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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 358-362, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990051

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used as a diuretic and antispasmodic. Therefore, we investigated the active extract of Origanum vulgare for possible andrological effect and preventive effects against testicular damage using ethylene glycol rat model of testicular damage, to rationalize its medicinal use. Male Wistar rats received lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75 % ethylene glycol injection twice with one day interval, then in drinking water, active extract of Origanum vulgare treatment (20 mg/kg) was given for 3 weeks to prevent toxic damage including loss of body weight gain and appetite, Following oral administration of EGME, a rapid decrease in testis weight associated with testicular cell damage was observed. Origanum vulgare treatment (20 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight gain.


RESUMEN: Origanum vulgare Linn se ha usado tradicionalmente como diurético y antiespasmódico. Por lo tanto, investigamos el extracto activo de Origanum vulgare por su posible efecto andrológico y efectos preventivos contra el daño testicular utilizando el modelo de rata de etilenglicol de daño testicular. El objetivo del estudio fue racionalizar su uso medicinal. Su utilizaron ratas Wistar macho que recibieron un tratamiento litogénico de una inyección de etilenglicol al 0,75 %, dos veces con un intervalo de un día, y luego se administró en agua potable. Se administró el extracto activo del tratamiento con Origanum vulgare (20 mg / kg) durante 3 semanas con el objetivo de prevenir el daño tóxico, la pérdida de peso corporal y el apetito. Tras la administración oral de EGME, se observó una rápida disminución del peso de los testículos asociada al daño de las células testiculares. El tratamiento con Origanum vulgare (20 mg / kg) logró prevenir y revertir las alteraciones tóxicas, incluyendo la pérdida de peso corporal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Origanum/chemistry , Ethylene Glycols/toxicity , Testicular Diseases/prevention & control , Testis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180502, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041563

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Plant products are sources for drug development against multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS The antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVeo) against carbapenem-resistant strains was assessed by disk-diffusion, microdilution (REMA-Resazurin Microtiter Assay), and time kill assays. RESULTS Carbapenemase production was confirmed for all strains. OVeo exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.059% v/v for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, and of 0.015 % v/v for Acinetobacter baumannii. A decrease in cell count was observed after a 4 h treatment. CONCLUSIONS OVeo antimicrobial effect was rapid and consistent, making it a candidate for developing alternative therapeutic options against carbapenem-resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serratia marcescens/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Origanum/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Serratia marcescens/growth & development , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 355-361, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975757

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro de la oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" y del aceite esencial de Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "orégano" frente a Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) y Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Se desarrollaron pruebas de sensibilidad activando primero las cepas bacterias a enfrentar. La oleorresina de copaiba fue diluida con dimetilsulfósido (DMSO), obteniéndose al final concentraciones a probar de 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, y 12,5 %. En relación al aceite esencial de orégano este se probó solamente al 100 %. Para la prueba de difusión en agar con discos, se tomaron inóculos 100 µL de cada cepa bacteriana a una turbidez de 0,5 de Mc Farlam, para ser sembrados por diseminación en placas de tripticasa soya agar, para luego colocar los discos de forma equidistante cargados con las diferentes concentraciones de los productos naturales, se utilizaron como control positivo a la clorhexidina al 0,12 % y al DMSO como control negativo. Se incubaron las placas por el método de la vela en extinción a 37 °C, por un periodo de 24 horas, pasado el tiempo se realizó la lectura de los halos de inhibición. Los resultados obtenidos por la copaiba, determinaron un efecto antibacteriano en sus cuatro concentraciones, siendo los mayores halos de inhibición a la concentración del 100 %, copaiba genero mayores halos promedios para S, mutans de 30,00 ± 0,00 mm y para E. faecalis de 8,3 ± 0,50 mm. Para el caso del orégano se producen halos a la concentración del 100 % con un promedio de 25,3 ± 0,96 mm para S. mutans y para E. faecalis de 9,5 ± 1,29 mm. Se concluye del estudio que tanto copaiba como el orégano presentan un efecto antibacteriano para ambas bacterias, siendo su mayor efecto antibacteriano para ambos productos naturales sobre S. mutans.


ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of the oleoresin of Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" and of the essential oil of Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "oregano" against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Sensitivity tests were developed by first activating the bacteria strains to be confronted. The oleoresin of copaiba was diluted with dimethylsulphoside (DMSO), obtaining final concentrations to be tested of 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, and 12.5 %. In relation to the essential oil of oregano, it was only 100 % tested. For the disk agar diffusion test, 100 mL of each bacterial strain was taken at a turbidity of 0.5 of Mc Farlam, to be planted by dissecting trypticase soy agar plates, and then placing the disks equidistantly loaded with the different concentrations of natural products; 0.12 % chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and DMSO as negative control. The plates were incubated by the candle method in extinction at 37 °C, for a period of 24 hours, after which time the inhibition halos were read. The results obtained by the copaiba, determined an antibacterial effect in its four concentrations, being the biggest halos of inhibition at the concentration of 100 %, copaiba genus higher average halos for S. mutans of 30.00 ± 0.00 mm and for E. faecalis of 8.3 ± 0.50 mm. In the case of oregano, haloes are produced at a concentration of 100 % with an average of 25.3 ± 0.96 mm for S. mutans and for E. faecalis 9.5 ± 1.29 mm. It is concluded from the study that both copaiba and oregano present an antibacterial effect for both bacteria, being its greater antibacterial effect for both natural products on S. mutans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Origanum/chemistry , Peru , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Epidemiology, Experimental , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 337-342, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975754

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El Streptococcus mutans es una de las principales bacterias que participa en el desarrollo de la caries dental, una enfermedad de alta prevalencia en la población mundial, y por ende un problema de salud pública. Hoy se intentan buscar alternativas para su prevención, una de ellas es la fitoterapia o uso de plantas medicinales con fines terapéutico beneficiosos para la salud. Evaluar efecto antibacteriano del Origanum vulgare a diferentes concentraciones sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Streptococcus mutans. Se utilizaron cepas bacterianas de Streptococcus mutans previamente aisladas, se realizó una siembra bacteriana en 24 placas Petri con agar mitis salivarius. Se prepararon infusiones de orégano a 8 concentraciones diferentes (1 %, 5 % y 10 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % y 100 %) y se aplicaron en perforaciones realizadas previamente en las placas de agar (4 perforaciones por placa para las infusiones de orégano y 2 para las placas de controles). Se llevó a incubadora por 48 horas y posteriormente se realizó la medición de los halos de inhibición. Los resultados fueron negativos para las infusiones de orégano al 1 %, 5 % y 10 %, debido a que no presentaron halos de inhibición bacteriana; mientras que para las infusiones al 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % y 100 % los resultados fueron positivos. El orégano posee efecto antibacteriano sobre el crecimiento de Streptococcus mutans en infusiones sobre el 20 % de concentración, siendo la solución madre preparada a partir de 20 gramos de hojas secas de orégano (Origanum vulgare) y 200 ml de agua destilada hervida. Este efecto es antibacteriano es directamente proporcional a la concentración de la infusión. El orégano podría ser utilizado como una alternativa de colutorio, pasta dental u otros coadyuvantes de higiene bucal para prevenir la aparición de caries.


ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is one of the main bacteria in the development of dental caries, a disease with high prevalence in the world population, and therefore a public health problem. There is current research to find prevention alternatives one of these is the use of medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes beneficial to health. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Origanum vulgare at different concentrations on in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans, previously isolated bacterial strains of Streptococcus mutans were used. Bacterial seeding was carried out in 24 petri dishes with agar Mitis salivarius. Oregano infusions were prepared at 8 different concentrations (1 %, 5 % and 10 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %) and applied in predrilled holes in the agar plates (4 perforations per plate for the oregano infusions and 2 for control plates). They were maintained in an incubator for 48 hours and measurement of the inhibition zones was subsequently carried out. The results were negative for infusions of oregano at 1 %, 5 % and 10 %, as they did not present halos of bacterial inhibition; while results were positive for infusions at 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. Results show that oregano has an antibacterial effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans in infusion concentrations above 20 %, with the basic solution prepared from 20 g of dried oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare) and 200 ml of boiled distilled water. This antibacterial effect is directly proportional to the concentration of the infusion. Oregano could be used as an alternative mouthwash, toothpaste or other oral hygiene adjuvants to prevent the incidence of caries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Streptococcus mutans/pathogenicity , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Plaque , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Origanum/chemistry , Evaluation Studies as Topic
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 229-235, set. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843167

