Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 354
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935777


Objective: To explore the clinical characterist ics and risk factors of hemorrhage complicated by hemoperfusion therapy in patients with acute poisoning. Methods: In January 2021, the clinical data of 196 patients with acute poisoning who received hemoperfusion therapy in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University from January 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed, and the patients were divided into bleeding group and non-bleeding group according to whether the patients were complicated with bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors for hemorrhage in patients treated with hemoperfusion. Results: A total of 21 patients in the bleeding group and 175 patients in the non-bleeding group were included. There was no significant difference in general data such as gender, age, and body mass index between the two groups (P>0.05) . Organophosphorus pesticides (χ(2)= 4.56, P=0.030) , HA230 perfusion device (χ(2)=4.12, P=0.042) , platelet count (t=-2.33, P=0.009) and activated partial thromboplastin time (t=14.53, P<0.001) at 2 h of perfusion were the influencing factors of hemorrhage in patients with acute poisoning treated with hemoperfusion. Among them, organophosphorus pesticides, 2 h perfusion activated partial thromboplastin time ≥35 s and other factors were independent risk factors forcomplicated bleeding (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning, especially organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, are at greater risk of bleeding during hemoperfusion therapy. Monitoring of changes in activated partial thromboplastin time should be strengthened and the dose of anticoagulants should be adjusted in time to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Humans , Hemoperfusion , Hemorrhage/therapy , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Poisoning/therapy , Risk Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928073


The demand for Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the dry root of Angelica sinensis, has been increasing year by year. However, the continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, overuse of chemical pesticides, excessive pesticide residues and other problems in Angelicae Sinensis Radix production have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the common diseases and pests attacking Angelica sinensis as well as the detection methods and characteristics of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix from 2002 to 2021. Additionally, we compared the limit standards of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix in and out of China and put forward suggestions for the high-quality and green development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry conside-ring the existing problems. The pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have been changing from organochlorines to organophosphorus pesticides. In recent years, some organophosphorus pesticides such as phorate, phoxim, isofenphos-methyl, phorate-sulfoxide, fenamiphos, isocarbophos, omethoate, and triazophos in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have seriously exceeded the standards. The detection methods of pesticide residues has evolved from chromatography to high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and some new detection techniques such as immunoassay have also been applied. Pesticide residues have become a primary factor that restricting the development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry. Therefore, moderate application of pesticides, establishment of ecological planting system, and strict limit standards of pesticide residues are necessary to solve the pesticide residue problem.

Angelica sinensis/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927943


A total of 33 pesticides have been banned from Chinese medicinal materials and decoction pieces(plants) according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). According to the chemical structures, they are mainly divided into seven categories: organophosphorus compounds, organochlorines, carbamates, amidines, sulfonylureas, phenylpyrazoles, and ethers. These banned pesticides exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, immune system toxicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis, seriously damaging human and animal health. They affect not only the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines and resulting products, but also their competitiveness in the international market. Due to the numerous varieties of traditional Chinese medicines and their complex substrates, it is necessary to establish a universal and highly sensitive method for pesticide residue detection. This review systematically summarized the residual status, toxicity, and analytical methods of banned pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines, and forecasted the prospects of different analytical techniques, so as to provide reference for further safety and risk assessment of banned pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines, thus ensuring the safe production of traditional Chinese medicines.

Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 99-107, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153067


This study evaluated the most common toxic agents affecting domestic cats, the clinical signs of toxicity, and the therapeutic approaches for recovery. A survey on poisoning in cats was conducted among small animal veterinary practitioners from 2017 to 2018. Of the 748 completed questionnaires, 543 (72.6%) were evaluated. Pesticides and household cleaning supplies were the most common causes of poisoning in cats. The toxicant groups included pesticides and household cleaning supplies (organophosphates), human drugs (acetaminophen), plants/plant derivatives (lily), and veterinary drugs (tramadol). The major clinical signs for these four groups of toxicants were (1) acetaminophen poisoning, which caused oxidative erythrocyte damage; (2) muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic syndrome, which resulted from organophosphate poisoning; (3) acute kidney injury, which resulted from intoxication of lily; and (4) serotonin syndrome, which resulted from tramadol toxicosis. Interventions for treating poisoning in cats were based on the clinical presentation of animals. In the present study, the significant toxins identified to be dangerous for cats were characterized using the obtained data in Brazil as well as the main associated clinical signs and therapy recommended by veterinarians.(AU)

Objetiva-se com este trabalho caracterizar os principais toxicantes para gatos domésticos, bem como os prevalentes sinais clínicos e a terapêutica associada. Uma pesquisa sobre envenenamento em gatos foi realizada entre médicos veterinários no período de 2017 a 2018. Dos 748 questionários preenchidos, 543 (72,6%) foram avaliados. Pesticidas e domissanitários foram os principais causadores de intoxicação em gatos. Entre os grupos tóxicos, destacaram-se, na categoria pesticidas e domissanitários (organofosforados), medicamentos humanos (acetaminofeno), plantas e derivados de planta (lírio) e medicamentos veterinários (tramadol). Os principais sinais clínicos para os quatro grupos de substâncias tóxicas foram: (1) intoxicação por acetaminofeno, que causou dano eritrocitário oxidativo; (2) síndrome colinérgica muscarínica e nicotínica, resultante do envenenamento por organofosforado; (3) lesão renal aguda, causada pela intoxicação por lírio; e (4) síndrome serotoninérgica, resultante da exposição ao tramadol. As intervenções realizadas para o tratamento dos envenenamentos foram justificáveis mediante a apresentação clínica dos animais. Por meio dos dados obtidos, puderam-se caracterizar os principais tóxicos para gatos no Brasil, bem como os principais sinais clínicos associados e a terapêutica preconizada pelos médicos veterinários.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Poisoning/etiology , Poisoning/veterinary , Tramadol/toxicity , Lilium/toxicity , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Serotonin Agents/toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Muscarinic Antagonists/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396688


