluated the most common toxic agents affecting domestic cats, the clinical signs of toxicity, and the therapeutic approaches for recovery. A survey on poisoning in cats was conducted among small animal veterinary practitioners from 2017 to 2018. Of the 748 completed questionnaires, 543 (72.6%) were evaluated. Pesticides and household cleaning supplies were the most common causes of poisoning in cats. The toxicant groups included pesticides and household cleaning supplies (organophosphates), human drugs (acetaminophen), plants/plant derivatives (lily), and veterinary drugs (tramadol). The major clinical signs for these four groups of toxicants were (1) acetaminophen poisoning, which caused oxidative erythrocyte damage; (2) muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic syndrome, which resulted from organophosphate poisoning; (3) acute kidney injury, which resulted from intoxication of lily; and (4) serotonin syndrome, which resulted from tramadol toxicosis. Interventions for treating poisoning in cats were based on the clinical presentation of animals. In the present study, the significant toxins identified to be dangerous for cats were characterized using the obtained data in Brazil as well as the main associated clinical signs and therapy recommended by veterinarians.(AU)

Objetiva-se com este trabalho caracterizar os principais toxicantes para gatos domésticos, bem como os prevalentes sinais clínicos e a terapêutica associada. Uma pesquisa sobre envenenamento em gatos foi realizada entre médicos veterinários no período de 2017 a 2018. Dos 748 questionários preenchidos, 543 (72,6%) foram avaliados. Pesticidas e domissanitários foram os principais causadores de intoxicação em gatos. Entre os grupos tóxicos, destacaram-se, na categoria pesticidas e domissanitários (organofosforados), medicamentos humanos (acetaminofeno), plantas e derivados de planta (lírio) e medicamentos veterinários (tramadol). Os principais sinais clínicos para os quatro grupos de substâncias tóxicas foram: (1) intoxicação por acetaminofeno, que causou dano eritrocitário oxidativo; (2) síndrome colinérgica muscarínica e nicotínica, resultante do envenenamento por organofosforado; (3) lesão renal aguda, causada pela intoxicação por lírio; e (4) síndrome serotoninérgica, resultante da exposição ao tramadol. As intervenções realizadas para o tratamento dos envenenamentos foram justificáveis mediante a apresentação clínica dos animais. Por meio dos dados obtidos, puderam-se caracterizar os principais tóxicos para gatos no Brasil, bem como os principais sinais clínicos associados e a terapêutica preconizada pelos médicos veterinários.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Poisoning/etiology , Poisoning/veterinary , Tramadol/toxicity , Lilium/toxicity , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Serotonin Agents/toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Muscarinic Antagonists/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921692


The medicinal plants with roots and rhizomes as the medicinal parts account for about 1/3 of Chinese medicinal herbs. Root and rhizome medicinal materials are widely used in clinical practice, whereas their wild resource reserves are insufficient to meet the market demand. With the expansion of planting areas, the formation of large-scale production areas, and the increase in planting years, diseases and insect pests of these medicinal plants, which are diverse and have broad transmission routes, strong concealment, and heavy damage, have become more and more serious. The prevention and control of these diseases and insect pests is characterized by multiple ways of pesticide application, large consumption of pesticides, susceptibility to soil barrier, difficulty in the control, and unstable control efficiency. Organophosphorus pesticides(OPPs) are widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants because of their diverse varieties, broad-spectrum, good efficacy, and low residues, and have a positive effect on the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials. However, the abuse of OPPs not only increases the planting cost, but also affects the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal plants, the safety of clinical use of Chinese medicine, and the ecological safety of production areas. This paper reviewed the research and development progress of OPPs, the registration status of OPPs used in root and rhizome medicinal materials, residue limit standards, residue status, and rapid detection technology progress of OPPs. This review aims to provide research ideas and references for standardizing the use of OPPs in root and rhizome medicinal materials, reducing OPP residues, and establishing a fast, efficient, accurate, and reliable method for the detection of OPP residues in Chinese herbal medicine.

Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2039-2049, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887780


Triptolide has wide clinical applications due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunosuppressive activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of blocking isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) translocation on the biosynthesis of triptolide by exogenously adding D,L-glyceraldehyde (DLG) to the suspension cells of Ttripterygium wilfordii at different stages (7 d, 14 d). Subsequently, the cell viability, biomass accumulation, triptolide contents, as well as the profiles of the key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide biosynthesis, were analyzed. The results showed that IPP translocation is involved in the biosynthesis of triptolide. IPP is mainly translocated from the plastid (containing the MEP pathway) to the cytoplasm (containing the MVA pathway) in the early stage of the culture, but reversed in the late stage. Blocking the translocation of IPP affected the expression of key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide, which in turn affected the accumulation of triptolide. Understanding the characteristics and mechanism of IPP translocation provides a theoretical basis for further promoting triptolide biosynthesis through synthetic biology.

Diterpenes , Epoxy Compounds , Hemiterpenes , Organophosphorus Compounds , Phenanthrenes
Univ. salud ; 22(3): 223-230, set.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1139843


Resumen Introducción: La intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas, asociada al suicidio, es un problema de salud pública cuyo estudio es primordial por los organismos estatales. Objetivo: Establecer la relación de intencionalidad en pacientes con intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas, junto a la descripción de algunas características sociodemográficas y de exposición registrados en un hospital de Ibagué desde 2013 a 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal retrospectivo en 137 registros notificados con intoxicación aguda por plaguicida según los códigos del CIE 10. Desarrollo de análisis estadístico descriptivo y estratificado para encontrar la asociación de características con la intencionalidad de la intoxicación. Resultados: El 50% de los casos correspondían a personas menores de 20 años; el 79,6% de las intoxicaciones tenían fines suicidas y se observó que el 45% realizaron un intento de suicidio previo; un nivel educativo alto correspondió a un bajo riesgo de envenenamiento intencional [OR=0,05; IC95% (0,01-0,56); p=0,01]. Conclusiones: Es necesaria la cooperación entre las autoridades en salud e instituciones públicas para implementar medidas de control y demás estrategias que prevengan las intoxicaciones con plaguicidas, particularmente la exposición voluntaria asociada al suicidio, fenómeno creciente en esta ciudad.