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to study the oregano essential oil (OEO) composition from Northwestern Argentinean regions and to evaluate its effect on the lactic starter cultures. The oregano used, Origanum vulgare var hirtum, was obtained from Andalgalá, Catamarca. The essential oil presented high amounts of α-terpinene (10%), γ-terpinene (15.1%), terpinen-4-ol (15.5%) and thymol (13.0%) as the main components. No negative effect on growth or metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 and CRL 813, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and CRL 468, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 597 up to the maximum concentration (200 μg/g) assayed was observed. No differences in the organoleptic characteristics of semi-hard cheeses flavored with oregano essential oil (200 μg/g) and homemade cheeses flavored with oregano leaves were found. With respect to the microbiological quality of the products, neither enterobacteria nor mold and yeast were detected during ripening in essential-oil flavored cheese compared to control cheese (enterobacteria 2 × 10³ UFC/g) and cheese flavored with oregano leaves (mold/yeast 4 × 10(4) CFU/g). Our results showed that the use of oregano essential oil and lactic starter culture considerably improved cheese quality.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la composición del aceite esencial de orégano recolectado en el noroeste argentino y evaluar su efecto sobre algunos fermentos lácticos. El orégano recolectado correspondió a la especie Origanum vulgare var. hirtum proveniente de Andalgalá, Catamarca. En su aceite esencial (obtenido por arrastre con vapor de agua) se detectó principalmente α-terpineno (10%), γ-terpineno (15,1%), terpinen-4-ol (15,5%) y timol (13,0%). El aceite esencial no tuvo efecto inhibitorio (máxima concentración ensayada 200 μg/g) sobre el crecimiento ni sobre la actividad metabólica de Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 y CRL 813, de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 y CRL 468, y de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 597. No se observaron diferencias en las características organolépticas de quesos semiduros aromatizados con el aceite esencial (200 μg/g) comparados con quesos artesanales aromatizados con hojas de orégano. Respecto de la calidad microbiológica de los productos, no se detectaron enterobacterias ni hongos o levaduras durante la maduración en los quesos aromatizados con el aceite esencial de orégano comparados con los quesos control, que presentaron desarrollo de enterobacterias (2 × 10³ UFC/g), y con los quesos elaborados con hojas de orégano, en los que hubo desarrollo de hongos/levaduras (4 × 10(4) CFU/g). Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el uso del aceite esencial de orégano y del fermento láctico incrementó la calidad general de los quesos artesanales.


Subject(s)
Cheese/analysis , Origanum/adverse effects , Streptococcus thermophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillales/growth & development , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Origanum/chemistry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(5): 301-314, Sept. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907547

ABSTRACT

Origanum vulgare L. better known as oregano or marjoram in Europe and Brazil is a herbaceous plant which determines long-range chemical and morphological diversity. The composition of essential oil of herbs like oregano, depends on different factors such as climate, geographical origin, harvest season, nutrition that can significantly affect the oil production and quality. The objective of this work was investigate the oregano oil production and composition in differents conditions of crops and seasons in Cerrado of Brazil. The experimental was a randomized block design (RBD) in a factorial 2 x 2 x 2 with five replications, two systems of planting (greenhouse and field), two types of fertilizers (mineral and organic) and two seasons (autumn and spring). The results of essential oil presented the same composition for all the treatments. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the planting in greenhouse or in field and organic or mineral fertilizer. Carvacrol, terpinene, ortho-cymene were the major constituents. The spring season and the field conditions favored better essential oil yield and carvacrol production.


Origanum vulgare L. mejor conocido como orégano o mejorana en Europa y Brasil es una planta herbácea que presenta una gran diversidad química y morfológica. La composición del aceite esencial de hierbas como el orégano, depende de diversos factores tales como el clima, la procedencia geográfica, época de la cosecha, la nutrición que pueden afectar significativamente la producción de aceites y su calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la producción de aceite de orégano y composición en diferentes condiciones de los cultivos y las estaciones en Cerrado de Brasil. La parte experimental consistió en bloques al azar (RBD) en un diseño factorial 2 x 2 x 2 con cinco repeticiones, dos sistemas de siembra (invernadero y de campo), dos tipos de fertilizantes (minerales y orgánicos) y dos estaciones (otoño y primavera). Los resultados del aceite esencial presentan la misma composición para todos los tratamientos. Sin embargo, la proporción relativa de algunos componentes químicos se modificó de acuerdo con la siembra en invernadero o en el campo y abono orgánico o mineral. Carvacrol, terpineno, orto-cimeno fueron los principales constituyentes. La temporada de primavera y las condiciones de campo favorecieron el rendimiento de aceite esencial y una mejor producción de carvacrol.