A guanitoxina (GNT) é uma neurotoxina produzida por algumas cepas de cianobactérias dos gêneros Dolichospermum e Sphaerospermopsis>. A GNT é o único organofosforado natural, capaz de causar a morte de animais selvagens e domésticos devido à inibição irreversível da acetilcolinesterase. Apesar de sua alta toxicidade, o diagnóstico da GNT em amostras biológicas ainda é um grande desafio. A dificuldade para sua detecção está diretamente ligada à sua instabilidade em altas temperaturas e pH alcalino, tornando difícil seu monitoramento em corpos d'água. Por isso, esta pesquisa objetivou estudar a estabilidade e biodisponibilidade da GNT em amostras aquosas, com intuito de obter mais informações sobre a natureza química e biológica dessa potente neurotoxina. Para realizar este estudo, a cepa ITEP-24 (S. torques-reginae) produtora de GNT foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas, para obter biomassa para os experimentos de extração, semi-isolamento, estabilidade, ensaio in vitro e identificação por LC-MS/MS. Primeiramente foram realizados testes de extração da GNT partir de células liofilizadas da cepa ITEP-24 utilizando água, metanol e etanol em pH ácido. Depois utilizou-se dois métodos de extração em fase sólida (SPE) com cartuchos preenchidos com fases estacionarias C18 em fase reversa e sílica gel em fase normal, com objetivo de avaliar qual método de SPE seria melhor para extrair e concentrar a GNT. Nós também testamos métodos para lisar as células com sondas de ultrassom, misturador e centrifugação. Além dos métodos de extração, nós avaliamos a estabilidade da toxina em diferentes temperaturas, para isso a biomassa seca contendo a GNT ficou condicionada a 4 °C, 23 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C durantes seis meses, e análises de identificação foram realizadas dentro período de 150 dias em uma sequência de 30 dias. A estabilidade da toxina foi analisada também a partir de extrações em soluções com diferentes valores de pH (1,5; 3,0; 5,0; 7,0; 8,5; 10,5) e temperatura (23 ºC e 37 ºC). Depois, analisou-se a biodisponibilidade da GNT em células frescas da linhagem ITEP-24 através de teste de dissolução in vitro. O objetivo deste teste foi avaliar a liberação da toxina intracelular em meio simulado do conteúdo gástrica e intestinal com e sem enzimas digestivas para compreender e estimar a disponibilidade da GNT in vivo. Os resultados de todos experimentos descritos neste estudo, foram obtidos a partir de análises por cromatografia líquida de interação hidrofílica (HILIC) acoplado ao espectrômetro de massas do tipo triplo quadrupolo LC-QqQ-MS/MS utilizando as transições 253>58, 253>159 e 159>58 [M+H]+ utilizando coluna com fase estacionária zwitteriônica (ZIC). A identificação da GNT foi realizada também por cromatografia líquida acoplada ao espectrômetro de massas de alta resolução (LC-HR-QTOF-MS) com coluna Luna C18, Hydro-RP C18 e ZIC-HILIC. Dos protocolos de extração testados, a combinação de metanol/água (70:30 v/v) com ácido acético (0.3%) extraiu maior quantidade relativa da GNT a partir de células frescas e liofilizadas da cepa ITEP-24 e a concentração da toxina foi maior em amostras de células frescas. Em relação aos métodos de lise celular, as extrações realizadas em sonda de ultrassom com banho-maria e centrifugação por 1h foram estatisticamente significantes para liberar a toxina intracelular. Não houve diferença significativa entre os testes de SPE, no entanto, a semipurificação da toxina foi melhor com cartucho preenchido com sílica gel em fase normal e adaptação desse método em coluna aberta permitiu obter uma fração enriquecida com GNT. A GNT mostrou ser mais estável em pH ácido, sendo o pH 3,0 o melhor para manter e extrair a toxina em amostras aquosas e a toxina intracelular presente em células secas podem degradar em temperatura de 23 °C por um período de 150 dias mesmo em solução com pH 3,0. Durante os testes de extração e purificação foi observado também a degradação da toxina em processos de secagem e ressuspensão. As análises realizadas no LC-HR-QTOF-MS com diferentes métodos cromatográficos possibilitou a identificação da GNT, porém o método realizado com coluna ZIC-HILIC mostrou melhor resolução cromatográfica dos picos relativos m/z e tempo de retenção de toxina. Os resultados obtidos nos testes de dissolução in vitro mostraram que a GNT fica mais disponível no simulado gástrico com e sem a enzima pepsina, mas também pode ser absorvida no intestino. Portanto, o teste de dissolução in vitro pode ser uma ferramenta útil para a avaliação de risco de cianotoxinas in vivo, devido ao seu potencial de monitorar qualitativa e quantitativamente substâncias dissolvidas em fluidos gastrointestinais. Os resultados apresentados neste estudo fornecem informações valiosas para uma melhor compreensão da estabilidade e biodisponibilidade do GNT. Além disso, os métodos apresentados neste estudo podem ser úteis para diversas aplicações projetadas para identificar a toxina em amostras ambientais, bem como orientações para procedimentos de purificação da GNT