Abstract Introduction: Acute pesticide poisoning associated with suicide is a public health problem that requires special attention by state agencies. Objective: To establish the relationship of patient's intent with acute pesticide poisoning and describe some sociodemographic and exposure characteristics registered by a hospital in Ibagué (Colombia), from 2013 to 2016. Materials and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was conducted on 137 reports of acute pesticide poisoning that were registered according to ICD 10 codes. A descriptive and stratified statistical analysis was applied to establish the association between characteristics of poisoning intentionality. Results: 50% of the cases corresponded to people who were under 20 years of age. 79.6% of the poisonings were due to suicide attempt and 45% had had a previous attempt. A high educational level corresponded to a lower risk of intentional poisoning [OR=0.05; IC95% (0.01-0.56); p=0.01]. Conclusions: Cooperation between health care authorities and public institutions is necessary to implement measures and strategies in order to prevent acute pesticide poisoning events, especially those associated with suicide attempts, the frequency of which is growing in this city.

Pesticides , Toxic Substances , Organophosphorus Compounds , Suicide, Attempted , Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e169354, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122192


Trichlorfon (TRF) is a pesticide widely used in aquaculture to control fish ectoparasites. This pesticide is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an essential enzyme for termination of nerve impulses. High rates of TRF use generate risks to the environment and human health. In the environment, pesticides can affect the local fauna and generate an ecological breakdown. There are several studies performed with fish production; however, gaps are created for native fish with other commercial values. The tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) is a fish native to Brazilian fauna and has great commercial importance in sport fishing. The present study aimed to determine the lethal concentration of trichlorfon (Masoten) in Gymnotus carapo and its sublethal effects on the enzyme AChE. In this study, the acute toxicity (the concentrations to kill 50% of the fish LC50) of TRF in tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in liver and muscle tissue of tuviras submitted to sublethal concentrations were evaluated. For the acute assay, concentrations of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30, 37.5 and 45 mg L-1 were used for a period of 96 h. After the acute exposure period, a LC50 of 6.38 mg L-1 was determined. In the sublethal assay, concentrations of 0.0, 0.238, 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1 were used, based on 10% of the LC50, over a period of 14 days. Two collections were performed: one at seven days and the other at the end (day 14). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the liver was only shown (p < 0.05) for the treatment with 0.638 mg L-1 after 14 days of exposure. At seven days, muscle activity showed a significant difference only for the treatments 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1, compared with the treatment 0.238 mg L-1 and control. At 14 days of exposure, only the treatment 0.638 mg L-1 showed significant differences in relation to the other groups, thus showing that enzyme recovery had occurred. The value found in the acute test allowed the conclusion that TRF presents moderately toxic characteristics to Gymnotus carapo. The toxicity parameter values calculated in the present study assisted in estimation of maximum allowable limits in bodies of water when combined with test data from other non-target organisms.(AU)

O triclorfon (TRC) é um pesticida muito utilizado na aquicultura para o controle de ectoparasitos de peixes. Este pesticida é um inibidor da acetilcolinesterase, uma enzima essencial para a finalização de impulsos nervosos. As altas concentrações utilizadas de TRC geram riscos ao meio ambiente e à saúde humana. No ambiente, os pesticidas podem afetar a fauna local e gerar um colapso ecológico. Existem vários estudos com peixes de produção, no entanto, há lacunas para peixes nativos com outros valores comerciais. A tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) é um peixe nativo da fauna brasileira e possui grande importância comercial na pesca esportiva. O presente trabalho, delineado para determinar a concentração letal de triclorfon (Masoten) em Gymnotus carapo e seus efeitos subletais na enzima AChE, avaliou a toxicidade aguda (concentrações para matar 50% dos peixes CL50) do TRC em tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) e a inibição da acetilcolinesterase no fígado e tecido muscular de tuviras. Para o ensaio agudo, foram utilizadas concentrações de 0,0, 5,0, 7,5, 15, 22,5, 30, 37,5 e 45 mg L-1por um período de 96 horas. Após o período de exposição aguda, foi determinado uma CL50 de 6,38 mg L-1. No ensaio subletal, foram utilizadas concentrações de 0,0, 0,238, 0,438 e 0,638 mg L-1, com base em 10% do CL50, durante um período de catorze dias. Foram realizadas duas colheitas: uma aos sete dias e a outra ao final (décimo quarto dia). A inibição da acetilcolinesterase no fígado foi demonstrada apenas (p <0,05) para o tratamento com 0,638 mg L-1 após catorze dias de exposição. Aos sete dias, a atividade muscular mostrou diferença significativa apenas para os tratamentos 0,438 e 0,638 mg L-1, em comparação com o tratamento 0,238 mg L-1 e controle. Aos catorze dias de exposição, apenas o tratamento 0,638 mg L-1 apresentou diferenças significativas em relação aos demais grupos, demonstrando a recuperação enzimática. O valor encontrado no teste agudo permitiu concluir que o TRC apresenta características moderadamente tóxicas para Gymnotus carapo. Os valores dos parâmetros de toxicidade calculados no presente estudo permitiram o estabelecimento da estimativa dos limites máximos permitidos em corpos d'água quando combinados com dados de testes de outros organismos não-alvo.(AU)

Animals , Trichlorfon/toxicity , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Gymnotiformes , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Pesticides , Environmental Biomarkers
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 17(3): 141-153, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1058227


Resumen Introducción: El artículo reporta un caso clínico de intento suicida de un paciente con síndrome intermedio a causa de intoxicación por organofosforados. Para ello se analizó la historia clínica, los exámenes complementarlos y el estudio electromiográflco, y se realizó revisión no sistemática de la literatura. Presentación del caso: Se describe un caso diagnosticado en la unidad de cuidado intensivo, el cual presentó trastornos neuromotores, requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio con destete difícil y extubación fallida, así como el tratamiento médico y fisioterapéutico instaurado. Dentro del manejo de la intoxicación por organo-fosforados se incluye la descontaminación del tóxico, administración de atropina y pralidoxima, diagnóstico oportuno del síndrome intermedio y la prescripción de ejercicio terapéutico. El paciente recibió manejo interdisciplinario, logrando liberación de su condición crítica, pero con persistencia de debilidad muscular proximal; sin embargo, con el ejercicio alcanzó recuperación funcional de sus actividades básicas cotidianas. Conclusión: El panorama mundial de las intoxicaciones por sustancias químicas muestra que son causa de morbilidad y discapacidad importante. Los organofosforados son los plaguicidas más frecuentemente involucrados. Los síntomas y signos clínicos de este tipo de intoxicaciones se clasifican en manifestaciones colinérgicas, el síndrome intermedio y la neuropatía retardada.