Subject(s)
Fertilization , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Origanum
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 424-430, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780849

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25 mg mL-1 for thyme, 5.0 mg mL-1 for basil and marjoram, and 10 mg mL-1 for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plant Oils/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Clostridium perfringens/growth & development , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(1): 20-30, ene. 2014. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726600

ABSTRACT

Species of Origanum L. (Lamiaceae) are traded in Argentina mainly as flavorings. With the aim of evaluating the quality in "oreganos", a random sampling of twelve trademarks commercialized in Buenos Aires City was performed. The packaging and organoleptic characters of the samples were examined; the components were separated under stereomicroscope and calculated the percentages. Subsequently, a microscopic analysis by obtaining and observing macerations was undertaken. The studies conducted revealed the presence of foreign matter mainly composed of own stems and bran cereal in some samples. The percentages found were higher than those suggested by the Argentinean Food Codex. We conclude that the foreign matter causes a reduction in the plant parts used, introduces adulterants and negatively affects the quality of the product. The methodolgy used in this study contributes to a better control over the “orégano” for trade.


En Argentina se comercializan especies de Origanum L. (Lamiaceae) principalmente como condimentos. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de oréganos se realizó un muestreo sobre doce marcas comercializadas en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se examinaron los envases y caracteres organolépticos de las muestras; se separaron los componentes bajo lupa y se calcularon sus porcentajes. Posteriormente, se realizó un análisis microscópico mediante la obtención y observación de macerados. Los estudios realizados revelaron la presencia de material extraño, constituido mayormente por tallos propios y por salvado de cereal en algunas muestras. Los porcentajes hallados resultaron superiores a los sugeridos por el Código Alimentario Argentino. Se concluye que la materia extraña ocasiona una disminución de las partes usadas, introduce adulterantes e incide negativamente sobre la calidad del producto. La metodología implementada en este estudio contribuye al control del orégano destinado al comercio.


Subject(s)
Origanum/anatomy & histology , Origanum/chemistry , Quality Control , Argentina , Origanum/ultrastructure
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 937-944, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665506

ABSTRACT

Desde tiempos antiguos la medicina tradicional ha usado extensamente las especies del género Lippia como analgésicos, antiinflamatorios, antipiréticos, antifúngicos, etc. Numerosos estudios describen diversos compuestos presentes en extractos acuosos, metanólicos, o aceites esenciales de estas plantas, siendo los flavonoides los compuestos más abundantes. Sin embargo, la composición y cantidad de los metabolitos secundarios dependen de la zona geográfica, factores climáticos, altitud, época de cosecha y estado de crecimiento de estas plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antioxidante del extracto acuoso de orégano (Lippia graveolens HBK) del Norte de México y su efecto tóxico in vitro e in vivo. La capacidad antioxidante del extracto acuoso se midió por el método de DPPH en seis diluciones del extracto (5-160 mg/mL) y se utilizó Trolox como referencia; para el efecto tóxico in vitro se usó el ensayo de citotoxicidad con larvas de Artemia salina. Para el efecto in vivo se emplearon 24 ratones árabes machos divididos en 6 grupos de animales (n=4): 4 grupos experimentales con 10, 100, 1000 y 5000 mg del extracto/ kg de peso administrados vía oral respectivamente, además de un grupo control positivo (5 mg de colchicina/kg de peso vía i.p) y un grupo control negativo (solo agua destilada). Después del tratamiento los ratones se sacrificaron y se colectaron muestras de hígado y riñón que se sometieron a estudios histológicos e histoquímicos, además se realizó un análisis cuantitativo. La actividad antioxidante del extracto acuoso de orégano se presentó a 160 mg/mL. La CL50 fue mayor a 1,000 ug/mL por lo que el extracto se considera no tóxico. En el análisis morfológico in vivo con distintas dosis del extracto acuoso de orégano no se observó un efecto tóxico. Los resultados obtenidos validan el uso del orégano en la medicina tradicional...