Guanitoxin (GNT) is a neurotoxin produced by some strains of cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum and Sphaerospermopsis. GNT is the only natural organophosphate, capable of causing the death of animals from wild and domestic animals due to irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Despite its high toxicity, the diagnosis of GNT in biological samples is still a significant challenge. The difficulty in its detection is directly linked to its instability at high temperatures and alkaline pH, making it difficult to monitor in bodies of water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the stability and bioavailability of GNT in aqueous samples to provide more information about the chemical and biological nature of this molecule. The strain ITEP-24 (S. torques-reginae) producing GNT was grown in the laboratory under controlled conditions to obtain biomass for the extraction, semi-isolation, stability, in vitro tests, and toxin identification by LC-MS/MS. Firstly, tests were carried out to extract GNT from lyophilized cells strain ITEP-24 using water, methanol, and ethanol at acidic pH and, two SPE methods in cartridges with stationary phases of C18 reverse phase and normal phase gel silica, to evaluate which would be better to extract and concentrate the GNT. We also tested different methods of cell lysis, such as ultrasound probes, mixers, and centrifugation. In addition to the extraction methods, the stability of the toxin was evaluated at different temperatures, for this, the dry biomass containing the toxin was conditioned at 4 °C, 23 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C for 150 days and analysis of the identification of the GNT was carried out within that period in a sequence of 30 days. The toxin stability was also analyzed from extractions in solutions with different pH values (1.5; 3.0; 5.0; 7.0; 8.5; 10.5) and temperature (23 ºC and 37 ºC). In addition, we performed dissolution tests with fresh cells of the ITEP-24 strain to evaluate the bioavailability of GNT in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without digestive enzymes to understand and estimate the availability of GNT in vivo. The results of all experiments described in this study were obtained from analyzes by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to the LC-QqQ-MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using the transitions m/z 253> 58, m/z 253> 159 and m/z 159> 58 [M + H]+ using a column with the zwitterionic stationary phase (ZIC). Liquid chromatography coupled to the high-resolution mass spectrometer (LC-HR-QTOF-MS) with Luna column C18, Hydro-RP C18, and ZIC-HILIC carried out the identification of the GNT. From the extraction protocols tested, the combination of methanol/water (70:30 v/v) with acetic acid (0.3%) extracted a greater relative amount of GNT from fresh and lyophilized ITEP-24 cells, and the concentration of the toxin is higher previously fresh. Concerning cellular methods, the ultrasound probe with a water bath and centrifugation for 1h ware statistically significant to release the intracellular toxin. There was no significant difference between the SPE tests. However, the semi-purification of the toxin was better with a cartridge filled with gel silica in the normal phase and adaptation of this method in an open column allowed to obtain a fraction enriched with GNT. GNT was more stable at acid pH, with pH 3.0 being the best to maintain and the intracellular toxin present in dry cells can degrade at a temperature at 23 °C for 150 days even in pH 3.0 solution. The toxin can also hydrolyze in the drying and resuspension processes. The analyzes carried out in LC-HR-QTOF-MS with different chromatographic methods made it possible to identify the GNT itself, however, the ZIC-HILIC column method showed excellent chromatographic resolution of the relative m/z peaks and toxin retention time. The results obtained in the in vitro dissolution tests showed that GNT is more available in the gastric simulation with and without the enzyme pepsin, but it can also be absorbed in the intestine. Thus, in vitro dissolution tests can be used as a useful tool for the risk assessment of cyanotoxins in vivo due to their potential to qualitatively and quantitatively monitor substances dissolved in gastrointestinal fluids. The results presented in this study provide valuable information for a better understanding of the stability and bioavailability of GNT. Besides, the methods presented in this study can be useful for various applications designed to identify the toxin in environmental samples, as well as guidance on procedures for purifying GNT

Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Diagnosis , Methods , Organophosphorus Compounds/antagonists & inhibitors , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2039-2049, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887780


Triptolide has wide clinical applications due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunosuppressive activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of blocking isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) translocation on the biosynthesis of triptolide by exogenously adding D,L-glyceraldehyde (DLG) to the suspension cells of Ttripterygium wilfordii at different stages (7 d, 14 d). Subsequently, the cell viability, biomass accumulation, triptolide contents, as well as the profiles of the key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide biosynthesis, were analyzed. The results showed that IPP translocation is involved in the biosynthesis of triptolide. IPP is mainly translocated from the plastid (containing the MEP pathway) to the cytoplasm (containing the MVA pathway) in the early stage of the culture, but reversed in the late stage. Blocking the translocation of IPP affected the expression of key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide, which in turn affected the accumulation of triptolide. Understanding the characteristics and mechanism of IPP translocation provides a theoretical basis for further promoting triptolide biosynthesis through synthetic biology.

Diterpenes , Epoxy Compounds , Hemiterpenes , Organophosphorus Compounds , Phenanthrenes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921692


The medicinal plants with roots and rhizomes as the medicinal parts account for about 1/3 of Chinese medicinal herbs. Root and rhizome medicinal materials are widely used in clinical practice, whereas their wild resource reserves are insufficient to meet the market demand. With the expansion of planting areas, the formation of large-scale production areas, and the increase in planting years, diseases and insect pests of these medicinal plants, which are diverse and have broad transmission routes, strong concealment, and heavy damage, have become more and more serious. The prevention and control of these diseases and insect pests is characterized by multiple ways of pesticide application, large consumption of pesticides, susceptibility to soil barrier, difficulty in the control, and unstable control efficiency. Organophosphorus pesticides(OPPs) are widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants because of their diverse varieties, broad-spectrum, good efficacy, and low residues, and have a positive effect on the yield and quality of Chinese medicinal materials. However, the abuse of OPPs not only increases the planting cost, but also affects the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal plants, the safety of clinical use of Chinese medicine, and the ecological safety of production areas. This paper reviewed the research and development progress of OPPs, the registration status of OPPs used in root and rhizome medicinal materials, residue limit standards, residue status, and rapid detection technology progress of OPPs. This review aims to provide research ideas and references for standardizing the use of OPPs in root and rhizome medicinal materials, reducing OPP residues, and establishing a fast, efficient, accurate, and reliable method for the detection of OPP residues in Chinese herbal medicine.

Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome/chemistry
Univ. salud ; 22(3): 223-230, set.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1139843


Resumen Introducción: La intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas, asociada al suicidio, es un problema de salud pública cuyo estudio es primordial por los organismos estatales. Objetivo: Establecer la relación de intencionalidad en pacientes con intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas, junto a la descripción de algunas características sociodemográficas y de exposición registrados en un hospital de Ibagué desde 2013 a 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal retrospectivo en 137 registros notificados con intoxicación aguda por plaguicida según los códigos del CIE 10. Desarrollo de análisis estadístico descriptivo y estratificado para encontrar la asociación de características con la intencionalidad de la intoxicación. Resultados: El 50% de los casos correspondían a personas menores de 20 años; el 79,6% de las intoxicaciones tenían fines suicidas y se observó que el 45% realizaron un intento de suicidio previo; un nivel educativo alto correspondió a un bajo riesgo de envenenamiento intencional [OR=0,05; IC95% (0,01-0,56); p=0,01]. Conclusiones: Es necesaria la cooperación entre las autoridades en salud e instituciones públicas para implementar medidas de control y demás estrategias que prevengan las intoxicaciones con plaguicidas, particularmente la exposición voluntaria asociada al suicidio, fenómeno creciente en esta ciudad.

Abstract Introduction: Acute pesticide poisoning associated with suicide is a public health problem that requires special attention by state agencies. Objective: To establish the relationship of patient's intent with acute pesticide poisoning and describe some sociodemographic and exposure characteristics registered by a hospital in Ibagué (Colombia), from 2013 to 2016. Materials and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was conducted on 137 reports of acute pesticide poisoning that were registered according to ICD 10 codes. A descriptive and stratified statistical analysis was applied to establish the association between characteristics of poisoning intentionality. Results: 50% of the cases corresponded to people who were under 20 years of age. 79.6% of the poisonings were due to suicide attempt and 45% had had a previous attempt. A high educational level corresponded to a lower risk of intentional poisoning [OR=0.05; IC95% (0.01-0.56); p=0.01]. Conclusions: Cooperation between health care authorities and public institutions is necessary to implement measures and strategies in order to prevent acute pesticide poisoning events, especially those associated with suicide attempts, the frequency of which is growing in this city.