Abstract Introduction: The article reports a clinical case of a suicide attempt of a patient with intermediate syndrome due to organophosphate poisoning. Researchers analyzed the clinical history and the complementary examinations and carried out an electro-myographic study and a non-systematic review of the literature. Case presentation: A diagnosed case is described in the unit of intensive care, which presented neuro-motor disorders, required ventilator support with difficult weaning and unsuccessful extubation, as well as the established medical and physiotherapeutic treatment. The management of organophosphate poisoning includes the decontamination of the toxic, the administration of atropine and pralidoxime, the diagnosis of the intermediate syndrome, and the prescription of therapeutic exercise. The patient received interdisciplinary management, achieving liberation from his critical condition but with the persistence of proximal muscular weakness; however, with the exercise, he accomplished functional recovery for basic daily activities. Conclusion: The global outlook of chemical substances poisoning shows that they are a cause of morbidity and significant disability. The organophosphates are the pesticides most frequently involved. The symptoms and the clinical signs of this type of intoxication are classified into cholinergic manifestations, intermediate syndrome, and delayed neuropathy.

Resumo Introdução: O artigo reporta um caso clínico de tentativa suicida de um paciente com síndrome intermeio a causa de intoxicação por organofosforados. Para isto, analisara-se história clínica, os exames complementários e o estudo eletromiográfico, e se realizou revisão não sistemática da literatura. Apresentação do caso: Descreve-se um caso diagnosticado na unidade de cuidado intensivo, o qual apresentou transtornos neuromotores, requerimento de suporte ventilatório com desmame difícil e extubação falhada, tanto como o tratamento médico e fisioterapéutico instaurado. Dentro do manejo da intoxicação por organofosforados se inclui a descontaminação do tóxico, administração de atropina e pralidoxima, diagnóstico oportuno da síndrome intermeia e a prescrição de exercício terapêutico. O paciente recebeu manejo interdisciplinar, conseguindo liberação de sua condição crítica, mas com persisténcia de debilidade muscular proximal; no entanto, com o exercício alcançou recuperação funcional de suas atividades básicas cotidianas. Conclusão: O panorama mundial das intoxicações por substâncias químicas mostra que são causa de morbilidade e deficiência importante. Os organofosforados são os pesticidas mais frequentemente envolvidos. Os sintomas e signos clínicos deste tipo de intoxicações classificam-se em manifestações colinérgicas, a síndrome intermeia e a neuropatia retardada.

Humans , Male , Adult , Organophosphorus Compounds , Poisoning , Polyneuropathies , Suicide, Attempted , Physical Therapy Modalities
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(1): 110-117, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002564


Resumen La intoxicación por organofosforados es de gran importancia en el campo de la medicina, debido a su uso frecuente en la actividad agrícola, las intoxicaciones producidas por estos agentes pueden ser ocupacionales, accidentales, y con mayor frecuencia por ingesta voluntaria. Una de las mayores repercusiones de los organofosforados es la inhibición del acetil colinesterasa, enzima encargada de hidrolizar el acetil colina. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la intoxicación aguda se deben a la estimulación de receptores muscarínicos y nicotínicos, entre ellas broncorrea, salivación, lagrimeo, broncoespasmo, defecación, emesis, miosis, entre otros. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante la historia clínica y examen físico, de manera adicional con la detección de los niveles en sangre eritrocitaria de acetil colinesterasa o de los metabolitos de los organofosforados. El manejo incluye la descontaminación del agente, la revisión del estado respiratorio y el acceso al soporte ventilatorio, posteriormente se procede con el tratamiento farmacológico que incluye el uso de la atropina, pralidoxima y diazepam. El presente artículo constituye una revisión bibliográfica sobre la intoxicación por organofosforados, sus manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento.

Abstract Organophosphorus poisoning is of great importance in the field of medicine due to its frequent use in agriculture, the poisoning by exposure to these agents can be occupational, accidental, and frequently due to voluntary intake. Organophosphorus' intake most notable effects are produced by the inhibition of the acetyl cholinesterase, responsible for hydrolyzing acetyl choline. Clinical manifestations of acute intoxication typically include bronchorrhea, salivation, lacrimation, bronchospasm, defecation, emesis, miosis, among others and they occur due to the stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Diagnosis is made through the interrogation and physical examination, in addition to the detection of acetyl cholinesterase levels or the organophosphates' metabolites in blood testing. Management includes decontamination of the agent, review of respiratory status and access to ventilatory support, followed by pharmacological treatment that includes the use of atropine, pralidoxime and diazepam. The present article constitutes a bibliographic review about the organopho sphorus intoxication, its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Acetylcholinesterase , Agricultural Zones , Organophosphate Poisoning/diagnosis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 837-842, maio-jun. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911544


The use of organophosphates has been recommended for fish, especially the trichlorfon to control parasites. Colossoma macropomum were exposed to trichlorfon during 96 hours and of total number of mucous cells decreased in the number of cells when compared to the control group. Glycoproteins acid, acid sulphated and neutral was identified in the gill epithelium. Neutra glycoprotein had a significant decrease between control and the sublethal concentration. Acid glycoprotein didn't have any significant difference between the groups exposed to the trichlorfon, compared to the control group. Sulfated acidic glycoprotein in the group exposed to the trichlorfon was noticed a reduction in number of mucosal cells acidic sulphated. The differences between density cell and production glycoprotein was a response of these cells after exposure to xenobiotic. The reduction of neutral, acid and sulphated acid glycoprotein in the MC of the gill epithelium Colossoma macropomum may affect gills epithelial surface protection by reducing the formation of an unstirred layer and enhance the ion loss.(AU)