Since ancient times, traditional medicine has widely used species of the genus Lippia as analgesics, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, etc. Numerous studies describe several compounds present in aqueous extracts, methanol, or essential oils of these plants, being flavonoids the most abundant compounds. However, the composition and quantity of secondary metabolites depend on the geographical area, climatic factors, altitude, time of harvest and growth status of these plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of oregano (Lippia graveolens HBK) from the North of Mexico and its toxic effect in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract was measured by DPPH method in six dilutions of the extract (5-160 mg / mL), Trolox was used as a reference. For the in vitro toxic effect, cytotoxicity assay with larvae of Artemia salina was used. For the in vivo effect, 24 males mice were used and divided into 6 groups (n = 4): 4 experimental groups with 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 mg extract / kg body weight administered orally respectively, also we used a group positive control (5 mg of colchicine / kg body weight administered via ip) and a negative control group (distilled water only). After treatment all mice were sacrificed, and samples from liver and kidney were collected and analyzed by histological and histochemical studies. Also a quantitative analysis was done. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of oregano was presented at 160 mg/mL. The LC50 was greater than 1.000 mg/mL, so the extract is considered nontoxic. In the morphological analysis in vivo with different doses of aqueous extract of oregano, no toxic effect was observed. The results validate the use of oregano in traditional medicine...


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Liver , Larva , Lippia/chemistry , Kidney , Toxicity Tests
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(3): 208-217, mayo 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-647659

ABSTRACT

Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida yeasts. In Brazil, C. tropicalis is the second most frequently isolated microorganism after C. albicans. The arising of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents has increased the search for new alternatives from natural products, especially essential oils. This research investigated essential oil activity against strains of C. tropicalis by disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also determinate. In the disk diffusion, the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Origanum vulgare had the highest inhibition zones values. MIC and MFC values of E. caryophyllata essential oil were 512 and 1024 ug/mL, respectively. MIC and MFC amphotericin B values were identical (2 ug/mL). Therefore, it was concluded that E. caryophyllata essential oil has strong antifungal activity and may be subject to further studies.


La candidiasis es una infección fúngica oportunista causada por levaduras del género Candida. En Brasil, la especie C. tropicalis esta siendo aislada frecuentemente, es el segundo microorganismo más aislado después de C. albicans. La aparición de cepas resistentes a los antifúngicos convencionales ha aumentado la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas provenientes de productos naturales, especialmente los aceites esenciales. En este estudio se investigó la actividad de los aceites esenciales contra las cepas de C. tropicalis, utilizando el método de difusión en disco, la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) y la concentración fungicida mínima (CFM). En el método de difusión en disco, con los aceites esenciales de Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eugenia caryophyllata y Origanum vulgare se obtuvieron mayores valores de inhibición. La CIM y CFM del aceite esencial de Eugenia caryophyllata fueron 512 y 1024 ug/mL, mientras que los de la anfotericina B fueron idénticos, 2 ug/mL. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que el aceite esencial de E. caryophyllata tiene potente actividad antifúngica y puede ser objeto de nuevos estudios sobre esta actividad.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida tropicalis , Eugenia/chemistry , Brazil , Origanum/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564916

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of O. vulgare L. and O. majorana L. essential oil in inhibiting the growth and survival of potentially pathogenic fungal strains and also sought to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the establishment of the antifungal property of the tested essential oils through assays of osmotic stability and morphogenesis. Test strains included in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 7645, C. tropicalis LM-14, C. krusei LM-09, Cryptococcus neoformans FGF-5, Aspergillus flavus LM-02, A. fumigatus IPP-21, T. rubrum ATCC 28184, T. mentagrophytes LM-64, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 184, M. canis LM-36 and Cladosporium herbarium ATCC 26362. O. vulgare essential oil presented a MIC value of 80 µL/mL, while for O. majorana this was 160 µL/mL. C. krusei LM-09 was the only strain resistant to all assayed concentrations of both essential oils. O. vulgare and O. majorana essential oil at their MIC values provided a cidal effect against C. albicans ATCC 7645 after 4 h of exposure. O. vulgare essential oil at 80 µL/mL exhibited 100 percent inhibition of the radial mycelia growth of T. rubrum ATCC 28184 and M. canis LM-36 for 14 days. Assayed fungus strain protected by sorbitol (osmo-protectant agent) grew in media containing higher concentrations of O. vulgare and O. majorana essential oil in comparison to media without sorbitol, suggesting some specificity of these essential oils for targeting cell wall in the fungi cell. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil of O. vulgare in A. flavus LM-02 were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. These results suggest that essential oils from Origanum could be regarded as a potential antifungal compound for controlling the growth of pathogen fungi and the occurrence of mycoses.