Pesticides , Toxic Substances , Organophosphorus Compounds , Suicide, Attempted , Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e169354, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122192


Trichlorfon (TRF) is a pesticide widely used in aquaculture to control fish ectoparasites. This pesticide is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an essential enzyme for termination of nerve impulses. High rates of TRF use generate risks to the environment and human health. In the environment, pesticides can affect the local fauna and generate an ecological breakdown. There are several studies performed with fish production; however, gaps are created for native fish with other commercial values. The tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) is a fish native to Brazilian fauna and has great commercial importance in sport fishing. The present study aimed to determine the lethal concentration of trichlorfon (Masoten) in Gymnotus carapo and its sublethal effects on the enzyme AChE. In this study, the acute toxicity (the concentrations to kill 50% of the fish LC50) of TRF in tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in liver and muscle tissue of tuviras submitted to sublethal concentrations were evaluated. For the acute assay, concentrations of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30, 37.5 and 45 mg L-1 were used for a period of 96 h. After the acute exposure period, a LC50 of 6.38 mg L-1 was determined. In the sublethal assay, concentrations of 0.0, 0.238, 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1 were used, based on 10% of the LC50, over a period of 14 days. Two collections were performed: one at seven days and the other at the end (day 14). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the liver was only shown (p < 0.05) for the treatment with 0.638 mg L-1 after 14 days of exposure. At seven days, muscle activity showed a significant difference only for the treatments 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1, compared with the treatment 0.238 mg L-1 and control. At 14 days of exposure, only the treatment 0.638 mg L-1 showed significant differences in relation to the other groups, thus showing that enzyme recovery had occurred. The value found in the acute test allowed the conclusion that TRF presents moderately toxic characteristics to Gymnotus carapo. The toxicity parameter values calculated in the present study assisted in estimation of maximum allowable limits in bodies of water when combined with test data from other non-target organisms.(AU)

O triclorfon (TRC) é um pesticida muito utilizado na aquicultura para o controle de ectoparasitos de peixes. Este pesticida é um inibidor da acetilcolinesterase, uma enzima essencial para a finalização de impulsos nervosos. As altas concentrações utilizadas de TRC geram riscos ao meio ambiente e à saúde humana. No ambiente, os pesticidas podem afetar a fauna local e gerar um colapso ecológico. Existem vários estudos com peixes de produção, no entanto, há lacunas para peixes nativos com outros valores comerciais. A tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) é um peixe nativo da fauna brasileira e possui grande importância comercial na pesca esportiva. O presente trabalho, delineado para determinar a concentração letal de triclorfon (Masoten) em Gymnotus carapo e seus efeitos subletais na enzima AChE, avaliou a toxicidade aguda (concentrações para matar 50% dos peixes CL50) do TRC em tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) e a inibição da acetilcolinesterase no fígado e tecido muscular de tuviras. Para o ensaio agudo, foram utilizadas concentrações de 0,0, 5,0, 7,5, 15, 22,5, 30, 37,5 e 45 mg L-1por um período de 96 horas. Após o período de exposição aguda, foi determinado uma CL50 de 6,38 mg L-1. No ensaio subletal, foram utilizadas concentrações de 0,0, 0,238, 0,438 e 0,638 mg L-1, com base em 10% do CL50, durante um período de catorze dias. Foram realizadas duas colheitas: uma aos sete dias e a outra ao final (décimo quarto dia). A inibição da acetilcolinesterase no fígado foi demonstrada apenas (p <0,05) para o tratamento com 0,638 mg L-1 após catorze dias de exposição. Aos sete dias, a atividade muscular mostrou diferença significativa apenas para os tratamentos 0,438 e 0,638 mg L-1, em comparação com o tratamento 0,238 mg L-1 e controle. Aos catorze dias de exposição, apenas o tratamento 0,638 mg L-1 apresentou diferenças significativas em relação aos demais grupos, demonstrando a recuperação enzimática. O valor encontrado no teste agudo permitiu concluir que o TRC apresenta características moderadamente tóxicas para Gymnotus carapo. Os valores dos parâmetros de toxicidade calculados no presente estudo permitiram o estabelecimento da estimativa dos limites máximos permitidos em corpos d'água quando combinados com dados de testes de outros organismos não-alvo.(AU)

Animals , Trichlorfon/toxicity , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Gymnotiformes , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Pesticides , Environmental Biomarkers
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 17(3): 141-153, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1058227


Resumen Introducción: El artículo reporta un caso clínico de intento suicida de un paciente con síndrome intermedio a causa de intoxicación por organofosforados. Para ello se analizó la historia clínica, los exámenes complementarlos y el estudio electromiográflco, y se realizó revisión no sistemática de la literatura. Presentación del caso: Se describe un caso diagnosticado en la unidad de cuidado intensivo, el cual presentó trastornos neuromotores, requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio con destete difícil y extubación fallida, así como el tratamiento médico y fisioterapéutico instaurado. Dentro del manejo de la intoxicación por organo-fosforados se incluye la descontaminación del tóxico, administración de atropina y pralidoxima, diagnóstico oportuno del síndrome intermedio y la prescripción de ejercicio terapéutico. El paciente recibió manejo interdisciplinario, logrando liberación de su condición crítica, pero con persistencia de debilidad muscular proximal; sin embargo, con el ejercicio alcanzó recuperación funcional de sus actividades básicas cotidianas. Conclusión: El panorama mundial de las intoxicaciones por sustancias químicas muestra que son causa de morbilidad y discapacidad importante. Los organofosforados son los plaguicidas más frecuentemente involucrados. Los síntomas y signos clínicos de este tipo de intoxicaciones se clasifican en manifestaciones colinérgicas, el síndrome intermedio y la neuropatía retardada.