A utilização de organofosforados tem sido recomendada em pisciculturas, principalmente o trichlorfon, para o controle de parasitoses. Colossoma macropomum foram expostos ao trichlorfon durante 96 horas, e o número total de células mucosas diminuiu no número de células quando comparado com o grupo controle. Glicoproteínas ácida, ácida sulfatada e neutra foram identificadas no epitélio branquial. Glicoproteína neutra teve uma diminuição significativa entre o controle e a concentração subletal. Glicoproteína ácida não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos expostos ao triclorfon, em comparação com o grupo controle. Glicoproteína ácida sulfatada no grupo exposto ao triclorfon teve uma redução no número de células da mucosa ácida sulfatada. As diferenças entre a densidade celular e a produção de glicoproteína foi uma resposta dessas células após exposição aos xenobióticos. A redução das glicoproteínas neutra, ácida e ácida sulfatada no epitélio branquial de Colossoma macropomum pode afetar a proteção da superfície, reduzindo a formação de uma camada de muco, e aumentar a perda de íons.(AU)

Animals , Fishes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/classification , Organophosphorus Compounds/chemical synthesis , Fisheries
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775192


BACKGROUND@#China has the world's largest tea plantation area in the world. To sustain high yields of the tea, multiple pesticides are used on tea crops to control pests. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used types of agricultural pesticides in China. As tea is a significant potential source of exposure to pesticide residues, the public concern has increased in relation to pesticide residues found in tea in China. The aim of the study was to estimate cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion for Chinese tea consumers to determine whether exposure to OP residues from tea infusion is a cause of health concern for tea consumers in China.@*METHODS@#OP residue data were obtained from the China National Monitoring Program on Food Safety (2013-2014), encompassing 1687 tea samples from 12 provinces. Tea consumption data were obtained from the China National Nutrient and Health Survey (2002), comprising 506 tea consumers aged 15-82 years. The transfer rates of residues from tea leaves into tea infusions were obtained from the literature. The relative potency factor (RPF) approach was used to estimate acute cumulative exposure to 20 OP residues from tea infusion using methamidophos as the index compound. Dietary exposure was calculated in a probabilistic way.@*RESULTS@#For tea consumers, the mean and the 99.9th percentile (P99.9) of cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion equalled 0.08 and 1.08 μg/kg bw/d. When compared with the acute reference dose (ARfD), 10 μg/kg bw/d for methamidophos, this accounts for 0.8 and 10.8% of the ARfD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Even when considering OP residues from vegetables, fruits and other foods, there are no health concerns based on acute dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion. However, it is necessary to strengthen the management of the OP pesticides used on tea in China to reduce the risk of chronic dietary exposure to OPs from tea infusion.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Dietary Exposure , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Risk Assessment , Methods , Tea , Chemistry , Young Adult
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1069-1074, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893095


The environment is negatively affected by the increasing accumulation of both natural and man-made waste and by-products. Organophosphorous pesticides -malathion, diazinon and methamidophos- are used worldwide in pest control. The aim of this report is to review the effects of organophosphates on the male reproductive tract of mice, rats and earthworms, and to evaluate their projection into the human population. Assessing failures in the male reproductive system is an excellent in vivo biomarker to determine the level of toxicity of suspected pollutants. In rodents organophosphates cause decreased testicular weight and sperm density, abnormal tubular plugging and increased teratozoospermia. In earthworms they cause a significant decrease in body weight and alter the spermatheca, with an initial significant increase in immature sperm followed by a significant decrease in sperm count with high frequency of metachromasia. Given the environmental impact of these pesticides -and their potential effects on human health-, international and regional organizations are warning about the correct handling and managing of these substances during work-related and domestic exposures and about their relation to water sources and food, placing a greater emphasis on the school children population due to its higher vulnerability, reduced detoxification capacity, and their endocrine and physiological effects.

El medio ambiente se ve afectado negativamente por la creciente acumulación de desechos y subproductos naturales y artificiales. Los plaguicidas organofosforados malatión, diazinón y metamidofos, son usados en todo el mundo en el control de plagas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los efectos de los organofosforados en el tracto reproductivo masculino de ratones, ratas y lombrices de tierra, y evaluar su proyección en la población humana. La evaluación de fallas en el sistema reproductor masculino es un excelente biomarcador in vivo para determinar el nivel de toxicidad de los contaminantes químicos. En roedores, los organofosforados causan disminución del peso testicular y de la densidad espermática, obstrucción tubular anormal y aumento de la teratozoospermia. En lombrices de tierra causan una disminución significativa en el peso corporal y alteran la espermateca, con un aumento inicial significativo en espermatozoides inmaduros, seguido de una disminución significativa en el recuento de espermatozoides con alta frecuencia de metacromasia. Dado el impacto medioambiental de estos plaguicidas y sus efectos potenciales en la salud humana, las organizaciones internacionales y regionales advierten sobre el manejo y uso correctos de estas sustancias durante exposiciones laborales y domésticas y sobre su relación con la contaminación de las fuentes de agua y alimentos, colocando énfasis en la población de niños en edad escolar, debido a su mayor vulnerabilidad, reducción de la capacidad de desintoxicación y sus efectos a nivel endocrino y fisiológico.

Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Pesticides/toxicity , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Oligochaeta , Organ Size/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Chile , Occupational Exposure
Rev. salud pública ; 19(3): 318-324, mayo-jun. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903110


RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar niveles de colinesterasa sérica en caficultores del departamento de Caldas y su asociación con factores demográficos y ocupacionales. Metodología Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, muestra de 1 098 agricultores del Alto Oriente y Centro Sur del Departamento de Caldas, por medio de una encuesta en la que se analizaron características del trabajador agrícola de tipo: sociodemográfico, ocupacional, clínicos y concentración de colinesterasa determinada con el método de Ellman. Resultados A nivel ocupacional, el 90,8 % de los agricultores refirió riesgo de exposición directa a plaguicidas. El 3,8 % de las determinaciones analíticas de colinesterasa fueron anormales, se relacionó que el 75,6 % de los agricultores preparan la mezcla del insecticida, el 22,2 % tienen una frecuencia de aplicación en el cultivo más de dos veces por semana, el 37,8 % no emplea ropa de protección durante la jornada de fumigación. El tiempo de la última aplicación fue dentro del rango de uno a diez días demostrando que a menor tiempo de aplicación del insecticida, se presenta mayor inhibición de la enzima. Los plaguicidas más reportados fueron los de tipo organofos-forado (58,6 %). Conclusiones El control de la exposición a plaguicidas se torna difícil porque la mayoría de trabajadores son de tipo informal. Se requiere fortalecer los programas de capacitación y campañas de sensibilización sobre los efectos de los plaguicidas en la salud, las medidas de higiene y seguridad en el trabajo. Los niveles bajos de colinesterasa sérica indican la absorción de una cantidad mínima de insecticidas inhibidores de la colinesterasa.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the levels of serum cholinesterase in coffee growers from the Caldas department and its association with demographic and labor factors. Methodology A descriptive study was carried out in a sample of 1 098 farmers from the Upper East and South Center of the Caldas department, through a survey that analyzed characteristics such as sociodemographic, labor, and clinical conditions, as well as cholinesterase levels, determined by Ellman's method. Results Regarding the occupational aspect, 90.8 % of farmers reported a risk of direct exposure to pesticides. 3.8 % of the analytical determinations of cholinesterase were abnormal, which was related to the fact that 75.6 % of the farmers themselves prepare the mixture of the insecticide, 22.2 % spread the insecticide over their crops more than twice a week, and 37.8 % do not wear protective clothing during the fumigation. The last fumigation was within the range of one to ten days, revealing that the shorter the time of application of the insecticide, the greater the inhibition of the enzyme. The most frequent pesticides were organophosphates (58.6 %). Conclusions Controlling pesticide exposure is difficult because most workers are self-employed. It is necessary to strengthen training programs and awareness campaigns regarding the effect of pesticides on health, as well as health and safety measures at the workplace. Low levels of serum cholinesterase indicate the absorption of a minimal amount of cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides.(AU)

Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds/adverse effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticide Exposure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Health Surveys , Colombia , Farmers
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(1): 48-57, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837853


Plottier y Senillosa son dos localidades contiguas que forman parte del área de producción agrícola del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, Patagonia Norte. Entre los plaguicidas más utilizados predominan las familias de neonicotinoides, carbamatos y organofosforados. El conocimiento de los niveles de estos compuestos en aguas superficiales y subterráneas se ha convertido en un tema de interés social debido a su posible impacto en el ambiente y la salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar niveles de residuos de plaguicidas en agua subterránea utilizada para bebida en zonas rurales de Plottier y Senillosa. Se analizaron carbamatos: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaril y organofosforados: clorpirifos, dimetoato, metidation, fenaminfos, triazofos, fosmet y metil azinfos, por cromatografía gaseosa (GC), en seis sitios de muestreo, durante la época de aplicación y no aplicación de insecticidas. No se detectaron residuos de los plaguicidas estudiados por el método analítico utilizado. El límite de detección fue 0,010 µg/L para organofosforados y 0,030 µg/L para carbamatos. Estos resultados indican que las buenas prácticas agrícolas aplicadas en la zona así como las características fsicoquímicas del suelo, su espesor y el contenido de materia orgánica y las propiedades fsicoquímicas de los plaguicidas estudiados son factores que contribuyen favorablemente a la calidad del agua de bebida de la población rural.

Plottier and Senillosa are two adjoining towns that belong to the agricultural production area of Upper Valley, Río Negro and Neuquén, North Patagonia. Among the most widely used pesticides, neonicotinoids, carbamates and organophosphates are predominant. The levels of these compounds in surface and groundwater have become a topic of public concern, since the possible impact on health and environment. The aim of this study was the determination of pesticide residue levels in drinking ground-water in the rural areas of Plottier and Senillosa. Carbamates: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaryl and organophosphate: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methidathion, fenaminfos, triazophos, phosmet, azinphos methyl, were analyzed by GC in six sampling sites during insecticide application and non-application season. No pesticide residues were detected by the analytical method used. The detection limit for organophosphates was 0.010 µg/L and 0.030 µg/L for carbamates. These results indicate that good agricultural practices, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil, its thickness, the content of organic matter and the physicochemical properties of pesticides studied are factors that positively contribute to the drinking water quality in the rural population.

Organophosphorus Compounds/isolation & purification , Pesticides/toxicity , Groundwater/analysis , Carbamates/isolation & purification , Carbamates/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Drinking Water , Chromatography, Gas/methods
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 205-211, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304727


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the potential protective effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mitoquinone (MitoQ) on post-thaw human sperm.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Semen samples were collected from 60 normal fertile men, each divided into six parts of equal volume to be incubated at 37 °C in normal saline (G0, control) or in the extender with 2 nmol/L (G1), 20 nmol/L (G2), 200 nmol/L (G3), 2 µmol/L (G4), and 20 µmol/L of MitoQ (G5). After one hour of incubation, the samples were subjected to computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) for sperm motility, flow cytometry for reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid assay for the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), and MitoTracker fluorescent staining and flow cytometry for the sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Then, the semen were cryopreserved with none (B0), 200 nmol/L (B1), and 2 µmol/L of MitoQ (B2), followed by detection of the changes in the ROS, MDA, and MMP of the post-thaw sperm.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The percentage of progressively motile sperm and total rate of sperm motility were significantly higher in G3 ([30.8 ± 10.2]% and [70.6 ± 9.0]%) and G4 ([32.7 ± 13.5]% and [70.3 ± 11.9]%) than in G0 ([17.6 ± 5.0]% and [54.9 ± 11.5]%) (P < 0.05). The level of ROS dropped markedly with the increased concentration of MitoQ, 86.5 ± 31.6 in G3, 93.6 ± 42.0 in G4, and 45.1 ± 15.0 in G5, as compared with 160.8 ± 39.7 in G0 (P < 0.05). The content of MDA was remarkably lower in G3 ([0.9 ± 0.5] µmol/mg) and G4 ([0.9 ± 0.5] µmol/mg) than in G0 ([1.9 ± 1.1] µmol/mg) (P < 0.05), but not in G5 ([1.7 ± 0.7] µmol/mg), which was even higher than in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05). The MMP showed a significant reduction in G5 (1156 ± 216) in comparison with G0 (1701 ± 251) (P < 0.05) but exhibited no remarkable difference between G0 and G1 (1810 ± 298), G2 (1995 ± 437), G3 (1950 ± 334), or G4 (1582 ± 314). The percentage of progressively motile sperm and total rate of sperm motility after freezing-thawing were significantly decreased as compared with those of the fresh semen (P < 0.01), but both were remarkably higher in B1 ([3.2 ± 2.3]% and [ 43.0 ± 9.5]%) than in B0 ([0.8 ± 0.6]% and [26.5 ± 11.4]%) (P < 0.05). The ROS level was significantly lower in B1 and B2 than in B0 (34.6 ± 12. 3 and 37.0 ± 10.5 vs 56.9 ± 14.3, P < 0.05), and so was the MDA content ([1.4 ± 0.5] and [1.4 ± 0.6] µmol/mg vs [2.6 ± 1.0] µmol/mg, P < 0.05), but the MMP was markedly higher in B1 and B2 than in B0 (1010.0 ± 130.5 and 880.6 ± 128.6 vs 721.1 ± 24.8, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Addition of MitoQ to the freezing extender at 200 nmol/L may effectively improve the quality of human sperm and MitoQ is a good protective addictive for human sperm cryopreservation.</p>