O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a eficácia do óleo essencial de O. vulgare L. e O. majorana L. na inibição do crescimento e sobrevivência de cepas de fungos potencialmente patogênicas, bem como avaliar os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos no estabelecimento da propriedade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais testados através do ensaio de estabilidade osmótica e morfogênese. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas neste estudo foram Candida albicans ATCC 7645, C. tropicalis LM-14, C. krusei LM-09, Cryptococcus neoformans FGF-5, Aspergillus flavus LM-02, A. fumigatus IPP-21, T. rubrum ATCC 28184, T. mentagrophytes LM-64, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 184, M. canis LM-36 e Cladosporium herbarium ATCC 26362. O óleo essencial de O. vulgare apresentou valor de CIM de 80 µL/mL, enquanto o óleo essencial de O. majorana apresentou valor de CIM de 160 µL/mL. C. krusei LM-09 apresentou-se como a única cepa resistente a todas as concentrações ensaiadas de ambos os óleos essenciais. Os óleos essenciais testados quando ensaiadas em seu valor de CIM causaram um efeito fungicida contra C. albicans ATCC 7645 após 4 h de exposição. O óleo essencial de O. vulgare na concentração de 80 µL/mL exibiu uma total inibição do crescimento micelial radial de T. rubrum ATCC 28184 e M. canis LM-36 ao longo de 14 dias. As cepas fúngicas ensaiadas quando tratadas com sorbitol (agente osmo-protetor) foram capazes de crescer em meio adicionado de mais altas concentrações dos óleos essenciais quando comparados ao meio não adicionado de sorbitol, sugerindo especificidade destes produtos a parede celular como alvo na célula fúngica. As principais alterações causadas pelo óleo essencial de O. vulgare sobre a morfologia de A. flavus LM-02 foram diminuída conidiação, perda de citoplasma, perda de pigmentação e ruptura da estrutura celular indicando degeneração da parede celular fúngica. Estes resultados sugerem que óleos essenciais de espécies de Origanum poderiam ser considerados como potenciais antifúngicos para ...


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/agonists , Fungi/pathogenicity , Oils, Volatile , Origanum/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Mycoses
13.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9 (33): 128-137
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-105320

ABSTRACT

Zataria multiflora Boiss. is considered as an annual plant endemic in south of Iran. Origanum majorana L. is one of the most famous medicinal and nutritional herbs growing in the temperate zones of south Europe. These two have been used as carminative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, bronchodilator and expectorant in traditional medicine of Iran and European countries. In the current study, chemical composition and antiviral effect of the essential oil of Z. multiflora and O. majorana are investigated. Composition of the essential oil samples obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora and O. majorana [Lamiaceae] were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Antiviral effect of the oils were investigated on Herpese simplex separately. Twenty-four components in the oil of Z. multiflora with thymol [38%], carvacrol [34.96%] and para-cymene [7.17%] as the major constituents were identified. Twenty-seven components in the oil of O. majorana were recognized, whereas terpinene-4-ol [36.2%], para-cymene [16.3%] and gamma-terpinene [7.31%] were the main components. The concentration of 1/10000 of each oil was added to Hela cells contained with HSV-I. The growth of the organism was not inhibited at this concentration of the oils. In this research 98.62% and 96.72% of the essential oil of Z. multiflora and O. majorana were determined. Both essential oils were characterized by a high amount of oxygenated compounds [85.33% and 60.3% respectively]. Where as the concentration more than 1/10000 of the oils were citotoxic for Hela cells, more study and different methods is needed to investigate antiviral effects of these two oils


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Origanum/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Herbal Medicine , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Simplexvirus/drug effects
14.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 145-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113204

ABSTRACT

In-vitro microbicidal activity of the methanol extract of Origanum majorana L. was tested against seven fungi (Fusarium solani, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizoctonia otyzae-sativae and Altemaria brassicicola) and six bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, Escherichia coil, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). The methanol extract of O. majorana can be used as an effective herbal protectant against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. High toxicity against the growth of Aspergillus niger was diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Methanol/chemistry , Origanum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Solvents/chemistry
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