Abstract Introduction: The article reports a clinical case of a suicide attempt of a patient with intermediate syndrome due to organophosphate poisoning. Researchers analyzed the clinical history and the complementary examinations and carried out an electro-myographic study and a non-systematic review of the literature. Case presentation: A diagnosed case is described in the unit of intensive care, which presented neuro-motor disorders, required ventilator support with difficult weaning and unsuccessful extubation, as well as the established medical and physiotherapeutic treatment. The management of organophosphate poisoning includes the decontamination of the toxic, the administration of atropine and pralidoxime, the diagnosis of the intermediate syndrome, and the prescription of therapeutic exercise. The patient received interdisciplinary management, achieving liberation from his critical condition but with the persistence of proximal muscular weakness; however, with the exercise, he accomplished functional recovery for basic daily activities. Conclusion: The global outlook of chemical substances poisoning shows that they are a cause of morbidity and significant disability. The organophosphates are the pesticides most frequently involved. The symptoms and the clinical signs of this type of intoxication are classified into cholinergic manifestations, intermediate syndrome, and delayed neuropathy.

Resumo Introdução: O artigo reporta um caso clínico de tentativa suicida de um paciente com síndrome intermeio a causa de intoxicação por organofosforados. Para isto, analisara-se história clínica, os exames complementários e o estudo eletromiográfico, e se realizou revisão não sistemática da literatura. Apresentação do caso: Descreve-se um caso diagnosticado na unidade de cuidado intensivo, o qual apresentou transtornos neuromotores, requerimento de suporte ventilatório com desmame difícil e extubação falhada, tanto como o tratamento médico e fisioterapéutico instaurado. Dentro do manejo da intoxicação por organofosforados se inclui a descontaminação do tóxico, administração de atropina e pralidoxima, diagnóstico oportuno da síndrome intermeia e a prescrição de exercício terapêutico. O paciente recebeu manejo interdisciplinar, conseguindo liberação de sua condição crítica, mas com persisténcia de debilidade muscular proximal; no entanto, com o exercício alcançou recuperação funcional de suas atividades básicas cotidianas. Conclusão: O panorama mundial das intoxicações por substâncias químicas mostra que são causa de morbilidade e deficiência importante. Os organofosforados são os pesticidas mais frequentemente envolvidos. Os sintomas e signos clínicos deste tipo de intoxicações classificam-se em manifestações colinérgicas, a síndrome intermeia e a neuropatia retardada.

Humans , Male , Adult , Organophosphorus Compounds , Poisoning , Polyneuropathies , Suicide, Attempted , Physical Therapy Modalities
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(1): 110-117, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002564


Resumen La intoxicación por organofosforados es de gran importancia en el campo de la medicina, debido a su uso frecuente en la actividad agrícola, las intoxicaciones producidas por estos agentes pueden ser ocupacionales, accidentales, y con mayor frecuencia por ingesta voluntaria. Una de las mayores repercusiones de los organofosforados es la inhibición del acetil colinesterasa, enzima encargada de hidrolizar el acetil colina. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la intoxicación aguda se deben a la estimulación de receptores muscarínicos y nicotínicos, entre ellas broncorrea, salivación, lagrimeo, broncoespasmo, defecación, emesis, miosis, entre otros. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante la historia clínica y examen físico, de manera adicional con la detección de los niveles en sangre eritrocitaria de acetil colinesterasa o de los metabolitos de los organofosforados. El manejo incluye la descontaminación del agente, la revisión del estado respiratorio y el acceso al soporte ventilatorio, posteriormente se procede con el tratamiento farmacológico que incluye el uso de la atropina, pralidoxima y diazepam. El presente artículo constituye una revisión bibliográfica sobre la intoxicación por organofosforados, sus manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento.

Abstract Organophosphorus poisoning is of great importance in the field of medicine due to its frequent use in agriculture, the poisoning by exposure to these agents can be occupational, accidental, and frequently due to voluntary intake. Organophosphorus' intake most notable effects are produced by the inhibition of the acetyl cholinesterase, responsible for hydrolyzing acetyl choline. Clinical manifestations of acute intoxication typically include bronchorrhea, salivation, lacrimation, bronchospasm, defecation, emesis, miosis, among others and they occur due to the stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Diagnosis is made through the interrogation and physical examination, in addition to the detection of acetyl cholinesterase levels or the organophosphates' metabolites in blood testing. Management includes decontamination of the agent, review of respiratory status and access to ventilatory support, followed by pharmacological treatment that includes the use of atropine, pralidoxime and diazepam. The present article constitutes a bibliographic review about the organopho sphorus intoxication, its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides , Acetylcholinesterase , Agricultural Zones , Organophosphate Poisoning/diagnosis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 837-842, maio-jun. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911544


The use of organophosphates has been recommended for fish, especially the trichlorfon to control parasites. Colossoma macropomum were exposed to trichlorfon during 96 hours and of total number of mucous cells decreased in the number of cells when compared to the control group. Glycoproteins acid, acid sulphated and neutral was identified in the gill epithelium. Neutra glycoprotein had a significant decrease between control and the sublethal concentration. Acid glycoprotein didn't have any significant difference between the groups exposed to the trichlorfon, compared to the control group. Sulfated acidic glycoprotein in the group exposed to the trichlorfon was noticed a reduction in number of mucosal cells acidic sulphated. The differences between density cell and production glycoprotein was a response of these cells after exposure to xenobiotic. The reduction of neutral, acid and sulphated acid glycoprotein in the MC of the gill epithelium Colossoma macropomum may affect gills epithelial surface protection by reducing the formation of an unstirred layer and enhance the ion loss.(AU)

A utilização de organofosforados tem sido recomendada em pisciculturas, principalmente o trichlorfon, para o controle de parasitoses. Colossoma macropomum foram expostos ao trichlorfon durante 96 horas, e o número total de células mucosas diminuiu no número de células quando comparado com o grupo controle. Glicoproteínas ácida, ácida sulfatada e neutra foram identificadas no epitélio branquial. Glicoproteína neutra teve uma diminuição significativa entre o controle e a concentração subletal. Glicoproteína ácida não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos expostos ao triclorfon, em comparação com o grupo controle. Glicoproteína ácida sulfatada no grupo exposto ao triclorfon teve uma redução no número de células da mucosa ácida sulfatada. As diferenças entre a densidade celular e a produção de glicoproteína foi uma resposta dessas células após exposição aos xenobióticos. A redução das glicoproteínas neutra, ácida e ácida sulfatada no epitélio branquial de Colossoma macropomum pode afetar a proteção da superfície, reduzindo a formação de uma camada de muco, e aumentar a perda de íons.(AU)

Animals , Fishes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/classification , Organophosphorus Compounds/chemical synthesis , Fisheries
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775192