Antioxidants , Cryopreservation , Humans , Male , Malondialdehyde , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Semen , Semen Analysis , Semen Preservation , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Ubiquinone , Pharmacology
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 76(4): 431-437, oct.-dic.2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-781113


En el mundo existen millones de casos de intoxicaciones por inhibidores de la colinesterasa y miles de muertes por estas sustancias. Nuestro país no es escenario diferente. Actualmente se sigue estudiando cuáles son los regímenes más útiles y se debate algunas medidas de manejo hasta ahora muy utilizadas. La tendencia actual apunta a un tratamiento agresivo en vista que son muy raros los casos de eventos adversos severos que ponen en riesgo la vida producto del uso de fármacos como la atropina. En el Perú no hay investigación activa al respecto y solo se cuenta con una guía de manejo de intoxicaciones por organofosforados y carbamatos en niños elaborada por el Ministerio de Salud en el año 2005. Urge actualizar esta guía, ya que contiene conceptos que han cambiado en algunos casos de forma radical. El propósito de esta revisión es exponer brevemente la información actualizada más relevante sobre el manejo de estas intoxicaciones y finalmente sugerir recomendaciones para hacer modificaciones en la guía mencionada y a su vez hacer un llamado a las autoridades del Ministerio de Salud peruano para el desarrollo de una guía en adultos...

Millions of cases of cholinesterase inhibitors poisonings occur in the world and thousands of deaths by these substances are reported. Our country is not different scenario. The most useful treatment regimen is currently under research and some extensively used measures are on debate. The current trend is aggressive treatment as severe life-threatening adverse effects by drugs like atropine are very rare. In Peru there is no active research on this issue and only an organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in children treatment guide by the Ministry of Health in 2005 is available. It is urgent to update these guidelines, since they contain concepts that in some cases have radically changed due to current knowledge. The aim of this review is to briefly expose the most relevant updated information on treatment of these poisonings, to suggest evaluation of the mentioned guidelines, and to call attention of the Peruvian Ministry of Health authorities to develop guidelines for adults...

Humans , Atropine , Carbamates , Organophosphorus Compounds , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Pesticides
Acta toxicol. argent ; 23(3): 142-152, dic. 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837846


El clorpirifos (CPF) es un insecticida de amplio espectro que se utiliza en Argentina y en otros países de Latinoamérica. Se emplea para el control de plagas en la producción de frutas, hortalizas, cereales y plantas ornamentales. El principal mecanismo de acción descripto para este insecticida es la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. Sin embargo, reportes más recientes sugieren múltiples efectos del plaguicida independientes de la inhibición de esa enzima. El objetivo de este trabajo es transmitir a la comunidad los resultados de nuestras investigaciones obtenidos utilizando diferentes dosis de CPF en distintos modelos experimentales, tanto in vitro como in vivo. En relación a esto, hemos evidenciado una acción del CPF sobre el sistema redox celular que conduce al incremento de especies reactivas del oxígeno y consecuentemente a la activación de diferentes vías de señalización. Además, hemos determinado que el insecticida CPF puede comportarse como un disruptor endócrino modulando la acción de los estrógenos y alterando la normal estructura del tejido mamario. Nuestros resultados alertan sobre el impacto que este compuesto podría tener sobre la salud, sugiriendo la necesidad de revisar su uso dado que manifiesta acciones a dosis encontradas en el ambiente.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum insecticide used in Argentina and other Latin American countries. It is commonly used for pest control in the production of fruits, vegetables, cereals and ornamental plants. The main mechanism of action described for this insecticide is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, more recent reports suggest multiple effects for this pesticide in an independent way from the inhibition of this enzyme. The objective of this work is to convey to the community the results of our investigations obtained using different doses of CPF in various experimental models, both in vitro and in vivo. In this connection, we have shown a CPF action on the cellular redox system which leads to increased reactive oxygen species and the consequent activation of different signaling pathways. In addition, we have determined that the insecticide CPF acts as an endocrine disruptor modulating the action of estrogen and altering the normal structure of breast tissue. Our findings warn about the impact that this compound might have on health, suggesting the need to review its use since adverse actions were found at environmentally relevant doses.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Breast Neoplasms/chemically induced , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental , Neoplasm Metastasis/ultrastructure
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(4): 345-352, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764470


AbstractBackground:Prone imaging has been demonstrated to minimize diaphragmatic and breast tissue attenuation.Objectives:To determine the role of prone imaging on the reduction of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed, thus decreasing investigation time and radiation exposure.Methods:We examined 139 patients, 120 with an inferior wall and 19 with an anterior wall perfusion defect that might represented attenuation artifact. Post-stress images were acquired in both the supine and prone position. Coronary angiography was used as the “gold standard” for evaluating coronary artery patency. The study was terminated and rest imaging was obviated in the presence of complete improvement of the defect in the prone position. Quantitative interpretation was performed. Results were compared with clinical data and coronary angiographic findings.Results:Prone acquisition correctly revealed defect improvement in 89 patients (89/120) with inferior wall and 12 patients (12/19) with anterior wall attenuation artifact. Quantitative analysis demonstrated statistically significant difference in the mean summed stress scores (SSS) of supine and mean SSS of prone studies in patients with disappearing inferior wall defect in the prone position and patent right coronary artery (true negative results). The mean difference between SSS in supine and in prone position was higher with disappearing than with remaining defects.Conclusion:Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging with the patient in the prone position overcomes soft tissue attenuation; moreover it provides an inexpensive, accurate approach to limit the number of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed.