BACKGROUND@#China has the world's largest tea plantation area in the world. To sustain high yields of the tea, multiple pesticides are used on tea crops to control pests. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used types of agricultural pesticides in China. As tea is a significant potential source of exposure to pesticide residues, the public concern has increased in relation to pesticide residues found in tea in China. The aim of the study was to estimate cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion for Chinese tea consumers to determine whether exposure to OP residues from tea infusion is a cause of health concern for tea consumers in China.@*METHODS@#OP residue data were obtained from the China National Monitoring Program on Food Safety (2013-2014), encompassing 1687 tea samples from 12 provinces. Tea consumption data were obtained from the China National Nutrient and Health Survey (2002), comprising 506 tea consumers aged 15-82 years. The transfer rates of residues from tea leaves into tea infusions were obtained from the literature. The relative potency factor (RPF) approach was used to estimate acute cumulative exposure to 20 OP residues from tea infusion using methamidophos as the index compound. Dietary exposure was calculated in a probabilistic way.@*RESULTS@#For tea consumers, the mean and the 99.9th percentile (P99.9) of cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion equalled 0.08 and 1.08 μg/kg bw/d. When compared with the acute reference dose (ARfD), 10 μg/kg bw/d for methamidophos, this accounts for 0.8 and 10.8% of the ARfD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Even when considering OP residues from vegetables, fruits and other foods, there are no health concerns based on acute dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion. However, it is necessary to strengthen the management of the OP pesticides used on tea in China to reduce the risk of chronic dietary exposure to OPs from tea infusion.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , China , Dietary Exposure , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Risk Assessment , Methods , Tea , Chemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1069-1074, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893095


The environment is negatively affected by the increasing accumulation of both natural and man-made waste and by-products. Organophosphorous pesticides -malathion, diazinon and methamidophos- are used worldwide in pest control. The aim of this report is to review the effects of organophosphates on the male reproductive tract of mice, rats and earthworms, and to evaluate their projection into the human population. Assessing failures in the male reproductive system is an excellent in vivo biomarker to determine the level of toxicity of suspected pollutants. In rodents organophosphates cause decreased testicular weight and sperm density, abnormal tubular plugging and increased teratozoospermia. In earthworms they cause a significant decrease in body weight and alter the spermatheca, with an initial significant increase in immature sperm followed by a significant decrease in sperm count with high frequency of metachromasia. Given the environmental impact of these pesticides -and their potential effects on human health-, international and regional organizations are warning about the correct handling and managing of these substances during work-related and domestic exposures and about their relation to water sources and food, placing a greater emphasis on the school children population due to its higher vulnerability, reduced detoxification capacity, and their endocrine and physiological effects.

El medio ambiente se ve afectado negativamente por la creciente acumulación de desechos y subproductos naturales y artificiales. Los plaguicidas organofosforados malatión, diazinón y metamidofos, son usados en todo el mundo en el control de plagas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los efectos de los organofosforados en el tracto reproductivo masculino de ratones, ratas y lombrices de tierra, y evaluar su proyección en la población humana. La evaluación de fallas en el sistema reproductor masculino es un excelente biomarcador in vivo para determinar el nivel de toxicidad de los contaminantes químicos. En roedores, los organofosforados causan disminución del peso testicular y de la densidad espermática, obstrucción tubular anormal y aumento de la teratozoospermia. En lombrices de tierra causan una disminución significativa en el peso corporal y alteran la espermateca, con un aumento inicial significativo en espermatozoides inmaduros, seguido de una disminución significativa en el recuento de espermatozoides con alta frecuencia de metacromasia. Dado el impacto medioambiental de estos plaguicidas y sus efectos potenciales en la salud humana, las organizaciones internacionales y regionales advierten sobre el manejo y uso correctos de estas sustancias durante exposiciones laborales y domésticas y sobre su relación con la contaminación de las fuentes de agua y alimentos, colocando énfasis en la población de niños en edad escolar, debido a su mayor vulnerabilidad, reducción de la capacidad de desintoxicación y sus efectos a nivel endocrino y fisiológico.

Humans , Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Pesticides/toxicity , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Oligochaeta , Organ Size/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Chile , Occupational Exposure
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(2): 158-163, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888455


RESUMEN En Paraguay, los plaguicidas, principalmente los compuestos organofosforados, son el agente causal del 13,7 % de las intoxicaciones reportadas. Las intoxicaciones con estos compuestos inhiben la enzima acetilcolinesterasa y pueden generar tres cuadros clínicos: la intoxicación aguda, el síndrome intermedio y una neurotoxicidad tardía. Se presentan 15 casos de intoxicación aguda en diez mujeres y cinco hombres entre los 5 y los 67 años de edad, procedentes de una comunidad rural, cuyos síntomas se iniciaron después de haber utilizado el agua contaminada con plaguicidas de la red comunitaria. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron náuseas y vómito, seguidos de dolor abdominal, cefalea, fiebre, prurito, hiperemia conjuntival y sudoración. En cinco de los pacientes se hizo el hemograma y se midieron los valores de las funciones renal y hepática, así como de la colinesterasa sérica, con resultados dentro de los valores de referencia; solo uno de los afectados presentó alteración de las enzimas hepáticas. En dos muestras de agua de la red comunitaria, se detectó un compuesto organofosforado cuyo ingrediente activo era el profenofos. Es fundamental que el personal de atención primaria en salud, sobre todo en las zonas rurales, sea capaz de detectar los casos de intoxicaciones agudas por plaguicidas de manera oportuna, con el fin de brindar el tratamiento adecuado. Además, es necesario que las instituciones responsables supervisen el cumplimiento de las leyes ambientales en estas zonas, con el fin de evitar este tipo de incidentes.

ABSTRACT In Paraguay, pesticides are the causative agent in 13.7% of poisonings, especially organophosphorus compounds. Such poisoning produces the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase generating three possible clinical conditions: acute poisoning, intermediate syndrome or late neurotoxicity. We present 15 cases of acute poisoning, ten women and five men from a rural community between 5 and 67 years of age, whose symptoms began after using water contaminated by pesticides from the community network. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, headache, fever, itching, red eyes and sweating. Five patients underwent blood tests for blood count, renal and liver function and serum cholinesterase, with results within the reference values; just one patient had high liver enzymes. In two samples from the community water supply network the active compound detected was profenophos. It is essential to train primary health care personnel to identify cases of acute pesticide poisoning in a timely manner to provide appropriate treatment, especially in rural areas. Additionally, it is necessary that responsible institutions monitor compliance with environmental regulations in these areas to avoid such incidents.