ResumoFundamento:Já foi demonstrado que a imagem na posição prona minimiza a atenuação dos tecidos diafragmáticos e da mama.Objetivos:Determinar o papel da imagem na posição prona na redução de estudos de perfusão em repouso e angiografias coronárias realizadas de forma desnecessária, assim diminuindo o tempo de investigação e exposição à radiação.Métodos:Foram examinados 139 pacientes, 120 com um defeito de perfusão da parede inferior e 19 com defeito de perfusão da parede anterior que pudessem representar um artefato de atenuação. Imagens pós-estresse foram adquiridas nas posições supina e prona. A angiografia coronária foi usada como o “padrão ouro” para avaliar a patência da artéria coronária. O estudo foi encerrado e a imagem em repouso não foi necessária na presença de melhoria completa do defeito na posição prona. Uma interpretação quantitativa foi realizada. Os resultados foram comparados com os dados clínicos e achados angiográficos.Resultados:A aquisição de imagem na posição prona revelou corretamente a melhoria do defeito em 89 pacientes (89/120) com artefato de atenuação na parede inferior e 12 pacientes (19/12) na parede anterior. A análise quantitativa demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significante nas somas dos escores de estresse (SSS) médios nos estudos da posição supina e SSS médios dos estudos na posição prona em pacientes com desaparecimento do defeito da parede inferior na posição prona e artéria coronária patente (resultados negativos verdadeiros). A diferença média dos SSS nas posições supina e prona foi maior com os defeitos desaparecidos do que com os que permaneceram.Conclusão:A cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com Tecnécio-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin com o paciente na posição prona supera a atenuação de tecidos moles; Além disso, oferece uma abordagem precisa e de baixo custo para limitar o número de estudos de perfusão em repouso e realização de angiografias coronárias desnecessárias.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Artifacts , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Prone Position , Patient Positioning/methods , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease , Exercise Test , Myocardial Infarction , Organophosphorus Compounds , Organotechnetium Compounds , Radiopharmaceuticals , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 33(1): 79-85, Junio 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000262


INTRODUCCIÓN: La ideación e intento de suicidio constituyen entidades emergentes para el profesional de la salud mental; la ingesta de organofosforados (OF) es una de las maneras más frecuentes de intoxicación debido a su disponibilidad y fácil acce-sibilidad en nuestro medio (Ecuador); es común que quienes recurren a estas sustancias con fines auto líticos lo hacen por vía oral. Encontrar que alguien utilice la vía parenteral con esta finalidad es poco frecuente y es escasa la literatura al respecto, motivo por el cual se considera de importancia la publicación del siguiente caso. OBJETIVO: Describir los aspectos psicopatológicos del paciente que presentó un intento de suicidio con uso de organofosforados administrados por vía parenteral. MÉTODO: revisión, presentación y análisis de caso clínico. RESULTADOS: El paciente de 32 años fue internado en el Hospital Homero Castanier Crespo de la ciudad de Azogues (Ecuador) tras la severidad de sus lesiones causadas por la administración parenteral de OF; la valoración del estado mental del pa-ciente llevó al diagnóstico de intento de suicidio psicodisplásico con trastorno del estado de ánimo y trastorno límite de la personalidad; fue diagnosticado además de absceso en miembro superior derecho y síndrome compartimental en miembro superior izquierdo, por lo que fue ne-cesaria la realización del drenaje y fasciotomía respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Los envenenamientos por plaguicidas como OF son los méto-dos más utilizados, se conoce que la ingesta de los OF es común, más no la administración parenteral como en el presente caso, que implicó un tratamiento tanto del área física y de la esfera mental.

INTRODUCTION: The ideation and attempted suicide are emer-ging entities for a mental health professional; the intake of organophosphate (OP) is one of the most common ways of poisoning due to their availability and easy accessibility in our country (Ecuador); it is common that people who use these substances, do auto lytic purposes orally. Find someone who uses the parenteral path for this purpose is rare and there is little literature on the subject, for this reason it is considered impor-tant the publication of the following case.OBJECTIVE: To describe the psychopathological aspects of the patient who had attempted suicide with use of organophosphate administered parenterally. METHOD:Review, presentation and analysis of the clinical case. RESULTS: The patient aged 32 was admitted to the Ho-mero Castanier Crespo Hospital in Azogues city (Ecuador) due to the severity of their injuries caused by the OP parenteral administration; the assessment of the patient's mental state led to a diagnosis of attempted psycho-dysplastic sui-cide with mood disorder and borderline perso-nality disorder; He was diagnosed in addition to abscess in the right arm and compartment syn-drome in the left upper limb, so the performan-ce was necessary drainage and fasciotomy res-pectively. CONCLUSION:The OP pesticide poisonings are the most used methods, it is known that the intake of the OP is common, but not parenteral administration as in the present case, which involved treatment of physical area and the mental sphere.

Humans , Male , Adult , Organophosphorus Compounds , Poisoning , Suicide, Attempted , Psychopathology , Mental Disorders , Anterior Compartment Syndrome
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 47(4): 159-164, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-797100


A utilização indiscriminada de agrotóxicos tem contribuído muito para o aumento das intoxicações ocupacionais em trabalhadores rurais que fazem aplicação dessas substâncias, tornando-se um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no âmbito rural. Entre os pesticidas mais utilizados estão os compostos organofosforados e os carbamatos, que são inibidores da acetilcolinesterase, enzima que atua no organismo humano como mediador químico. Intoxicações por esses compostos podem acarretar diversas alterações, sendo a principal e a de maior risco ao ser humano as de cunho neurológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o grau de intoxicação de agricultores do município de Chapada, RS, em decorrência do uso de agrotóxicos organofosforados,antes e após sua aplicação, através da determinação da atividade das enzimascolinesterase plasmática e eritrocitária. Foram determinados os níveis de ambas as colinesterases em 33 trabalhadores rurais, com faixa etária entre 19 e 67 anos, por método cinético e reação colorimétrica, respectivamente. Através das determinações pré e pós-exposição, observou-se que 23 (69,7%) dos indivíduos apresentavam diminuição da atividade enzimática da colinesterase plasmática e 10 (30,3%) da colinesterase eritrocitária, porém essas ainda se apresentaram dentro dos valores de normalidade, conforme a NR7 do Ministério do Trabalho, não sendo essa variação significativa e, portanto, não indicativa de intoxicação aguda relacionada à exposição ocupacional...

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Carbamates , Cholinesterases , Farmers , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Exposure , Poisoning
Med. UIS ; 27(3): 57-67, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743895


Introducción: según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, hay tres millones de casos al año por intoxicaciones con plaguicidas, de estas, una décima parte son letales. La mayoría de estas intoxicaciones ocurren en países del tercer mundo, a pesar que menos de un quinto de los plaguicidas disponibles son usados en estas regiones. Objetivo: describir la sintomatología clínica de las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas neurotóxicos prevalentes en la región Andina colombiana. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos como Medline (PubMed), Scielo y Latindex desde marzo a diciembre de 2013. Debido al objetivo de la presente revisión, los descriptores estrictamente utilizados fueron: mancozeb, profanofos, carbofurán, cymoxanil y parathion. La búsqueda obtenida comprendió aproximadamente 700 artículos, de los cuales fueron seleccionados 72 de acuerdo a los criterios de inclusión previamente definidos. Resultados: los efectos más prevalentes inducidos por los pesticidas estudiados son alteraciones en la salivación, lagrimeo, trastornos de la micción y la defecación, emesis, broncorrea, broncoespasmo, bradicardia, etc. Sin embargo, según el pesticida, existen implicaciones particulares ya sea de tipo endocrino, inmunológico o neoplásico. Conclusión: las manifestaciones clínicas de la toxicidad aguda se dan por un exceso de estimulación colinérgica, sin embargo es relevante continuar investigando la fisiopatología molecular de su intoxicación. MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(3):57-67.

Introduction: according to the World Health Organization, there are three million cases per year related to pesticide poisoning, of these, one-tenth are lethal. Most of these poisonings occur in third-world countries, even when there are less than a fifth of them available in these regions. Objective: to describe clinical symptoms of poisoning caused by prevalent neurotoxic pesticides in Colombian Andes. Materials and Methods: a systematic review was performed in databases such as Medline (PubMed), SciELO and Latindex from March to December 2013. Descriptors used were mancozeb, profanofos, carbofuran, parathion and cymoxanil. The review obtained 700 articles from which 72 were selected according to the inclusion criteria previously defined. Results: the effects induced by these pesticides are changes in salivation, lacrimation, abnormal urination and defecation, emesis, broncorrea, bronchospasm, bradycardia, etc. However, according to the pesticide, there are particular implications either endocrine, immune or neoplastic. Conclusion: clinical manifestations of acute toxicity occur by excessive cholinergic stimulation. However, it is important to continue researching the molecular pathophysiology of this kind of intoxications. MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(3):57-67.

Humans , Male , Female , Organophosphorus Compounds , Toxicology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes
Med. UIS ; 27(2): 41-49, mayo-ago. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-729463


Introducción: los plaguicidas son agentes tóxicos para la salud humana. En el año 2000, Colombia era el país latinoamericano con la mayor prevalencia de intoxicaciones por pesticidas. Samacá es uno de los municipios caracterizados por su alta producción agrícola, en donde se desconoce la correlación entre la exposición directa a plaguicidas neurotóxicos y la presencia de sintomatología específica. Objetivo: determinar la presencia de sintomatología neurológica compatible con la exposición a plaguicidas usados en los cultivos de Samacá, Boyacá. Materiales y Métodos: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal con muestreo por conveniencia de casos consecutivos. Como muestra se encuestaron 49 habitantes, por medio de un instrumento de evaluación toxicológica. Se realizó la descripción de variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de la población. Para la determinación de la asociación entre plaguicidas y síntomas, se usaron razones de prevalencia con un IC del 95%. Resultados: el 38,77% de la población encuestada reportó exposición directa a plaguicidas neurotóxicos. Se encontraron razones de prevalencia que proponían asociación para irritabilidad (RP 1,78 IC 95% 1,13-2,83; p=0,01), vértigo (RP 2,28 IC 95% 1,07-4,86; p=0,02), fosfenos (RP 2,61 IC 95% 1,03-6,64; p=0,03), epistaxis (RP 2,90 IC 95% 1,01-8,34; p=0,03), fasciculaciones, (RP 8,70 IC 95% 1,13-66,94; p=0,01) y en general por sistemas, para órganos de los sentidos (RP 1,45 IC 95% 1,05-2,00; p=0,03). Conclusiones: la irritabilidad, el vértigo, los fosfenos y los episodios de epistaxis están asociados a la exposición directa a plaguicidas neurotóxicos. Se hace necesaria una nueva visita para completar la muestra y futuros estudios que permitan ampliar el panorama neurotoxicológico colombiano. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):41-49).

Background: pesticides are toxic agents to humans. In 2000, Colombia was the Latin American country with the highest prevalence of pesticide poisoning. Samacá is one of the municipalities characterized by high agricultural production, where there is no known association between direct exposure to neurotoxic pesticides and the presence of specific symptoms. Objective: to determine the presence of neurological symptoms compatible with exposure to pesticides commonly used on crops among the inhabitants of Samacá, Boyacá. Materials and Methods: observational cross-sectional analytical study with nonrandom sampling of consecutive cases. Preliminary sample included 49 individuals, who were surveyed using a toxicological assessment tool. It was described all sociodemographic and clinical variables of the population. For the study of the association between pesticides and symptoms, prevalence ratios were used with CI 95%. Results: 38.77% reported direct exposure to neurotoxic pesticides. Prevalence ratios found association for irritability (OR 1.78 95% CI 1.13 to 2.83; p=0.01), dizziness (OR 2.28 95% CI 1.07 to 4.86; p=0.02), phosphenes (RP 2.61 95 % 1.03 to 6.64; p=0.03), epistaxis (OR 2.90 95% CI 1.01 to 8.34; p=0.03), fasciculations, (RP 8.70 IC95% 1.13-66.94; p=0.01), and special senses symptoms (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.05 to 2.00; p=0.03). Conclusions: Irritability, vertigo, phosphenes and episodes of epistaxis are associated with direct exposure to neurotoxic pesticides. It is necessary a new visit to complete the sample, and future studies to expand the neurotoxicological situation. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):41-49).

Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Ecotoxicology , Neurologic Manifestations