Female , Humans , Male , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides/poisoning , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Organophosphorus Compounds/chemistry , Paraguay , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry
Rev. salud pública ; 19(3): 318-324, mayo-jun. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903110


RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar niveles de colinesterasa sérica en caficultores del departamento de Caldas y su asociación con factores demográficos y ocupacionales. Metodología Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, muestra de 1 098 agricultores del Alto Oriente y Centro Sur del Departamento de Caldas, por medio de una encuesta en la que se analizaron características del trabajador agrícola de tipo: sociodemográfico, ocupacional, clínicos y concentración de colinesterasa determinada con el método de Ellman. Resultados A nivel ocupacional, el 90,8 % de los agricultores refirió riesgo de exposición directa a plaguicidas. El 3,8 % de las determinaciones analíticas de colinesterasa fueron anormales, se relacionó que el 75,6 % de los agricultores preparan la mezcla del insecticida, el 22,2 % tienen una frecuencia de aplicación en el cultivo más de dos veces por semana, el 37,8 % no emplea ropa de protección durante la jornada de fumigación. El tiempo de la última aplicación fue dentro del rango de uno a diez días demostrando que a menor tiempo de aplicación del insecticida, se presenta mayor inhibición de la enzima. Los plaguicidas más reportados fueron los de tipo organofos-forado (58,6 %). Conclusiones El control de la exposición a plaguicidas se torna difícil porque la mayoría de trabajadores son de tipo informal. Se requiere fortalecer los programas de capacitación y campañas de sensibilización sobre los efectos de los plaguicidas en la salud, las medidas de higiene y seguridad en el trabajo. Los niveles bajos de colinesterasa sérica indican la absorción de una cantidad mínima de insecticidas inhibidores de la colinesterasa.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the levels of serum cholinesterase in coffee growers from the Caldas department and its association with demographic and labor factors. Methodology A descriptive study was carried out in a sample of 1 098 farmers from the Upper East and South Center of the Caldas department, through a survey that analyzed characteristics such as sociodemographic, labor, and clinical conditions, as well as cholinesterase levels, determined by Ellman's method. Results Regarding the occupational aspect, 90.8 % of farmers reported a risk of direct exposure to pesticides. 3.8 % of the analytical determinations of cholinesterase were abnormal, which was related to the fact that 75.6 % of the farmers themselves prepare the mixture of the insecticide, 22.2 % spread the insecticide over their crops more than twice a week, and 37.8 % do not wear protective clothing during the fumigation. The last fumigation was within the range of one to ten days, revealing that the shorter the time of application of the insecticide, the greater the inhibition of the enzyme. The most frequent pesticides were organophosphates (58.6 %). Conclusions Controlling pesticide exposure is difficult because most workers are self-employed. It is necessary to strengthen training programs and awareness campaigns regarding the effect of pesticides on health, as well as health and safety measures at the workplace. Low levels of serum cholinesterase indicate the absorption of a minimal amount of cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides.(AU)

Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds/adverse effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticide Exposure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Health Surveys , Colombia , Farmers
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(1): 48-57, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837853


Plottier y Senillosa son dos localidades contiguas que forman parte del área de producción agrícola del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, Patagonia Norte. Entre los plaguicidas más utilizados predominan las familias de neonicotinoides, carbamatos y organofosforados. El conocimiento de los niveles de estos compuestos en aguas superficiales y subterráneas se ha convertido en un tema de interés social debido a su posible impacto en el ambiente y la salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar niveles de residuos de plaguicidas en agua subterránea utilizada para bebida en zonas rurales de Plottier y Senillosa. Se analizaron carbamatos: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaril y organofosforados: clorpirifos, dimetoato, metidation, fenaminfos, triazofos, fosmet y metil azinfos, por cromatografía gaseosa (GC), en seis sitios de muestreo, durante la época de aplicación y no aplicación de insecticidas. No se detectaron residuos de los plaguicidas estudiados por el método analítico utilizado. El límite de detección fue 0,010 µg/L para organofosforados y 0,030 µg/L para carbamatos. Estos resultados indican que las buenas prácticas agrícolas aplicadas en la zona así como las características fsicoquímicas del suelo, su espesor y el contenido de materia orgánica y las propiedades fsicoquímicas de los plaguicidas estudiados son factores que contribuyen favorablemente a la calidad del agua de bebida de la población rural.

Plottier and Senillosa are two adjoining towns that belong to the agricultural production area of Upper Valley, Río Negro and Neuquén, North Patagonia. Among the most widely used pesticides, neonicotinoids, carbamates and organophosphates are predominant. The levels of these compounds in surface and groundwater have become a topic of public concern, since the possible impact on health and environment. The aim of this study was the determination of pesticide residue levels in drinking ground-water in the rural areas of Plottier and Senillosa. Carbamates: propoxur, carbofuran, pirimicarb, carbaryl and organophosphate: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methidathion, fenaminfos, triazophos, phosmet, azinphos methyl, were analyzed by GC in six sampling sites during insecticide application and non-application season. No pesticide residues were detected by the analytical method used. The detection limit for organophosphates was 0.010 µg/L and 0.030 µg/L for carbamates. These results indicate that good agricultural practices, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil, its thickness, the content of organic matter and the physicochemical properties of pesticides studied are factors that positively contribute to the drinking water quality in the rural population.

Organophosphorus Compounds/isolation & purification , Pesticides/toxicity , Groundwater/analysis , Carbamates/isolation & purification , Carbamates/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Drinking Water , Chromatography, Gas/methods
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 205-211, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304727


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the potential protective effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mitoquinone (MitoQ) on post-thaw human sperm.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Semen samples were collected from 60 normal fertile men, each divided into six parts of equal volume to be incubated at 37 °C in normal saline (G0, control) or in the extender with 2 nmol/L (G1), 20 nmol/L (G2), 200 nmol/L (G3), 2 µmol/L (G4), and 20 µmol/L of MitoQ (G5). After one hour of incubation, the samples were subjected to computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) for sperm motility, flow cytometry for reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid assay for the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), and MitoTracker fluorescent staining and flow cytometry for the sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Then, the semen were cryopreserved with none (B0), 200 nmol/L (B1), and 2 µmol/L of MitoQ (B2), followed by detection of the changes in the ROS, MDA, and MMP of the post-thaw sperm.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The percentage of progressively motile sperm and total rate of sperm motility were significantly higher in G3 ([30.8 ± 10.2]% and [70.6 ± 9.0]%) and G4 ([32.7 ± 13.5]% and [70.3 ± 11.9]%) than in G0 ([17.6 ± 5.0]% and [54.9 ± 11.5]%) (P < 0.05). The level of ROS dropped markedly with the increased concentration of MitoQ, 86.5 ± 31.6 in G3, 93.6 ± 42.0 in G4, and 45.1 ± 15.0 in G5, as compared with 160.8 ± 39.7 in G0 (P < 0.05). The content of MDA was remarkably lower in G3 ([0.9 ± 0.5] µmol/mg) and G4 ([0.9 ± 0.5] µmol/mg) than in G0 ([1.9 ± 1.1] µmol/mg) (P < 0.05), but not in G5 ([1.7 ± 0.7] µmol/mg), which was even higher than in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05). The MMP showed a significant reduction in G5 (1156 ± 216) in comparison with G0 (1701 ± 251) (P < 0.05) but exhibited no remarkable difference between G0 and G1 (1810 ± 298), G2 (1995 ± 437), G3 (1950 ± 334), or G4 (1582 ± 314). The percentage of progressively motile sperm and total rate of sperm motility after freezing-thawing were significantly decreased as compared with those of the fresh semen (P < 0.01), but both were remarkably higher in B1 ([3.2 ± 2.3]% and [ 43.0 ± 9.5]%) than in B0 ([0.8 ± 0.6]% and [26.5 ± 11.4]%) (P < 0.05). The ROS level was significantly lower in B1 and B2 than in B0 (34.6 ± 12. 3 and 37.0 ± 10.5 vs 56.9 ± 14.3, P < 0.05), and so was the MDA content ([1.4 ± 0.5] and [1.4 ± 0.6] µmol/mg vs [2.6 ± 1.0] µmol/mg, P < 0.05), but the MMP was markedly higher in B1 and B2 than in B0 (1010.0 ± 130.5 and 880.6 ± 128.6 vs 721.1 ± 24.8, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Addition of MitoQ to the freezing extender at 200 nmol/L may effectively improve the quality of human sperm and MitoQ is a good protective addictive for human sperm cryopreservation.</p>

Humans , Male , Antioxidants , Cryopreservation , Malondialdehyde , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Semen , Semen Analysis , Semen Preservation , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Ubiquinone , Pharmacology
Acta toxicol. argent ; 23(3): 142-152, dic. 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837846


El clorpirifos (CPF) es un insecticida de amplio espectro que se utiliza en Argentina y en otros países de Latinoamérica. Se emplea para el control de plagas en la producción de frutas, hortalizas, cereales y plantas ornamentales. El principal mecanismo de acción descripto para este insecticida es la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. Sin embargo, reportes más recientes sugieren múltiples efectos del plaguicida independientes de la inhibición de esa enzima. El objetivo de este trabajo es transmitir a la comunidad los resultados de nuestras investigaciones obtenidos utilizando diferentes dosis de CPF en distintos modelos experimentales, tanto in vitro como in vivo. En relación a esto, hemos evidenciado una acción del CPF sobre el sistema redox celular que conduce al incremento de especies reactivas del oxígeno y consecuentemente a la activación de diferentes vías de señalización. Además, hemos determinado que el insecticida CPF puede comportarse como un disruptor endócrino modulando la acción de los estrógenos y alterando la normal estructura del tejido mamario. Nuestros resultados alertan sobre el impacto que este compuesto podría tener sobre la salud, sugiriendo la necesidad de revisar su uso dado que manifiesta acciones a dosis encontradas en el ambiente.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum insecticide used in Argentina and other Latin American countries. It is commonly used for pest control in the production of fruits, vegetables, cereals and ornamental plants. The main mechanism of action described for this insecticide is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, more recent reports suggest multiple effects for this pesticide in an independent way from the inhibition of this enzyme. The objective of this work is to convey to the community the results of our investigations obtained using different doses of CPF in various experimental models, both in vitro and in vivo. In this connection, we have shown a CPF action on the cellular redox system which leads to increased reactive oxygen species and the consequent activation of different signaling pathways. In addition, we have determined that the insecticide CPF acts as an endocrine disruptor modulating the action of estrogen and altering the normal structure of breast tissue. Our findings warn about the impact that this compound might have on health, suggesting the need to review its use since adverse actions were found at environmentally relevant doses.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Breast Neoplasms/chemically induced , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental , Neoplasm Metastasis/ultrastructure
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 76(4): 431-437, oct.-dic.2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-781113


En el mundo existen millones de casos de intoxicaciones por inhibidores de la colinesterasa y miles de muertes por estas sustancias. Nuestro país no es escenario diferente. Actualmente se sigue estudiando cuáles son los regímenes más útiles y se debate algunas medidas de manejo hasta ahora muy utilizadas. La tendencia actual apunta a un tratamiento agresivo en vista que son muy raros los casos de eventos adversos severos que ponen en riesgo la vida producto del uso de fármacos como la atropina. En el Perú no hay investigación activa al respecto y solo se cuenta con una guía de manejo de intoxicaciones por organofosforados y carbamatos en niños elaborada por el Ministerio de Salud en el año 2005. Urge actualizar esta guía, ya que contiene conceptos que han cambiado en algunos casos de forma radical. El propósito de esta revisión es exponer brevemente la información actualizada más relevante sobre el manejo de estas intoxicaciones y finalmente sugerir recomendaciones para hacer modificaciones en la guía mencionada y a su vez hacer un llamado a las autoridades del Ministerio de Salud peruano para el desarrollo de una guía en adultos...

Millions of cases of cholinesterase inhibitors poisonings occur in the world and thousands of deaths by these substances are reported. Our country is not different scenario. The most useful treatment regimen is currently under research and some extensively used measures are on debate. The current trend is aggressive treatment as severe life-threatening adverse effects by drugs like atropine are very rare. In Peru there is no active research on this issue and only an organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in children treatment guide by the Ministry of Health in 2005 is available. It is urgent to update these guidelines, since they contain concepts that in some cases have radically changed due to current knowledge. The aim of this review is to briefly expose the most relevant updated information on treatment of these poisonings, to suggest evaluation of the mentioned guidelines, and to call attention of the Peruvian Ministry of Health authorities to develop guidelines for adults...

Humans , Atropine , Carbamates , Organophosphorus Compounds , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Pesticides